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Tutankhamun (, egy, twt-ꜥnḫ-jmn ''Təwātə-ʿānəḫ-amānə'', ;
Egyptological pronunciation The Egyptian language (Egyptian: ''r n km.t'', , Coptic: ) is an Afro-Asiatic language Afroasiatic (Afro-Asiatic), also known as Afrasian or Hamito-Semitic or Semito-Hamitic, is a large language family A language is a structured syste ...
''Tūt-anḫ-āmen'', ;  1341 1323 BC), commonly referred to as King Tut, was an
ancient Egypt Ancient Egypt was a civilization  A civilization (or civilisation) is a that is characterized by , , a form of government, and systems of communication (such as ). Civilizations are intimately associated with additional char ...

ancient Egypt
ian
pharaoh Pharaoh ( , ; cop, , Pǝrro) is the common title now used for the monarch A monarch is a head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona A persona (plural personae or personas), depending on the conte ...

pharaoh
who was the last of his royal family to rule during the end of the
18th Dynasty The Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt (notated Dynasty XVIII, alternatively 18th Dynasty or Dynasty 18) is classified as the first dynasty of the New Kingdom of Egypt New is an adjective referring to something recently made, discovered, or created. New ...
(ruled c. 1332 – 1323 BC in the conventional chronology) during the
New Kingdom New is an adjective referring to something recently made, discovered, or created. New or NEW may refer to: Music * New, singer of K-pop group The Boyz Boyz or The Boyz may refer to: Music Bands *The Boyz (German band), a German boy band of t ...
of
Egyptian history The history of Egypt has been long and wealthy, due to the flow of the Nile River The Nile ( ar, النيل, an-Nīl, , Bohairic , lg, Kiira , Nobiin: Áman Dawū) is a major north-flowing river A river is a natural flowing watercou ...
. His father is believed to be the pharaoh
Akhenaten Akhenaten (pronounced ), also spelled Echnaton, Akhenaton, Ikhnaton, and Khuenaten ( egy, wikt:ꜣḫ-n-jtn, ꜣḫ-n-jtn, meaning "Effective for the Aten"), was an ancient Egyptian pharaoh reigning or 1351–1334 BC, the tenth ruler of the Ei ...

Akhenaten
, identified as the mummy found in the tomb
KV55 KV55 is a tomb in the Valley of the Kings in Egypt. It was discovered by Edward R. Ayrton in 1907 while he was working in the Valley for Theodore M. Davis. It has long been speculated, as well as much disputed, that the body found in this tomb was ...

KV55
. His mother is his father's sister, identified through DNA testing as an unknown mummy referred to as "
The Younger Lady The Younger Lady is the informal name given to a mummy discovered within tomb KV35 in the Valley of the Kings by archaeologist Victor Loret in 1898. The mummy also has been given the designation KV35YL ("YL" for "Younger Lady") and 61072, and curren ...
" who was found in
KV35 Tomb KV35 is the tomb of Pharaoh Pharaoh ( , ; cop, , Pǝrro) is the common title now used for the monarch A monarch is a head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona A persona (plural personae o ...

KV35
. Tutankhamun took the throne at eight or nine years of age under the unprecedented viziership of his eventual successor,
Ay
Ay
, to whom he may have been related. He married his half sister
Ankhesenamun Ankhesenamun (, "Her Life Is of "; c. 1348 – after 1322 BC) was a queen who lived during the as the pharaoh Akhenaten's daughter and subsequently became the of pharaoh Tutankhamun. Born Ankhesenpaaten (, "she lives for the Aten"), she was the ...
. During their marriage they lost two daughters, one at 5–6 months of pregnancy and the other shortly after birth at full-term. His names—''Tutankhaten'' and ''Tutankhamun''—are thought to mean "Living image of Aten" and "Living image of Amun", with
Aten Aten also Aton, Atonu, or Itn ( egy, wikt:jtn, jtn, ''reconstructed'' ) was the focus of Atenism, the religious system established in ancient Egypt by the Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt, Eighteenth Dynasty pharaoh Akhenaten. The Aten was the disc o ...

Aten
replaced by
Amun Amun (; also ''Amon'', ''Ammon'', ''Amen''; egy, jmn, ''reconstructed'' ; Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is ...

Amun
after Akhenaten's death. A small number of Egyptologists, including Battiscombe Gunn, believe the translation may be incorrect and closer to "The-life-of-Aten-is-pleasing" or, as Professor Gerhard Fecht believes, reads as "One-perfect-of-life-is-Aten". Tutankhamun restored the
Ancient Egyptian religion Ancient Egyptian religion was a complex system of Polytheism, polytheistic beliefs and rituals that formed an integral part of ancient Egyptian culture. It centered on the Egyptians' interactions with Ancient Egyptian deities, many deities belie ...
after its dissolution by his father, enriched and endowed the priestly orders of two important cults and began restoring old monuments damaged during the previous
Amarna period The Amarna Period was an era of Egyptian history The history of Egypt has been long and wealthy, due to the flow of the Nile River The Nile ( ar, النيل, an-Nīl, , Bohairic , lg, Kiira , Nobiin: Áman Dawū) is a major north-flowing ...
. He moved his father's remains to the
Valley of the Kings The Valley of the Kings ( ar, وادي الملوك ; ), also known as the Valley of the Gates of the Kings ( ar, وادي أبواب الملوك ), is a valley A valley is an elongated low area often running between hills or mountai ...
as well as relocating the capital from Akhetaten back to Thebes. Tutankhamun was physically disabled with a deformity of his left foot along with bone necrosis that required the use of a cane, several of which were found in his tomb. He had other health issues including
scoliosis Scoliosis is a medical condition in which a person's spine has a sideways curve. The curve is usually "S"- or "C"-shaped over three dimensions. In some, the degree of curve is stable, while in others, it increases over time. Mild scoliosis doe ...

scoliosis
and had contracted several strains of
malaria Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease that affects humans and other animals. Malaria causes symptoms Signs and symptoms are the observed or detectable signs, and experienced symptoms of an illness, injury, or condition. A sign fo ...

malaria
. The 1922 discovery by
Howard Carter Howard Carter (9 May 18742 March 1939) was a British archaeologist Archaeology or archeology is the study of human activity through the recovery and analysis of material culture. Archaeology is often considered a branch of socio-cultural ...

Howard Carter
of Tutankhamun's nearly intact tomb, in excavations funded by Lord Carnarvon, received worldwide press coverage. With over 5,000 artifacts, it sparked a renewed public interest in
ancient Egypt Ancient Egypt was a civilization  A civilization (or civilisation) is a that is characterized by , , a form of government, and systems of communication (such as ). Civilizations are intimately associated with additional char ...

ancient Egypt
, for which
Tutankhamun's mask The mask of Tutankhamun is a gold mask of the Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt, 18th-dynasty ancient Egyptian Pharaoh Tutankhamun (reigned 1334–1325 BC). It was discovered by Howard Carter in 1925 in tomb KV62 in the Valley of the Kings, and is now ...

Tutankhamun's mask
, now in the
Egyptian Museum The Museum of Egyptian Antiquities, known commonly as the Egyptian Museum or the Cairo Museum, in Cairo, Egypt, is home to an extensive collection of ancient Egyptian antiquities. It has 120,000 items, with a representative amount on display an ...

Egyptian Museum
, remains a popular symbol. The deaths of a few involved in the discovery of
Tutankhamun's mummy Tutankhamun's mummy was discovered by English Egyptologist Howard Carter Howard Carter (9 May 18742 March 1939) was a British archaeologist Archaeology or archeology is the study of human activity through the recovery and analysis of m ...
have been popularly attributed to the curse of the pharaohs. He has, since the discovery of his intact tomb, been referred to colloquially as "King Tut". Some of his treasure has traveled worldwide with unprecedented response. The Egyptian Supreme Council of Antiquities allowed tours beginning in 1962 with the exhibit at the
Louvre The Louvre ( ), or the Louvre Museum ( ), is the world's most-visited museum, and a historic landmark in Paris Paris () is the Capital city, capital and List of communes in France with over 20,000 inhabitants, most populous city of Fr ...

Louvre
in Paris, followed by the Kyoto Municipal Museum of Art in Tokyo, Japan. The exhibits drew in millions of visitors. The 1972–1979 exhibit was shown in United States, Soviet Union, Japan, France, Canada, and West Germany. There were no international exhibitions again until 2005–2011. This exhibit featured Tutankhamun's predecessors from the 18th Dynasty, including
Hatshepsut Hatshepsut (; also Hatchepsut; Egyptian language, Egyptian: ''wikt:ḥꜣt#Egyptian, ḥꜣt-wikt:špst#Egyptian, špswt'' "Foremost of Noble Ladies"; c. 1507–1458 BC) was the fifth pharaoh of the Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt. She was the ...

Hatshepsut
and Akhenaten, but did not include the golden death mask. The treasures 2019–2022 tour began in Los Angeles and will end in 2022 at the new
Grand Egyptian Museum The Grand Egyptian Museum (GEM; ''al-Matḥaf al-Maṣriyy al-Kabīr''), also known as the Giza Museum, is an archaeological museum under construction in Giza, Egypt. When inaugurated, the GEM will be considered the largest archaeological museu ...
in Cairo, which, for the first time, will be displaying the full Tutankhamun collection, gathered from all of Egypt's museums and storerooms.


Family

Tutankhamun, whose original name was Tutankhaten or Tutankhuaten, was born during the reign of
Akhenaten Akhenaten (pronounced ), also spelled Echnaton, Akhenaton, Ikhnaton, and Khuenaten ( egy, wikt:ꜣḫ-n-jtn, ꜣḫ-n-jtn, meaning "Effective for the Aten"), was an ancient Egyptian pharaoh reigning or 1351–1334 BC, the tenth ruler of the Ei ...

Akhenaten
, during the late
Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt The Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt (notated Dynasty XVIII, alternatively 18th Dynasty or Dynasty 18) is classified as the first dynasty of the New Kingdom of Egypt New is an adjective referring to something recently made, discovered, or created. Ne ...
. Akhenaten's reign was characterized by a dramatic shift in
ancient Egyptian religion Ancient Egyptian religion was a complex system of Polytheism, polytheistic beliefs and rituals that formed an integral part of ancient Egyptian culture. It centered on the Egyptians' interactions with Ancient Egyptian deities, many deities belie ...
, known as
Atenism Atenism, the Aten religion, the Amarna religion, or the "Amarna heresy" was a religion Religion is a social Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in interacting populations. This interaction is considered social whether ...
, and the relocation of the capital to the site of
Amarna Amarna (; ar, العمارنة, al-ʿamārnah) is an extensive Egyptian archaeology, archaeological site that represents the remains of the capital city newly established (1346 BC) and built by the Pharaoh Akhenaten of the late Eighteenth dynasty ...

Amarna
, which gave its name to the modern term for this era, the
Amarna Period The Amarna Period was an era of Egyptian history The history of Egypt has been long and wealthy, due to the flow of the Nile River The Nile ( ar, النيل, an-Nīl, , Bohairic , lg, Kiira , Nobiin: Áman Dawū) is a major north-flowing ...
. Toward the end of the Amarna Period, two other pharaohs appear in the record who were apparently Akhenaten's co-regents:
Neferneferuaten Ankhkheperure-mery-Neferkheperure/-Waenre/-Aten Neferneferuaten was a name used to refer to either Meritaten or, more likely, Nefertiti. The archaeological evidence relates to a woman who reigned as pharaoh Pharaoh (, ; cop, ''Pǝrro ...
, a female ruler who may have been Akhenaten's wife
Nefertiti Neferneferuaten Nefertiti () ( – c. 1330 BC) was a queen of the Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt, 18th Dynasty of Ancient Egypt, the Great Royal Wife of Akhenaten, Pharaoh Akhenaten. Nefertiti and her husband were known for a religious revo ...

Nefertiti
or his daughter
Meritaten Meritaten, also spelled Merytaten or Meryetaten ( egy, mrii.t-itn) (14th century BC), was an ancient Egyptian royal woman of the Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt. Her name means "She who is beloved of Aten"; Aten being the sun-deity whom her father, Pha ...
; and
Smenkhkare Smenkhkare (alternatively romanized ''Smenkhare'', ''Smenkare,'' or ''Smenkhkara''; meaning "'Vigorous is the Soul of Re") was an Egyptian pharaoh Pharaoh (, ; cop, ''Pǝrro'') is the common title now used for the monarch A monarch is a ...
, whom some Egyptologists believe was the same person as Neferneferuaten but most regard as a distinct figure. It is uncertain whether Smenkhkare's reign outlasted Akhenaten's, whereas Neferneferuaten is now thought to have become co-regent shortly before Akhenaten's death and to have reigned for some time after it. An inscription from
Hermopolis Hermopolis ( grc, Ἑρμοῦ πόλις ''Hermoû pólis'' "the City of Hermes Hermes (; grc-gre, Ἑρμῆς) is an Olympian deity in ancient Greek religion and Greek mythology, mythology. Hermes is considered the herald of the gods. ...
refers to "Tutankhuaten" as a "king's son", and he is generally thought to have been the son of Akhenaten, although some suggest instead that Smenkhkare was his father. Inscriptions from Tutankhamun's reign treat him as a son of Akhenaten's father,
Amenhotep III Amenhotep III ( egy, imn-ḥtp(.w) "Amun Amun (; also ''Amon'', ''Ammon'', ''Amen''; egy, jmn, ''reconstructed'' ; Ancient Greek, Greek ''Ámmōn'', ''Hámmōn'') was a major ancient Egyptian deities, ancient Egyptian deity who appears ...

Amenhotep III
, but that is only possible if Akhenaten's 17-year reign included a long co-regency with his father, a possibility that many Egyptologists once supported but is now being abandoned. While some suggestions have been made that Tutankhamun's mother was
MeketatenMeketaten ("Behold the Aten" or "Protected by Aten") was the second daughter of six born to the Egyptian Pharaoh Akhenaten and his Great Royal Wife Nefertiti. She likely lived between Year 4 and Year 14 of Akhenaten's reign. Although little is known ...
, the second daughter of Akhenaten and Nefertiti, based on a relief from the Royal Tomb at
Amarna Amarna (; ar, العمارنة, al-ʿamārnah) is an extensive Egyptian archaeology, archaeological site that represents the remains of the capital city newly established (1346 BC) and built by the Pharaoh Akhenaten of the late Eighteenth dynasty ...

Amarna
, this possibility has been deemed unlikely given that she was about 10 years old at the time of her death. Another interpretation of the relief names Nefertiti as his mother. Meritaten has also been put forward as his mother based on a re-examination of a box lid and coronation tunic found in his tomb. Tutankhamun was
wet nurse A wet nurse is a woman who breastfeeding, breast feeds and cares for another's child. Wet nurses are employed if the mother dies, or if she is unable or chooses not to nurse the child herself. Wet-nursed children may be known as "milk-siblings", ...
d by a woman named Maia, known from her tomb at Saqqara. In 2008, genetic analysis was carried out on the mummified remains of Tutankhamun and others thought or known to be New Kingdom royalty by a team from
University of Cairo Cairo University ( ar, جامعة القاهرة, Gām‘et El Qāhira), known as the Egyptian University from 1908 to 1940, and King Fuad I University from 1940 to 1952, is Egypt's premier public university. Its main campus is in Giza, immediat ...
. The results indicated that his father was the mummy from tomb
KV55 KV55 is a tomb in the Valley of the Kings in Egypt. It was discovered by Edward R. Ayrton in 1907 while he was working in the Valley for Theodore M. Davis. It has long been speculated, as well as much disputed, that the body found in this tomb was ...

KV55
, identified as Akhenaten, and that his mother was the mummy from tomb
KV35 Tomb KV35 is the tomb of Pharaoh Pharaoh ( , ; cop, , Pǝrro) is the common title now used for the monarch A monarch is a head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona A persona (plural personae o ...

KV35
, known as the " Younger Lady", who was found to be a full sister of her husband. This means that the KV35 Younger Lady cannot be identified as Nefertiti as she was not known to be a sister of Akhenaten. The team reported it was over 99.99 percent certain that
Amenhotep III Amenhotep III ( egy, imn-ḥtp(.w) "Amun Amun (; also ''Amon'', ''Ammon'', ''Amen''; egy, jmn, ''reconstructed'' ; Ancient Greek, Greek ''Ámmōn'', ''Hámmōn'') was a major ancient Egyptian deities, ancient Egyptian deity who appears ...

Amenhotep III
was the father of the individual in KV55, who was in turn the father of Tutankhamun. The validity and reliability of the genetic data from mummified remains has been questioned due to possible degradation due to decay. Researchers such as
Marc Gabolde Marc Gabolde (born 30 May 1957 in Nantes Nantes (, also , ; Gallo language, Gallo: ''Naunnt'' or ''Nantt'' ; ) is a city in Loire-Atlantique on the Loire (river), Loire, from the Atlantic Ocean, Atlantic coast. The city is the List of commune ...
and Aidan Dodson claim that Nefertiti was indeed Tutankhamun's mother. In this interpretation of the DNA results, the genetic closeness is not due to a brother-sister pairing but the result of three generations of
first-cousin marriage A cousin marriage is a marriage where the spouses are cousins (i.e. people with common grandparents or people who share other fairly recent ancestors). The practice was common in earlier times, and continues to be common in some societies today, ...
, making Nefertiti a first cousin of Akhenaten. When Tutankhaten became king, he married Ankhesenpaaten, one of Akhenaten's daughters, who later changed her name to
Ankhesenamun Ankhesenamun (, "Her Life Is of "; c. 1348 – after 1322 BC) was a queen who lived during the as the pharaoh Akhenaten's daughter and subsequently became the of pharaoh Tutankhamun. Born Ankhesenpaaten (, "she lives for the Aten"), she was the ...
. They had two daughters, neither of whom survived infancy. While only an incomplete genetic profile was obtained from the two mummified foetuses, it was enough to confirm that Tutankhamun was their father. Likewise, only partial data for the two female mummies from
KV21 Tomb KV21 is an ancient Egyptian tomb The ancient Egyptians had an elaborate set of funerary practices that they believed were necessary to ensure their immortality after death. These rituals included Mummy, mummifying the body, casting magic sp ...
has been obtained so far. KV21A has been suggested as the mother of the foetuses but the data is not statistically significant enough to allow her to be securely identified as Ankhesenamun.
Computed tomography A CT scan or computed tomography scan (formerly known as computed axial tomography or CAT scan) is a medical imaging Imaging is the representation or reproduction of an object's form; especially a visual representation (i.e., the formation of ...
studies published in 2011 revealed that one daughter was born prematurely at 5–6 months of pregnancy and the other at full-term, 9 months. Tutankhamun's death marked the end of the royal line of the 18th Dynasty.


Reign

Tutankhamun was between eight and nine years of age when he ascended the throne and became
pharaoh Pharaoh ( , ; cop, , Pǝrro) is the common title now used for the monarch A monarch is a head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona A persona (plural personae or personas), depending on the conte ...

pharaoh
, taking the throne name Nebkheperure. He reigned for about nine years. During Tutankhamun's reign the position of
Vizier A vizier (; ar, وزير, wazīr; fa, وزیر, vazīr), or wazir, is a high-ranking political advisor or minister in the near east. The caliphs gave the title ''wazir'' to a minister formerly called ' (secretary), who was at first merely a ...
had been split between Upper and
Lower Egypt , the Red Crown of Lower Egypt Image:Lower Egypt Nomes 01.png, 350px, Map of Lower Egypt with its historical nomes Lower Egypt ( ar, مصر السفلى '; ''Tsakhet'') is the northernmost region In geography, regions are areas that are ...
. The principal vizier for Upper Egypt was Usermontu. Another figure named Pentju was also vizier but it is unclear of which lands. It is not entirely known if Ay, Tutankhamun's successor, actually held this position. A gold foil fragment from KV58 seems to indicate, but not certainly, that Ay was referred to as a Priest of Maat along with an epithet of "vizier, doer of maat." The epithet does not fit the usual description used by the regular vizier but might indicate an informal title. It might be that Ay used the title of vizier in an unprecedented manner. An Egyptian priest named
Manetho Manetho (; grc-koi, Μανέθων ''Manéthōn'', ''gen''.: Μανέθωνος) is believed to have been an Ancient Egyptian religion, Egyptian priest from Sebennytos ( cop, Ϫⲉⲙⲛⲟⲩϯ, translit=Čemnouti) who lived in the Ptolemaic Kin ...
wrote a comprehensive history of ancient Egypt where he refers to a king named Orus, who ruled for 36 years and had a daughter named Acencheres who reigned twelve years and her brother Rathotis who ruled for only nine years. The Amarna rulers are central in the list but which name corresponds with which historic figure is not agreed upon by researchers. Orus and Acencheres have been identified with Horemheb and Akhenaten and Rathotis with Tutankhamun. The names are also associated with
Smenkhkare Smenkhkare (alternatively romanized ''Smenkhare'', ''Smenkare,'' or ''Smenkhkara''; meaning "'Vigorous is the Soul of Re") was an Egyptian pharaoh Pharaoh (, ; cop, ''Pǝrro'') is the common title now used for the monarch A monarch is a ...
,
Amenhotep III Amenhotep III ( egy, imn-ḥtp(.w) "Amun Amun (; also ''Amon'', ''Ammon'', ''Amen''; egy, jmn, ''reconstructed'' ; Ancient Greek, Greek ''Ámmōn'', ''Hámmōn'') was a major ancient Egyptian deities, ancient Egyptian deity who appears ...

Amenhotep III
, Ay and the others in differing order. Kings were venerated after their deaths through mortuary cults and associated temples. Tutankhamun was one of the few kings worshiped in this manner during his lifetime. A
stela A stele ( ),Anglicized plural steles ( ); Greek plural stelai ( ), from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country ...
discovered at
Karnak The Karnak Temple Complex, commonly known as Karnak (, which was originally derived from ar, خورنق ''Khurnaq'' "fortified village"), comprises a vast mix of decayed temples A temple (from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical lan ...

Karnak
and dedicated to
Amun Amun (; also ''Amon'', ''Ammon'', ''Amen''; egy, jmn, ''reconstructed'' ; Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is ...

Amun
-
Ra
Ra
and Tutankhamun indicates that the king could be appealed to in his
deified Apotheosis (, from gr, ἀποθεόω/ἀποθεῶ, label=none, link=no, lit='to deify', transliteration=apotheoo/apotheo; also called divinization and deification from ) is the glorification of a subject to divine level and most commonly, t ...

deified
state for forgiveness and to free the petitioner from an ailment caused by
sin In a religious Religion is a social system, social-cultural system of designated religious behaviour, behaviors and practices, morality, morals, beliefs, worldviews, religious text, texts, shrine, sanctified places, prophecy, prophecies, ...

sin
. Temples of his cult were built as far away as in Kawa and
Faras Faras (formerly grc, Παχώρας, ''Pakhôras''; la, Pachoras; Old Nubian Old Nubian (also called Middle Nubian or Old Nobiin) is an extinct Nubian language, attested in writing from the 8th to the 15th century AD. It is ancestral to modern ...

Faras
in
Nubia Nubia () (Nobiin Nobiin, or Mahas, is a Northern Nubian languages, Nubian language of the Nilo-Saharan languages, Nilo-Saharan language family. "Nobiin" is the genitive case, genitive form of ''Nòòbíí'' ("Nubian") and literally means "(lan ...

Nubia
. The title of the sister of the
Viceroy of Kush The former Kingdom of Kerma The Kerma culture or Kerma kingdom was an early civilization centered in Kerma, Sudan Sudan (; ar, السودان, as-Sūdān), officially the Republic of the Sudan ( ar, جمهورية السودان, link=no, ...
included a reference to the deified king, indicative of the universality of his cult. In order for the pharaoh, who held divine office, to be linked to the people and the gods, special epithets were created for them at their accession to the throne. The ancient Egyptian titulary also served to demonstrate one's qualities and link them to the terrestrial realm. The five names were developed over the centuries beginning with the
Horus Name The Horus name is the oldest known and used crest Crest or CREST may refer to: Buildings *The Crest (Huntington, New York) The Crest is a historic house on Eatons Neck in Suffolk County, New York. Although on the land mass of Eatons Neck, the ...
. Tutankhamun's original
nomen Nomen may refer to: *Nomen (Roman name) The (or simply ) was a hereditary name borne by the peoples of ancient Italy and later by the citizens of the Roman Republic and the Roman Empire. It was originally the name of one's (family or clan) by p ...
, ''Tutankhaten'', did not have a
Nebty name The Nebty name (also called the Two-Ladies-name) was one of the " great five names" used by Egyptian pharaoh Pharaoh (, ; cop, ''Pǝrro'') is the common title now used for the monarch A monarch is a head of stateWebster's II New College D ...
or a Gold Falcon name associated with it as nothing has been found with the full five-name protocol. ''Tutankhaten'' was believed to mean ''"Living-image-of-Aten"'' as far back as 1877; however, not all Egyptologists agree with this interpretation. English Egyptologist
Battiscombe Gunn Battiscombe George "Jack" Gunn, (30 June 1883 – 27 February 1950) was an English Egyptologist Egyptology (from ''Egypt'' and Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλ ...
believed that the older interpretation did not fit with Akhenaten's theology. Gunn believed that such an name would have been blasphemous. He saw ''tut'' as a verb and not a noun and gave his translation in 1926 as ''The-life-of-Aten-is-pleasing''. Professor Gerhard Fecht also believed the word ''tut'' was a verb. He noted that Akhenaten used ''tit'' as a word for 'image', not ''tut''. Fecht translated the verb ''tut'' as ''"To be perfect/complete"''. Using Aten as the subject, Fecht's full translation was ''"One-perfect-of-life-is-Aten"''. The Hermopolis Block (two carved block fragments discovered in Ashmunein) has a unique spelling of the first nomen written as ''Tutankhuaten''; it uses ''ankh'' as a verb, which does support the older translation of ''Living-image-of-Aten''.


End of Amarna period

Once crowned and after "taking counsel" with the god Amun, Tutankhamun made several endowments that enriched and added to the priestly numbers of the cults of Amun and Ptah. He commissioned new statues of the deities from the best metals and stone and had new processional
barques A barque, barc, or bark is a type of sailing ship, sailing vessel with three or more mast (sailing), masts having the fore- and mainmasts Square rig, rigged square and only the mizzen (the aftmost mast) Fore-and-aft rig, rigged fore and aft. Som ...
made of the finest cedar from Lebanon and had them embellished with gold and silver. The priests and all of the attending dancers, singers and attendants had their positions restored and a decree of royal protection granted to insure their future stability. Tutankhamun's second year as pharaoh began the return to the old Egyptian order. Both he and his queen removed 'Aten' from their names, replacing it with Amun and moved the capital from Akhetaten to Thebes. He renounced the god Aten, relegating it to obscurity and returned Egyptian religion to its
polytheistic Polytheism is the worship of or belief in multiple deities A deity or god is a supernatural The supernatural encompasses supposed phenomena that are not subject to the laws of nature.https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/supernatura ...
form. His first act as a pharaoh was to remove his father's mummy from his tomb at Akhetaten and rebury it in the
Valley of the Kings The Valley of the Kings ( ar, وادي الملوك ; ), also known as the Valley of the Gates of the Kings ( ar, وادي أبواب الملوك ), is a valley A valley is an elongated low area often running between hills or mountai ...
. This helped strengthen his reign. Tutankhamun rebuilt the stelae, shrines and buildings at Karnak. He added works to Luxor as well as beginning the restoration of other temples throughout Egypt that were pillaged by Akhenaten.


Campaigns, monuments, and construction

The country was economically weak and in turmoil following the reign of Akhenaten. Diplomatic relations with other kingdoms had been neglected, and Tutankhamun sought to restore them, in particular with the
Mitanni Mitanni (; Hittite cuneiform Hittite cuneiform is the implementation of cuneiform script Cuneiform is a logo- syllabic script that was used to write several languages of the Ancient Near East. The script was in active use from the ear ...

Mitanni
. Evidence of his success is suggested by the gifts from various countries found in his tomb. Despite his efforts for improved relations, battles with
Nubians Nubians () are an ethno-linguistic group of people who are indigenous to the region which is now present-day Northern Sudan Sudan (; ar, السودان, as-Sūdān), officially the Republic of the Sudan ( ar, جمهورية السودا ...

Nubians
and Asiatics were recorded in his mortuary temple at Thebes. His tomb contained body armor, folding stools appropriate for military campaigns, and bows, and he was trained in archery. However, given his youth and physical disabilities, which seemed to require the use of a cane in order to walk, most historians speculate that he did not personally take part in these battles. Given his age, the king probably had advisers which presumably included
Ay
Ay
(who succeeded Tutankhamun) and General
Horemheb Horemheb, also spelled Horemhab or Haremhab ( egy, ḥr-m-ḥb, meaning "Horus is in Jubilation") was the last pharaoh of the Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt, 18th Dynasty of Egypt (1550–1295 BC). He ruled for at least 14 years between 131 ...
, Ay's possible son in law and successor. Horemheb records that the king appointed him "lord of the land" as hereditary prince to maintain law. He also noted his ability to calm the young king when his temper flared. In his third
regnal year A regnal year is a year of the reign of a sovereign Sovereign is a title which can be applied to the highest leader in various categories. The word is borrowed from Old French Old French (, , ; Modern French French ( or ) is a Rom ...
Tutankhamun reversed several changes made during his father's reign. He ended the worship of the god
Aten Aten also Aton, Atonu, or Itn ( egy, wikt:jtn, jtn, ''reconstructed'' ) was the focus of Atenism, the religious system established in ancient Egypt by the Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt, Eighteenth Dynasty pharaoh Akhenaten. The Aten was the disc o ...

Aten
and restored the god
Amun Amun (; also ''Amon'', ''Ammon'', ''Amen''; egy, jmn, ''reconstructed'' ; Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is ...

Amun
to supremacy. The ban on the cult of Amun was lifted and traditional privileges were restored to its priesthood. The capital was moved back to Thebes and the city of Akhetaten was abandoned. As part of his restoration, the king initiated building projects, in particular at
Karnak The Karnak Temple Complex, commonly known as Karnak (, which was originally derived from ar, خورنق ''Khurnaq'' "fortified village"), comprises a vast mix of decayed temples A temple (from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical lan ...

Karnak
in Thebes, where he laid out the sphinx avenue leading to the temple of Mut. The sphinxes were originally made for Akhenaten and Nefertiti; they were given new ram heads and small statues of the king. At Luxor temple he completed the decoration of the entrance colonnade of Amenhotep III. Monuments defaced under Akhenaten were restored, and new cult images of the god Amun were created. The traditional festivals were now celebrated again, including those related to the
Apis Bull In ancient Egyptian religion Ancient Egyptian religion was a complex system of polytheistic beliefs and rituals that formed an integral part of ancient Egypt Ancient Egypt was a civilization of Ancient history, ancient North Africa, ...

Apis Bull
, Horemakhet, and Opet. His Restoration Stela erected in front of Karnak temple says: A building called the Temple-of-Nebkheperure-Beloved-of-Amun-Who-Puts-Thebes-in-Order, which may be identical to a building called Temple-of-Nebkheperre-in-Thebes, a possible mortuary temple, used recycled
talatat Talatat are limestone Limestone is a common type of carbonate rock, carbonate sedimentary rock. It is composed mostly of the minerals calcite and aragonite, which are different Polymorphism (materials science), crystal forms of calcium carbon ...
from Akhenaten's east Karnak Aten temples indicating that the dismantling of these temples was already underway. Many of Tutankhamun's construction projects were uncompleted at the time of his death and were completed by or usurped by his successors, especially Horemheb. The sphinx avenue was completed by his successor Ay and the whole was usurped by Horemheb. The Restoration Stele was usurped by Horemheb; pieces of the Temple-of-Nebkheperure-in-Thebes were recycled into Horemheb's own building projects.


Health and death

Tutankhamun was slight of build, and roughly tall. He had large front
incisor Incisors (from Latin ''incidere'', "to cut") are the front teeth present in most mammals. They are located in the premaxilla above and on the mandible below. Humans have a total of eight (two on each side, top and bottom). Opossums have 18, wherea ...
s and an overbite characteristic of the Thutmosid royal line to which he belonged. Analysis of the clothing found in his tomb, particularly the dimensions of his loincloths and belts indicates that he had a narrow waist and rounded hips. In attempts to explain both his unusual depiction in art and his early death it has been theorised that Tutankhamun suffered from
gynecomastia Gynecomastia (also spelled gynaecomastia) is the abnormal non-cancerous enlargement of one or both breasts in males due to the growth of breast tissue The breast is one of two prominences located on the upper ventral Standard anatomica ...

gynecomastia
,
Marfan syndrome Marfan syndrome (MFS) is a rare multi-systemic genetic disorder A genetic disorder is a health problem caused by one or more abnormalities in the genome In the fields of molecular biology and genetics Genetics is a branch of b ...
, Wilson–Turner X-linked intellectual disability syndrome, Fröhlich syndrome ( adiposogenital dystrophy),
Klinefelter syndrome Klinefelter syndrome (KS), also known as 47,XXY is a syndrome where a male has an additional copy of the X chromosome. The primary features are infertility and small poorly functioning testicles. Often, symptoms are subtle and subjects do not ...
,
androgen insensitivity syndrome Androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS) is an intersex condition with an estimated prevalence of about 1:20,000-64,000 in XY (chromosomally male) births, resulting in the partial or complete inability of the Animal cell, cell to respond to androgens. ...
,
aromatase excess syndrome Aromatase excess syndrome (AES or AEXS) is a rare genetic disorder, genetic and endocrine disease, endocrine syndrome which is characterized by an gene expression, overexpression of aromatase, the enzyme responsible for the biosynthesis of the estr ...
in conjunction with sagittal
craniosynostosis Craniosynostosis is a condition in which one or more of the fibrous sutures Suture, literally meaning "seam", may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media * Suture (album), ''Suture'' (album), a 2000 album by American Industrial rock band Cheml ...
syndrome,
Antley–Bixler syndrome Antley–Bixler syndrome, is a rare, very severe autosomal recessive congenital disorder characterized by malformations and deformities affecting the majority of the skeleton and other areas of the body. Presentation Antley–Bixler syndrome prese ...
or one of its variants. It has also been suggested that he suffered from inherited temporal lobe epilepsy in a bid to explain the religiosity of his great-grandfather Thutmose IV and father Akhenaten and their early deaths. However, caution has been urged in this diagnosis. In January 2005
Tutankhamun's mummy Tutankhamun's mummy was discovered by English Egyptologist Howard Carter Howard Carter (9 May 18742 March 1939) was a British archaeologist Archaeology or archeology is the study of human activity through the recovery and analysis of m ...
was CT scanned. The results showed that Tutankhamun had a partially cleft lip and palate, cleft hard palate and possibly a mild case of
scoliosis Scoliosis is a medical condition in which a person's spine has a sideways curve. The curve is usually "S"- or "C"-shaped over three dimensions. In some, the degree of curve is stable, while in others, it increases over time. Mild scoliosis doe ...

scoliosis
. The scan also showed his right foot was Flat feet, flat with hypophalangism, while his left foot was clubfoot, clubbed and suffered Avascular necrosis, bone necrosis of the second and third metatarsal bone, metatarsals (Freiberg disease or Köhler disease, Köhler disease II). The affliction may have forced Tutankhamun to walk with the use of a cane, many of which were found in his tomb. Genetic testing through STR analysis rejected the hypothesis of
gynecomastia Gynecomastia (also spelled gynaecomastia) is the abnormal non-cancerous enlargement of one or both breasts in males due to the growth of breast tissue The breast is one of two prominences located on the upper ventral Standard anatomica ...

gynecomastia
and Craniosynostosis, craniosynostoses (e.g., Antley–Bixler syndrome) or
Marfan syndrome Marfan syndrome (MFS) is a rare multi-systemic genetic disorder A genetic disorder is a health problem caused by one or more abnormalities in the genome In the fields of molecular biology and genetics Genetics is a branch of b ...
. Genetic testing for STEVOR, AMA1, or MSP1 genes specific for ''Plasmodium falciparum'' revealed indications of
malaria Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease that affects humans and other animals. Malaria causes symptoms Signs and symptoms are the observed or detectable signs, and experienced symptoms of an illness, injury, or condition. A sign fo ...

malaria
tropica in 4 mummies, including Tutankhamun's. This is currently the oldest known genetic proof of the ailment. The team discovered DNA from several strains of the parasite, indicating that he was repeatedly infected with the most severe strain of malaria. His malaria infections may have caused a fatal immune response in the body or triggered Shock (circulatory), circulatory shock. The CT scan also showed that he had suffered a compound left leg fracture. This injury being the result of modern damage was ruled out based on the ragged edges of the fracture; modern damage features sharp edges. Embalming substances were present within the fracture indicating that it was associated with an open wound; no signs of healing were present. A forensic facial reconstruction, facial reconstruction of Tutankhamun was carried out in 2005 by the Supreme Council of Antiquities, Egyptian Supreme Council of Antiquities and ''National Geographic''. Three separate teams—Egyptian, French, and American—worked separately to approximate the face of the boy king. While the Egyptian and French teams knew their subject was Tutankhamun, the American team worked blind. All teams produced very similar results, but it was that of the French team that was ultimately cast in silicone.


Cause of death

There are no surviving records of the circumstances of Tutankhamun's death; it has been the subject of considerable debate and major studies. Hawass and his team postulate that his death was likely the result of the combination of his multiple weakening disorders, a leg fracture, perhaps as the result of a fall, and a severe malarial infection. However, Timmann and Meyer have argued that sickle cell anemia better fits the pathologies exhibited by the king, a suggestion the Egyptian team has called "interesting and plausible." Murder by a blow to the head was theorised as a result of the 1968 which showed two bone fragments inside the skull. This theory was disproved by further analysis of the and the CT scan. The inter-cranial bone fragments were determined to be the result of the modern unwrapping of the mummy as they are loose and not adherent to the embalming resin. No evidence of bone thinning or calcified membranes, which could be indicative of a fatal blow to the head, were found. It has also been suggested that the young king was killed in a chariot accident due to a pattern of crushing injuries, including the fact that the front part of his chest wall and ribs are missing. However, the missing ribs are unlikely to be a result of an injury suffered at the time of death; photographs taken at the conclusion of Carter's excavation in 1926 show that the chest wall of the king was intact, still wearing a beaded collar with falcon-headed terminals. The absence of both the collar and chest wall was noted in the 1968 and further confirmed by the CT scan. It is likely that the front part of his chest was removed by robbers during the theft of the beaded collar; the intricate beaded skullcap the king was pictured wearing in 1926 was also missing by 1968.


Tomb

Tutankhamun was buried in a tomb that was unusually small considering his status. His death may have occurred unexpectedly, before the completion of a grander royal tomb, causing Tutankhamun's mummy, his mummy to be buried in a tomb intended for someone else. This would preserve the observance of the customary 70 days between death and burial. His tomb was robbed at least twice in antiquity, but based on the items taken (including perishable oils and perfumes) and the evidence of restoration of the tomb after the intrusions, these robberies likely took place within several months at most of the initial burial. The location of the tomb was lost because it had come to be buried by debris from subsequent tombs, and workers' houses were built over the tomb entrance.


Rediscovery

The concession rights for excavating the Valley of the Kings was held by Theodore M. Davis, Theodore Davis from 1905 until 1914. In that time he had unearthed ten tombs including the nearly intact but non-royal tomb of Tiye, Queen Tiye's parents, Yuya and Tjuyu. As he continued working there in the later years, he uncovered nothing of major significance. Davis did find several objects in KV58 referring to Tutankhamun, which included knobs and handles bearing his name most significantly the embalming cache of the king (KV54). He believed this to be the pharaoh's lost tomb and published his findings as such with the line; "I fear the Valley of the Tombs is exhausted". In 1907,
Howard Carter Howard Carter (9 May 18742 March 1939) was a British archaeologist Archaeology or archeology is the study of human activity through the recovery and analysis of material culture. Archaeology is often considered a branch of socio-cultural ...

Howard Carter
was invited by William Garstin and Gaston Maspero to excavate for George Herbert, 5th Earl of Carnarvon in the Valley. The Earl of Carnarvon and Carter had hoped this would lead to their gaining the concession when Davis gave it up but had to be satisfied with excavations in different parts of the Theban Necropolis for seven more years. After a systematic search, beginning in 1915, Carter discovered the actual tomb of Tutankhamun (KV62) in November 1922. By February 1923 the antechamber had been cleared of everything but two sentinel statues. A day and time were selected to unseal the tomb with about twenty appointed witnesses that included Lord Carnarvon, several Egyptian officials, museum representatives and the staff of the Government Press Bureau. On 17 February 1923 at just after two o'clock, the seal was broken.


Contents

There were 5,398 items found in the tomb, including a solid gold coffin, Mask of Tutankhamun, face mask, thrones, archery bows, Tutankhamun's trumpets, trumpets, a lotus chalice, two Imiut fetishes, Egyptian Finger and Toe stalls, gold toe stalls, furniture, food, wine, sandals, and fresh linen underwear. Howard Carter took 10 years to catalog the items. Recent analysis suggests Tutankhamun's meteoric iron dagger, a dagger recovered from the tomb had an iron blade made from a meteorite; study of artifacts of the time including other artifacts from Tutankhamun's tomb could provide valuable insights into metalworking technologies around the Mediterranean at the time. Many of Tutankhamun's burial goods show signs of being adapted for his use after being originally made for earlier owners, probably Smenkhkare or Neferneferuaten or both. On 4 November 2007, 85 years to the day after Carter's discovery, Tutankhamun's mummy was placed on display in his underground tomb at Luxor, when the linen-wrapped mummy was removed from its golden sarcophagus to a climate-controlled glass box. The case was designed to prevent the heightened rate of decomposition caused by the humidity and warmth from tourists visiting the tomb. In 2009, the tomb was closed for restoration by the Ministry of Antiquities (Egypt), Ministry of antiquities and the Getty Conservation Institute. While the closure was originally planned for five years to restore the walls affected by humidity, the Egyptian revolution of 2011 set the project back. The tomb re-opened in February 2019.


Rumored curse

For many years, rumors of a " curse of the pharaohs" (probably fueled by newspapers seeking sales at the time of the discovery) persisted, emphasizing the early death of some of those who had entered the tomb. The most prominent was George Herbert, 5th Earl of Carnarvon, who died on 5 April 1923, five months after the discovery of the first step leading down to the tomb on 4 November 1922. The cause of Carnarvon's death was pneumonia supervening on [facial] erysipelas (a streptococcal infection of the skin and underlying soft tissue). The Earl had been in an automobile accident in 1901 making him very unhealthy and frail. His doctor recommended a warmer climate so in 1903 the Carnarvons traveled to Egypt where the Earl became interested in Egyptology. Along with the stresses of the excavation, Carnarvon was already in a weakened state when an infection led to pneumonia. A study showed that of the 58 people who were present when the tomb and sarcophagus were opened, only eight died within a dozen years; Howard Carter died of lymphoma in 1939 at the age of 64.David Vernon in ''Skeptical – a Handbook of Pseudoscience and the Paranormal'', ed. Donald Laycock, David Vernon (writer), David Vernon, Colin Groves, Simon Brown (author), Simon Brown, Imagecraft, Canberra, 1989, , p. 25. The last survivors included Lady Evelyn Herbert, Lord Carnarvon's daughter who was among the first people to enter the tomb after its discovery in November 1922, who lived for a further 57 years and died in 1980, and American archaeologist J.O. Kinnaman who died in 1961, 39 years after the event.


Legacy

Tutankhamun's fame is primarily the result of his well-preserved tomb and the global exhibitions of his associated artifacts. As Jon Manchip White writes, in his foreword to the 1977 edition of Carter's ''The Discovery of the Tomb of Tutankhamun'', "The pharaoh who in life was one of the least esteemed of Egypt's Pharaohs has become in death the most renowned". The discoveries in the tomb were prominent news in the 1920s. Tutankhamen came to be called by a modern neologism, "King Tut". Ancient Egyptian references became common in popular culture, including Tin Pan Alley songs; the most popular of the latter was "Old King Tut" by Harry Von Tilzer from 1923, which was recorded by such prominent artists of the time as The Happiness Boys, Jones & Hare and Sophie Tucker. "King Tut" became the name of products, businesses, and the United States presidential pets#List of presidential pets, pet dog of U.S. President Herbert Hoover.


International exhibitions

Tutankhamun's artifacts have traveled the world with unprecedented visitorship. The exhibitions began in 1962 when Algeria won its Independence Day (Algeria), independence from France. With the ending of that conflict, the Louvre Museum in Paris was quickly able to arrange an exhibition of Tutankhamun's treasures through Christiane Desroches Noblecourt. The French Egyptologist was already in Egypt as part of a UNESCO appointment. The French exhibit drew 1.2 million visitors. Noblecourt had also convinced the Egyptian Minister of Culture to allow British photographer George Rainbird to re-photograph the collection in color. The new color photos as well as the Louvre exhibition began a Tutankhamun revival. In 1965, the Tutankhamun exhibit traveled to Tokyo, Japan where it garnered more visitors than the future New York exhibit in 1979. The exhibit next moved to the Kyoto Municipal Museum of Art with almost 1.75 million visitors, and then to Fukuoka. The attraction exceeded all other exhibitions of Tutankhamun's treasures for the next 60 years. ''The Treasures of Tutankhamun'' tour ran from 1972 to 1979. This exhibition was first shown in London at the British Museum from 30 March until 30 September 1972. More than 1.6 million visitors saw the exhibition. The exhibition moved on to many other countries, including the United States, Soviet Union, Japan, France, Canada, and West Germany. The Metropolitan Museum of Art organized the U.S. exhibition, which ran from 17 November 1976 through 15 April 1979. More than eight million attended. In 2005, Egypt's Supreme Council of Antiquities, in partnership with Arts and Exhibitions International and the National Geographic Society, launched a tour of Tutankhamun treasures and other 18th Dynasty funerary objects, this time called ''Tutankhamun and the Golden Age of the Pharaohs''. It featured the same exhibits as ''Tutankhamen: The Golden Hereafter'' in a slightly different format. It was expected to draw more than three million people but exceeded that with almost four million people attending just the first four tour stops. The exhibition started in Los Angeles, then moved to Fort Lauderdale, Florida, Fort Lauderdale, Chicago, Philadelphia and London before finally returning to Egypt in August 2008. An encore of the exhibition in the United States ran at the Dallas Museum of Art. After Dallas the exhibition moved to the de Young Museum in San Francisco, followed by the Discovery Times Square Exposition in New York City. The exhibition visited Australia for the first time, opening at the Melbourne Museum for its only Australian stop before Egypt's treasures returned to Cairo in December 2011. The exhibition included 80 exhibits from the reigns of Tutankhamun's immediate predecessors in the 18th Dynasty, such as
Hatshepsut Hatshepsut (; also Hatchepsut; Egyptian language, Egyptian: ''wikt:ḥꜣt#Egyptian, ḥꜣt-wikt:špst#Egyptian, špswt'' "Foremost of Noble Ladies"; c. 1507–1458 BC) was the fifth pharaoh of the Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt. She was the ...

Hatshepsut
, whose trade policies greatly increased the wealth of that dynasty and enabled the lavish wealth of Tutankhamun's burial artifacts, as well as 50 from Tutankhamun's tomb. The exhibition did not include the gold mask that was a feature of the 1972–1979 tour, as the Egyptian government has decided that damage which occurred to previous artifacts on tours precludes this one from joining them. In 2018, it was announced that the largest collection of Tutankhamun artifacts, amounting to forty percent of the entire collection, would be leaving Egypt again in 2019 for an international tour entitled; "King Tut: Treasures of the Golden Pharaoh". The 2019-2022 tour began with an exhibit called; "Tutankhamun, Pharaoh’s Treasures," which launched in Los Angeles and then traveled to Paris. The exhibit featured at the Grande Halle de la Villette in Paris ran from March to September 2019. The exhibit featured one hundred and fifty gold coins, along with various pieces of jewelry, sculpture and carvings, as well as the renowned gold mask of Tutankhamun. Promotion of the exhibit filled the streets of Paris with posters of the event. The exhibit moved to London in November 2019 and was scheduled to travel to Boston and Sydney when the COVID-19 pandemic interrupted the tour. On 28 August 2020 the artifacts that made up the temporary exhibition returned to Cairo, where they were returned to various institutions The treasures will be permanently housed in the new
Grand Egyptian Museum The Grand Egyptian Museum (GEM; ''al-Matḥaf al-Maṣriyy al-Kabīr''), also known as the Giza Museum, is an archaeological museum under construction in Giza, Egypt. When inaugurated, the GEM will be considered the largest archaeological museu ...
in Cairo, expected to open in 2021.


Ancestry


See also

* Anubis Shrine * Head of Nefertem *
Tutankhamun's mummy Tutankhamun's mummy was discovered by English Egyptologist Howard Carter Howard Carter (9 May 18742 March 1939) was a British archaeologist Archaeology or archeology is the study of human activity through the recovery and analysis of m ...
* Tutankhamun's meteoric iron dagger * Tutankhamun's trumpets


Notes


Citations


References

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *


Further reading

* Andritsos, John. ''Social Studies of Ancient Egypt: Tutankhamun''. Australia 2006. * Brier, Bob. ''The Murder of Tutankhamun: A True Story''. Putnam Adult, 13 April 1998, (paperback), (hardcover), (School & Library Binding). * Carter, Howard and Arthur C. Mace, ''The Discovery of the Tomb of Tutankhamun''. Courier Dover Publications, 1 June 1977, The semi-popular account of the discovery and opening of the tomb written by the archaeologist responsible. * Desroches-Noblecourt, Christiane. Sarwat Okasha (Preface), ''Tutankhamun: Life and Death of a Pharaoh''. New York: New York Graphic Society, 1963, (1976 reprint, hardcover), (1990 reprint, paperback). * Egyptian Supreme Council of Antiquities, ''The Mummy of Tutankhamun: The CT Scan Report'', as printed in ''Ancient Egypt'', June/July 2005. * Haag, Michael. ''The Rough Guide to Tutankhamun: The King: The Treasure: The Dynasty''. London 2005. . * Hoving, Thomas. ''The Search for Tutankhamun: The Untold Story of Adventure and Intrigue Surrounding the Greatest Modern archeological find''. New York: Simon & Schuster, 15 October 1978, (hardcover), (paperback) This book details a number of anecdotes about the discovery and excavation of the tomb. * James, T. G. H. ''Tutankhamun''. New York: Friedman/Fairfax, 1 September 2000, (hardcover) A large-format volume by the former Keeper of Egyptian Antiquities at the British Museum, filled with colour illustrations of the funerary furnishings of Tutankhamun, and related objects. * Neubert, Otto. ''Tutankhamun and the Valley of the Kings''. London: Granada Publishing Limited, 1972, (paperback) First hand account of the discovery of the Tomb. * Rossi, Renzo. ''Tutankhamun''. Cincinnati (Ohio) 2007 , a work all illustrated and coloured.


External links


Grim secrets of Pharaoh's city
BBC News
Tutankhamun and the Age of the Golden Pharaohs website

British Museum Tutankhamun highlight

"Swiss geneticists examine Tutankhamun's genetic profile"
by Reuters
Ultimate Tut
Documentary produced by the PBS Series ''Secrets of the Dead'' {{DEFAULTSORT:Tutankhamun Tutankhamun, 1340s BC births 1320s BC deaths 1922 archaeological discoveries 14th-century BC Pharaohs Amarna Period Ancient child rulers Ancient Egyptian mummies Atenism Curses Historical negationism in ancient Egypt Pharaohs of the Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt Royalty and nobility with disabilities Deaths from malaria Deaths from musculoskeletal disorders Disease-related deaths in Egypt People with endocrine, nutritional and metabolic diseases People with epilepsy Children of Akhenaten