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Twitter is an American
microblogging Microblogging is an online Broadcasting, broadcast medium that exists as a specific form of blogging. A micro-blog differs from a traditional blog in that its content is typically smaller in both actual and aggregated file size. Micro-blogs "allow ...
and
social networking A social networking service (also social networking site or social media) is an online platform which people use to build social networks or social relationships with other people who share similar personal or career interests, activities, back ...
service on which users post and interact with messages known as "tweets".
Registered user Registered may refer to: * Registered mail . registration. Registered mail is a mail service offered by postal services in many countries, which allows the sender proof of mailing via a mailing receipt and, upon request, electronic verification tha ...
s can post, like, and retweet tweets, but unregistered users can only read those that are publicly available. Users interact with Twitter through browser or mobile frontend software, or programmatically via its
API In computing Computing is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating computing machinery. It includes the study and experimentation of algorithmic processes and development of both computer hardware , hardware and soft ...

API
s. Prior to April 2020, services were accessible via
SMS SMS (Short Message Service) is a text messaging service component of most telephone A telephone is a telecommunication Telecommunication is the transmission of information by various types of technologies over wire A wire is ...

SMS
. The service is provided by Twitter, Inc., a corporation based in
San Francisco San Francisco (; Spanish language, Spanish for "Francis of Assisi, Saint Francis"), officially the City and County of San Francisco, is a cultural, commercial, and financial center in the U.S. state of California. Located in Northern Califo ...

San Francisco
,
California California is a U.S. state, state in the Western United States. With over 39.3million residents across a total area of approximately , it is the List of states and territories of the United States by population, most populous and the List of ...

California
, and has more than 25 offices around the world. Tweets were originally restricted to 140
characters Character(s) may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * Character (novel), ''Character'' (novel), a 1936 Dutch novel by Ferdinand Bordewijk * Characters (Theophrastus), ''Characters'' (Theophrastus), a classical Greek set of char ...
, but the limit was doubled to 280 for non- CJK languages in November 2017. Audio and video tweets remain limited to 140 seconds for most accounts. Twitter was created by
Jack Dorsey Jack Patrick Dorsey (born November 19, 1976) is an American billionaire technology entrepreneur and philanthropist Philanthropy consists of "private initiatives, for the Public good (economics), public good, focusing on quality of life". Phila ...

Jack Dorsey
, Noah Glass,
Biz Stone Christopher Isaac "Biz" Stone (born March 10, 1974) is an American entrepreneur who is a co-founder of Twitter Twitter is an American microblogging Microblogging is an online broadcast medium that exists as a specific form of blogging ...

Biz Stone
, and Evan Williams in March 2006 and launched in July of that year. , more than 100 million users posted 340 million tweets a day, and the service handled an average of 1.6 billion search queries per day. In 2013, it was one of the ten most-visited websites and has been described as "the SMS of the Internet". , Twitter had more than 330 million monthly active users. In practice, the vast majority of tweets are written by a minority of users.


History


2006–2007: Creation and initial reaction

Twitter's origins lie in a "daylong brainstorming session" held by board members of the
podcast A podcast is an episodic series of digital audio Digital audio is a representation of sound recorded in, or converted into, Digital signal (signal processing), digital form. In digital audio, the sound wave of the audio signal is typical ...

podcast
ing company
Odeo Odeo was a directory and search destination website for RSS RSS ( RDF Site Summary or Really Simple Syndication) is a web feed that allows users and applications to access updates to websites in a standardized, computer-readable format. These ...

Odeo
.
Jack Dorsey Jack Patrick Dorsey (born November 19, 1976) is an American billionaire technology entrepreneur and philanthropist Philanthropy consists of "private initiatives, for the Public good (economics), public good, focusing on quality of life". Phila ...

Jack Dorsey
, then an undergraduate student at
New York University New York University (NYU) is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, British singer Dusty Springfield, after an absence of ne ...
, introduced the idea of an individual using an SMS service to communicate with a small group. The original
project code name A project (or program) is any undertaking, carried out individually or collaboratively and possibly involving research or design, that is carefully plan A plan is typically any diagram or list of steps with details of timing and resources, used t ...
for the service was twttr, an idea that Williams later ascribed to Noah Glass, inspired by
Flickr Flickr (pronounced "flicker") ) is an American image hosting An image hosting service allows individuals to upload images to an Internet website. The image host will then store the image onto its server, and show the individual different types ...

Flickr
and the five-character length of American SMS
short code Short Code was one of the first higher-level languages ever developed for an electronic computer Electronic may refer to: *Electronics, the science of how to control electric energy in semiconductor *Electronics (magazine), ''Electronics'' (magazin ...
s. The decision was also partly due to the fact that the domain twitter.com was already in use, and it was six months after the launch of twttr that the crew purchased the domain and changed the name of the service to Twitter. The developers initially considered "10958" as a short code, but later changed it to "40404" for "ease of use and memorability". Work on the project started on March 21, 2006, when Dorsey published the first Twitter message at 9:50 p.m. PST ( UTC−08:00): "just setting up my twttr". Dorsey has explained the origin of the "Twitter" title:
...we came across the word "twitter", and it was just perfect. The definition was "a short burst of inconsequential information", and "chirps from birds". And that's exactly what the product was.
The first Twitter prototype, developed by Dorsey and contractor Florian Weber, was used as an internal service for Odeo employees. The full version was introduced publicly on July 15, 2006. In October 2006,
Biz Stone Christopher Isaac "Biz" Stone (born March 10, 1974) is an American entrepreneur who is a co-founder of Twitter Twitter is an American microblogging Microblogging is an online broadcast medium that exists as a specific form of blogging ...

Biz Stone
, Evan Williams, Dorsey, and other members of Odeo formed Obvious Corporation and acquired Odeo, together with its assets—including Odeo.com and Twitter.com—from the investors and shareholders. Williams fired Glass, who was silent about his part in Twitter's startup until 2011. Twitter spun off into its own company in April 2007. Williams provided insight into the ambiguity that defined this early period in a 2013 interview:
With Twitter, it wasn't clear what it was. They called it a social network, they called it microblogging, but it was hard to define, because it didn't replace anything. There was this path of discovery with something like that, where over time you figure out what it is. Twitter actually changed from what we thought it was in the beginning, which we described as status updates and a social utility. It is that, in part, but the insight we eventually came to was Twitter was really more of an information network than it is a social network.


2007–2010

The tipping point for Twitter's popularity was the 2007 South by Southwest Interactive (SXSWi) conference. During the event, Twitter usage increased from 20,000 tweets per day to 60,000. "The Twitter people cleverly placed two 60-inch plasma screens in the conference hallways, exclusively streaming Twitter messages," remarked ''
Newsweek ''Newsweek'' is an American weekly founded in 1933, and was widely distributed through the 20th century, with many notable editors-in-chief. In 1961 the magazine was acquired by and remained under its ownership until 2010. Between 2008 and 20 ...
''s
Steven Levy Steven Levy (born 1951) is an American journalist who has written several books on computers, technology, cryptography Cryptography, or cryptology (from grc, , translit=kryptós "hidden, secret"; and ''graphein'', "to write", or ''-lo ...

Steven Levy
. "Hundreds of conference-goers kept tabs on each other via constant twitters. Panelists and speakers mentioned the service, and the bloggers in attendance touted it." Reaction at the conference was highly positive. Blogger Scott Beale said that Twitter was "absolutely ruling" SXSWi. Social software researcher
Danah Boyd danah boyd (styled lowercase, born November 24, 1977 as Danah Michele Mattas) She noted her mother added lowercase 'h' in birth name "danah" for typographical balance, reflecting the lowercase first letter 'd' and later changed her last name to ...

Danah Boyd
said Twitter was "owning" the conference. Twitter staff received the festival's Web Award prize with the remark "we'd like to thank you in 140 characters or less. And we just did!" The company experienced rapid initial growth. It had 400,000 tweets posted per quarter in 2007. This grew to tweets posted per quarter in 2008. In February 2010, Twitter users were sending tweets per day. By March 2010, the company recorded over 70,000 registered applications. As of June 2010, about tweets were posted each day, equaling about 750 tweets sent each second, according to Twitter. As of March 2011, that was about tweets posted daily. As noted on
Compete.com Compete.com was a web traffic Web traffic is the amount of data sent and received by visitors to a website A website (also written as web site) is a collection of web pages and related content that is identified by a common domain name an ...
, Twitter moved up to the third-highest-ranking
social networking A social networking service (also social networking site or social media) is an online platform which people use to build social networks or social relationships with other people who share similar personal or career interests, activities, back ...
site in January 2009 from its previous rank of twenty-second. Twitter's usage spikes during prominent events. For example, a record was set during the
2010 FIFA World Cup The 2010 FIFA World Cup was the 19th FIFA World Cup, the world championship for List of men's national association football teams, men's national association football teams. It took place in South Africa from 11 June to 11 July 2010. The FIFA W ...
when fans wrote 2,940 tweets per second in the thirty-second period after
Japan Japan ( ja, 日本, or , and formally ) is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an in ...
scored against
Cameroon Cameroon (, french: Cameroun), officially the Republic of Cameroon (french: République du Cameroun, links=no), is a country in west 250px, A compass rose with west highlighted in black West or Occident is one of the four cardinal direc ...
on June 14, 2010. The record was broken again when 3,085 tweets per second were posted after the
Los Angeles Lakers The Los Angeles Lakers are an American professional basketball team based in Los Angeles. The Lakers compete in the National Basketball Association (NBA) as a member of the league's Western Conference (NBA), Western Conference Pacific Division ...

Los Angeles Lakers
' victory in the 2010 NBA Finals on June 17, 2010, and then again at the close of Japan's victory over
Denmark Denmark ( da, Danmark, ) is a Nordic country The Nordic countries, or the Nordics, are a geographical and cultural region In geography, regions are areas that are broadly divided by physical characteristics ( physical geography), hu ...
in the World Cup when users published 3,283 tweets per second. The record was set again during the
2011 FIFA Women's World Cup Final The 2011 FIFA Women's World Cup Final was a football Football is a family of team sport A team is a
Japan_ Japan_(_ja,_日本,__or_,_and_formally_)_is_an_island_country An_island_country_or_an_island_nation_is_a_country A_country_is_a_distinct_territory,_territorial_body or_political_entity._It_is_often_referred_to_as_the_land_of_an_in_...
_and_the_United_States_women's_national_soccer_team.html" "title="Japan_women's_national_football_team.html" "title="roup (disambiguation), group of individuals (human or non-human) working together to achieve their goal. As defined by Professor Leigh ...
between Japan women's national football team">Japan Japan ( ja, 日本, or , and formally ) is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an in ...
and the United States women's national soccer team">United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...
, when 7,196 tweets per second were published. When American singer Michael Jackson died on June 25, 2009, Twitter servers crashed after users were updating their status to include the words "Michael Jackson" at a rate of 100,000 tweets per hour. The current record as of August 3, 2013, was set in Japan, with 143,199 tweets per second during a television screening of the movie ''
Castle in the Sky , known as simply ''Castle in the Sky'' in North America, is a 1986 Japanese animated fantasy Fantasy is a genre of speculative fiction set in a fictional universe, often inspired by real world myth and folklore. Its roots are in oral trad ...
'' (beating the previous record of 33,388, also set by Japan for the television screening of the same movie). The first unassisted off-Earth Twitter message was posted from the
International Space Station The International Space Station (ISS) is a Modular design, modular space station (habitable satellite, artificial satellite) in low Earth orbit. It is a multinational collaborative project involving five participating space agencies: NASA (Uni ...

International Space Station
by
NASA The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA; ) is an independent agency A regulatory agency or regulatory authority, is a Public benefit corporation Public-benefit corporation is a term that has different meanings in differen ...

NASA
astronaut An astronaut (from the Greek "astron" (ἄστρον), meaning "star", and "nautes" (ναύτης), meaning "sailor") is a person trained, equipped, and deployed by a List of human spaceflight programs, human spaceflight program to serve as a ...

astronaut
T. J. Creamer on January 22, 2010. By late November 2010, an average of a dozen updates per day were posted on the astronauts' communal account, @NASA_Astronauts. NASA has also hosted over 25 "tweetups", events that provide guests with VIP access to NASA facilities and speakers with the goal of leveraging participants' social networks to further the outreach goals of NASA. In August 2010, the company appointed Adam Bain from
News Corp.News Corp is a company spun off from the original News Corporation. News Corp may also refer to: * News Corporation, an American multinational mass media corporation operated and owned by Rupert Murdoch * News Corp Australia See also

* Fox Co ...
's Fox Audience Network as president of revenue. Twitter acquired application developer Atebits on April 11, 2010. Atebits had developed the
Apple Design Award The Apple Design Awards (ADAs) is an event hosted by Apple Inc. at its annual Worldwide Developers Conference. The purpose of the event is to recognize the best and most innovative Macintosh and iOS software and hardware produced by independent sof ...
-winning Twitter client
Tweetie Tweetie was a client for the social networking website Twitter. There is a mobile version that runs on iPhone, iPod touch, and iPad, and a desktop version runs on Mac OS X Leopard, Snow Leopard and Lion (respectively 10.5, 10.6 and 10.7). Both th ...

Tweetie
for the
Mac
Mac
and
iPhone {{Infobox information appliance , name = iPhone , logo = , image = , caption = The front face of an iPhone 13 Pro The iPhone 13 Pro and iPhone 13 Pro Max are smartphones designed and marketed by Apple Inc. They are the flagship smart ...

iPhone
. The application, now called "Twitter" and distributed free of charge, is the official Twitter client for the iPhone,
iPad iPad is a line of tablet computers designed, developed and marketed by Apple Inc., which run the iOS and iPadOS mobile operating systems. The iPad (1st generation), first iPad was released on April 3, 2010; the most recent iPad models ar ...

iPad
and Mac.


2010–2014

From September through October 2010, the company began rolling out "New Twitter", an entirely revamped edition of twitter.com. Changes included the ability to see pictures and videos without leaving Twitter itself by clicking on individual tweets which contain links to images and clips from a variety of supported websites including
YouTube YouTube is an American online video sharing and social media platform Social media are interactive technologies that allow the Content creation, creation or information sharing, sharing/exchange of information, ideas, career interests, an ...

YouTube
and
Flickr Flickr (pronounced "flicker") ) is an American image hosting An image hosting service allows individuals to upload images to an Internet website. The image host will then store the image onto its server, and show the individual different types ...

Flickr
, and a complete overhaul of the interface, which shifted links such as '@mentions' and 'Retweets' above the Twitter stream, while 'Messages' and 'Log Out' became accessible via a black bar at the very top of twitter.com. As of November 1, 2010, the company confirmed that the "New Twitter experience" had been rolled out to all users. In 2019, Twitter was announced to be the 10th most downloaded
mobile
mobile
app of the decade, from 2010 to 2019. On April 5, 2011, Twitter tested a new homepage and phased out the "Old Twitter". However, a glitch came about after the page was launched, so the previous "retro" homepage was still in use until the issues were resolved; the new homepage was reintroduced on April 20. On December 8, 2011, Twitter overhauled its website once more to feature the "Fly" design, which the service says is easier for new users to follow and promotes advertising. In addition to the ''Home'' tab, the ''Connect'' and ''Discover'' tabs were introduced along with a redesigned profile and timeline of Tweets. The site's layout has been compared to that of
Facebook Facebook is an American online social media and social networking service owned by Meta Platforms. Founded in 2004 by Mark Zuckerberg with fellow Harvard College students and roommates Eduardo Saverin, Andrew McCollum, Dustin Moskovitz, an ...

Facebook
. On February 21, 2012, it was announced that Twitter and
Yandex Yandex N.V. (; russian: link=no, Яндекс, p=ˈjandəks) is a multinational corporation primarily for Russian and Russian-language users, providing 70 Internet The Internet (or internet) is the global system of interconnected s th ...

Yandex
agreed to a partnership. Yandex, a Russian search engine, finds value within the partnership due to Twitter's real time news feeds. Twitter's director of business development explained that it is important to have Twitter content where Twitter users go. On March 21, 2012, Twitter celebrated its sixth birthday while also announcing that it had 140 million users and 340 million tweets per day. The number of users was up 40% from their September 2011 number, which was said to have been at 100 million at the time. In April 2012, Twitter announced that it was opening an office in
Detroit (strait A strait is a naturally formed, narrowing, typically navigable waterway that connects two larger bodies of water. The surface water generally flows at the same elevation on both sides and through the strait in either direction. Mo ...

Detroit
, with the aim of working with automotive brands and advertising agencies. Twitter also expanded its office in
Dublin Dublin (; , or ) is the capital and largest city of Ireland Ireland ( ; ga, Éire ; Ulster-Scots: ) is an island upright=1.15, Great_Britain.html"_;"title="Ireland_(left)_and_Great_Britain">Ireland_(left)_and_Great_Britain_ ...

Dublin
. On June 5, 2012, a modified logo was unveiled through the company blog, removing the text to showcase the slightly redesigned bird as the sole symbol of Twitter. On October 5, 2012, Twitter acquired a video clip company called
Vine A vine (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be in relation ...
that launched in January 2013. Twitter released Vine as a standalone app that allows users to create and share six-second looping video clips on January 24, 2013. Vine videos shared on Twitter are visible directly in users' Twitter feeds. Due to an influx of inappropriate content, it is now rated 17+ in Apple's app store. On December 18, 2012, Twitter announced it had surpassed 200 million
monthly active users Active users is a measurement metric that is commonly used to measure the level of engagement a particular product or object, by quantifying the number of active interactions from visitors within a relevant range of time (daily, weekly and monthl ...
. Twitter hit 100 million monthly active users in September 2011. On January 28, 2013, Twitter acquired
Crashlytics Crashlytics is a Google-owned Boston, Massachusetts-based software company founded in May 2011 by entrepreneurs Wayne Chang and Jeff Seibert. Crashlytics helps collecting, analyzing and organizing app crash reports. Its main product is a ...
in order to build out its mobile developer products. On April 18, 2013, Twitter launched a music app called Twitter Music for the iPhone. On August 28, 2013, Twitter acquired Trendrr, followed by the acquisition of MoPub on September 9, 2013. As of September 2013, the company's data showed that 200 million users sent over 400 million tweets daily, with nearly 60% of tweets sent from mobile devices.


2014–2019

In April 2014, Twitter underwent a redesign that made the site resemble Facebook somewhat, with profile picture and biography in a column left to the timeline, and a full-width header image with
parallax scrolling Parallax scrolling is a technique in computer graphics Computer graphics deals with generating images with the aid of computers A computer is a machine that can be programmed to Execution (computing), carry out sequences of arithmetic ...
effect. That layout was used as main for the desktop front end until July 2019, undergoing changes over time such as removal of shortcut buttons to jump to the previous or next tweet in early 2017, and rounded profile pictures since June 2017. On June 4, 2014, Twitter announced that it would acquire Namo Media, a technology firm specializing in "
native advertising Native advertising, also called sponsored content, is a type of advertising that matches the form and function of the platform upon which it appears. In many cases it functions like an advertorial, and manifests as a video, article or editorial. ...
" for mobile devices. On June 19, 2014, Twitter announced that it had reached an undisclosed deal to buy SnappyTV, a service that helps edit and share video from television broadcasts. The company was helping broadcasters and rights holders to share video content both organically across social and via Twitter's Amplify program. In July 2014, Twitter announced that it intended to buy a young company called CardSpring for an undisclosed sum. CardSpring enabled retailers to offer online shoppers coupons that they could automatically sync to their credit cards in order to receive discounts when they shopped in physical stores. On July 31, 2014, Twitter announced that it had acquired a small password-security startup called Mitro. On October 29, 2014, Twitter announced a new partnership with
IBM International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Armonk, New York, with operations in over 170 countries. The company began in 1911, founded in Endicott, New York, as the C ...

IBM
. The partnership was intended to help businesses use Twitter data to understand their customers, businesses and other trends. On February 11, 2015, Twitter announced that it had acquired Niche, an advertising network for social media stars, founded by Rob Fishman and Darren Lachtman. The acquisition price was reportedly $50 million. On March 13, 2015, Twitter announced its acquisition of
Periscope A periscope is an instrument for observation over, around or through an object, obstacle or condition that prevents direct line-of-sight observation from an observer's current position. In its simplest form, it consists of an outer case with ...
, an app that allows live streaming of video. In April 2015, the Twitter.com desktop homepage changed. Twitter announced that it had acquired TellApart, a commerce ads tech firm, with $532 million stock. Later in the year it became apparent that growth had slowed, according to Fortune, Business Insider, Marketing Land and other news websites including Quartz (in 2016). In June 2016, Twitter acquired an
artificial intelligence Artificial intelligence (AI) is intelligence Intelligence has been defined in many ways: the capacity for abstraction Abstraction in its main sense is a conceptual process where general rules and concept Concepts are defined as abstra ...

artificial intelligence
startup called Magic Pony for $150 million. Since May 2018, tweet replies deemed by an
artificial intelligence Artificial intelligence (AI) is intelligence Intelligence has been defined in many ways: the capacity for abstraction Abstraction in its main sense is a conceptual process where general rules and concept Concepts are defined as abstra ...

artificial intelligence
to be detractive from conversation are initially hidden, and only loaded through actuating a button at the bottom.


2019–present

In 2019, Twitter redesigned its user interface yet again. This newest "new Twitter" was deployed in "a gradual rollout". On July 15, 2019, Twitter ended support for TLS 1.0 and 1.1 connection. In October 2019, the tweet history of the
Fortnite ''Fortnite'' is an online video game An online game is a video game A video game is an electronic game that involves interaction with a user interface or input device such as a joystick, game controller, controller, computer keyboar ...

Fortnite
video game's account was resurrected after appearing deleted during a marketing campaign. This is the only documented occurrence of such resurrection. Twitter saw somewhat dramatic growth in 2020, possibly due to the
COVID-19 pandemic The COVID-19 pandemic is an ongoing global pandemic A pandemic (from , , "all" and , , "local people" the 'crowd') is an of an that has spread across a large region, for instance multiple or worldwide, affecting a substantial numbe ...

COVID-19 pandemic
. During said pandemic, Twitter saw an increased use of the platform for misinformation related to the pandemic. Twitter announced in March 2020 that it would start marking tweets which may contain misleading information, in some cases it will provide links to pages of fact-checking information. A major hack of Twitter on July 15, 2020, affected 130 high-profile accounts, both verified and unverified ones such as
Barack Obama Barack Hussein Obama II ( ; born August 4, 1961) is an American politician and attorney who served as the 44th president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government ...

Barack Obama
,
Bill Gates William Henry Gates III (born October 28, 1955) is an American business magnate A business magnate is someone who has achieved great success and enormous wealth through the ownership of multiple lines of enterprise. The term characterist ...
, and
Elon Musk Elon Reeve Musk (; born June 28, 1971) is an entrepreneur and business magnate A business magnate is someone who has achieved great success and enormous wealth through the ownership of multiple lines of enterprise. The term characteris ...

Elon Musk
; the hack allowed
bitcoin Bitcoin (₿) is a cryptocurrency A cryptocurrency, crypto-currency, or crypto is a collection of binary data which is designed to work as a medium of exchange. Individual coin ownership records are stored in a ledger, which is a compu ...

bitcoin
scammers to send tweets via the compromised accounts that asked the followers to send bitcoin to a given public address, with the promise to double their money. Within a few hours, Twitter disabled tweeting and reset passwords from all verified accounts. Analysis of the event revealed that the scammers had used social engineering to obtain credentials from Twitter employees to access an administration tool used by Twitter to view and change these accounts' personal details as to gain access as part of a "
smash and grab A smash and grab is a particular form of burglary that involves smashing a barrier, usually a display window in a shop or a showcase, grabbing valuables, and then making a quick getaway, without concern for setting off alarms or creating noise. ...
" attempt to make money quickly, with an estimated in bitcoin deposited in various accounts before Twitter intervened. Several law enforcement entities including the FBI launched investigations into the attack to determine the perpetrators over concerns of broader implications of such a hack in the future. On June 1, 2020, Twitter deactivated the legacy desktop front end of their web site that had originally been introduced in 2014, leaving the
progressive web app A progressive web application (PWA), commonly known as a progressive web app, is a type of application software delivered through the World Wide Web, web, built using common web technologies including HTML, Cascading Style Sheets, CSS, JavaScript, ...
version which was originally introduced in April 2017 as "Twitter Lite" for mobile phones and used by default since July 2019 as the only option. In November 2020, Twitter announced that it would develop a social audio feature on its platform. Later, In December 2020, Twitter began beta testing its social audio feature known as Spaces with iOS users on their platform. "M2 Mobile Web", the original mobile web front end of Twitter, later served as fallback legacy version to clients without
JavaScript JavaScript (), often abbreviated JS, is a programming language A programming language is a formal language In mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as quantity (number theory), ma ...

JavaScript
support and incompatible browsers such as
game console A video game console is an electronic device that output Output may refer to: * The information produced by a computer, see * An output state of a system, see * , the amount of goods and services produced ** in economics, the value of net ...
s with limited web browsing capability. It was shut down in December 2020. During the
George Floyd protests The George Floyd protests are ongoing protests against police brutality Police brutality is the excessive and unwarranted use of force by law enforcement File:CBP female officers going aboard a ship.jpg, upU.S. Customs and Border Prote ...
and through the 2020 election, misinformation spread by Donald Trump led to Twitter expanding a policy where they added disclaimers to misinformation. Twitter was among the platforms associated with the
storming of the United States Capitol On January 6, 2021, the United States Capitol in Washington, D.C. was stormed during a riot and violent attack against the 117th United States Congress, U.S. Congress. A mob of supporters of President Donald Trump attempted to overturn his d ...
on January 6, 2021. According to the Associated Press, "federal law enforcement authorities said that there was activity on Twitter, but that they weren't expecting the level of violence they ultimately saw last Wednesday." This led to Trump being suspended from Twitter for glorifying violence, among other reasons such as false allegations of election fraud. According to researcher Shannon McGregor, "Twitter's permanent suspension of Trump's Twitter account is long overdue." However, among conservatives and some European leaders, a degree of controversy ensued over the power held by a private company over speech. Nathan Akehurst of Jacobin Magazine suggested that "Twitter profited from Donald Trump's racist outbursts for years, only to delete his account a few days before his departure". On January 26, 2021, Twitter acquired Revue, an email newsletter service to compete with platforms like
Substack Substack is an Online platforms for collaborative consumption, online platform that provides publishing, payment, analytics, and design infrastructure to support subscription Newsletter, newsletters. Content Substack users range from journalist ...
. On February 25, 2021, Twitter announced Super Follows, a subscription service allowing content creators to receive payments for their content. In March 2021, Twitter started beta testing Spaces for Android users. On March 5, it was announced that Twitter was working on a feature that would offer users a short window of time to rethink a tweet after they hit send. Twitter confirmed to CNN that it is testing an undo option that could potentially let users correct or even to retract a tweet before it is posted on the site. The feature was discovered by Jane Manchun Wong, an app developer who has a proven track record of uncovering new tools on social networks before they are officially released. Wong posted a GIF on the platform which show a blue "undo" bar that appears under the words "Your Tweet was sent." In 2021, Twitter is advancing an
open source Open source is source code that is made freely available for possible modification and redistribution. Products include permission to use the source code, design documents, or content of the product. The open-source model is a decentralized softwa ...
initiative that could be used by any social media platform and would make content moderation more transparent with a more robust appeals process. Called '' Bluesky'', the use of such an open protocol would relieve companies of the sole of content. The Twitter research team that began work on this effort was set up in late 2019. In April 2021, Twitter announced that it was establishing its African headquarters in
Ghana Ghana (), officially the Republic of Ghana, is a country in West Africa West Africa or Western Africa is the westernmost region of . The defines Western Africa as the 17 countries of , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , and as well as .Paul R. ...

Ghana
. On May 3, 2021, Twitter Spaces released globally. On June 5, the
Nigeria Nigeria (), officially the Federal Republic of Nigeria, is a country in West Africa West Africa or Western Africa is the westernmost region of . The defines Western Africa as the 17 countries of , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , and as we ...

Nigeria
n government issued an indefinite ban on Twitter usage in the country after the platform removed tweets made by the Nigerian President
Muhammadu Buhari Muhammadu Buhari (born 17 December 1942) is a Nigerian politician who has been president of Nigeria since 2015. Buhari is a retired Major General of the Nigerian Army and served as military head of state from 1983 to 1985, after taking power ...

Muhammadu Buhari
. The company claimed the tweets violated its policies against "abusive behavior". Twitter called the ban "deeply concerning". Several human rights organizations, including
Amnesty International Amnesty International (also referred to as Amnesty or AI) is a non-governmental organization File:Europe in a suitcase - UK.jpg, upright=1.3, alt=A roomful of people, Europe-Georgia Institute head George Melashvili addresses the audience at th ...

Amnesty International
and the local Socio-Economic Rights and Accountability Project (SERAP), spoke out against the ban as well. The Nigerian government stated that the ban was not based solely on the removal of the tweets and was a result of "a litany of problems with the social media platform in Nigeria, where misinformation and fake news spread through it have had real world violent consequences". In June 2021, Twitter announced the beta rollout of its Super Follows feature. A group of users will be allowed to charge followers monthly for access to extra content, not available in their regular feed. The company also launched the Ticketed Spaces program in beta, a premium version of its audio room feature Spaces, which makes access to certain audio rooms paid. Twitter rolled out changes in the interface on August 11, 2021. Among adjustments in color uses, the major change was converting to their new Chirp font, designed to allow left-alignment of most Western languages as to make browsing of tweets easier to follow. An October 21, 2021, report based on a "long-running, massive-scale randomized experiment" that analyzed "millions of tweets sent between 1 April and 15 August 2020", found that Twitter's machine learning algorithm amplified right-leaning politics on personalized user Home timelines. The report compared seven countries with active Twitter users where data was available—Germany, Canada, the United Kingdom, Japan, France, and Spain—and examined Tweets "from major political groups and politicians". Researchers used the 2019 Chapel Hill Expert Survey (CHESDATA) to position parties on political ideology within each country. The "machine learning algorithms"—introduced by Twitter in 2016—personalized 99% of users' feeds by displaying Tweets—even older Tweets and Retweets from accounts the user had not directly followed—but that the algorithm had "deemed relevant" to the users' past preferences. Twitter randomly chose 1% of users whose Home timelines displayed content in reverse-chronological order from users they directly followed.


Leadership

As
chief executive officer A chief executive officer (CEO), chief administrator officer, or just chief executive (CE), is one of a number of corporate executives A corporation is an organization—usually a group of people or a company A company, abbreviated as c ...
, Dorsey saw the startup through two rounds of capital funding by the
venture capital Venture capital (VC) is a form of private equity Private equity (PE) typically refers to investment funds, generally organized as limited partnerships, that buy and restructure companies that are not publicly traded. Private equity is a ty ...
ists who backed the company. On October 16, 2008, Williams took over the role of CEO, and Dorsey became chairman of the board. On October 4, 2010, Williams announced that he was stepping down as CEO. , formerly Twitter's
chief operating officer A chief operating officer (COO), also called a chief operations officer, is one of the highest-ranking executive positions in an organization, composing part of the " C-suite". The COO is usually the second-in-command {{unreferenced, date=May 200 ...
, became CEO. On October 4, 2010, Williams made an announcement saying that he will stay with the company and "be completely focused on product strategy". According to ''
The New York Times ''The New York Times'' is an American daily newspaper based in New York City with a worldwide readership. Founded in 1851, the ''Times'' has since won List of Pulitzer Prizes awarded to The New York Times, 132 Pulitzer Prizes, the most of a ...

The New York Times
'', "Mr. Dorsey and Mr. Costolo forged a close relationship" when Williams was away. According to ''
PC Magazine ''PC Magazine'' (shortened as ''PCMag'') is an American computer magazine Computer magazines are about computers and related subjects, such as computer network, networking and the Internet. Most computer magazines offer (or offered) advice, so ...
'', Williams was "no longer involved in the day-to-day goings on at the company". He was focused on developing a new startup, and became a member of Twitter's board of directors, and promised to "help in any way e could. In 2011, Stone was still with Twitter but was working with AOL as an "advisor on volunteer efforts and philanthropy". In January 2014, Stone announced the release of Jelly, a 'social Q&A network for mobile'. Dorsey rejoined Twitter in March 2011, as executive chairman focusing on product development. At that time, he split his schedule with
Square In Euclidean geometry Euclidean geometry is a mathematical system attributed to Alexandrian Greek mathematics , Greek mathematician Euclid, which he described in his textbook on geometry: the ''Euclid's Elements, Elements''. Euclid's method ...
(where he is CEO), whose offices are within walking distance of Twitter's in San Francisco. In September 2011, board members and investors Fred Wilson and Bijan Sabet resigned from Twitter's board of directors. In October 2012, Twitter announced it had hired former Google executive Matt Derella to become their new director of business agency development. Twitter named former Goldman Sachs executive Anthony Noto as the company's CFO in July 2014, with an "annual salary of $250,000 and one-time restricted stock options of 1.5 million shares ... valued at $61.5 million". On June 10, 2015, Twitter announced its CEO would resign on July 1, 2015. Noto was said to be considered a potential replacement for outgoing CEO Costolo. On October 14, 2015, former Google chief business officer
Omid Kordestani Omid R. Kordestani ( fa, امید کردستانی; born 1963) is an Iranian-American businessman who is a member of the board at Twitter Twitter is an American microblogging Microblogging is an online broadcast medium that exists as ...
became executive chairman, replacing Dorsey who remains CEO. On January 26, 2016, Leslie Berland, former executive vice president of global advertising, marketing, and digital partnerships at
American Express The American Express Company (Amex) is a multinational corporation, multinational financial services corporation headquartered at 200 Vesey Street in the Financial District (Manhattan), Financial District of Lower Manhattan in New York City. Th ...
, was named chief marketing officer. In November 2016, COO Adam Bain announced his resignation and CFO Anthony Noto took over Bain's role. A month later, on December 20, 2016, CTO Adam Messinger announced that he too was leaving. In February 2020, it was reported that
Elliott Management Corporation Elliott Management Corporation is an American investment management firm. It is also one of the largest activist funds in the world. It is the management affiliate of American hedge funds Elliott Associates L.P. and Elliott International Lim ...
had acquired a stake in Twitter, with
activist shareholder An activist shareholder is a shareholder that uses an Equity (finance), equity stake in a corporation to put pressure on its management. A fairly small stake (less than 10% of outstanding shares) may be enough to launch a successful campaign. In com ...
and
Republican Party Republican Party is a name used by many political parties A political party is an organization that coordinates candidates to compete in a country's elections. It is common for the members of a political party to have similar ideas about polit ...
supporter Paul Singer expected to seek the removal of Dorsey as CEO. Twitter agreed to appoint a new independent director and two new board members, and to perform $2 billion in share buybacks. On November 29, 2021, Jack Dorsey stepped down as CEO. He was replaced by CTO Parag Agrawal.


List of chairmen

#
Jack Dorsey Jack Patrick Dorsey (born November 19, 1976) is an American billionaire technology entrepreneur and philanthropist Philanthropy consists of "private initiatives, for the Public good (economics), public good, focusing on quality of life". Phila ...

Jack Dorsey
(2008–2015) #
Omid Kordestani Omid R. Kordestani ( fa, امید کردستانی; born 1963) is an Iranian-American businessman who is a member of the board at Twitter Twitter is an American microblogging Microblogging is an online broadcast medium that exists as ...
(2015–2020) #
Patrick Pichette Patrick Pichette is a Canadian businessperson, and a general partner at the venture capital fund Inovia Capital.
(2020–2021) #
Bret Taylor Bret Taylor is an American computer programmer and entrepreneur. He was the co-creator of Google Maps and the Google Maps API. Taylor left Google in June 2007 to join venture capital firm Benchmark Capital as an entrepreneur-in-residence, where he ...
(2021-present)


List of CEOs

#
Jack Dorsey Jack Patrick Dorsey (born November 19, 1976) is an American billionaire technology entrepreneur and philanthropist Philanthropy consists of "private initiatives, for the Public good (economics), public good, focusing on quality of life". Phila ...

Jack Dorsey
(2006–2008) # Evan Williams (2008–2010) # (2010–2015) #
Jack Dorsey Jack Patrick Dorsey (born November 19, 1976) is an American billionaire technology entrepreneur and philanthropist Philanthropy consists of "private initiatives, for the Public good (economics), public good, focusing on quality of life". Phila ...

Jack Dorsey
(2015–2021); second term #
Parag Agrawal Parag Agrawal (born 21 May 1984) is an Indian-American Indian Americans or Indo-Americans are Americans Americans are the Citizenship of the United States, citizens and United States nationality law, nationals of the United States o ...
(2021–present)


Appearance and features


Tweets

Tweets are publicly visible by default, but senders can restrict message delivery to only their followers. Users can mute users they do not wish to interact with, block accounts from viewing their tweets and remove accounts from their followers list. Users can tweet via the Twitter website, compatible external applications (such as for
smartphone A smartphone is a portable device A mobile device (or handheld computer) is a computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. Modern computers can per ...

smartphone
s), or by
Short Message Service SMS (Short Message Service) is a text messaging service component of most telephone, Internet, and mobile device systems. It uses standardized communication protocols that let mobile devices exchange short text messages. An intermediary service ...
(SMS) available in certain countries. Users may subscribe to other users' tweets—this is known as "following" and subscribers are known as "followers" or "tweeps", a portmanteau of Twitter and peeps. Individual tweets can be forwarded by other users to their own feed, a process known as a "retweet". In 2015, Twitter launched "quote tweet" (originally called "retweet with comment"), a feature that allows users to add a comment to their retweet, nesting one tweet in the other. Users can also "
like In , the word ''like'' has a very flexible range of uses, ranging from conventional to non-standard. It can be used as a , , , , , , , , , and . Uses Comparisons ''Like'' is one of the words in the English language that can introduce a (a com ...

like
" (formerly "favorite") individual tweets. The counters for "likes", "retweets", and replies appear next to the respective buttons in timelines such as on profile pages and search results. Counters for likes and retweets exist on a tweet's standalone page too. Since September 2020, quote tweets, formerly known as "retweet with comment", have an own counter on their tweet page. Until the legacy desktop front end that was discontinued in 2020, a row with miniature profile pictures of up to ten liking or retweeting users was displayed (earliest documented implementation in December 2011 overhaul), as well as a tweet reply counter next to the according button on a tweet's page. Twitter allows users to update their profile via their mobile phone either by text messaging or by apps released for certain smartphones and tablets. Twitter has been compared to a web-based
Internet Relay Chat Internet Relay Chat (IRC) is a text-based chat (instant messaging Instant messaging (IM) technology is a type of online chat Online chat may refer to any kind of communication over the Internet that offers a real-time text, real-time t ...
(IRC) client. In a 2009 ''
Time Time is the continued sequence of existence and event (philosophy), events that occurs in an apparently irreversible process, irreversible succession from the past, through the present, into the future. It is a component quantity of various me ...
'' magazine essay, technology author described the basic mechanics of Twitter as "remarkably simple": According to research published in April 2014, around 44% of user accounts have never tweeted. The first tweet was posted by Jack Dorsey (creator) at 12:50 PM PST on March 21, 2006, and read "just setting up my twttr". In 2009, the first tweet was sent from space. US astronauts Nicola Stott and Jeff Williams took part in a live 'tweetup' from the International Space Station with around 35 members of the public at the
NASA Headquarters NASA Headquarters, officially known as Mary W. Jackson NASA Headquarters or NASA HQ and formerly named Two Independence Square, is a low-rise office building in the two-building Independence Square complex at 300 E Street SW in Washington, D.C. T ...
in
Washington, D.C. ) , image_skyline = , image_caption = Clockwise from top left: the Washington Monument The Washington Monument is an obelisk within the National Mall The National Mall is a Landscape architecture, landscaped ...
In March 2021, Jack Dorsey listed his first tweet for sale. The highest bid for the tweet, $2.5 million, came from a Malaysian businessman, Sina Estavi. Along with the metadata of the original tweet, the buyer was to receive a certificate that was digitally signed and verified by Dorsey.


Content

San Antonio ("Cradle of Freedom") , image_map = Bexar SanAntonio.svg , mapsize = 220px , map_caption = Location within Bexar County , pushpin_map = Texas#USA#North America , pushpin_relief ...

San Antonio
-based market-research firm Pear Analytics analyzed 2,000 tweets (originating from the United States and in English) over a two-week period in August 2009 from 11:00 am to 5:00 pm (CST) and separated them into six categories. Pointless babble made up 40%, with 38% being conversational. Pass-along value had 9%, self-promotion 6% with
spam Spam may refer to: * Spam (food) Spam (stylized as SPAM) is a brand of canning, canned cooked pork made by Hormel Foods Corporation. It was introduced by Hormel in 1937 and gained popularity worldwide after its use during World War II. By 2003 ...
and news each making 4%. Despite Jack Dorsey's own open contention that a message on Twitter is "a short burst of inconsequential information", social networking researcher
danah boyd danah boyd (styled lowercase, born November 24, 1977 as Danah Michele Mattas) She noted her mother added lowercase 'h' in birth name "danah" for typographical balance, reflecting the lowercase first letter 'd' and later changed her last name to ...

danah boyd
responded to the Pear Analytics survey by arguing that what the Pear researchers labeled "pointless babble" is better characterized as "
social grooming Social grooming is a behavior in which social animal Sociality is the degree to which individuals in an animal Animals (also called Metazoa) are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the Kingdom (biology), biological kingdom ...

social grooming
" or "peripheral awareness" (which she justifies as persons "wantto know what the people around them are thinking and doing and feeling, even when co-presence isn't viable"). Similarly, a survey of Twitter users found that a more specific social role of passing along messages that include a hyperlink is an expectation of reciprocal linking by followers.


Format


= Hashtags, usernames, retweets and replies

= Users can group posts together by topic or type by use of
hashtag A hashtag is a Tag (metadata), metadata tag that is prefaced by the hash symbol, #. Hashtags are widely used on microblogging and photo sharing, photo-sharing services such as Twitter and Instagram as a form of user-generated content, user-gener ...
s – words or phrases prefixed with a "#" sign. Similarly, the "@" sign followed by a
username A user is a person who utilizes a computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to Execution (computing), carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. Modern computers can perform generic sets of op ...

username
is used for mentioning or replying to other users. In 2014, in anticipation for the
FIFA World Cup The FIFA World Cup, often simply called the World Cup, is an international association football Association football, more commonly known as simply football or soccer, is a played with a between two teams of 11 . It is played by ...
, Twitter introduced hashflags, special hashtags that automatically generate a custom
emoji An emoji ( ; plural emoji or emojis) is a pictogram A pictogram, also called a pictogramme, pictograph, or simply picto, and in computer usage an icon An icon (from the Greek language, Greek 'image, resemblance') is a religious wor ...

emoji
next to them for a certain period of time, following the success of a similar campaign during the . Hashflags may be generated by Twitter themselves (such as to raise awareness for
social issue A social issue is a problem that influences many citizens within a society. It is a group of common problem in present-day society and one that many people strive to solve. It is often the consequence of factors extending beyond an individual's ...
s) or be purchased by corporations (such as to promote products and events). To repost a message from another Twitter user and share it with one's own followers, a user can click the retweet button within the Tweet. Users can reply other accounts' replies. Since November 2019, users can hide replies to their messages. Since May 2020, users can select who can reply each of their tweets before sending them: anyone, accounts who follow the poster, specific accounts, and none. This ability was upgraded in July 2021 to make the feature retroactively applicable to tweets after they have been sent out.


= Twitter Lists

= In late 2009, the "Twitter Lists" feature was added, making it possible for users to follow ad hoc lists of authors instead of individual authors.


= Using SMS

= Through SMS, users can communicate with Twitter through five gateway numbers:
short code Short Code was one of the first higher-level languages ever developed for an electronic computer Electronic may refer to: *Electronics, the science of how to control electric energy in semiconductor *Electronics (magazine), ''Electronics'' (magazin ...
s for the United States, Canada, India, New Zealand, and an
Isle of Man ) , anthem = "O Land of Our Birth The "National Anthem of the Isle of Man" ( gv, Arrane Ashoonagh Vannin) was written and composed by William Henry Gill (1839–1923), with the Manx translation by John J. Kneen (1873–1939). It is often r ...

Isle of Man
-based number for international use. There is also a short code in the United Kingdom which is only accessible to those on the
Vodafone Vodafone Group Plc () is a British Multinational corporation, multinational telecommunications company. Its registered office and global headquarters are in Newbury, Berkshire, England. It predominantly operates services in Asia, Africa, Europe ...
, O2 and
Orange Orange most often refers to: *Orange (colour), occurs between red and yellow in the visible spectrum *Orange (fruit), the fruit of the tree species '' Citrus'' × ''sinensis'' ** Orange blossom, its fragrant flower *Some other citrus or citrus-li ...
networks. In India, since Twitter only supports tweets from
Bharti Airtel Bharti Airtel Limited, also known as Airtel, is an Indian multinational telecommunications Telecommunication is the transmission of information Information can be thought of as the resolution of uncertainty; it answers the question ...
, an alternative platform called smsTweet was set up by a user to work on all networks. A similar platform called GladlyCast exists for mobile phone users in Singapore and Malaysia. The tweets were set to a largely constrictive 140-character limit for compatibility with SMS messaging, introducing the shorthand notation and slang commonly used in SMS messages. The 140-character limit also increased the usage of
URL shortening URL shortening is a technique on the World Wide Web in which a Uniform Resource Locator (URL) may be made substantially shorter and still direct to the required page. This is achieved by using a URL redirection, redirect which links to the web ...
services such as bit.ly, goo.gl, tinyurl.com, tr.im, and other content-hosting services such as
TwitPic TwitPic was a website A website (also written as web site) is a collection of web pages and related content that is identified by a common domain name and published on at least one web server. Notable examples are wikipedia.org, google.com, ...
, memozu.com and NotePub to accommodate
multimedia Multimedia is a form of communication that combines different such as , , , , or into a single interactive presentation, in contrast to traditional mass media which featured little to no interaction fr ...

multimedia
content and text longer than 140 characters. Since June 2011, Twitter has used its own t.co domain for automatic
shortening Shortening is any fat In nutrition Nutrition is the biochemical and physiological process by which an organism In biology, an organism (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ὀργανισμός, ''organismos'') is any individual contig ...
of all URLs posted on its site, making other link shorteners unnecessary for staying within Twitter's 140 character limit. In August 2019, Jack Dorsey's account was hacked by using Twitter's SMS to tweet feature to send crude messages. Days later, the ability to send a tweet via SMS was temporarily turned off. In April 2020, Twitter discontinued the ability to receive SMS messages containing the text of new tweets in most countries.


= Character limits

= In 2016, Twitter announced that media such as photos, videos, and the person's handle, would not count against the already constrictive 140 character limit. A user photo post used to count for a large chunk of a Tweet, about 24 characters. Attachments and links would also no longer be part of the character limit. On March 29, 2016, Twitter introduced the ability to add a caption of up to 480 characters to each image attached to a tweet.Twitter Help center: Picture Descriptions - How to make images accessible for people
/ref> This caption can be accessed by screen reading software or by hovering the mouse above a picture inside TweetDeck. Since March 30, 2017, the Twitter handles are outside the tweet itself, therefore they no longer count towards the character limit. Only new Twitter handles added to the conversation count towards the limit. In 2017, Twitter doubled their historical 140-character-limitation to 280. Under the new limit,
glyph The term glyph is used in typography Typography is the art and technique of arranging type to make written language A written language is the representation of a spoken or gestural language A language is a structured system o ...
s are counted as a variable number of characters, depending upon the script they are from: most European letters and punctuation forms count as one character, while each
CJK In internationalization, CJK characters is a collective term for the Chinese, Japanese, and Korean Korean may refer to: People and culture * Koreans, an ethnic group originating in the Korean Peninsula * Korean cuisine * Korean culture * Kor ...
glyph counts as two so that only 140 such glyphs can be used in a tweet.


=URL shortener

= t.co is a
URL shortening URL shortening is a technique on the World Wide Web in which a Uniform Resource Locator (URL) may be made substantially shorter and still direct to the required page. This is achieved by using a URL redirection, redirect which links to the web ...
service created by Twitter. It is only available for links posted to Twitter and not available for general use. All links posted to Twitter use a t.co wrapper. Twitter hopes that the service will be able to protect users from malicious sites, and will use it to track clicks on links within tweets. Having used the services of third parties
TinyURL TinyURL is a URL shortening URL shortening is a technique on the World Wide Web in which a Uniform Resource Locator (URL) may be made substantially shorter and still direct to the required page. This is achieved by using a URL redirection, re ...
and bit.ly, Twitter began experimenting with its own URL shortening service for private messages in March 2010 using the twt.tl domain, before it purchased the t.co domain. The service was tested on the main site using the accounts @TwitterAPI, @rsarver and @raffi. On September 2, 2010, an email from Twitter to users said they would be expanding the roll-out of the service to users. On June 7, 2011, Twitter announced that it was rolling out the feature.


Trending topics

A word, phrase, or topic that is mentioned at a greater rate than others is said to be a "trending topic". Trending topics become popular either through a concerted effort by users or because of an event that prompts people to talk about a specific topic. These topics help Twitter and their users to understand what is happening in the world and what people's opinions are about it. Trending topics are sometimes the result of concerted efforts and manipulations by fans of certain celebrities or cultural phenomena, particularly musicians like
Lady Gaga Stefani Joanne Angelina Germanotta ( ; born March 28, 1986), known professionally as Lady Gaga, is an American singer, songwriter, and actress. She is known for her image reinventions and musical versatility. Gaga began performing as a teenag ...

Lady Gaga
(known as Little Monsters),
Justin Bieber Justin Drew Bieber (; born March 1, 1994) is a Canadian singer. He was discovered by American record executive Scooter Braun Scott Samuel "Scooter" Braun (born June 18, 1981) is an American media proprietor, media entrepreneur, record ex ...

Justin Bieber
(Beliebers),
Rihanna Robyn Rihanna Fenty (born February 20, 1988) ( ) is a Barbadian singer, actress, fashion designer, and businesswoman. Born in Saint Michael Michael (; he, מִיכָאֵל, lit= Who is like El?, translit=Mīḳā'ēl; el, Μιχαήλ, ...

Rihanna
(Rih Navy) and
One Direction One Direction, often shortened to 1D, are an English-Irish Pop music, pop boy band formed in London, England in 2010. The group are composed of Niall Horan, Liam Payne, Harry Styles and Louis Tomlinson; Zayn Malik left the group in March 2015 ...
(Directioners), and novel series ''
Twilight Twilight is the of the lower when the Sun is not directly visible because it is below the . Twilight is produced by in the upper atmosphere, illuminating the lower atmosphere so that is neither completely lit nor completely dark. The w ...
'' (Twihards) and ''
Harry Potter ''Harry Potter'' is a series of seven fantasy literature, fantasy novels written by British author J. K. Rowling. The novels chronicle the lives of a young Magician (fantasy), wizard, Harry Potter (character), Harry Potter, and his friends H ...

Harry Potter
'' (Potterheads). Twitter has altered the trend algorithm in the past to prevent manipulation of this type with limited success. The Twitter web interface displays a list of trending topics on a sidebar on the home page, along with sponsored content (see image). Twitter often censors trending hashtags that are claimed to be abusive or offensive. Twitter censored the #Thatsafrican and #thingsdarkiessay hashtags after users complained that they found the hashtags offensive. There are allegations that Twitter removed # from the trending list and added an
Indian National Congress The Indian National Congress (often called the Congress Party or simply Congress, INC) is a political party in India with widespread roots. Founded in 1885, it was the first modern nationalist movement to emerge in the British Empire ...
-sponsored hashtag. President Donald Trump prosteted trends calling them "unfair, disgusting, illegal, ridiculous" claiming the ones that are bad about him are blown up.


Moments

In October 2015, Twitter introduced "Moments"—a feature that allows users to curate tweets from other users into a larger collection. Twitter initially intended the feature to be used by its in-house editorial team and other partners; they populated a dedicated tab in Twitter's apps, chronicling news headlines, sporting events, and other content. In September 2016, creation of moments became available to all Twitter users.


Adding and following content

There are numerous tools for adding content, monitoring content and conversations including Twitter's own TweetDeck,
Salesforce.com Salesforce is an American cloud-based software company headquartered in San Francisco, California San Francisco (/Help:IPA/English, ˌsæn fɹənˈsɪskoʊ/; Spanish language, Spanish for "Francis of Assisi, Saint Francis"), officially t ...
, HootSuite, and Twitterfeed.com. , fewer than half of tweets posted were posted using the web user interface with most users using third-party applications (based on an analysis of 500 million tweets by Sysomos).


Verified accounts

In June 2009, after being criticized by
Kanye West Ye ( ; born Kanye Omari West, June 8, 1977) ( ), more commonly known by his birth name, is an American rapper, record producer, and fashion designer. Born in Atlanta Atlanta () is the capital city, capital and List of municipalities ...

Kanye West
and sued by
Tony La Russa Anthony La Russa Jr. (; born October 4, 1944) is an American professional baseball coach and former player who is the manager (baseball), manager for the Chicago White Sox of Major League Baseball (MLB). His MLB career has spanned from 1963 to t ...
over unauthorized accounts run by
impersonator An impersonator is someone who imitates or copies the behavior or actions of another. There are many reasons for impersonating someone: *Entertainment: An entertainer impersonates a celebrity, generally for entertainment, and makes fun of t ...
s, the company launched their "Verified Accounts" program. Twitter stated that an account with a "blue tick" verification badge indicates "we've been in contact with the person or entity the account is representing and verified that it is approved". In July 2016, Twitter announced a public application process to grant verified status to an account "if it is determined to be of public interest" and that verification "does not imply an endorsement". Verified status allows access to some features unavailable to other users, such as only seeing mentions from other verified accounts. In November 2020, Twitter announced a relaunch of its verification system in 2021. According to the new policy, Twitter verifies six different types of accounts; for three of them (companies, brands, and influential individuals like activists), the existence of a
Wikipedia Wikipedia ( or ) is a free content Free content, libre content, or free information is any kind of functional work, work of art A work of art, artwork, art piece, piece of art or art object is an artistic creati ...

Wikipedia
page will be one criterion for showing that the account has "Off Twitter Notability". Twitter states that it will re-open public verification applications at some point in "early 2021".


Mobile

Twitter has mobile apps for
iPhone {{Infobox information appliance , name = iPhone , logo = , image = , caption = The front face of an iPhone 13 Pro The iPhone 13 Pro and iPhone 13 Pro Max are smartphones designed and marketed by Apple Inc. They are the flagship smart ...

iPhone
,
iPad iPad is a line of tablet computers designed, developed and marketed by Apple Inc., which run the iOS and iPadOS mobile operating systems. The iPad (1st generation), first iPad was released on April 3, 2010; the most recent iPad models ar ...

iPad
,
Android Android may refer to: Science and technology * Android (robot), a humanoid robot or synthetic organism designed to imitate a human * Android (operating system), Google's mobile operating system ** Android (operating system)#Mascot, Unnamed Androi ...

Android
,
Windows 10 Windows 10 is a major release of the Windows NT Windows NT is a proprietary {{Short pages monitor ''Weekend Edition'', the journalist Daniel Schorr stated that Twitter accounts of events lacked rigorous fact-checking and other editorial improvements. In response, Andy Carvin gave Schorr two examples of breaking news stories that played out on Twitter and said users wanted first-hand accounts and sometimes debunked stories. On November 29, 2009, Twitter was named the Word of the Year by the Global Language Monitor, declaring it "a new form of social interaction". ''
Time Time is the continued sequence of existence and event (philosophy), events that occurs in an apparently irreversible process, irreversible succession from the past, through the present, into the future. It is a component quantity of various me ...
'' magazine acknowledged its growing level of influence in its 2010 Time 100; to determine the influence of people, it used a formula based on famous social networking sites, Twitter and Facebook. The list ranges from
Barack Obama Barack Hussein Obama II ( ; born August 4, 1961) is an American politician and attorney who served as the 44th president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government ...

Barack Obama
and Oprah Winfrey to
Lady Gaga Stefani Joanne Angelina Germanotta ( ; born March 28, 1986), known professionally as Lady Gaga, is an American singer, songwriter, and actress. She is known for her image reinventions and musical versatility. Gaga began performing as a teenag ...

Lady Gaga
and Ashton Kutcher. The U.S. government, seeing social media's role in the 2010 Arab Spring revolts, covertly developed a Cuban alternative to Twitter called ZunZuneo as part of a long-term strategy to "stir unrest". The service was active from 2010 to 2012. During the 2012 Summer Olympics opening ceremony, in which he appeared at the Olympic Stadium (London), London Olympic Stadium in person, Sir Tim Berners-Lee, the founder of the World Wide Web, tweeted "This is for everyone", which was instantly spelled out in LCD lights attached to the chairs of the 80,000 people in the audience. Many commentators have suggested that Twitter radically changed the format of reporting due to instant, short, and frequent communication. According to ''The Atlantic'' writers Benjamin M. Reilly and Robinson Meyer, Twitter has an outsized impact on the public discourse and media. "Something happens on Twitter; celebrities, politicians and journalists talk about it, and it's circulated to a wider audience by Twitter's algorithms; journalists write about the dustup." This can lead to an argument on a Twitter feed looking like a "debate roiling the country... regular people are left with a confused, agitated view of our current political discourse". In a 2018 article in the ''Columbia Journalism Review'', Matthew Ingram argued much the same about Twitter's "oversized role" and that it promotes immediacy over newsworthiness. In some cases, inauthentic and provocative tweets were taken up as common opinion in mainstream articles. Writers in several outlets unintentionally cited the opinions of Russian Internet Research Agency-affiliated accounts.


World leaders

World leaders and their diplomats have taken note of Twitter's rapid expansion and have been increasingly utilizing Twitter diplomacy, the use of Twitter to engage with foreign publics and their own citizens. US Ambassador to Russia, Michael A. McFaul has been attributed as a pioneer of international Twitter diplomacy. He used Twitter after becoming ambassador in 2011, posting in English and Russian. On October 24, 2014, Queen Elizabeth II sent her first tweet to mark the opening of the London Science Museum's Information Age exhibition. A 2013 study by website Twiplomacy found that 153 of the 193 countries represented at the United Nations had established government Twitter accounts. The same study also found that those accounts amounted to 505 Twitter handles used by world leaders and their foreign ministers, with their tweets able to reach a combined audience of over 106 million followers. According to an analysis of accounts, the heads of state of 125 countries and 139 other leading politicians have Twitter accounts that have between them sent more than 350,000 tweets and have almost 52 million followers. However, only 30 of these do their own tweeting, more than 80 do not subscribe to other politicians and many do not follow any accounts. Donald Trump has used Twitter as a method of providing ideas and information during his Donald Trump 2016 presidential campaign, presidential campaign in 2016, the Presidential transition of Donald Trump, transitional period and as Presidency of Donald Trump, US President. A study performed at Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology showed his tweets from these different time periods and through analysis of his tweets, the professors found that President Trump uses a mode called "forensic mode" the most often in his tweets. This is described as a quick reactive usage, as they found he often used Twitter to show his judgment of the events that occurred regarding both his allies and his enemies. After his election to the presidency he tweeted this "forensic-style" tweet, "Just had a very open and successful election. Now professional protesters, incited by the media, are protesting. Very Unfair!". In a study done at
New York University New York University (NYU) is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, British singer Dusty Springfield, after an absence of ne ...
in 2015, an analysis and comparison of the Twitter accounts of Donald Trump, Jeb Bush, Bernie Sanders, and Hillary Clinton, found observations showing the goals of each candidate's Twitter during their respective primary elections. Some comparisons that were made were the use of Aristotle's theory of Rhetoric (Aristotle), Rhetoric. The research found that Donald Trump used pathos, the appeal to emotion, in his rhetoric; Bernie Sanders tended to use ethos and logos for his Twitter; Hillary Clinton tended to use logos and pathos to try to convey her values, and Jeb Bush shows that he uses a mix of all three on his account. The study also looked at the media response to the tweets during the election. The study found that the tweets became more persuasive for the candidates if the media put the tweets in front of more viewers, versus less powerful if they were only visible to those already on Twitter. In that way, presidential candidates who had their tweets covered more in the news were able to get their message to more potential voters.


Religion

More than twenty Cardinal (Catholicism), Roman Catholic cardinals manage active Twitter accounts, nine of whom were Cardinal electors for the papal conclave, 2013, cardinal electors for the 2013 Papal conclave. Pope Benedict XVI's Twitter account was set up in 2012. As of April 2016, his successor, Pope Francis, has 9.06 million followers of his Twitter account (@Pontifex).


Censorship and moderation

Twitter is banned completely in Iran, China and North Korea, and has been intermittently blocked in numerous countries including Egypt, Iraq, Nigeria, Turkey, Venezuela and Turkmenistan on different bases. In 2016, Twitter cooperated with the Israeli government to remove certain content originating outside Israel from tweets seen in Israel. In the 11th biannual transparency report published on September 19, 2017, Twitter said that Turkey was the first among countries where about 90 percent of removal requests came from, followed by Russia, France and Germany. Twitter stated that between July 1 and December 31, 2018, "We received legal demands relating to 27,283 accounts from 47 different countries, including Bulgaria, Kyrgyzstan, Macedonia, and Slovenia for the first time." As part of evidence to a US Senate Enquiry, the company admitted that their systems "detected and hid" several hundred thousand tweets relating to the 2016 Democratic National Committee email leak. During the curfew in Jammu and Kashmir (union territory), Jammu and Kashmir after Indian revocation of Jammu and Kashmir's special status, revocation of its autonomous status on August 5, 2019, the Indian government approached Twitter to block accounts accused of spreading anti-India content; by October 25, nearly one million tweets had been removed as a result.


Hashtag suppression

After claims in the media that the hashtags WikiLeaks, #wikileaks and Occupy Wall Street, #occupywallstreet were being censored because they did not show up on the site's list of trending topics, Twitter responded by stating that it does not censor hashtags unless they contain obscenities.


Trust & Safety Council

The announcement of Twitter's "Trust & Safety Council" was met with objection from parts of its userbase. Critics accused the member organizations of being heavily skewed towards "the restriction of hate speech" and a ''Reason (magazine), Reason'' article expressed concern that "there's not a single uncompromising anti-censorship figure or group on the list".


Moderation of tweets

Twitter removed more than 88,000 propaganda accounts linked to Saudi Arabia. Twitter removed tweets from accounts associated with the Russian Internet Research Agency that had tried to influence public opinion during and after the 2016 election. In June 2020, Twitter also removed 175,000 propaganda accounts that were spreading biased political narratives for the Chinese Communist Party, Communist Party of China, the United Russia, United Russia Party, or Turkey's President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, Erdogan, identified based on centralized behavior. Twitter also removed accounts linked to the governments of Armenia, Egypt, Cuba, Serbia, Honduras, Indonesia and Iran. Twitter suspended Pakistani accounts tied to government officials for posting tweets about the Kashmir conflict between India and Pakistan. In February 2021, Twitter removed accounts in India that criticized Prime Minister Narendra Modi's government for its conduct during 2020–2021 Indian farmers' protest, Indian farmers' protests in 2020–2021. At the start of the 2020 COVID-19 pandemic, numerous tweets reported false medical information related to the pandemic. Twitter announced a new policy in which they would label tweets containing misinformation going forward. In April 2020, Twitter removed accounts which defended President Rodrigo Duterte's response to the spread of COVID-19 in the Philippines. In November 2020, then Chief Technology Officer and future CEO of Twitter
Parag Agrawal Parag Agrawal (born 21 May 1984) is an Indian-American Indian Americans or Indo-Americans are Americans Americans are the Citizenship of the United States, citizens and United States nationality law, nationals of the United States o ...
, when asked by MIT Technology Review about balancing the protection of Freedom of speech, free speech as a core value and the endeavour to combat misinformation, said: "Our role is not to be bound by the First Amendment to the United States Constitution, First Amendment, but our role is to serve a healthy public conversation … focus less on thinking about free speech, but thinking about how the times have changed." As part of its means to moderate misinformation, Twitter launched its crowd-sourced Birdwatch (fact checker), Birdwatch program in January 2021. Trusted users in the program will have the ability to monitor tweets and replies that may include misinformation and countermessages providing fact-checking as to have Twitter tag these messages appropriately from the Birdwatch community. In November 2021 Twitter announced an update to the Birdwatch moderation tool, meant to limit the visibility of contributors' identities by creating aliases for their accounts.


Moderation of President Donald Trump

Donald Trump had joined Twitter in 2009, prior to his presidency. Many Twitter employees had expressed concern to the company's management about hosting Trump prior to and at the start of his presidency. Trump continued to use his personal account "@realDonaldTrump", rather than the official presidential account "@POTUS" that Twitter had arranged previously. Twitter employees remained highly skeptical of Trump's use of Twitter, particularly after the shooter in the 2019 El Paso shooting had written a manifesto that recited many of Trump's prior tweets; employees considered Trump was using Twitter as a Dog whistle (politics), "dog whistle". Twitter opted to eliminate all political advertising in wake of this. After Trump had used his Twitter account on May 26, 2020, to issue a statement related to possible fraud associated with Postal voting, mail-in voting ahead of the upcoming 2020 primary elections. Twitter moderators used the aforementioned tools to mark Trump's tweets as "potentially misleading" and added links to a dedicated page with additional articles from other news sources on mail-in voting, the first time they had marked Trump's tweets as such. Trump, who had previously alleged Twitter, and other technology companies, have an anti-conservative bias, announced his intention to enact regulations to take action against Twitter. Two days later, on May 28, 2020, Trump signed "Executive Order on Preventing Online Censorship" aimed to impact the protections of Section 230 of the Communications Decency Act which Twitter and other social media sites have to avoid liability for dealing with moderation of user content on their platforms. Around this time, the murder of George Floyd, an African-American, in an incident involving three White and one Hmong people, Hmong Minneapolis Police Department officers on May 25, sparked Twin Cities riots, racially-driven riots in the city that turned violent by the evening of May 28. Trump tweeted his opinion on the violent protests, stating he had spoken to state governor Tim Walz about bringing National Guard forces to help calm the situation, but concluded the tweet by saying "Any difficulty and we will assume control but, when the looting starts, the shooting starts." Twitter, after internal consultation with its review boards and management, opted to add a "public interest notice" to the tweet, warning users it "glorified violence" and while they normally would have removed such posts in the past, they "have kept the Tweet on Twitter because it is important that the public still be able to see the Tweet given its relevance to ongoing matters of public importance." Twitter users were still able to view Trump's tweet if they chose to click on it, but could not like or retweet it without their own comment. Going into the late months of the 2020 United States presidential election, Twitter continued to mark several tweets from Trump, other conservative lawmakers, and various alt- and far-right users with similar misinformation labels, or taking other actions when these tweets violated their user policy. On October 14, 2020, the ''New York Post'' published a New York Post#Hunter Biden laptop story, story containing allegations about Hunter Biden, son of Joe Biden. Twitter and Facebook both implemented measures on their platforms to prevent sharing of the ''New York Post'' article, with Twitter doing so according to their Hacked Materials Policy and Facebook per a policy that "in many countries, including in the U.S., if we have signals that a piece of content is false, we temporarily reduce its distribution pending review by a third-party fact-checker." Commentators from varied political backgrounds criticized the actions taken by Facebook and Twitter, arguing that they could have amplified disinformation due to the Streisand effect. After the election, in which Biden had been determined to be the winner, Trump and several of his allies continued to dispute the results through Post-election lawsuits related to the 2020 United States presidential election, legal actions, while continuing to assert there was fraud and other inconsistencies on Twitter. Twitter continued to apply their moderation as they had done before. ''The New York Times'' estimated that 34% of Trump's tweets in the days after the election were flagged by Twitter. Trump continued to threaten revoking Section 230 due to actions by Twitter and other social media companies by demanding Congress include its revoking in the William M. (Mac) Thornberry National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2021. Separately, new social media companies such as Parler were created to cater specifically to conservative and right-leaning voices that felt that Twitter and other social media companies were suppressing their voice. On January 6, 2021, pro-Trump protestors stormed the United States Capitol building to violently disrupt the 2021 United States Electoral College vote count, Electoral College vote count after Trump had held a rally earlier in the day promoting the protestors to march to the Capitol and challenge the election results. During the storming, Trump had tweeted messages including a video message to try to urge calm but which continued to assert the election was fraudulent. Twitter locked down Trump's account for a twelve-hour period, preventing anyone from retweeting or replying to the tweets, and informed Trump they would restore assess if he removed three specific tweets that continued to assert election fraud and would permanently block his account should he continue to make such claims. Trump complied with removing the indicated tweets by January 7. However, from tweets that Trump had posted following the temporary block, Twitter permanently suspended Trump's account "due to the risk of further incitement of violence" on January 8. Twitter pointed to two of Trump's tweets made on January 7 as troublesome. One of Trump's tweet stated "The 75,000,000 great American Patriots who voted for me, AMERICA FIRST, and MAKE AMERICA GREAT AGAIN, will have a GIANT VOICE long into the future. They will not be disrespected or treated unfairly in any way, shape or form!!!", while a second indicated that he would not be attending Biden's inauguration, which Twitter took together as "likely to inspire others to replicate the violent acts that took place on January 6, 2021, and that there are multiple indicators that they are being received and understood as encouragement to do so." Twitter also proactively took steps against the "@POTUS" Twitter account, which Trump had started to use after his account was banned, blocking messages posted there as part of Trump's ban evasion. Trump also attempted to use his campaign's Twitter account before it was similarly blocked. Twitter's CEO Jack Dorsey and other executives had been hesitant to evoke a ban on Trump, but was pressured by employees and members of the safety team who had seen Trump's tweets creating chatter from right-wing accounts on Twitter and on right-wing social media sites like Parler. In addition to banning Trump, in the following weekend Twitter subsequently banned or blocked more than 70,000 accounts that were tied to QAnon that were continuing to promote election fraud and pro-Trump conspiracy theories. Twitter's decision was criticized by free speech advocates such as the American Civil Liberties Union. Chancellor of Germany Angela Merkel criticized the ban saying that "lawmakers should set the rules governing free speech and not private technology companies." The president of Mexico Andrés Manuel López Obrador said that "having private companies decide who can be silenced and censored goes against freedom of speech." On January 14, Twitter CEO Jack Dorsey defended banning Trump, but also said it "sets a precedent I feel is dangerous," but added "Everything we learn in this moment will better our effort, and push us to be what we are: one humanity working together." Trump took legal action against Twitter in October 2021 in the United States District Court for the Southern District of Florida, asserting that Twitter's ban violated his First Amendment rights as well as illegal under Florida's deplatforming law that had been passed by the state in May 2021 by blocked by a federal judge in July 2021.


Fines, penalties and sanctions


Violation of campaign finance laws

In October 2020 Twitter was fined $100,000 by Washington State for violating that state's campaign finance disclosure rules. A judgement filed on October 13, 2020, found "the social media platform failed to maintain public inspection records of nearly $200,000 paid to it for political ads in violation of state law" according to Washington Attorney General Bob Ferguson (politician), Bob Ferguson.


Television

Twitter is increasingly used for Social media and television, TV to be more interactive. This effect is sometimes referred to as the second screen, "virtual watercooler" or social television—the practice has been called "chatterboxing". Twitter has been successfully used to encourage people to watch live TV events, such as the Oscars, the Super Bowl and the MTV Video Music Awards; however this strategy has proven less effective with regularly scheduled TV shows. Such direct cross-promotions have been banned from French television due to regulations against secret advertising. In December 2012, Twitter and Nielsen entered a multi-year agreement to produce social TV ratings, which are expected to be commercially available for the fall 2013 season as the Nielsen Twitter TV Rating. ''Advertising Age'' said Twitter had become the new ''TV Guide''. Then in February 2013, Twitter acquired Bluefin Labs for an estimated US$50 million to $100 million. Founded in 2008 at the MIT Media Lab, Bluefin is a data mining, data miner whose analysis tells which brands (e.g., TV shows and companies) are chatted about the most in social media. MIT ''Technology Review'' said that Bluefin gives Twitter part of the US$72 billion television advertisement, television advertising market. In May 2013, it launched Twitter Amplify—an advertising product for media and consumer brands. With Amplify, Twitter runs video highlights from major live broadcasts, with advertisers' names and messages playing before the clip. In October 2013, Comcast announced that it had partnered with Twitter to implement its "See It" feature within the service, allowing posts promoting programs on selected NBCUniversal channels to contain direct links to TV Everywhere streaming to the program. On launch, the concept was limited to NBCUniversal channels and Xfinity cable television subscribers. In an attempt to compete with Twitter's leadership in TV, Facebook introduced a number of features in 2013 to drive conversation about TV including hashtags, verified profiles and embeddable posts. It also opened up new data visualization APIs for TV news and other media outlets, enabling them to search for a word and see a firehose of public posts that mention it as well as show how many people mentioned a word in both public and private posts during a set time frame, with a demographic breakdown of the age, gender, and location of these people. In January 2014, Facebook announced a partnership with UK-based social TV analytics company SecondSync which saw the social network make its social TV available outside the company for the first time. Facebook struck the partnership to help marketers understand how people are using the social network to talk about topics such as TV. However, Twitter responded by acquiring SecondSync and Parisian social TV firm Mesagraph three months later. These acquisitions, as well as a partnership with research company Kantar (which it had been working with to develop a suite of analytics tools for the British TV industry since August 2013) strengthened Twitter's dominance of the "second screen" – TV viewers using tablets and smartphones to share their TV experience on social media. With the additional analytic tools, Twitter was able to improve the firm's offering to advertisers, allowing them to, for instance, only promote a tweet onto the timelines of users who were watching a certain programme. By February 2014, all four major U.S. TV networks had signed up to the Amplify program, bringing a variety of premium TV content onto the social platform in the form of in-tweet real-time video clips. In March 2014, ITV (TV network), ITV became the first major broadcaster in the UK to sign up to Twitter Amplify and Twitter introduced one-tap video playback across its mobile apps to further enhance the consumer experience. In June 2014, Twitter acquired its Amplify partner in the U.S., SnappyTV. In Europe, Twitter's Amplify partner is London-based Grabyo, which has also struck numerous deals with broadcasters and rights holders to share video content across
Facebook Facebook is an American online social media and social networking service owned by Meta Platforms. Founded in 2004 by Mark Zuckerberg with fellow Harvard College students and roommates Eduardo Saverin, Andrew McCollum, Dustin Moskovitz, an ...

Facebook
and Twitter. In July 2017, Twitter announced that it would wind down SnappyTV as a separate company, and integrate its features into the Media Studio suite on Twitter.


Statistics


User accounts with large follower base

, the ten Twitter accounts with the most followers were:


Oldest accounts

The oldest Twitter accounts are 14 accounts that became active on March 21, 2006, all belonging to Twitter employees at the time and including @jack (
Jack Dorsey Jack Patrick Dorsey (born November 19, 1976) is an American billionaire technology entrepreneur and philanthropist Philanthropy consists of "private initiatives, for the Public good (economics), public good, focusing on quality of life". Phila ...

Jack Dorsey
), @biz (
Biz Stone Christopher Isaac "Biz" Stone (born March 10, 1974) is an American entrepreneur who is a co-founder of Twitter Twitter is an American microblogging Microblogging is an online broadcast medium that exists as a specific form of blogging ...

Biz Stone
), and @noah ( Noah Glass).


Record tweets

A selfie orchestrated by 86th Academy Awards host Ellen DeGeneres during the March 2, 2014, broadcast was at the time the most retweeted image ever. DeGeneres said she wanted to pay homage to Meryl Streep's record 17 Oscar nominations by setting a new record with her, and invited other Oscar celebrities to join them. The resulting photo of twelve celebrities broke the previous retweet record within forty minutes, and was retweeted over 1.8 million times in the first hour. By the end of the ceremony it had been retweeted over 2 million times; less than 24 hours later, it had been retweeted over 2.8 million times. , it has been retweeted over 3.4 million times. The group selfie effort was parodied by Lego, and Matt Groening with ''The Simpsons''. It beat the previous record, 778,801, which was held by
Barack Obama Barack Hussein Obama II ( ; born August 4, 1961) is an American politician and attorney who served as the 44th president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government ...

Barack Obama
, following his victory in the 2012 United States presidential election, 2012 presidential election. On May 9, 2017, Ellen's record was broken by Carter Wilkerson (@carterjwm) by collecting nearly 3.5 million retweets in a little over a month. According to ''Guinness World Records'', the fastest pace to a million followers was set by actor Robert Downey Jr. in 23 hours and 22 minutes in April 2014. This record was later broken by Caitlyn Jenner, who joined the site on June 1, 2015, and amassed a million followers in just 4 hours and 3 minutes. The most tweeted moment in the history of Twitter occurred on August 2, 2013; during a Japanese television airing of the Studio Ghibli film ''
Castle in the Sky , known as simply ''Castle in the Sky'' in North America, is a 1986 Japanese animated fantasy Fantasy is a genre of speculative fiction set in a fictional universe, often inspired by real world myth and folklore. Its roots are in oral trad ...
'', fans simultaneously tweeted the word —the incantation for a destruction spell used during its climax, after it was uttered in the film. There was a global peak of 143,199 tweets in one second, beating the previous record of 33,388. The most discussed event in Twitter history occurred on October 24, 2015; the hashtag ("#ALDubEBTamangPanahon") for ''Tamang Panahon'', a live special episode of the Filipino variety show ''Eat Bulaga!'' at the Philippine Arena, centering on its popular on-air couple AlDub, attracted 41 million tweets. The most-discussed sporting event in Twitter history was the Brazil v Germany (2014 FIFA World Cup), 2014 FIFA World Cup semi-final between Brazil and Germany on July 8, 2014. On the day of the 2016 United States presidential election, 2016 U.S. presidential election, Twitter proved to be the largest source of breaking news, with over 40 million tweets sent that day.


See also

* Ambient awareness * Comparison of microblogging services * List of mergers and acquisitions by Twitter * Timeline of social media * Twitterature


Notes


References


Further reading

*
Tufekci, Zeynep. 2017. ''Twitter and Tear Gas: The Power and Fragility of Networked Protest''. Yale University Press.


External links

* * {{Authority control Twitter, 2006 establishments in California 2006 in San Francisco 2013 initial public offerings American social networking websites Android (operating system) software Companies based in San Francisco Companies listed on the New York Stock Exchange Internet properties established in 2006 IOS software MacOS software Microblogging services Multilingual websites Proprietary cross-platform software Real-time web Social media companies of the United States South of Market, San Francisco Text messaging Universal Windows Platform apps WatchOS software