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it, Toscano (man)
it, Toscana (woman) , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = Citizenship , demographics1_footnotes = , demographics1_title1 = Italian , demographics1_info1 = 90% , demographics1_title2 = , demographics1_info2 = , demographics1_title3 = , demographics1_info3 = , timezone1 =
CET CET or cet may refer to: Places * Cet, Albania * Cet, standard astronomical abbreviation for the constellation Cetus * Colchester Town railway station (National Rail code CET), in Colchester, England Arts, entertainment, and media * Comcast Enter ...
, utc_offset1 = +1 , timezone1_DST = CEST , utc_offset1_DST = +2 , postal_code_type = , postal_code = , area_code_type =
ISO 3166 code ISO 3166 is a standard Standard may refer to: Flags * Colours, standards and guidons * Standard (flag), a type of flag used for personal identification Norm, convention or requirement * Standard (metrology), an object that bears a defined ...
, area_code = IT-52 , blank_name_sec1 =
GDP (nominal) Gross domestic product (GDP) is a monetary measure of the market value of all the final goods and services produced in a specific time period. List of countries by GDP (nominal) per capita, GDP (nominal) per capita does not, however, reflect di ...
, blank_info_sec1 = €118 billion (2018) , blank1_name_sec1 =
GDP per capita Lists of countries by GDP per capita list the countries in the world by their gross domestic product Gross domestic product (GDP) is a monetary measure of the market value of all the final goods and services produced in a specific time peri ...
, blank1_info_sec1 = €31,500 (2018) , blank2_name_sec1 =
HDI The Human Development Index (HDI) is a statistic composite index of life expectancy Life expectancy is a statistical measure of the average time an organism is expected to live, based on the year of its birth, its current age, and ot ...
(2019) , blank2_info_sec1 = 0.907
6th of 21 , blank_name_sec2 = , blank_info_sec2 = ITI1 , website = , footnotes = Tuscany ( ; it, Toscana ) is a
region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, inhabitants, and phenomena of the Earth and planets. The first person to use the wo ...

region
in
central Italy Central Italy ( it, Italia centrale or just ) is one of the five official statistical regions of Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of a Northern Italy ...
with an area of about and a population of about 3.8 million inhabitants. The regional capital is
Florence Florence ( ; it, Firenze ) is a city in Central-Northern Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of a Northern Italy, continental part, delimited by the ...

Florence
(''Firenze''). Tuscany is known for its landscapes, history, artistic legacy, and its influence on
high culture High culture encompasses the culture, cultural objects of aesthetic value, which a society collectively esteem as exemplary art, and the Intellectualism, intellectual works of philosophy, history, art and literature that a society consider represen ...
. It is regarded as the birthplace of the
Italian Renaissance The Italian Renaissance ( it, Rinascimento ) was a period in Italian history The history of Italy covers the Ancient Period, the Middle Ages and the modern era. Since classical times, ancient Phoenicians, Magna Graecia, Greeks, Etruscan civi ...
and has been home to many figures influential in the history of art and science, and contains well-known museums such as the
Uffizi The Uffizi Gallery (; it, Galleria degli Uffizi, italic=no, ) is a prominent located adjacent to the in the in the region of , Italy. One of the most important Italian museums and the most visited, it is also one of the largest and best kno ...
and the
Palazzo Pitti The Palazzo Pitti (), in English sometimes called the Pitti Palace, is a vast, mainly Renaissance The Renaissance ( , ) , from , with the same meanings. was a period in European history marking the transition from the Middle Ages ...

Palazzo Pitti
. Tuscany is also known for its
wine Wine is an alcoholic drink typically made from Fermentation in winemaking, fermented grapes. Yeast in winemaking, Yeast consumes the sugar in the grapes and converts it to ethanol and carbon dioxide, releasing heat in the process. Different v ...

wine
s, including
Chianti A Chianti wine (, also , ) is any wine produced in the Chianti (region), Chianti region of central Tuscan wine, Tuscany. It was historically associated with a squat bottle enclosed in a straw basket, called a ''fiasco (bottle), fiasco'' ("flask"; ...

Chianti
,
Vino Nobile di Montepulciano Vino Nobile di Montepulciano is a red wine with a Denominazione di Origine Controllata e Garantita status produced in the vineyards surrounding the town of Montepulciano, Italy. The wine is made primarily from the Sangiovese grape varietal (known ...
,
Morellino di Scansano Morellino di Scansano DOCG is an Italy, Italian red wine made in the hilly environs of the village of Scansano, province of Grosseto, GR, in the Maremma region of coastal Tuscany, which has an ancient but obscure tradition of winemaking. Morellino ...
,
Brunello di Montalcino Brunello di Montalcino is a red Denominazione di Origine Controllata e Garantita, DOCG Italian wine produced in the vineyards surrounding the town of Montalcino, in the province of Siena, located about 80 km south of Florence in the Tuscany ...
and white
Vernaccia di San Gimignano Vernaccia is a white Italian wine Italian wine is produced in every region of Italy, home to some of the oldest wine-producing regions in the world. Italy is the List of wine-producing countries, world's largest producer of wine, with an area of ...

Vernaccia di San Gimignano
. Having a strong linguistic and cultural identity, it is sometimes considered "a nation within a nation". Tuscany is the second most popular
Italian region The regions of Italy ( it, regioni d'Italia) are the first-level constituent entity, constituent entities of the Italian Republic, constituting its second Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics, NUTS administrative level. There are 20 r ...

Italian region
for travellers in
Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of delimited by the and surrounding it, whose territory largely coincides with the . Italy is located in the centre of th ...

Italy
, after
Veneto it, Veneto (man) it, Veneta (woman) , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = Citizenship , demographics1_footnotes = , demographics1_title1 = Italian , demograp ...

Veneto
. The main tourist spots are
Florence Florence ( ; it, Firenze ) is a city in Central-Northern Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of a Northern Italy, continental part, delimited by the ...

Florence
,
Pisa Pisa ( , or ) is a city and ''comune'' in Tuscany, central Italy, straddling the Arno just before it empties into the Ligurian Sea. It is the capital city of the Province of Pisa. Although Pisa is known worldwide for its Leaning Tower of Pisa, ...

Pisa
,
San Gimignano San Gimignano () is a small walled Middle Ages, medieval hill town in the province of Siena, Tuscany, north-central Italy. Known as ''the Town of Fine Towers'', San Gimignano is famous for its medieval architecture, unique in the preservation of a ...

San Gimignano
,
Castiglione della Pescaia Castiglione della Pescaia (), regionally simply abbreviated as Castiglione, is an ancient seaside town in the province of Grosseto, in Tuscany it, Toscano (man) it, Toscana (woman) , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , ...
,
Grosseto Grosseto () is a city and '' comune'' in the central Italian region of Tuscany it, Toscano (man) it, Toscana (woman) , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = Citiz ...
and
Siena Siena ( , ; in English sometimes spelled Sienna; lat, Sena Iulia) is a city A city is a large .Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science En ...

Siena
. The town of
Castiglione della Pescaia Castiglione della Pescaia (), regionally simply abbreviated as Castiglione, is an ancient seaside town in the province of Grosseto, in Tuscany it, Toscano (man) it, Toscana (woman) , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , ...
is the most visited seaside destination in the region, with seaside tourism accounting for approximately 40% of tourist arrivals. The ,
Siena Siena ( , ; in English sometimes spelled Sienna; lat, Sena Iulia) is a city A city is a large .Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science En ...

Siena
,
Lucca Lucca ( , ) is a city and ''comune The (; plural: ) is a of , roughly equivalent to a or . Importance and function The provides essential public services: of births and deaths, , and maintenance of local roads and public works. ...

Lucca
, the Chianti region,
VersiliaThe Versilia is a part of Tuscany it, Toscano (man) it, Toscana (woman) , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = Citizenship , demographics1_footnotes = , demographi ...

Versilia
and
Val d'Orcia The Val d'Orcia or Valdorcia () is a region of Tuscany, central Italy, which extends from the hills south of Siena to Monte Amiata. Its gentle, cultivated hills are occasionally broken by gullies and by picturesque towns and villages such as Pien ...

Val d'Orcia
are also internationally renowned and particularly popular spots among travellers. Eight Tuscan localities have been designated
World Heritage Site A World Heritage Site is a landmark or area with legal protection by an international convention administered by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). World Heritage Sites are designated by UNESCO for ha ...
s: the
historic Centre of Florence The historic centre of Florence is part of quartiere 1 of the Italian city of Florence. This quarter was named a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1982. Built on the site of an Etruscan settlement, Florence, the symbol of the Renaissance, rose to ...
(1982); the (1987); the historical centre of
San Gimignano San Gimignano () is a small walled Middle Ages, medieval hill town in the province of Siena, Tuscany, north-central Italy. Known as ''the Town of Fine Towers'', San Gimignano is famous for its medieval architecture, unique in the preservation of a ...

San Gimignano
(1990); the historical centre of
Siena Siena ( , ; in English sometimes spelled Sienna; lat, Sena Iulia) is a city A city is a large .Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science En ...

Siena
(1995); the historical centre of
Pienza Pienza () is a town and ''comune The (; plural: ) is a basic Administrative division, constituent entity of Italy, roughly equivalent to a township or municipality. Importance and function The provides many of the basic civil functions: ...

Pienza
(1996); the
Val d'Orcia The Val d'Orcia or Valdorcia () is a region of Tuscany, central Italy, which extends from the hills south of Siena to Monte Amiata. Its gentle, cultivated hills are occasionally broken by gullies and by picturesque towns and villages such as Pien ...

Val d'Orcia
(2004), the Medici Villas and Gardens (2013), and
Montecatini Terme Montecatini Terme is an Italian municipality (''comune'') of c. 20,000 inhabitants in the province of Pistoia, Tuscany, central Italy. It is the most important center in Valdinievole. The town is located at the eastern end of Piana di Lucca an ...
as part of
the Great Spa Towns of Europe The Great Spa Towns of Europe is a transnational World Heritage Site consisting of a selection of 11 spa towns across seven European countries. They were developed around natural mineral water springs. From the early 18th century to the 1930s, Wes ...
(2021). Tuscany has over 120 protected
nature reserve A nature reserve (also known as a natural reserve, wildlife refuge, wildlife sanctuary, biosphere reserve or bioreserve, natural or nature preserve, or nature conservation area) is a protected area Protected areas or conservation areas are ...
s, making Tuscany and its capital
Florence Florence ( ; it, Firenze ) is a city in Central-Northern Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of a Northern Italy, continental part, delimited by the ...

Florence
popular tourist destinations that attract millions of tourists every year. In 2018, the city of Florence was the world's 51st most visited city, with over 5 million arrivals.


Geography

Roughly triangular in shape, Tuscany borders the regions of
Liguria it, Ligure , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = , demographics1_footnotes = , demographics1_title1 = , demographics1_info1 = , demographics1_title2 ...

Liguria
to the northwest,
Emilia-Romagna Emilia-Romagna (, , both also ; ; egl, Emégglia-Rumâgna or ''Emîlia-Rumâgna''; rgn, Emélia-Rumâgna) is one of the 20 Regions of Italy, administrative regions of Italy, situated in the north of the country, comprising the historical regions ...

Emilia-Romagna
to the north,
Marche Marche ( , ) is one of the Regions of Italy, twenty regions of Italy. In English, the region is referred to as The Marches ( ). The region is located in the Central Italy, central area of the country, bordered by Emilia-Romagna and the republic ...

Marche
and
Umbria Umbria ( , ) is a of central . It includes Lake and , and is crossed by the River . It is the only landlocked region on the . The regional capital is . The region is characterized by hills, mountains, valleys and historical towns such as the un ...

Umbria
to the east, and
Lazio it, Laziale , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = , demographics1_footnotes = , demographics1_title1 = , demographics1_info1 = , demographics1_title2 ...

Lazio
to the southeast. The
comune The (; plural: ) is a Administrative division, local administrative division of Italy, roughly equivalent to a township or municipality. Importance and function The provides essential public services: Civil registry, registry of births a ...
(municipality) of Badia Tedalda, in the Tuscan
Province of Arezzo The province of Arezzo ( it, provincia di Arezzo) is the easternmost province A province is almost always an administrative division within a country or state. The term derives from the ancient Roman '' provincia'', which was the major territ ...
, has an exclave named Ca' Raffaello within Emilia-Romagna. Tuscany has a western coastline on the
Ligurian Sea 300px, The Ligurian Sea The Ligurian Sea ( it, Mar Ligure; french: Mer Ligurienne; lij, Mâ Ligure) is an arm of the Mediterranean Sea The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin ...
and the
Tyrrhenian Sea The Tyrrhenian Sea (; it, Mar Tirreno , french: Mer Tyrrhénienne , sc, Mare Tirrenu, co, Mari Tirrenu, scn, Mari Tirrenu, nap, Mare Tirreno) is part of the Mediterranean Sea The Mediterranean Sea is a connected to the , surrounded by ...
, among which is the
Tuscan Archipelago The Tuscan Archipelago is a chain of islands between the Ligurian Sea Image:Ligurian Sea map.png, 300px, The Ligurian Sea The Ligurian Sea ( it, Mar Ligure; french: Mer Ligurienne; lij, Mâ Ligure) is an arm of the Mediterranean Sea, between th ...

Tuscan Archipelago
, of which the largest island is
Elba Elba ( it, isola d'Elba, ; la, Ilva; Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language used in ancient Greece and the classical antiquity, ancient world from around 1500 BC to 300 BC. It is often roughly divided into ...

Elba
. Tuscany has an area of approximately . Surrounded and crossed by major mountain chains, and with few (but fertile) plains, the region has a relief that is dominated by hilly country used for
agriculture Agriculture is the science, art and practice of cultivating plants and livestock. Agriculture was the key development in the rise of sedentary Image:Family watching television 1958.jpg, Exercise trends, Increases in sedentary behaviors su ...

agriculture
. Hills make up nearly two-thirds (66.5%) of the region's total area, covering , and mountains (of which the highest are the
Apennines The Apennines or Apennine Mountains (; grc-gre, links=no, Ἀπέννινα ὄρη or Ἀπέννινον ὄρος; la, Appenninus or  – a singular with plural meaning;''Apenninus'' (Greek or ) has the form of an adjective, which woul ...
), a further 25%, or . Plains occupy 8.4% of the total areamostly around the valley of the
Arno The Arno is a river in the Tuscany region of Italy. It is the most important river of central Italy after the Tiber. Source and route The river originates on Monte Falterona in the Casentino area of the Apennine Mountains, Apennines, and i ...

Arno
. Many of Tuscany's largest cities lie on the banks of the Arno, including the capital
Florence Florence ( ; it, Firenze ) is a city in Central-Northern Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of a Northern Italy, continental part, delimited by the ...

Florence
,
Empoli Empoli () is a town and ''comune The (; plural: ) is a local administrative division of Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of a Northern Italy, ...
and
Pisa Pisa ( , or ) is a city and ''comune'' in Tuscany, central Italy, straddling the Arno just before it empties into the Ligurian Sea. It is the capital city of the Province of Pisa. Although Pisa is known worldwide for its Leaning Tower of Pisa, ...

Pisa
. The climate is fairly mild in the coastal areas, and is harsher and rainy in the interior, with considerable fluctuations in temperature between winter and summer, Text finalised in March 2004 - Eurostat. giving the region a soil-building active freeze-thaw cycle, in part accounting for the region's once having served as a key breadbasket of
ancient Rome In historiography Historiography is the study of the methods of historian ( 484– 425 BC) was a Greek historian who lived in the 5th century BC and one of the earliest historians whose work survives. A historian is a person who stud ...
. File:Sunflowers in bloom - Maremma Toscana - Italy - 25 June 2005.jpg, Sunflower field in
Castiglione della Pescaia Castiglione della Pescaia (), regionally simply abbreviated as Castiglione, is an ancient seaside town in the province of Grosseto, in Tuscany it, Toscano (man) it, Toscana (woman) , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , ...
,
Maremma thumbnail, A sunflower field in Maremma The Maremma (, ; from Latin , "maritime
and And or AND may refer to: Logic, grammar, and computing * Conjunction (grammar) In grammar In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language, meaning that it is a comprehensive, systematic, objective, and precise study of ...

and
) is a coastal area of western central Italy, bordering the Tyrrhenian Sea. It includes much of south-western Tuscany and part of northern Lazio. It was for ...

Maremma
File:Tuscany landscape west of Siena.jpg, Tuscan landscape near
Siena Siena ( , ; in English sometimes spelled Sienna; lat, Sena Iulia) is a city A city is a large .Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science En ...

Siena
File:Flickr - lo.tangelini - En vigilia.jpg, Hilly landscape in
Val d'Orcia The Val d'Orcia or Valdorcia () is a region of Tuscany, central Italy, which extends from the hills south of Siena to Monte Amiata. Its gentle, cultivated hills are occasionally broken by gullies and by picturesque towns and villages such as Pien ...

Val d'Orcia
File:Layers Of Light (182268107).jpeg, Hills around
Radicofani Radicofani () is a ''comune'' in the Province of Siena in the Italy, Italian region Tuscany, located in the natural park of Val d'Orcia about southeast of Florence and about southeast of Siena. Radicofani borders the following municipaliti ...

Radicofani
File:Campagna empolese.jpg, Vineyard in Tuscany File:Tuscany (34445300666).jpg, Valley in
San Gimignano San Gimignano () is a small walled Middle Ages, medieval hill town in the province of Siena, Tuscany, north-central Italy. Known as ''the Town of Fine Towers'', San Gimignano is famous for its medieval architecture, unique in the preservation of a ...

San Gimignano


History


Apennine, Proto-Villanovan and Villanovan culture

The pre-Etruscan history of the area in the middle and late
Bronze Bronze is an alloy consisting primarily of copper, commonly with about 12–12.5% tin and often with the addition of other metals (such as aluminum, manganese, nickel or zinc) and sometimes non-metals or metalloids such as arsenic, phosphorus or ...
parallels that of the
archaic Archaic is a period of time preceding a designated classical period, or something from an older period of time that is also not found or used currently: *List of archaeological periods **Archaic Sumerian language, spoken between 31st - 26th centu ...
Greeks The Greeks or Hellenes (; el, Έλληνες, ''Éllines'' ) are an ethnic group An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people A people is any plurality of person A person (plural people or persons) is a being that has cer ...
. The Tuscan area was inhabited by peoples of the so-called
Apennine culture Apennine may refer to: *The Apennine Mountains The Apennines or Apennine Mountains (; grc-gre, links=no, Ἀπέννινα ὄρη or Ἀπέννινον ὄρος; la, Appenninus or  – a singular with plural meaning;''Apenninus'' (Greek ...
in the
second millennium BC The second (symbol: s, abbreviation: sec) is the base unit of time Time is the indefinite continued sequence, progress of existence and event (philosophy), events that occur in an apparently irreversible process, irreversible succession fr ...
(roughly 1400–1150 BC) who had trading relationships with the
Minoan The Minoan civilization was a Bronze Age Aegean civilization on the island of Crete and other Aegean Islands, flourishing from c. 3000 BC to c. 1450 BC and, after a late period of decline, finally ending around 1100 BC, during the early Greek Da ...
and Mycenaean civilizations in the
Aegean Sea The Aegean Sea ; tr, Ege Denizi is an elongated embayment A bay is a recessed, coastal body of water that directly connects to a larger main body of water, such as an ocean, a lake, or another bay. A large bay is usually called a Gulf ...

Aegean Sea
, and, at the end of the Bronze Age, by peoples of the so-called
Proto-Villanovan culture The Proto-Villanovan culture was a late Bronze Age The Bronze Age is a prehistoric Periodization, period that was characterized by the use of bronze, in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization. The Bronze Age ...
(c. 1100-900 BC) part of the central European
Urnfield culture The Urnfield culture ( 1300 BC – 750 BC) was a late Bronze Age The Bronze Age is a prehistoric that was characterized by the use of , in some areas , and other early features of urban . The Bronze Age is the second princ ...
system. Following this, at the beginning of the
Iron Age The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age division of the prehistory Prehistory, also known as pre-literary history, is the period of human history Human history, or world history, is the narrative of Human, humanity's pa ...
, the
Villanovan culture The Villanovan culture (c. 900–700 BC), regarded as the earliest phase of the Etruscan civilization The Etruscan civilization () of List of ancient peoples of Italy, ancient Italy covered a territory, at its greatest extent, of roughly what i ...
(c. 900–700 BC), regarded as the oldest phase of
Etruscan civilization The Etruscan civilization () of covered a , at its greatest extent, of roughly what is now , western , and northern , as well as what are now the , , south-eastern , southern , and western . The earliest evidence of a that is identifiably Etru ...
, saw Tuscany, and the rest of Etruria, taken over by
chiefdom A chiefdom is a form of hierarchical political organization in non-industrial societies usually based on kinship In anthropology, kinship is the web of social relationships that form an important part of the lives of all humans in all soci ...
s.
City-state A city-state is an independent sovereign Sovereign is a title which can be applied to the highest leader in various categories. The word is borrowed from Old French Old French (, , ; Modern French French ( or ) is a Romance la ...
s developed in the late Villanovan (paralleling Greece and the Aegean) before " Orientalization" occurred.


Etruscans

The
Etruscans The Etruscan civilization () of List of ancient peoples of Italy, ancient Italy covered a territory, at its greatest extent, of roughly what is now Tuscany, western Umbria, and northern Lazio, as well as what are now the Po Valley, Emilia-Romagna ...
(Latin: ''Tusci'') created the first major
civilization  A civilization (or civilisation) is a complex society A complex society is a concept that is shared by a range of disciplines including anthropology, archaeology, history and sociology to describe a stage of social formation. The concep ...

civilization
in this region, large enough to establish a
transport Transport (in British English), or transportation (in American English), is the Motion, movement of humans, animals, and cargo, goods from one location to another. In other words, the action of transport is defined as a particular movement of ...

transport
infrastructure, to implement
agriculture Agriculture is the science, art and practice of cultivating plants and livestock. Agriculture was the key development in the rise of sedentary Image:Family watching television 1958.jpg, Exercise trends, Increases in sedentary behaviors su ...

agriculture
and
mining Mining is the extraction of valuable mineral In geology and mineralogy, a mineral or mineral species is, broadly speaking, a solid chemical compound with a fairly well-defined chemical composition and a specific crystal structure that occu ...

mining
and to produce vibrant art. The Etruscans lived in the area of
Etruria Etruria () was a region of Central Italy Central Italy ( it, Italia centrale or just ) is one of the five official statistical regions of Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ) ...

Etruria
well into prehistory. The civilization grew to fill the area between the Arno and
Tiber The Tiber (; la, Tiberis; it, Tevere ) is the third-longest and the longest in Central Italy, rising in the in and flowing through , , and , where it is joined by the River , to the , between and . It estimated at . The river has achi ...

Tiber
from the tenth century BCE, reaching its peak during the seventh and sixth centuries B.C., finally succumbing to the
Romans Roman or Romans usually refers to: *Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus , image_map = Map of comune of Rome (metropolitan city of Capital Rome, region Lazio, ...
by the first century BCE. Despite being seen as distinct in its manners and customs by contemporary Greeks, the cultures of Greece, and later
Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus , image_map = Map of comune of Rome (metropolitan city of Capital Rome, region Lazio, Italy).svg , map_caption = The te ...
, influenced the civilization to a great extent. One reason for its eventual demise was this increasing absorption by surrounding cultures, including the adoption of the Etruscan upper class by the Romans.


Romans

Soon after absorbing Etruria (to the north, northeast, east and a strip to the south), Rome established the cities of
Lucca Lucca ( , ) is a city and ''comune The (; plural: ) is a of , roughly equivalent to a or . Importance and function The provides essential public services: of births and deaths, , and maintenance of local roads and public works. ...

Lucca
,
Pisa Pisa ( , or ) is a city and ''comune'' in Tuscany, central Italy, straddling the Arno just before it empties into the Ligurian Sea. It is the capital city of the Province of Pisa. Although Pisa is known worldwide for its Leaning Tower of Pisa, ...

Pisa
,
Siena Siena ( , ; in English sometimes spelled Sienna; lat, Sena Iulia) is a city A city is a large .Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science En ...

Siena
, and
Florence Florence ( ; it, Firenze ) is a city in Central-Northern Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of a Northern Italy, continental part, delimited by the ...

Florence
, endowed the area with new technologies and development, and ensured peace. These developments included extensions of existing roads, introduction of aqueducts and sewers, and the construction of many buildings, both public and private. However, many of these structures have been destroyed by erosion due to weather. The Roman civilization in the West of the
Roman Republic The Roman Republic ( la, Rēs pūblica Rōmāna ) was a state of the classical Roman civilization, run through public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing and disseminating information from an indiv ...
and later
Roman Empire The Roman Empire ( la, Imperium Rōmānum ; grc-gre, Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, Basileía tôn Rhōmaíōn) was the post-Republican Republican can refer to: Political ideology * An advocate of a republic, a type of governme ...

Roman Empire
collapsed in the fifth century, and the region fell briefly to
barbarian A barbarian is a human who is perceived to be either Civilization, uncivilized or primitive. The designation is usually applied as a generalization based on a popular stereotype; barbarians can be members of any nation judged by some to be less ...

barbarian
s migrating through the Empire from
Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the eastern region of . There is no consistent definition of the precise area it covers, partly because the term has a wide range of , geographical, ethnic, cultural, and connotations. , located in Eastern Europe, is both the ...

Eastern Europe
and
Central Asia Central Asia is a region in Asia Asia () is 's largest and most populous , located primarily in the and . It shares the continental of with the continent of and the continental landmass of with both Europe and . Asia covers an area ...

Central Asia
of the
Goths The Goths ( got, 𐌲𐌿𐍄𐌸𐌹𐌿𐌳𐌰, translit=''Gutþiuda''; la, Gothi) were a Germanic people who played a major role in the fall of the Western Roman Empire and the emergence of medieval Europe. In his book ''Getica'' (c. 551), ...
(Eastern -
Ostrogoths The Ostrogoths ( la, Ostrogothi, Austrogothi) were a Roman-era Germanic people Germanic may refer to: * Germanic peoples The historical Germanic peoples (from lat, Germani) are a category of ancient northern European tribes, first mention ...
and Western -
Visigoths The Visigoths (; la, Visigothi, Wisigothi, Vesi, Visi, Wesi, Wisi) were an early Germanic people Germanic may refer to: * Germanic peoples The historical Germanic peoples (from lat, Germani) are a category of ancient northern European t ...
), then was re-conquered by the revived
Eastern Roman Empire The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire, or Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire The Roman Empire ( la, Imperium Rōmānum ; grc-gre, Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, Basileía tôn ...

Eastern Roman Empire
(later
Byzantine Empire The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire, or Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire The Roman Empire ( la, Imperium Rōmānum ; grc-gre, Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, Basileía tôn ...

Byzantine Empire
) under the Emperor
Justinian Justinian I (; la, Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus; grc-gre, Ἰουστινιανός ; 48214 November 565), also known as Justinian the Great, was the Byzantine emperor This is a list of the Byzantine emperors from the foundation o ...

Justinian
. In the years following 572, the
Lombards The Lombards () or Langobards ( la, Langobardi) were a Germanic people Germanic may refer to: * Germanic peoples The historical Germanic peoples (from lat, Germani) are a category of ancient northern European tribes, first mentioned by G ...
arrived and designated
Lucca Lucca ( , ) is a city and ''comune The (; plural: ) is a of , roughly equivalent to a or . Importance and function The provides essential public services: of births and deaths, , and maintenance of local roads and public works. ...

Lucca
the capital of their subsequent
TusciaTuscia is a historical region of Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of a Northern Italy, continental part, delimited by the Alps, a Italian Peninsula, peni ...
.


Medieval period

Pilgrim A pilgrim (from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Rep ...

Pilgrim
s travelling along the
Via Francigena The Via Francigena () is an ancient road and pilgrimage route running from the cathedral city City status in the United Kingdom is granted by the monarch of the United Kingdom The monarchy of the United Kingdom, commonly referred to as ...

Via Francigena
between
Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus , image_map = Map of comune of Rome (metropolitan city of Capital Rome, region Lazio, Italy).svg , map_caption = The te ...

Rome
and
France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a List of transcontinental countries, transcontinental country spanning Western Europe and Overseas France, overseas regions and territories in the Ame ...

France
brought wealth and development during the
medieval period In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the study, organization and presentation and the interpretation of past events and affairs of the people of Europe since the beginning of w ...
. The food and shelter required by these travellers fuelled the growth of communities around churches and taverns. The conflict between the
Guelphs and Ghibellines The Guelphs and Ghibellines (, , ; it, guelfi e ghibellini ) were Political faction, factions supporting the Pope and the Holy Roman Emperor, respectively, in the Italian city-states of Central Italy and Northern Italy. During the 12th and 13 ...
, factions supporting the
Papacy The pope ( la, papa, from el, πάππας, translit=pappas, "father"), also known as the supreme pontiff () or the Roman pontiff (), is the bishop of Diocese of Rome, Rome, chief pastor of the worldwide Catholic Church, and head of state o ...
or the
Holy Roman Empire The Holy Roman Empire ( la, Sacrum Romanum Imperium; german: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Western Western may refer to: Places *Western, Nebraska, a village in the US *Western, New York, a town i ...
in central and northern Italy during the 12th and 13th centuries, split the Tuscan people. The two factions gave rise to several powerful and rich
medieval commune Medieval communes in the Europe Europe is a continent A continent is one of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven regions are commonly regarded a ...
s in Tuscany:
Arezzo Arezzo ( , , ) , also ; ett, 𐌀𐌓𐌉𐌕𐌉𐌌, Aritim. is a city and ''comune'' in Italy and the capital of the Province of Arezzo, province of the same name located in Tuscany. Arezzo is about southeast of Florence at an elevation of ...

Arezzo
,
Florence Florence ( ; it, Firenze ) is a city in Central-Northern Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of a Northern Italy, continental part, delimited by the ...

Florence
, Lucca,
Pisa Pisa ( , or ) is a city and ''comune'' in Tuscany, central Italy, straddling the Arno just before it empties into the Ligurian Sea. It is the capital city of the Province of Pisa. Although Pisa is known worldwide for its Leaning Tower of Pisa, ...

Pisa
, and
Siena Siena ( , ; in English sometimes spelled Sienna; lat, Sena Iulia) is a city A city is a large .Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science En ...

Siena
. Balance between these communes was ensured by the assets they held: Pisa, a port; Siena, banking; and Lucca, banking and silk. But by the time of the
Renaissance The Renaissance ( , ) , from , with the same meanings. is a period Period may refer to: Common uses * Era, a length or span of time * Full stop (or period), a punctuation mark Arts, entertainment, and media * Period (music), a concept in ...

Renaissance
, Florence had become the cultural capital of Tuscany. One family that benefitted from Florence's growing wealth and power was the ruling
Medici family The House of Medici ( , ) was an Italian banking family and political dynasty Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with Decision-making, making decisions in Social group, groups, or other forms of Power (social ...
. Its scion
Lorenzo de' Medici Lorenzo di Piero de' Medici (; 1 January 1449 – 8 April 1492) was an Italian statesman, banker, ''de facto ''De facto'' ( ; , "in fact") describes practices that exist in reality, even though they are not officially recognized by laws. It is ...

Lorenzo de' Medici
was one of the most famous of the Medici. The legacy of his influence is visible today in the prodigious expression of art and architecture in Florence. His famous descendant Catherine de' Medici married Prince Henry (later Henry II of France, King Henry II) of France in 1533. The Black Death epidemic hit Tuscany starting in 1348. It eventually killed 70% of the Tuscan population. According to Melissa Snell, "Florence lost a third of its population in the first six months of the plague, and from 45% to 75% of its population in the first year." In 1630, Florence and Tuscany were once again ravaged by the 1629–31 Italian plague, plague. File:Guido van Arezzo.jpg, Guido of Arezzo File:Liber abbaci magliab f124r.jpg, A page from Fibonacci's ''Liber Abaci'' (1202) File:Giglio2.jpg, Battle of Giglio (1241), Battle of Giglio (1241) File:Dante-alighieri.jpg, Dante Alighieri, author of the ''Divine Comedy''


Renaissance

Tuscany, especially
Florence Florence ( ; it, Firenze ) is a city in Central-Northern Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of a Northern Italy, continental part, delimited by the ...

Florence
, is regarded as the birthplace of the
Renaissance The Renaissance ( , ) , from , with the same meanings. is a period Period may refer to: Common uses * Era, a length or span of time * Full stop (or period), a punctuation mark Arts, entertainment, and media * Period (music), a concept in ...

Renaissance
. Though "Tuscany" remained a linguistic, cultural and geographic conception, rather than a political reality, in the 15th century, Florence extended its dominion in Tuscany through the annexation of Arezzo in 1384, the purchase of Pisa in 1405 and the suppression of a local resistance there (1406). Livorno was bought in 1421 and became the harbour of Florence. From the leading city of Florence, the republic was from 1434 onward dominated by the increasingly monarchical Medici family. Initially, under Cosimo de' Medici, Cosimo, Piero di Cosimo de' Medici, Piero the Gouty, Lorenzo de' Medici, Lorenzo and Piero the Unfortunate, the forms of the republic were retained and the Medici ruled without a title, usually without even a formal office. These rulers presided over the Florentine Renaissance. There was a return to the republic from 1494 to 1512, when first Girolamo Savonarola then Piero Soderini oversaw the state. Cardinal Giovanni de' Medici retook the city with Spanish forces in 1512, before going to Rome to become Pope Leo X. Florence was dominated by a series of papal proxies until 1527 when the citizens declared the republic again, only to have it taken from them again in 1530 after a siege by an Imperial and Spanish army. At this point Pope Clement VII and Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V appointed Alessandro de' Medici as the first formal hereditary ruler. The Sienese commune was not incorporated into Tuscany until 1555, and during the 15th century Siena enjoyed a cultural 'Sienese Renaissance' with its own more conservative character. Lucca remained an independent republic until 1847 when it became part of Grand Duchy of Tuscany by the will of its people. Piombino and other strategic towns constituted the tiny State of the Presidi, State of the ''Presidi'' under Spanish control. File:Francesco Melzi - Portrait of Leonardo - WGA14795.jpg, Leonardo da Vinci File:Lorenzo de Medici2.jpg,
Lorenzo de' Medici Lorenzo di Piero de' Medici (; 1 January 1449 – 8 April 1492) was an Italian statesman, banker, ''de facto ''De facto'' ( ; , "in fact") describes practices that exist in reality, even though they are not officially recognized by laws. It is ...

Lorenzo de' Medici
File:Portrait of Niccolò Machiavelli by Santi di Tito.jpg, Niccolò Machiavelli, author of ''The Prince'' File:Portrait of Amerigo Vespucci.jpg, Amerigo Vespucci


Modern era

In the 16th century, the House of Medici, Medicis, rulers of Florence, annexed the Republic of Siena, creating the Grand Duchy of Tuscany. The Medici family became extinct in 1737 with the death of Gian Gastone de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany, Gian Gastone, and Tuscany was transferred to Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor, Francis, Duke of Lorraine and husband of Austrian Empress Maria Theresa, who let the country be ruled by his son. The dynasty of the Lorena ruled Tuscany until 1860, with the exception of the Napoleonic period, when most of the country was annexed to the First French Empire, French Empire. After the Second Italian War of Independence, a revolution evicted the last Grand Duke, and after a plebiscite Tuscany became part of the new Kingdom of Italy. From 1864 to 1870 Florence became the second capital of the kingdom. Under Benito Mussolini, the area came under the dominance of local National Fascist Party, Fascist leaders such as Dino Perrone Compagni (from Florence), and Costanzo Ciano, Costanzo and Galeazzo Ciano (from Livorno). Following the fall of Mussolini and the armistice of 8 September 1943, Tuscany became part of the Nazi-controlled Italian Social Republic, and was conquered almost totally by the Anglo-American forces during summer 1944. Following the end of the Social Republic, and the transition from the Kingdom to the modern Italy, Italian Republic, Tuscany once more flourished as a cultural centre of Italy. After the establishment of the regional government in 1970, Tuscany has always been ruled by centre-left governments. File:Agnolo Bronzino - Cosimo I de' Medici in armour - Google Art Project.jpg, Cosimo I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany, Cosimo I de' Medici, first Grand Duke of Tuscany File:Justus Sustermans - Portrait of Galileo Galilei, 1636.jpg, Galileo Galilei File:Pinocchio.jpg, ''Pinocchio'', created by Carlo Collodi (1883) File:An Italian partisan in Florence, 14 August 1944. TR2282.jpg, An Italian resistance movement, Italian partisan in Florence (1944)


Culture

Tuscany has an immense cultural and artistic heritage, expressed in the region's churches, palaces, art galleries, museums, villages and piazzas. Many of these artifacts are found in the main cities, such as
Florence Florence ( ; it, Firenze ) is a city in Central-Northern Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of a Northern Italy, continental part, delimited by the ...

Florence
and
Siena Siena ( , ; in English sometimes spelled Sienna; lat, Sena Iulia) is a city A city is a large .Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science En ...

Siena
, but also in smaller villages scattered around the region, such as
San Gimignano San Gimignano () is a small walled Middle Ages, medieval hill town in the province of Siena, Tuscany, north-central Italy. Known as ''the Town of Fine Towers'', San Gimignano is famous for its medieval architecture, unique in the preservation of a ...

San Gimignano
.


Art

Tuscany has a unique artistic legacy, and Florence is one of the world's most important water-colour centres, even so that it is often nicknamed the "art palace of Italy" (the region is also believed to have the largest concentration of Renaissance art and architecture in the world). Painters such as Cimabue and Giotto, the fathers of Italian painting, lived in Florence and Tuscany, as well as Arnolfo and Andrea Pisano, renewers of architecture and sculpture; Filippo Brunelleschi, Brunelleschi, Donatello and Masaccio, forefathers of the Renaissance; Lorenzo Ghiberti, Ghiberti and the Della Robbias, Filippo Lippi and Fra Angelico, Angelico; Botticelli, Paolo Uccello, and the universal genius of Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo. The region contains numerous museums and art galleries, many housing some of the world's most precious works of art. Such museums include the
Uffizi The Uffizi Gallery (; it, Galleria degli Uffizi, italic=no, ) is a prominent located adjacent to the in the in the region of , Italy. One of the most important Italian museums and the most visited, it is also one of the largest and best kno ...
, which keeps Botticelli's ''The Birth of Venus'', the
Palazzo Pitti The Palazzo Pitti (), in English sometimes called the Pitti Palace, is a vast, mainly Renaissance The Renaissance ( , ) , from , with the same meanings. was a period in European history marking the transition from the Middle Ages ...

Palazzo Pitti
, and the Bargello, to name a few. Most of the frescos, sculptures and paintings in Tuscany are held in the region's abundant churches and cathedrals, such as Florence Cathedral, Siena Cathedral, Pisa Cathedral and the Collegiata di San Gimignano.


Art schools

In the medieval period and in the Renaissance, there were four main Tuscan art schools which competed against each other: the Florentine School, the Sienese School, the Pisan School and the Lucchese School. * The Florentine School refers to artists in, from or influenced by the realism (arts), naturalistic style developed in the 14th century, largely through the efforts of Giotto di Bondone, and in the 15th century the leading school of the world. Some of the best known artists of the Florentine School are Filippo Brunelleschi, Brunelleschi, Donatello, Michelangelo, Fra Angelico, Botticelli, Filippo Lippi, Lippi, Masolino da Panicale, Masolino, and Masaccio. * The Sienese School of painting flourished in
Siena Siena ( , ; in English sometimes spelled Sienna; lat, Sena Iulia) is a city A city is a large .Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science En ...

Siena
between the 13th and 15th centuries and for a time rivaled Florence, though it was more conservative, being inclined towards the decorative beauty and elegant grace of late Gothic art. Its most important representatives include Duccio, whose work shows Byzantine influence; his pupil Simone Martini; Pietro Lorenzetti, Pietro and Ambrogio Lorenzetti; Domenico di Bartolo, Domenico and Taddeo di Bartolo; and Stefano di Giovanni, Sassetta and Matteo di Giovanni. Unlike the naturalistic Florentine art, there is a mystical streak in Sienese art, characterized by a common focus on miraculous events, distortions of time and place, and often dreamlike coloration, with less attention to proportions. In the 16th century the Mannerists Domenico di Pace Beccafumi, Beccafumi and Il Sodoma worked there. While Baldassare Peruzzi was born and trained in Siena, his major works and style reflect his long career in Rome. The economic and political decline of Siena by the 16th century, and its eventual subjugation by Florence, largely checked the development of Sienese painting, although it also meant that many Sienese works in churches and public buildings were not discarded or destroyed by new paintings or rebuilding. Siena remains a remarkably well-preserved Italian late-Medieval town. * The Lucchese School, also known as the School of Lucca and as the Pisan-Lucchese School, was a school of painting and sculpture that flourished in the 11th and 12th centuries in the western and southern part of the region, with an important centre in Volterra. The art is mostly anonymous. Although not as elegant or delicate as the Florentine School, Lucchese works are remarkable for their monumentality.


Main artistic centres

In the province of Arezzo: *
Arezzo Arezzo ( , , ) , also ; ett, 𐌀𐌓𐌉𐌕𐌉𐌌, Aritim. is a city and ''comune'' in Italy and the capital of the Province of Arezzo, province of the same name located in Tuscany. Arezzo is about southeast of Florence at an elevation of ...

Arezzo
* Castiglion Fiorentino * Cortona * Lucignano * Poppi * Sansepolcro In the province of Florence: *
Florence Florence ( ; it, Firenze ) is a city in Central-Northern Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of a Northern Italy, continental part, delimited by the ...

Florence
* Fiesole * Certaldo In the Province of Grosseto: *
Grosseto Grosseto () is a city and '' comune'' in the central Italian region of Tuscany it, Toscano (man) it, Toscana (woman) , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = Citiz ...
* Massa Marittima * Orbetello * Pitigliano * Roselle, Italy, Roselle * Sorano * Sovana In the province of Livorno: * Campiglia Marittima * Livorno * Bibbona * Bolgheri * Piombino * San Vincenzo, Tuscany, San Vincenzo * Populonia * Suvereto In the province of Lucca: * Barga, Tuscany, Barga * Castelnuovo di Garfagnana * Castiglione di Garfagnana *
Lucca Lucca ( , ) is a city and ''comune The (; plural: ) is a of , roughly equivalent to a or . Importance and function The provides essential public services: of births and deaths, , and maintenance of local roads and public works. ...

Lucca
* Pietrasanta * Villa Basilica In the province of Massa and Carrara: * Massa-Carrara, Massa and Carrara * Pontremoli * Fivizzano * Fosdinovo In the province of Pisa: *
Pisa Pisa ( , or ) is a city and ''comune'' in Tuscany, central Italy, straddling the Arno just before it empties into the Ligurian Sea. It is the capital city of the Province of Pisa. Although Pisa is known worldwide for its Leaning Tower of Pisa, ...

Pisa
* San Miniato * Volterra * Vicopisano In the province of Pistoia: * Pescia * Pistoia In the province of Prato: * Carmignano * Poggio a Caiano * Prato In the province of Siena: * Colle di Val d'Elsa *
Pienza Pienza () is a town and ''comune The (; plural: ) is a basic Administrative division, constituent entity of Italy, roughly equivalent to a township or municipality. Importance and function The provides many of the basic civil functions: ...

Pienza
* Montepulciano * Montalcino *
San Gimignano San Gimignano () is a small walled Middle Ages, medieval hill town in the province of Siena, Tuscany, north-central Italy. Known as ''the Town of Fine Towers'', San Gimignano is famous for its medieval architecture, unique in the preservation of a ...

San Gimignano
*
Siena Siena ( , ; in English sometimes spelled Sienna; lat, Sena Iulia) is a city A city is a large .Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science En ...

Siena
* Monteriggioni File:Arezzo - Piazza Grande.jpg,
Arezzo Arezzo ( , , ) , also ; ett, 𐌀𐌓𐌉𐌕𐌉𐌌, Aritim. is a city and ''comune'' in Italy and the capital of the Province of Arezzo, province of the same name located in Tuscany. Arezzo is about southeast of Florence at an elevation of ...

Arezzo
File:Florence - panoramio (35).jpg,
Florence Florence ( ; it, Firenze ) is a city in Central-Northern Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of a Northern Italy, continental part, delimited by the ...

Florence
File:Cathedral and Campanary - Pisa 2014 (2).JPG,
Pisa Pisa ( , or ) is a city and ''comune'' in Tuscany, central Italy, straddling the Arno just before it empties into the Ligurian Sea. It is the capital city of the Province of Pisa. Although Pisa is known worldwide for its Leaning Tower of Pisa, ...

Pisa
File:Palazzo Publico and Torre del Mangia from Facciatone - Siena 2016.jpg,
Siena Siena ( , ; in English sometimes spelled Sienna; lat, Sena Iulia) is a city A city is a large .Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science En ...

Siena
File:San-Gimignano-South-2012.JPG,
San Gimignano San Gimignano () is a small walled Middle Ages, medieval hill town in the province of Siena, Tuscany, north-central Italy. Known as ''the Town of Fine Towers'', San Gimignano is famous for its medieval architecture, unique in the preservation of a ...

San Gimignano
File:2015 lucca 007.jpg,
Lucca Lucca ( , ) is a city and ''comune The (; plural: ) is a of , roughly equivalent to a or . Importance and function The provides essential public services: of births and deaths, , and maintenance of local roads and public works. ...

Lucca
File:Pienza italy.jpg,
Pienza Pienza () is a town and ''comune The (; plural: ) is a basic Administrative division, constituent entity of Italy, roughly equivalent to a township or municipality. Importance and function The provides many of the basic civil functions: ...

Pienza


Language

Apart from standard Italian language, Italian, the Tuscan dialect (''dialetto toscano'') is spoken in Tuscany. The Italian language is based historically on a "literary version" of Tuscan. It became the language of culture for all the people of Italy, thanks to the prestige of the masterpieces of Dante Alighieri, Petrarch, Giovanni Boccaccio, Niccolò Machiavelli and Francesco Guicciardini. It would later become the official language of all the List of historic states of Italy, Italian states and of the Kingdom of Italy, when it was formed. Many Tuscan terms are also common in the dialects of
Umbria Umbria ( , ) is a of central . It includes Lake and , and is crossed by the River . It is the only landlocked region on the . The regional capital is . The region is characterized by hills, mountains, valleys and historical towns such as the un ...

Umbria
and some parts of Emilia-Romagna, Emilia Romagna, too.


Music

Tuscany has a rich ancient and modern musical tradition, and has produced numerous composers and musicians, including Giacomo Puccini and Pietro Mascagni. Florence is the main musical centre of Tuscany. The city was at the heart of much of the Western musical tradition. It was there that the Florentine Camerata convened in the mid-16th century and experimented with setting tales of Greek mythology to music and staging, resulting in the first operas, fostering the further development of the operatic form, and the later developments of separate "classical" forms such as the symphony. There are numerous musical centres in Tuscany.
Arezzo Arezzo ( , , ) , also ; ett, 𐌀𐌓𐌉𐌕𐌉𐌌, Aritim. is a city and ''comune'' in Italy and the capital of the Province of Arezzo, province of the same name located in Tuscany. Arezzo is about southeast of Florence at an elevation of ...

Arezzo
is indelibly connected with the name of Guido d'Arezzo, the 11th-century monk who invented modern musical notation and the solfège, do-re-mi system of naming notes of the scale;
Lucca Lucca ( , ) is a city and ''comune The (; plural: ) is a of , roughly equivalent to a or . Importance and function The provides essential public services: of births and deaths, , and maintenance of local roads and public works. ...

Lucca
hosted possibly the greatest Italian composer of Verismo, Giacomo Puccini together with Alfredo Catalani, while Pietro Mascagni was born in Livorno; and
Siena Siena ( , ; in English sometimes spelled Sienna; lat, Sena Iulia) is a city A city is a large .Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science En ...

Siena
is well known for the Accademia Musicale Chigiana, an organization that currently sponsors major musical activities such as the Siena Music Week and the Alfredo Casella International Composition Competition. Other important musical centres in Tuscany include
Pisa Pisa ( , or ) is a city and ''comune'' in Tuscany, central Italy, straddling the Arno just before it empties into the Ligurian Sea. It is the capital city of the Province of Pisa. Although Pisa is known worldwide for its Leaning Tower of Pisa, ...

Pisa
and
Grosseto Grosseto () is a city and '' comune'' in the central Italian region of Tuscany it, Toscano (man) it, Toscana (woman) , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = Citiz ...
.


Literature

Several famous writers and poets are from Tuscany, most notably Florentine author Dante Alighieri. Tuscany's literary scene particularly thrived in the 13th century and the Renaissance. In Tuscany, especially in the Middle Ages, popular love poetry existed. A school of imitators of the Sicilians was led by Dante da Maiano, but its literary originality took another line – that of humorous and satirical poetry. The democratic form of government created a style of poetry which stood strongly against the medieval mystic and chivalrous style. Devout invocation of God or of a lady came from the cloister and the castle; in the streets of the cities everything that had gone before was treated with ridicule or biting sarcasm. Folgóre da San Gimignano laughs when in his sonnets he tells a party of Sienese youths the occupations of every month in the year, or when he teaches a party of Florentine lads the pleasures of every day in the week. Cenne della Chitarra laughs when he parodies Folgore's sonnets. The sonnets of Rustico di Filippo are half-fun and half-satire, as is the work of Cecco Angiolieri of Siena, the oldest humorist we know, a far-off precursor of François Rabelais and Michel de Montaigne. Another type of poetry also began in Tuscany. Guittone d'Arezzo made art abandon chivalry and Provence, Provençal forms for national motives and Latin forms. He attempted political poetry, and although his work is often obscure, he prepared the way for the Bolognese school. Bologna was the city of science, and philosophy, philosophical poetry appeared there. Guido Guinizelli was the poet after the new fashion of the art. In his work the ideas of chivalry are changed and enlarged. Only those whose heart is pure can be blessed with true love, regardless of class. He refuted the traditional credo of courtly love, for which love is a subtle philosophy only a few chosen knights and princesses could grasp. Love is blind to blasons but not to a good heart when it finds one: when it succeeds it is the result of the spiritual, not physical affinity between two souls. Guinizzelli's democratic view can be better understood in the light of the greater equality and freedom enjoyed by the city-states of the center-north and the rise of a middle class eager to legitimise itself in the eyes of the old nobility, still regarded with respect and admiration but in fact dispossessed of its political power. Guinizelli's ''canzone, Canzoni'' make up the bible of Dolce Stil Novo, and one in particular, "Al cor gentil" ("To a Kind Heart") is considered the manifesto of the new movement which would bloom in Florence under Guido Cavalcanti, Cavalcanti, Dante and their followers. His poetry has some of the faults of the school of d'Arezzo. Nevertheless, he marks a great development in the history of Italian art, especially because of his close connection with Dante's lyric poetry. In the 13th century, there were several major allegory, allegorical poems. One of these is by Brunetto Latini, who was a close friend of Dante. His ''Tesoretto'' is a short poem, in seven-syllable verses, rhyming in couplets, in which the author professes to be lost in a wilderness and to meet with a lady, who represents Nature, from whom he receives much instruction. We see here the vision, the allegory, the instruction with a moral object, three elements which we shall find again in the ''Divine Comedy''. Francesco da Barberino, a learned lawyer who was secretary to bishops, a judge, and a notary public, notary, wrote two little allegorical poems, the ''Documenti d'amore'' and ''Del reggimento e dei costumi delle donne''. The poems today are generally studied not as literature, but for historical context. A fourth allegorical work was the ''Intelligenza'', which is sometimes attributed to Compagni, but is probably only a translation of French poems. In the 15th century, Renaissance humanism, humanist and publisher Aldus Manutius published the Tuscan poets Petrarch and Dante Alighieri (''Divine Comedy''), creating the model for what became a standard for modern Italian.


Cuisine

Simplicity is central to the Italian cuisine#Tuscany, Tuscan cuisine. Legumes, bread, cheese, vegetables, mushrooms and fresh fruit are used. Olive oil is made up of Moraiolo, Leccino and Frantoiano olives. White truffles from San Miniato appear in October and November. Beef of the highest quality comes from the Chiana Valley, specifically a breed known as Chianina used for Florentine steak. The indigenous Cinta Senese breed of pork is also produced. Wine is a famous and common produce of Tuscany.
Chianti A Chianti wine (, also , ) is any wine produced in the Chianti (region), Chianti region of central Tuscan wine, Tuscany. It was historically associated with a squat bottle enclosed in a straw basket, called a ''fiasco (bottle), fiasco'' ("flask"; ...

Chianti
is arguably the most well known internationally. So many British tourists come to the area where Chianti wine is produced that this specific area has been nicknamed "Chiantishire".


Postage stamps

Between 1851 and 1860, the Grand Duchy of Tuscany, an independent Italian state until 1859 when it joined the United Provinces of Central Italy, produced two postage stamp issues which are among the most prized classic stamp issues of the world, and include the most valuable Italian stamp. The Grand Duchy of Tuscany was an independent Italian state from 1569 to 1859, but was occupied by
France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a List of transcontinental countries, transcontinental country spanning Western Europe and Overseas France, overseas regions and territories in the Ame ...

France
from 1808 to 1814. The Duchy comprised most of the present area of Tuscany, and its capital was Florence. In December 1859, the Grand Duchy officially ceased to exist, being joined to the duchies of Duchy of Modena and Reggio, Modena and Duchy of Parma, Parma to form the United Provinces of Central Italy, which was annexed by the Kingdom of Sardinia a few months later in March 1860. In 1862 it became part of Italy, and joined the Italian postal system.


Economy

The Gross domestic product (GDP) of the region was 117.5 billion euros in 2018, accounting for 6.7% of Italy's economic output. GDP per capita adjusted for purchasing power was 31,400 euros or 104% of the EU27 average in the same year. The GDP per employee was 106% of the EU average.


Unemployment rate

The unemployment rate stood at 7.3% in 2018 and was slightly lower than the national average.


Agriculture

The subsoil in Tuscany is relatively rich in mineral resources, with iron ore, copper, mercury and lignite mines, the famous ''soffioni'' (fumarole) at Larderello, and the vast marble mines in
VersiliaThe Versilia is a part of Tuscany it, Toscano (man) it, Toscana (woman) , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = Citizenship , demographics1_footnotes = , demographi ...

Versilia
. Although its share is falling all the time, agriculture still contributes to the region's economy. In the region's inland areas cereals, potatoes, olives and grapes are grown. The swamplands, which used to be marshy, now produce vegetables, rice, tobacco, beets and sunflowers.


Industry

The industrial sector is dominated by mining, given the abundance of underground resources. Also of note are textiles and clothing, chemicals and pharmaceuticals, steel and metalworking, glass and ceramics, and printing and publishing. Smaller areas specialising in manufacturing and craft industries are found in the hinterland: the leather and footwear area in the south-west part of the province of Florence, the hot-house plant area in Pistoia, the ceramics and textile industries in the Prato area, scooters and motorcycles in Pontedera, and the processing of timber for the manufacture of wooden furniture in the Cascina area. The heavy industries (mining, steel and mechanical engineering) are concentrated along the coastal strip (Livorno and
Pisa Pisa ( , or ) is a city and ''comune'' in Tuscany, central Italy, straddling the Arno just before it empties into the Ligurian Sea. It is the capital city of the Province of Pisa. Although Pisa is known worldwide for its Leaning Tower of Pisa, ...

Pisa
areas), where there are also important chemical industries. Also of note are the marble (Carrara area) and paper industries (
Lucca Lucca ( , ) is a city and ''comune The (; plural: ) is a of , roughly equivalent to a or . Importance and function The provides essential public services: of births and deaths, , and maintenance of local roads and public works. ...

Lucca
area).


Tourism

Tuscany is a traditionally popular destination in
Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of delimited by the and surrounding it, whose territory largely coincides with the . Italy is located in the centre of th ...

Italy
, and the main tourist destinations by number of tourist arrivals are
Florence Florence ( ; it, Firenze ) is a city in Central-Northern Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of a Northern Italy, continental part, delimited by the ...

Florence
,
Pisa Pisa ( , or ) is a city and ''comune'' in Tuscany, central Italy, straddling the Arno just before it empties into the Ligurian Sea. It is the capital city of the Province of Pisa. Although Pisa is known worldwide for its Leaning Tower of Pisa, ...

Pisa
,
Montecatini Terme Montecatini Terme is an Italian municipality (''comune'') of c. 20,000 inhabitants in the province of Pistoia, Tuscany, central Italy. It is the most important center in Valdinievole. The town is located at the eastern end of Piana di Lucca an ...
,
Castiglione della Pescaia Castiglione della Pescaia (), regionally simply abbreviated as Castiglione, is an ancient seaside town in the province of Grosseto, in Tuscany it, Toscano (man) it, Toscana (woman) , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , ...
and
Grosseto Grosseto () is a city and '' comune'' in the central Italian region of Tuscany it, Toscano (man) it, Toscana (woman) , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = Citiz ...
. Additionally, the
Chianti A Chianti wine (, also , ) is any wine produced in the Chianti (region), Chianti region of central Tuscan wine, Tuscany. It was historically associated with a squat bottle enclosed in a straw basket, called a ''fiasco (bottle), fiasco'' ("flask"; ...

Chianti
region,
VersiliaThe Versilia is a part of Tuscany it, Toscano (man) it, Toscana (woman) , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = Citizenship , demographics1_footnotes = , demographi ...

Versilia
and
Val d'Orcia The Val d'Orcia or Valdorcia () is a region of Tuscany, central Italy, which extends from the hills south of Siena to Monte Amiata. Its gentle, cultivated hills are occasionally broken by gullies and by picturesque towns and villages such as Pien ...

Val d'Orcia
are also internationally renowned and particularly popular spots among travellers. In terms of seaside tourism, which contributes to 40% of tourist arrivals in the region,
Castiglione della Pescaia Castiglione della Pescaia (), regionally simply abbreviated as Castiglione, is an ancient seaside town in the province of Grosseto, in Tuscany it, Toscano (man) it, Toscana (woman) , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , ...
's sea has been repeatedly nominated as
Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of delimited by the and surrounding it, whose territory largely coincides with the . Italy is located in the centre of th ...

Italy
's best sea by the Italian non-governmental environmentalist organisation Legambiente. Castiglione della Pescaia, Castiglione gained the first place in the most recent ranking too, published in 2019. The town is also the most visited seaside destination in Tuscany, and fourth most visited overall, with circa 1.3 million tourist arrivals recorded in 2015. Other popular seaside destination are
Grosseto Grosseto () is a city and '' comune'' in the central Italian region of Tuscany it, Toscano (man) it, Toscana (woman) , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = Citiz ...
(second most popular after Castiglione), Orbetello (third most popular), Monte Argentario, Viareggio,
Elba Elba ( it, isola d'Elba, ; la, Ilva; Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language used in ancient Greece and the classical antiquity, ancient world from around 1500 BC to 300 BC. It is often roughly divided into ...

Elba
and Giglio Island.
Maremma thumbnail, A sunflower field in Maremma The Maremma (, ; from Latin , "maritime
and And or AND may refer to: Logic, grammar, and computing * Conjunction (grammar) In grammar In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language, meaning that it is a comprehensive, systematic, objective, and precise study of ...

and
) is a coastal area of western central Italy, bordering the Tyrrhenian Sea. It includes much of south-western Tuscany and part of northern Lazio. It was for ...

Maremma
encapsulates the most visited seaside destinations in Tuscany. The Tuscan tourist destinations of Montalcino and
Castiglione della Pescaia Castiglione della Pescaia (), regionally simply abbreviated as Castiglione, is an ancient seaside town in the province of Grosseto, in Tuscany it, Toscano (man) it, Toscana (woman) , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , ...
are also home to the two most expensive streets in
Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of delimited by the and surrounding it, whose territory largely coincides with the . Italy is located in the centre of th ...

Italy
for property prices, with average values exceeding those of every other Italian street. File:Cala Grande Argentario.jpg, Monte Argentario File:Elba litorale.jpg,
Elba Elba ( it, isola d'Elba, ; la, Ilva; Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language used in ancient Greece and the classical antiquity, ancient world from around 1500 BC to 300 BC. It is often roughly divided into ...

Elba
File:Panorama dalla torre Torre di Castelmarino.jpg, Maremma Regional Park


Fashion

The fashion and textile industry are the pillars of the Florentine economy. In the 15th century, Florentines were working with luxury textiles such as wool and silk. Today the greatest designers in Europe utilize the textile industry in Tuscany, and especially Florence. Italy has one of the strongest textile industries in Europe, accounting for approximately one quarter of European production. Its turnover is over 25 billion euros. It is the third largest supplier of clothing after China and Japan. The Italian fashion industry generates 60% of its turnover abroad.


Demographics

The population density of Tuscany, with in 2008, is below the national average (). This is due to the low population density of the provinces of Arezzo, Siena, and especially Grosseto (). The highest density is found in the province of Prato (), followed by the provinces of Pistoia, Livorno, Florence and Lucca, peaking in the cities of Florence (more than ), Livorno, Prato, Viareggio, Forte dei Marmi and Montecatini Terme (all with a population density of more than ). The territorial distribution of the population is closely linked to the socio-cultural and, more recently, economic and industrial development of Tuscany. Accordingly, the least densely populated areas are those where the main activity is agriculture, unlike the others where, despite the presence of a number of large industrial complexes, the main activities are connected with tourism and associated services, alongside many small firms in the leather, glass, paper and clothing sectors. Italians make up 93% of the total population. Starting from the 1980s, the region has attracted a large flux of immigrants, particularly from China. There is also a significant community of British and American residents. , the Italian national institute of statistics ISTAT estimated that 275,149 foreign-born immigrants live in Tuscany, equal to 7% of the total regional population.


Government and politics

The President of Tuscany is the head of government. Legislative power is vested in the Regional Council of Tuscany, while executive power is exercised by the Regional Government led by the President, who is directly elected by the people. The current Statute, which regulates the functioning of the regional institutions, has been in force since 2005. Tuscany is a stronghold of the centre-left Democratic Party (Italy), Democratic Party (PD), forming with
Emilia-Romagna Emilia-Romagna (, , both also ; ; egl, Emégglia-Rumâgna or ''Emîlia-Rumâgna''; rgn, Emélia-Rumâgna) is one of the 20 Regions of Italy, administrative regions of Italy, situated in the north of the country, comprising the historical regions ...

Emilia-Romagna
,
Umbria Umbria ( , ) is a of central . It includes Lake and , and is crossed by the River . It is the only landlocked region on the . The regional capital is . The region is characterized by hills, mountains, valleys and historical towns such as the un ...

Umbria
and
Marche Marche ( , ) is one of the Regions of Italy, twenty regions of Italy. In English, the region is referred to as The Marches ( ). The region is located in the Central Italy, central area of the country, bordered by Emilia-Romagna and the republic ...

Marche
the so-called Italian political "Red belt (Italy), Red Quadrilateral". Since 1970, Tuscany has been continuously governed by left-wing governments.


Administrative divisions

Tuscany is divided into nine provinces and one Metropolitan City:


See also

* :Cities and towns in Tuscany, Cities and towns in Tuscany * List of municipalities of Tuscany * Archduke Sigismund of Austria (born 1966)#Line of succession to the Tuscan throne, Line of succession to the Tuscan throne *
Tuscan Archipelago The Tuscan Archipelago is a chain of islands between the Ligurian Sea Image:Ligurian Sea map.png, 300px, The Ligurian Sea The Ligurian Sea ( it, Mar Ligure; french: Mer Ligurienne; lij, Mâ Ligure) is an arm of the Mediterranean Sea, between th ...

Tuscan Archipelago
* :People from Tuscany, People from Tuscany


References


Citations


Sources

* *


External links

*
Official website of the Tuscany Region
(in Italian)
Tuscany official tourism website
{{Coord, 43, 46, 17, N, 11, 15, 15, E, display=title Tuscany, NUTS 2 statistical regions of the European Union Regions of Italy Wine regions of Italy Villanovan culture