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The Turkic peoples are a collection of
ethnic group An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people A people is any plurality of person A person (plural people or persons) is a being that has certain capacities or attributes such as reason, morality, consciousness or self-consciousn ...
s of
Central Central is an adjective usually referring to being in the center (disambiguation), center of some place or (mathematical) object. Central may also refer to: Directions and generalised locations * Central Africa, a region in the centre of Africa ...

Central
,
East
East
,
North North is one of the four compass points The points of the compass are the vectors by which planet A planet is an astronomical body orbiting a star or Stellar evolution#Stellar remnants, stellar remnant that is massive enough to be Hydro ...
and
West Asia Western Asia, also West Asia, is the westernmost subregion of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere, Eastern and Northern Hemisphere, Northern Hemisphere of the Earth, Hem ...
as well as parts of
Europe Europe is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven geographical regions are commonly regarded as continents. Ordered ...

Europe
and
North Africa North Africa or Northern Africa is a region encompassing the northern portion of the African continent. There is no singularly accepted scope for the region, and it is sometimes defined as stretching from the Atlantic shores of Mauritania in th ...

North Africa
, who speak
Turkic languages The Turkic languages are a language family of at least 35 documented languages, spoken by the Turkic peoples of Eurasia from Eastern Europe and Southern Europe to Central Asia, East Asia, North Asia (Siberia), and Western Asia. The Turkic langu ...

Turkic languages
.. "Turkic peoples, any of various peoples whose members speak languages belonging to the Turkic subfamily...". "The Turkic peoples represent a diverse collection of ethnic groups defined by the Turkic languages." The origins of the Turkic peoples has been a topic of much discussion. Recent linguistic, genetic and archaeological evidence suggests that the earliest Turkic peoples descended from agricultural communities in
Northeastern China Northeast China, is a geographical region of China. It usually corresponds specifically to the three provinces east of the Greater Khingan Range, namely Liaoning Liaoning (), is a coastal province A province is almost always an admini ...

Northeastern China
and wider
Northeast Asia Northeast Asia or Northeastern Asia is a geographical subregion of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere, Eastern and Northern Hemisphere, Northern Hemisphere of the Eart ...
, who moved westwards into
Mongolia Mongolia (, mn, Монгол Улс, Mongol Uls, Mongolian script, Traditional Mongolian: '; literal translation, lit. "Mongol Nation" or "State of Mongolia") is a landlocked country in East Asia. It is bordered by Russia Mongolia–Russia ...

Mongolia
in the late 3rd millennium BC, where they adopted a pastoral lifestyle. By the early 1st millennium BC, these peoples had become
equestrian nomads The Eurasian nomads were a large group of nomadic peoples from the Eurasian Steppe, who often appear in history as invaders of Europe Europe is a continent A continent is one of several large landmasses. Generally identified by conv ...
. In subsequent centuries, the steppe populations of
Central Asia Central Asia is a region in Asia Asia () is 's largest and most populous , located primarily in the and . It shares the continental of with the continent of and the continental landmass of with both Europe and . Asia covers an area ...

Central Asia
appear to have been progressively
Turkified Turkification, Turkization, or Turkicization ( tr, Türkleştirme), describes both a cultural and language shift whereby populations or states were forcefully assimilated or adopted a historical Turkic people, Turkic culture, such as in the Ottom ...
by an
East Asian East Asia is the eastern region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, inhabitants, and phenomena of the Earth and ...
dominant minority In political science, minoritarianism (or minorityism) is a neologism for a political structure or process in which a Minority group, minority segment of a population has a certain degree of primacy in that entity's decision making. Minoritariani ...
moving out of Mongolia. Many vastly differing
ethnic group An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people A people is any plurality of person A person (plural people or persons) is a being that has certain capacities or attributes such as reason, morality, consciousness or self-consciousn ...
s have throughout history become part of the Turkic peoples through
language shift Language shift, also known as language transfer or language replacement or language assimilation, is the process whereby a speech community Arnold Lakhovsky, ''The Conversation'' (circa 1935) A speech community is a group of people who share a s ...
,
acculturation The four essential (paradigm) forms of acculturation Acculturation is a process of social, psychological, and cultural changeCulture change is a term used in public policy making that emphasizes the influence of cultural capital on individual and ...
,
conquest Conquest is the act of military subjugation of an enemy by force of Weapon, arms. Military history provides many examples of conquest: the Gallic Wars, Roman conquest of Gaul, the Maurya Empire, Mauryan conquest of Afghanistan and of vast areas ...

conquest
, intermixing,
adoption Adoption is a process whereby a person assumes the parenting Parenting or child rearing promotes and supports the physical Physical may refer to: *Physical examination, a regular overall check-up with a doctor *Physical (album), ''Physical'' ...

adoption
and
religious conversion Religious conversion is the adoption of a set of beliefs identified with one particular to the exclusion of others. Thus "religious conversion" would describe the abandoning of adherence to one denomination and affiliating with another. This m ...
. Nevertheless, certain Turkic peoples share, to varying degrees, non-linguistic characteristics like cultural traits, ancestry from a common
gene pool The gene pool is the set of all genes, or genetic information, in any population, usually of a particular species. Description A large gene pool indicates extensive genetic diversity, which is associated with robust populations that can surviv ...
, and historical experiences. The most notable modern Turkic-speaking ethnic groups include
Turkish people The Turkish people, or simply the Turks, ( tr, Türkler) are the world's largest Turkic peoples, Turkic ethnic group; they speak Turkish dialects, various dialects of the Turkish language and form a majority in Turkey and Northern Cyprus. In ad ...
,
Azerbaijanis Azerbaijanis (; az, Azərbaycanlılar) or Azeris (), also known as Azerbaijani Turks ( az, Azərbaycan Türkləri, ), are a Turkic peoples, Turkic ethnic group, living mainly in the sovereign Azerbaijan, Republic of Azerbaijan and the Azerba ...

Azerbaijanis
,
Uzbeks The Uzbeks ( uz, , , , ) are a Turkic peoples, Turkic ethnic group native to wider Central Asia, being the largest Turkic ethnic group in the area. They comprise the majority population of Uzbekistan but are also found as a minority group in: ...
,
Kazakhs The Kazakhs (also spelled Qazaqs; Kazakh: , , , , , ; the English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medi ...

Kazakhs
,
Turkmens Turkmens ( tk, , , , ; historically the Turkmen), also known as Turkmen Turks ( tk, , ), are a Turkic ethnic group native to Central Asia Central Asia is a region in Asia which stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China and Mongol ...
,
KyrgyzKyrgyz, Kirghiz or Kyrgyzstani may refer to: *Things related to Kyrgyzstan *Kyrgyz people *Kyrgyz language *Kyrgyz culture *Kyrgyz cuisine *Yenisei Kirghiz *The Fuyu Kyrgyz language, Fuyü Gïrgïs language in Northeastern China {{Disambig Languag ...

Kyrgyz
and
Uyghur people The Uyghurs ( or ; ug, ئۇيغۇرلار, , ; zh, s=, t=, p=Wéiwú'ěr, ), alternatively spelled Uighurs, Uygurs or Uigurs, are a Turkic ethnic group originating from and culturally affiliated with the general region of Central and East Asia ...
.


Etymology

The first known mention of the term ''Turk'' (
Old Turkic Old Turkic (also East Old Turkic, Orkhon Turkic, Old Uyghur) is the earliest attested form of Turkic, found in Göktürk and Uyghur inscriptions dating from about the 7th century AD to the 13th century. It is the oldest attested member of th ...
: 𐱅𐰇𐰼𐰰 ''Türük'' or 𐱅𐰇𐰼𐰰:𐰜𐰇𐰛 ''Kök Türük'', ,
Pinyin ''Hanyu Pinyin'' (), often abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese, Standard Mandarin Chinese in mainland China and to some extent in Taiwan and Singapore. It is often used to teach Standard Mandarin, ...

Pinyin
: Tūjué <
Middle Chinese Middle Chinese (formerly known as Ancient Chinese) or the Qieyun system (QYS) is the historical variety of Chinese Chinese can refer to: * Something related to China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country ...
*''tɦut-kyat'' < *''dwət-kuɑt'',
Old Tibetan Old Tibetan refers to the period of Tibetan language reflected in documents from the adoption of writing by the Tibetan Empire The Tibetan Empire (, ) existed from the 7th to 9th centuries AD when Tibet was unified as a large and powerful emp ...
: ''drugu'')Kultegin's Memorial Complex, TÜRIK BITIG
Orkhon inscriptions The Orkhon inscriptions, also known as the Orhon inscriptions, Orhun inscriptions, Khöshöö Tsaidam monuments (also spelled ''Khoshoo Tsaidam'', ''Koshu-Tsaidam'' or ''Höshöö caidam''), or Kul Tigin steles ( zh, t=闕特勤碑, s=阙特勤 ...
Tonyukuk's Memorial Complex, TÜRIK BITIG
Bain Tsokto inscriptions The Tonyukuk inscriptions, also called the Bain Tsokto inscriptions are Turkic inscriptions of the 8th century in Mongolia Mongolia (, Mongolian language, Mongolian: , Mongolian script, Traditional Mongolian: ') is a landlocked country in ...
applied to only one Turkic group, namely, the
Göktürks The Göktürks, Celestial Turks or Blue Turks ( otk, 𐱅𐰇𐰼𐰰:𐰉𐰆𐰑𐰣, Türük Bodun; zh, 突厥 ''Tūjué''; Wade-Giles: ''T'u-chüeh'') were a nomadic confederation of Turkic peoples in medieval Inner Asia. The Göktürks, un ...
, who were also mentioned, as ''türüg'' ~ ''török'', in the 6th-century Khüis Tolgoi inscription, most likely not later than 587 AD. A letter by
Ishbara Qaghan Ishbara Qaghan ( otk, 𐰃𐱁𐰉𐰺𐰀:𐰴𐰍𐰣, Ϊšbara qaγan, 沙缽略可汗/沙钵略可汗, Pinyin ''Hanyu Pinyin'' (), often abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese, Standard Mandarin ...
to
Emperor Wen of Sui The Emperor Wen of Sui (; 21 July 541 – 13 August 604), personal name Yang Jian (), Xianbei The Xianbei (; ) were a Proto-Mongolic Proto-Mongolic is the hypothetical ancestor language of the modern Mongolic languages. It is very close t ...
in 585 described him as "the Great Turk Khan". The Bugut (584 CE) and
Orkhon inscriptions The Orkhon inscriptions, also known as the Orhon inscriptions, Orhun inscriptions, Khöshöö Tsaidam monuments (also spelled ''Khoshoo Tsaidam'', ''Koshu-Tsaidam'' or ''Höshöö caidam''), or Kul Tigin steles ( zh, t=闕特勤碑, s=阙特勤 ...
(735 CE) use the terms ''Türküt'', ''Türk'' and ''Türük''. During the first century CE,
Pomponius Mela Pomponius Mela, who wrote around AD 43, was the earliest Roman geographer. He was born in Tingentera (now Algeciras) and died  AD 45. His short work (''De situ orbis libri III.'') remained in use nearly to the year 1500. It occupies less th ...
refers to the ''Turcae'' in the forests north of the
Sea of Azov The Sea of Azov ( la, Palus Maeotis ; gr, Μαιῶτις λίμνη or Propontis or now la, mare Asoviense; russian: Азовское море, Azovskoye more; uk, Азовське море, Озівське море, Azovske more, Ozivske ...

Sea of Azov
, and
Pliny the Elder #REDIRECT Pliny the Elder#REDIRECT Pliny the Elder Gaius Plinius Secundus (AD 23/2479), called Pliny the Elder (), was a Roman author, a naturalist Natural history is a domain of inquiry involving organisms, including animals, fungus, fungi, ...

Pliny the Elder
lists the ''Tyrcae'' among the people of the same area. However, English archaeologist
Ellis Minns Sir Ellis Hovell Minns, FBA (16 July 1874 – 13 June 1953) was a British academic and archaeologist Archaeology or archeology is the study of human activity through the recovery and analysis of material culture. Archaeology is often consi ...
contended that ''Tyrcae'' Τῦρκαι is "a false correction" for '' Iyrcae'' Ἱύρκαι, a people who dwelt beyond the
Thyssagetae The Thyssagetae ( grc, Θυσσαγέται) were an ancient tribe described by Herodotus Herodotus (; grc, Ἡρόδοτος, ''Hēródotos'', ; BC) was an Classical Greece, ancient Greek historian who was born in Halicarnassus in the Achae ...
, according to
Herodotus Herodotus ( ; grc, Ἡρόδοτος, Hēródotos, ; BC) was an ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa''), ge ...
(
Histories Histories or, in Latin, Historiae may refer to: * the plural of history * Histories (Herodotus), ''Histories'' (Herodotus), by Herodotus * ''The Histories'', by Timaeus (historian), Timaeus * The Histories (Polybius), ''The Histories'' (Polybius), ...
, iv. 22), and were likely
Ugric The Ugric or Ugrian languages ( or ) are a proposed branch of the Uralic language family. The name Ugric is derived from Ugrians, an archaic exonym for the Magyars (Hungarians) and Yugra, a region in north-west Russia. Ugric includes three ...
ancestors of
Magyars Hungarians, also known as Magyars ( ; hu, magyarok ), are a nation and ethnic group native to Hungary (Hungarian: Magyarország) and Kingdom of Hungary, historical Hungarian lands who share a common Hungarian culture, culture, Hungarian histor ...

Magyars
. There are references to certain groups in antiquity whose names might have been foreign transcriptions of ''Tür(ü)k'', such as ''Togarma'', ''Turukha''/''Turuška'', ''Turukku'' and so on; but the information gap is so substantial that any connection of these ancient people to the modern Turks is not possible. It is generally accepted that the name ''Türk'' is ultimately derived from the Old-Turkic migration-term 𐱅𐰇𐰼𐰰 ''Türük''/''Törük'',<"Türk"
in ''Turkish Etymological Dictionary'', Sevan Nişanyan.
which means 'created, born' or 'strong', Scholars, including Toru Haneda, Onogawa Hidemi, and Geng Shimin believed that ''Di'', ''Dili'', ''Dingling'', ''Chile'' and ''Tujue'' all came from the Turkic word ''Türk'', which means 'powerful' and 'strength', and its plural form is ''Türküt''. Even though
Gerhard DoerferGerhard Doerfer (8 March 1920 – 27 December 2003) was a German Turkologist, Altaist, and philologist best known for his studies of the Turkic languages The Turkic languages are a language family of at least 35 documented languages, spoken by th ...
supports the proposal that ''türk'' means 'strong' in general,
Gerard Clauson Sir Gerard Leslie Makins Clauson (28 April 1891 – 1 May 1974) was an English civil servant, businessman, and Orientalist best known for his studies of the Turkic languages The Turkic languages are a language family of at least 35 documented l ...
points out that "the word ''türk'' is never used in the generalized sense of 'strong'" and that ''türk'' was originally a noun and meant "'the culminating point of maturity' (of a fruit, human being, etc.), but more often used as an djectivemeaning (of a fruit) 'just fully ripe'; (of a human being) 'in the prime of life, young, and vigorous'". Turkologist Peter B. Golden agrees that the term ''Turk'' has roots in
Old Turkic Old Turkic (also East Old Turkic, Orkhon Turkic, Old Uyghur) is the earliest attested form of Turkic, found in Göktürk and Uyghur inscriptions dating from about the 7th century AD to the 13th century. It is the oldest attested member of th ...
. yet is not convinced by attempts to link ''Dili'', ''Dingling'', ''Chile'', ''Tele'', & ''Tiele'', which possibly transcribed *''tegrek'' (probably meaning '
cart A cart or dray (Aus. & NZ) is a vehicle A vehicle (from la, vehiculum) is a machine A machine is a man-made device that uses power to apply forces and control movement to perform an action. Machines can be driven by animals and peo ...

cart
'), to ''Tujue'', which transliterated ''Türküt''. The Chinese
Book of Zhou The ''Book of Zhou'' (''Zhōu Shū'') records the official history of the History of China, Chinese/Xianbei ruled Western Wei and Northern Zhou dynasties, and ranks among the official Twenty-Four Histories of imperial China. Compiled by the Tang ...
(7th century) presents an etymology of the name ''Turk'' as derived from 'helmet', explaining that this name comes from the shape of a mountain where they worked in the
Altai Mountains The Altai Mountains (), also spelled Altay Mountains, are a mountain range A mountain range is a series of mountains ranged in a line and connected by high ground. A mountain system or mountain belt is a group of mountain ranges with simila ...

Altai Mountains
. Hungarian scholar
András Róna-Tas Image:Andras Rona-Tas.jpg, 250px, András Róna-Tas at a Hungarian conference András Róna-Tas (born 30 December 1931) is a Hungarian people, Hungarian historian and linguistics, linguist. He was born in 1931 in Budapest. Róna-Tas studied under s ...
(1991) pointed to a Khotanese-Saka word, ''tturakä'' 'lid', semantically stretchable to 'helmet', as a possible source for this folk etymology, yet Golden thinks this connection requires more data. The earliest Turkic-speaking peoples identifiable in Chinese sources are the Gekun and Xinli, located in South Siberia. Another earlier people, the
Dingling The Dingling () were ancient people who lived in Siberia Siberia (; rus, Сибирь, r=Sibir', p=sʲɪˈbʲirʲ, a=Ru-Сибирь.ogg) is an extensive geographical region spanning much of Northern Asia. Siberia has been Russian conquest o ...
, are often also assumed to be Proto-Turks, or are alternatively linked to
Tungusic peoples Tungusic peoples are an ethno-linguistic group formed by the speakers of Tungusic languages The Tungusic languages (also known as Manchu-Tungus and Tungus) form a language family spoken in Eastern Siberia and Manchuria by Tungusic peoples. Many T ...
or
Na-Dené Na-Dene (; also Nadene, Na-Dené, Athabaskan–Eyak–Tlingit, Tlina–Dene) is a language family, family of Indigenous languages of the Americas, Native American languages that includes at least the Athabaskan languages, Eyak language, Eyak, and ...
and
Yeniseian The Yeniseian languages (sometimes known as Yeniseic or Yenisei-Ostyak;"Ostyak" is a concept of areal rather than genetic linguistics. In addition to the Yeniseian languages it also includes the Uralic languages The Uralic languages (; some ...
peoples. Medieval European chroniclers subsumed various Turkic peoples of the Eurasian steppe under the "umbrella-identity" of the "
Scythians The Scythians (from grc, Σκύθης , ) or Scyths, also known as Saka and Sakae ( ; egy, 𓋴𓎝𓎡𓈉 The ancient Egyptian Hill-country or "Foreign land" hieroglyph (𓈉) is a member of the sky, earth, and water hieroglyphs. A ...
". Between 400 CE and the 16th century, Byzantine sources use the name Σκύθαι (''Skuthai'') in reference to twelve different Turkic peoples.G. Moravcsik, ''Byzantinoturcica'' II, p. 236–39 In the modern
Turkish language Turkish ( , ), also referred to as Istanbul Turkish (''İstanbul Türkçesi'') or Turkey Turkish (''Türkiye Türkçesi''), is the most widely spoken of the Turkic languages, with around 70 to 80 million speakers. It is the national language o ...

Turkish language
as used in the
Republic of Turkey Turkey ( tr, Türkiye ), officially the Republic of Turkey, is a country located mainly on Anatolia Anatolia,, tr, Anadolu Yarımadası), and the Anatolian plateau. also known as Asia Minor, is a large peninsula in Western Asia and ...
, a distinction is made between "Turks" and the "Turkic peoples" in loosely speaking: the term ''Türk'' corresponds specifically to the "Turkish-speaking" people (in this context, "Turkish-speaking" is considered the same as "Turkic-speaking"), while the term '''' refers generally to the people of modern "Turkic Republics" (''Türki Cumhuriyetler'' or ''Türk Cumhuriyetleri''). However, the proper usage of the term is based on in order to avoid any
political Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with making decisions In psychology, decision-making (also spelled decision making and decisionmaking) is regarded as the Cognition, cognitive process resulting in the selection ...

political
sense. In short, the term ''Türki'' can be used for ''Türk'' or vice versa.


List of ethnic groups

; Historical Turkic groups * Az *
Dingling The Dingling () were ancient people who lived in Siberia Siberia (; rus, Сибирь, r=Sibir', p=sʲɪˈbʲirʲ, a=Ru-Сибирь.ogg) is an extensive geographical region spanning much of Northern Asia. Siberia has been Russian conquest o ...
*
Bulgars The Bulgars (also Bulghars, Bulgari, Bolgars, Bolghars, Bolgari, Proto-Bulgarians) were Turkic semi-nomadic warrior tribes that flourished in the Pontic–Caspian steppe and the Volga region during the 7th century. They became known as nomadi ...

Bulgars
* Esegel * Barsils * Alat *
Basmyl The Basmyls (''Basmyl''; Basmals, Basmils, otk, 𐰉𐰽𐰢𐰞, Basmïl, < Middle Chinese Zhengzhang Shangfang, ZS: *''bˠɛt̚-siɪt̚-miɪt̚/mˠiɪt̚/miᴇ''; also 弊剌 ''Bìlà'' < MC *''bjiejH-lat''Ongud The Ongud (also spelled Ongut or Öngüt; Mongolian Mongolian may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to Mongolia, a country in Asia * Mongolian people, or Mongols * Mongolia (1911–24), the government of Mongolia, 1911–1919 and 1921–1 ...
*
Onogurs The Onoğurs or Oğurs (Ὀνόγουροι, Οὔρωγοι, Οὔγωροι; Onογurs, Ογurs; "ten tribes", "tribes"), were Turkic Turkic may refer to: * anything related to the country of Turkey * Turkic languages, a language family of at lea ...
*
Saragurs The Saragurs or Saraguri ( gr, Σαράγουροι, syr, s.r.w.r.g.wr, Šarağurs) was a Eurasian Oghur (Turkic) nomadic tribe mentioned in the 5th and 6th centuries. They may be the Sulujie (蘇路羯, ''suoluo-kjɐt'') mentioned in the Chinese ...
*
Sabirs 300px, Near East in 500 AD, showing the Sabirs and neighboring peoples. The Sabirs (Savirs, Suars, Sawar, Sawirk among others; el, Σάβιροι) were nomadic people A nomad ( frm, nomade "people without fixed habitation") is a member of a com ...
*
Shatuo The Shatuo (also transcribed as Sha-t'o, Sanskrit Sart Sart is a name for the settled inhabitants of Central Asia Central Asia is a region in Asia which stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China and Mongolia in the east, and f ...
*
Göktürks The Göktürks, Celestial Turks or Blue Turks ( otk, 𐱅𐰇𐰼𐰰:𐰉𐰆𐰑𐰣, Türük Bodun; zh, 突厥 ''Tūjué''; Wade-Giles: ''T'u-chüeh'') were a nomadic confederation of Turkic peoples in medieval Inner Asia. The Göktürks, un ...
*
Oghuz Turks The Oguz or Ghuzz Turks (: ٱغُز, ''Oγuz'', ota, اوغوز, Oġuz) were a western that spoke the of the . In the 8th century, they formed a conventionally named the in Central Asia. The name ''Oghuz'' is a word for "tribe". source ...
*
Kangly The Kangly (康曷利; : Kānghélì; (): /kʰɑŋ-ɦɑt̚-liɪH/ or 康里 pinyin: ''Kānglĭ'' < MC-ZS: /kʰɑŋ-lɨX/; : قنكلى ''Kaγnï'' or قنكلى ''Kaŋlï'', also spelled Qanglı, Kanly, Kangly, Qangli, Kangli or Kanka ...
s *
Khazars The Khazars; he, כוזרים, Kuzarim; la, Gazari, or ; zh, 突厥曷薩 ; 突厥可薩部 ''Tūjué Kěsà bù'' () were a semi-nomad A nomad ( frm, nomade "people without fixed habitation") is a member of a community without fixe ...

Khazars
*
Kipchaks The Kipchaks, also known as Kipchak Turks, Qipchaq or Polovtsians, were a Turkic Turkic may refer to: * anything related to the country of Turkey * Turkic languages, a language family of at least thirty-five documented languages ** Turkic alpha ...
*
Kurykans The Kurykans (russian: Курыканы; zh, 骨利干 pinyin ''Hanyu Pinyin'' (), often abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese, Standard Mandarin Chinese in mainland China, Taiwan (ROC), and Singapor ...
* Kumans *
Pechenegs The Pechenegs or Patzinaks were a from speaking the which belonged to the branch of the . Ethnonym The Pechenegs were mentioned as ''Bjnak'', ''Bjanak'' or ''Bajanak'' in medieval and texts, as ''Be-ča-nag'' in documents, and as '' ...
*
Karluks The Karluks (also Qarluqs, Qarluks, Karluqs, otk, 𐰴𐰺𐰞𐰸, Qarluq, fa, خَلُّخ, ''Khallokh'', ar, قارلوق, ''Qarluq'') were a prominent nomadic A nomad ( frm, nomade "people without fixed habitation") is a member of a ...
*
Tiele Tiele may refer to: *Tiele people The Tiele (, Turkic ''*Tegreg'' " eople of theCarts"), also transliterated as Dili (), Chile (), Zhile (), Tele (), also named Gaoche or Gaoju (, "High Carts"), were a tribal confederation of Turkic ethnic orig ...
* Turgesh * Tukhsi *
Yenisei Kirghiz The Yenisei Kyrgyz ( otk, 𐰶𐰃𐰺𐰴𐰕:𐰉𐰆𐰑𐰣, Qïrqïz bodun), were an ancient Turkic people who dwelled along the upper Yenisei River in the southern portion of the Minusinsk Depression from the 3rd century BCE to the 13th c ...
*
Chigils The Chigil (Chihil, and also (D)Jigil, Cihil, Chiyal) were a Turkic peoples, Turkic tribe known from the 7th century CE as living around Issyk Kul lake area. They were considered to be descended from the tribe Chuyue, who were of mixed Yueban-West ...
*
Toquz Oghuz Toquz Oghuz ( otk, 𐱃𐰸𐰆𐰔:𐰆𐰍𐰔, ''Toquz Oγuz''; Chinese: 九姓 ''Jĭu Xìng'' "Nine Surnames"; Tibetan ''Drugu Rus Dgu'' "Turks of Nine Seok (clan), Bones") was a political alliance of nine Turkic peoples, Turkic-speaking Tiele p ...
*
Uriankhai Tuvans or Tagnu Uriankhai Uriankhai ( traditional Mongolian: , Mongolian Cyrillic: урианхай; sah, урааҥхай; zh, t=烏梁海, s=乌梁海, p=Wūliánghǎi), Uriankhan (, урианхан) or Uriankhat (, урианхад), is ...
* *
Yagma The Yagmas (), or Yaghmas, were a medieval tribe of Turkic people that came to the forefront of history after the disintegration of the Western Turkic Kaganate. They were one component of a confederation which consisted of Yagma, the Karluks, the ...
*
Nushibi Nushibi (Nu-shibi, ; Middle Chinese: *''nuoXɕiɪt̚piɪt̚'') was a Chinese collective name for five tribes of the right (western) wingYu. Zuev, ''"The Strongest tribe - Izgil"''//Historical And Cultural Relations Between Iran And Dasht-i Kipc ...
*
Duolu Duolu (Wade–Giles Wade–Giles () is a romanization Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the ...
*
Kutrigurs Kutrigurs were Turkic people, Turkic Eurasian nomads, nomadic equestrians who flourished on the Pontic–Caspian steppe in the 6th century AD. To their east were the similar Utigurs. They warred with the Byzantine Empire and the Utigurs. Towards the ...
*
Utigurs Utigurs were Eurasian nomads, nomadic equestrians who flourished in the Pontic–Caspian steppe in the 6th century AD. They were similar to the Kutrigurs to their west. Etymology The name ''Ut(r)igur'', recorded as , and , is generally considered ...
*
Yabaku Yabaku is a fairly enigmatic tribe out of ten prominent Türkic tribes enumerated by Mahmut Kashgari (11th century) in the list describing the location of the Türkic polities from the borders of the Eastern Roman Empire The Byzantine Empire ...
*
Yueban Yueban () (Middle Chinese Middle Chinese (formerly known as Ancient Chinese) or the Qieyun system (QYS) is the historical variety of recorded in the ', a first published in 601 and followed by several revised and expanded editions. The Swedis ...
* Bulaqs *
Xueyantuo The Xueyantuo tribe were an ancient Tiele Turkic people and khaganate in Central Asia Central Asia is a region in Asia which stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China and Mongolia in the east, and from Afghanistan and Iran in the ...
*
Torks Torks (Cyrillic , bg, кирилица , mk, кирилица , russian: кириллица , sr, ћирилица, uk, кирилиця , fam1 = Egyptian hieroglyphs , fam2 = Proto-Sinaitic , fam3 = Phoenician alphabe ...
* Chorni Klobuky * Berendei * s *
Naimans The Naiman (Mongolian language, Mongolian: Найман/Naiman, "eight"; ; Kazakh language, Kazakh: Найман; Uzbek language, Uzbek: Nayman) is a medieval tribe originating in the territory of modern Western Mongolia (possibly during the time of ...
(partly) *
Keraites The Keraites (also ''Kerait, Kereit, Khereid''; ; ) were one of the five dominant Mongol or Turco-Mongol tribal confederations ( khanates) in the Altai-Sayan region during the 12th century. They had converted to the Church of the East ( Nestor ...
(partly) *
Merkits The Merkit (literally ''"skillful/wise ones"'') was one of the five major tribal confederations (''khanlig'') of probably Mongol The Mongols ( mn, Монголчууд, , ''Mongolchuud'', ; ) are an East Asian ethnic group native to Mo ...
(partly) Possible Proto-Turkic ancestry, at least partial, Pritsak O. & Golb. N: ''Khazarian Hebrew Documents of the Tenth Century'', Ithaca: Cornell Univ. Press, 1982. has been posited for
Xiongnu The Xiongnu (, ) were a tribal confederation A confederation (also known as a confederacy or league) is a union of sovereign groups or states united for purposes of common action. Usually created by a treaty A treaty is a formal ...

Xiongnu
,
Huns The Huns were a nomadic people A nomad ( frm, nomade "people without fixed habitation") is a member of a community without fixed habitation which regularly moves to and from the same areas. Such groups include hunter-gatherers, pastoral ...

Huns
and
Pannonian Avars The Pannonian Avars (; also known as the Obri in chronicles of Rus, the Abaroi or Varchonitai
, as well as
Tuoba The Tuoba, (Middle Chinese Middle Chinese (formerly known as Ancient Chinese) or the Qieyun system (QYS) is the historical variety of recorded in the ', a first published in 601 and followed by several revised and expanded editions. The Swed ...
and
Rouran The Rouran Khaganate, also Juan-Juan Khaganate (), was a tribal confederation and later state founded by a people of Proto-Mongolic Proto-Mongolic is the hypothetical ancestor language of the modern Mongolic languages. It is very close to the M ...
, who were of
Proto-Mongolic Proto-Mongolic is the hypothetical ancestor language of the modern Mongolic languages. It is very close to the Middle Mongol language, the language spoken at the time of Genghis Khan and the Mongol Empire. Most features of modern Mongolic languages ...
Donghu ancestry., as well as
Tatars The Tatars (; tt, , , , crh, tatarlar; otk, 𐱃𐱃𐰺, Tatar) is an umbrella term for different Turkic peoples, Turkic ethnic groups bearing the name "Tatar". Initially, the ethnonym ''Tatar'' possibly referred to the Tatar confederation ...
, Rourans' supposed descendants.


Remarks


Language


Distribution

The Turkic languages constitute a
language family A language family is a group of language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be in relation with") is "an apparent answer to the painful divisions b ...
of some 30 languages, spoken across a vast area from
Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the eastern region of Europe Europe is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven geographical reg ...

Eastern Europe
and the
Mediterranean The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Western Europe, Western and Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa ...
, to
Siberia Siberia (; rus, Сибирь, r=Sibir', p=sʲɪˈbʲirʲ, a=Ru-Сибирь.ogg) is an extensive geographical region, constituting all of North Asia, from the Ural Mountains in the west to the Pacific Ocean in the east. It has been a part of R ...

Siberia
and
Manchuria Manchuria is an exonym An endonym (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its populatio ...

Manchuria
and through to the Middle East. Some 170 million people have a Turkic language as their native language;Turkic Language family tree
entries provide the information on the Turkic-speaking populations and regions.
an additional 20 million people speak a Turkic language as a
second language A person's second language, or L2, is a language that is not the native language A first language, native tongue, native language, or mother/father/parent tongue (also known as arterial language or L1), is a language A language is a struc ...
. The Turkic language with the greatest number of speakers is , or
Anatolia Anatolia,, tr, Anadolu Yarımadası), and the Anatolian plateau. also known as Asia Minor, is a large peninsula in Western Asia and the westernmost protrusion of the Asian continent. It makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey. The region ...
n Turkish, the speakers of which account for about 40% of all Turkic speakers. More than one third of these are ethnic Turks of Turkey, dwelling predominantly in Turkey proper and formerly
Ottoman Ottoman is the Turkish spelling of the Arabic masculine given name Uthman (name), Uthman (Arabic: عُثْمان ''‘uthmān''). It may refer to: Governments and dynasties * Ottoman Caliphate, an Islamic caliphate from 1517 to 1924 * Ottoman Empi ...
-dominated areas of Southern and Eastern Europe and
West Asia Western Asia, also West Asia, is the westernmost subregion of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere, Eastern and Northern Hemisphere, Northern Hemisphere of the Earth, Hem ...
; as well as in Western Europe, Australia and the Americas as a result of immigration. The remainder of the Turkic people are concentrated in Central Asia, Russia, the
Caucasus The Caucasus (), or Caucasia (), is a region spanning Europe Europe is a which is also recognised as part of , located entirely in the and mostly in the . It comprises the westernmost peninsulas of the of Eurasia, it shares the contin ...
, China, and northern Iraq. The Turkic language family is traditionally considered to be part of the proposed Altaic language family.


Alphabet

The Turkic alphabets are sets of related alphabets with letters (formerly known as
runes Runes are the letters Letter, letters, or literature may refer to: Characters typeface * Letter (alphabet), a written element of an alphabet * Letterform, a typographic term for alphabetical letter shapes * Rehearsal letter in an orchestral s ...

runes
), used for writing mostly
Turkic languages The Turkic languages are a language family of at least 35 documented languages, spoken by the Turkic peoples of Eurasia from Eastern Europe and Southern Europe to Central Asia, East Asia, North Asia (Siberia), and Western Asia. The Turkic langu ...

Turkic languages
. Inscriptions in Turkic alphabets were found in
Mongolia Mongolia (, mn, Монгол Улс, Mongol Uls, Mongolian script, Traditional Mongolian: '; literal translation, lit. "Mongol Nation" or "State of Mongolia") is a landlocked country in East Asia. It is bordered by Russia Mongolia–Russia ...

Mongolia
. Most of the preserved inscriptions were dated to between 8th and 10th centuries CE. The earliest positively dated and read Turkic inscriptions date from c. 150, and the alphabets were generally replaced by the
Old Uyghur alphabet The Old Uyghur alphabet was used for writing the Old Uyghur language, a variety of Old Turkic spoken in Turpan, Turfan (also referred to as Turpan) and Gansu that is the ancestor of the modern Western Yugur language. The term "Old Uyghur" used for ...

Old Uyghur alphabet
in the
Central Asia Central Asia is a region in Asia Asia () is 's largest and most populous , located primarily in the and . It shares the continental of with the continent of and the continental landmass of with both Europe and . Asia covers an area ...

Central Asia
, Arabic script in the Middle and Western Asia,
Cyrillic The Cyrillic script ( ) is a writing system used for various languages across Eurasia and is used as the national script in various Slavic languages, Slavic, Turkic languages, Turkic, Mongolic languages, Mongolic, Uralic languages, Uralic, Caucas ...
in Eastern Europe and in the Balkans, and
Latin alphabet The Latin alphabet or Roman alphabet is the collection of letters originally used by the ancient Romans In historiography Historiography is the study of the methods of historian ( 484– 425 BC) was a Greek historian who lived ...

Latin alphabet
in Central Europe. The latest recorded use of Turkic alphabet was recorded in Central Europe's Hungary in 1699 CE. The Turkic runiform scripts, unlike other typologically close scripts of the world, do not have a uniform
palaeography Palaeography ( UK) or paleography ( US; ultimately from grc-gre, , ''palaiós'', "old", and , ''gráphein'', "to write") is the study of historic writing systems and the deciphering and dating of historical manuscripts, including the analysi ...
as, for example, have the
Gothic Gothic or Gothics may refer to: People and languages *Goths or Gothic people, the ethnonym of a group of East Germanic tribes **Gothic language, an extinct East Germanic language spoken by the Goths **Crimean Gothic, the Gothic language spoken by ...
runes, noted for the exceptional uniformity of its language and paleography. The Turkic alphabets are divided into four groups, the best known of them is the
OrkhonOrkhon ( mn, Орхон) may refer to: * Orkhon River The Orkhon River (; mn, Орхон гол, ''Orkhon gol'') is a river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river ...
version of the Enisei group. The Orkhon script is the alphabet used by the s from the 8th century to record the
Old Turkic language Old Turkic (also East Old Turkic, Orkhon Turkic, Orkhon Turkic, Old Uyghur) is the earliest attested form of Turkic languages, Turkic, found in Göktürks, Göktürk and Uyghur Khaganate, Uyghur inscriptions dating from about the 7th century AD ...
. It was later used by the
Uyghur Empire , status = Khaganate (Nomadic empireNomadic empires, sometimes also called steppe empires, Central or Inner Asian empires, were the empires erected by the bow and arrow, bow-wielding, horse-riding, Eurasian nomads, nomadic people ...
; a
Yenisei The Yenisey (russian: Енисе́й, ''Yeniséy''; mn, Енисей мөрөн, ''Yenisei mörön''; Buryat language, Buryat: Горлог мүрэн, ''Gorlog müren''; Tuvan language, Tuvan: Улуг-Хем, ''Uluğ-Hem''; Khakas language, ...
variant is known from 9th-century
KyrgyzKyrgyz, Kirghiz or Kyrgyzstani may refer to: *Things related to Kyrgyzstan *Kyrgyz people *Kyrgyz language *Kyrgyz culture *Kyrgyz cuisine *Yenisei Kirghiz *The Fuyu Kyrgyz language, Fuyü Gïrgïs language in Northeastern China {{Disambig Languag ...

Kyrgyz
inscriptions, and it has likely cousins in the
Talas Valley The Talas ( Kyrgyz, kk, Талас) is a river that rises in the Talas Region of Kyrgyzstan Kyrgyzstan, officially the Kyrgyz Republic, also known as Kirghizia (in Russian), is a landlocked country in Central Asia. It is bordered by Kazakh ...
of
Turkestan Turkestan, also spelled Turkistan ( fa, ترکستان, Torkestân, lit=Land of the Turks), is a historical region in Central Asia Central Asia is a region in Asia which stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China and Mongolia in the ...

Turkestan
and the Old Hungarian script of the 10th century.
Irk Bitig ''Irk Bitig'' or ''Irq Bitig'' ( otk, ), known as the ''Book of Omens'' or ''Book of Divination'' in English, is a 9th-century manuscript book on divination Divination (from Latin ''divinare'', 'to foresee, to foretell, to predict, to proph ...
is the only known complete manuscript text written in the Old Turkic script.


History


Origins

The origins of the Turkic peoples has historically been disputed, with many theories having been proposed.
Peter Benjamin Golden Peter Benjamin Golden (born 1941) is an American historian who is Professor Emeritus ''Emeritus'' (; female: ''Emerita''), in its current usage, is an adjective used to designate a retired chair, professor, pastor, bishop, pope, director, presi ...

Peter Benjamin Golden
listed Proto-Turkic lexical items about the climate, topography, flora, fauna, people's modes of subsistence in the hypothetical Proto-Turkic Urheimat and proposed that the Proto-Turkic Urheimat was located at the southern,
taiga Taiga (; rus, тайга́, p=tɐjˈɡa; relates to Mongolic and Turkic Turkic may refer to: * anything related to the country of Turkey * Turkic languages, a language family of at least thirty-five documented languages ** Turkic alphabets (di ...

taiga
-
steppe File:Steppe of western Kazakhstan in the early spring.jpg, Steppe in Kazakhstan In physical geography, a steppe () is an ecoregion characterized by grassland plains without trees apart from those near rivers and lakes. Steppe biomes may ...

steppe
zone of the Sayan- Altay region.
Martine Robbeets Martine Robbeets is a Belgian comparative linguist. She is known for the Transeurasian languages hypothesis, which groups the Japonic, Koreanic Koreanic is a compact language family consisting of Korean language, Korean and the Jeju language, ...
suggests that the Turkic peoples were descended from a Transeurasian agricultural community based in northeast
China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in . It is the world's , with a of more than 1.4 billion. China spans five geographical and 14 different countries, the in the world after . Covering an area of ap ...

China
, which is to be associated with the
Xinglongwa culture The Xinglongwa culture () ( 6200– 5400 BC) was a Neolithic culture in northeastern China, found mainly around the Inner Mongolia-Liaoning border at the Liao River basin. Xinglongwa pottery was primarily cylindrical, and baked at low temperature ...
and the succeeding
Hongshan culture The C-shaped jade dragon of Hongshan Culture The Hongshan culture () was a Neolithic culture in the Liao river basin in northeast China. Hongshan sites have been found in an area stretching from Inner Mongolia to Liaoning, and dated from about 47 ...
. The East Asian agricultural origin of the Turkic peoples has been corroborated in multiple recent studies. Around 2,200 BC, due to the desertification of northeast China, the agricultural ancestors of the Turkic peoples probably migrated westwards into
Mongolia Mongolia (, mn, Монгол Улс, Mongol Uls, Mongolian script, Traditional Mongolian: '; literal translation, lit. "Mongol Nation" or "State of Mongolia") is a landlocked country in East Asia. It is bordered by Russia Mongolia–Russia ...

Mongolia
, where they adopted a pastoral lifestyle. Linguistic and genetic evidence strongly suggest an early presence of Turkic peoples in eastern Mongolia. Genetic studies have shown that the early Turkic peoples were of predominantly East Asian origins with medival Turkic samples being more heterogeneous, and that Turkic culture and language was spreaded westwards through elite dominance.. "Both Chinese histories and modern dna studies indicate that the early and medieval Turkic peoples were made up of heterogeneous populations. The Turkicisation of central and western Eurasia was not the product of migrations involving a homogeneous entity, but that of language diffusion." The genetic evidence suggests that the
Turkification Turkification, Turkization, or Turkicization ( tr, Türkleştirme), describes both a cultural and language shift whereby populations or states adopted a historical Turkic people, Turkic culture, such as in the Ottoman Empire, and the Turkish natio ...
of Central Asia was carried out by
East Asian East Asia is the eastern region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, inhabitants, and phenomena of the Earth and ...
dominant minorities migrating out of Mongolia.. "These results suggest that Turkic cultural customs were imposed by an East Asian minority elite onto central steppe nomad populations... The wide distribution of the Turkic languages from Northwest China, Mongolia and Siberia in the east to Turkey and Bulgaria in the west implies large-scale migrations out of the homeland in Mongolia.


Early historical attestation

Early Turkic speakers, such as the
Tiele Tiele may refer to: *Tiele people The Tiele (, Turkic ''*Tegreg'' " eople of theCarts"), also transliterated as Dili (), Chile (), Zhile (), Tele (), also named Gaoche or Gaoju (, "High Carts"), were a tribal confederation of Turkic ethnic orig ...
(also known as Gaoche 高車, lit. "High Carts"), may be related to the
Xiongnu The Xiongnu (, ) were a tribal confederation A confederation (also known as a confederacy or league) is a union of sovereign groups or states united for purposes of common action. Usually created by a treaty A treaty is a formal ...

Xiongnu
and the
Dingling The Dingling () were ancient people who lived in Siberia Siberia (; rus, Сибирь, r=Sibir', p=sʲɪˈbʲirʲ, a=Ru-Сибирь.ogg) is an extensive geographical region spanning much of Northern Asia. Siberia has been Russian conquest o ...
. According to the ''
Book of Wei The ''Book of Wei'', also known by its Chinese language, Chinese name as the ''Wei Shu'', is a classic Chinese historical text compiled by Wei Shou from 551 to 554, and is an important text describing the history of the Northern Wei and Eastern ...
'', the Tiele people were the remnants of the Chidi (赤狄), the red Di people competing with the Jin in the
Spring and Autumn period#REDIRECT Spring and Autumn period The Spring and Autumn period was a period in Chinese history The earliest known written records of the history of China date from as early as 1250 BC, from the Shang dynasty (c. 1600–1046 BC), during the ...
. Historically they were established after the 6th century BCE.Peter Zieme: The Old Turkish Empires in Mongolia. In: Genghis Khan and his heirs. The Empire of the Mongols. Special tape for Exhibition 2005/2006, p. 64 The Tiele were first mentioned in Chinese literature from the 6th Century to 8th Century. Some scholars (Haneda, Onogawa, Geng, etc.) proposed that ''Tiele'', ''Dili'', ''Dingling'', ''Chile'', ''Tele'', & ''Tujue'' all transliterated underlying ''Türk''; however, proposed that ''Dili'', ''Dingling'', ''Chile'', ''Tele'', & ''Tiele'' transliterated ''Tegrek'' while Tujue transliterated ''Türküt'', plural of ''Türk''. The appelation ''Türük'' (
Old Turkic Old Turkic (also East Old Turkic, Orkhon Turkic, Old Uyghur) is the earliest attested form of Turkic, found in Göktürk and Uyghur inscriptions dating from about the 7th century AD to the 13th century. It is the oldest attested member of th ...
: 𐱅𐰇𐰼𐰰) ~ ''Türk'' (OT: 𐱅𐰇𐰼𐰚) (whence
Middle Chinese Middle Chinese (formerly known as Ancient Chinese) or the Qieyun system (QYS) is the historical variety of Chinese Chinese can refer to: * Something related to China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country ...
突厥 *''dwət-kuɑt'' > *''tɦut-kyat'' >
standard Chinese Standard Chinese (), in linguistics known as Standard Northern Mandarin, Standard Beijing Mandarin or simply Mandarin, is a dialect of Mandarin that emerged as the lingua franca among the speakers of various Mandarin and other varieties of C ...
: ''Tūjué'') was initially reserved exclusively for the
Göktürks The Göktürks, Celestial Turks or Blue Turks ( otk, 𐱅𐰇𐰼𐰰:𐰉𐰆𐰑𐰣, Türük Bodun; zh, 突厥 ''Tūjué''; Wade-Giles: ''T'u-chüeh'') were a nomadic confederation of Turkic peoples in medieval Inner Asia. The Göktürks, un ...
by Chinese, Tibetans, and even the Turkic-speaking
Uyghurs The Uyghurs ( or ; ; ; zh, s=, t=, p=Wéiwú'ěr, IPA: ), alternatively spelled Uighurs, Uyghers, Uygurs or Uigurs, are a Turkic peoples, Turkic ethnic group originating from and culturally affiliated with the general region of Central Asi ...

Uyghurs
. In contrast, medieval Muslim writers, including Turkic speakers like Ottoman historian Mustafa Âlî and explorer
Evliya Çelebi Derviş Mehmed Zillî (25 March 1611 – 1682), known as Evliya Çelebi ( ota, اوليا چلبى), was an Ottoman Empire, Ottoman explorer who travelled through the territory of the Ottoman Empire and neighboring lands over a period of forty yea ...
as well as
TimuridTimurid refers to those descended from Timur (Tamerlane), a 14th-century conqueror: * Timurid dynasty, a dynasty of Turco-Mongol lineage descended from Timur who established empires in Central Asia and the Indian subcontinent ** Timurid Empire of Ce ...
scientist
Ulugh Beg Mīrzā Muhammad Tāraghay bin Shāhrukh ( chg, میرزا محمد طارق بن شاہ رخ, fa, میرزا محمد تراغای بن شاہ رخ), better known as Ulugh Beg () (22 March 1394 – 27 October 1449), was a Timurid sultan Su ...
, often viewed Inner Asian tribes, "as forming a single entity regardless of their linguistic affiliation" commonly used Turk as a generic name for Inner Asians (whether Turkic- or Mongolic-speaking). Only in modern era do modern historians use Turks to refer to all peoples speaking
Turkic languages The Turkic languages are a language family of at least 35 documented languages, spoken by the Turkic peoples of Eurasia from Eastern Europe and Southern Europe to Central Asia, East Asia, North Asia (Siberia), and Western Asia. The Turkic langu ...

Turkic languages
, differentiated from non-Turkic speakers. According to some researchers (Duan, Xue, Tang, Lung, Onogawa, etc.) the later
Ashina tribe The Ashina (; Middle Chinese Middle Chinese (formerly known as Ancient Chinese) or the Qieyun system (QYS) is the historical variety of Chinese language, Chinese recorded in the ''Qieyun'', a rime dictionary first published in 601 and followed ...
descended from the Tiele confederation. The Tiele however were probably one of many early Turkic groups, ancestral to later Turkic populations. Medieval Arab and Persian descriptions of Turks state that they looked strange from their perspective and were extremely physically different from Arabs. Turks were described as "broad faced people with small eyes" and with pink skin,: "One of the issues that most occupied the travelers was the physiognomy of the Turks.120 Both mentally and physically, Turks appeared to the Arab authors as very different from themselves.121 The shape of these “broad faced people with small eyes” and their physique impressed the travelers crossing the Eurasian lands." "According to this explanation: Because of the Turks’ distance from the course of the sun and from the sun’s rising and descending, the snow in their lands is abundant and coldness and humidity dominate it. This caused the bodies of this land’s inhabitants to become mellow and their epidermis thick.124 Their sleek hair is spare and its colour is pale with an inclination to red. Due to the cold weather of their surroundings, coldness dominates their temper. In effect, the cold climate breeds abundant flesh. The arctic temperature compresses the heat and makes it visible. This gives them their pink skin. It is noticeable among the people who have bulky bodies and pale colour. Whilst a chilly wind hits them, their faces, lips, fingers and legs became red. This is because while they were warm their blood expanded, and then the cold temperature caused it to amass." as being "short, with small eyes, nostrils, and mouths" (
Sharaf al-Zaman al-Marwazi Sharaf al-Zamān Ṭāhir al-Marwazī or Marvazī ( ar, شرف الزمان طاهر المروزي; fl. 1056/57–1124/25 CE) was a physician and author of ''Nature of Animals'' ( '). He was a native of Merv Merv ( tk, Merw, ''Мерв'', مر ...
), as being "full-faced with small eyes" (
Al-Tabari Al-Tabari (; fa, محمد بن جریر طبری, ar, أبو جعفر محمد بن جرير بن يزيد الطبري) (839–923 CE; 224–310 AH) was an influential polymath, scholar, historian and commentator on the Qur'an from Amol, ...
), as possessing "a large head (''sar-i buzurg''), a broad face (''rūy-i pahn''), narrow eyes (''chashmhā-i tang''), and a flat nose (''bīnī-i pakhch''), and unpleasing lips and teeth (''lab va dandān na nīkū'')" (
Keikavus :''For the legendary Iranian king, see Kay Kāvus.'' Keikavus ( fa, كيكاوس) was the ruler of the Ziyarid dynasty from ca. 1050 to 1087. He was the son of Iskandar and grandson of Qabus Qabus ibn Wushmagir (full name: ''Abol-Hasan Qābūs ibn ...
).Lee & Kuang (2017) "A Comparative Analysis of Chinese Historical Sources and Y-DNA Studies with Regard to the Early and Medieval Turkic Peoples", Inner Asia 19. p. 207-208 of 197-239 Medieval Muslim writers noted that Tibetans and Turks resembled each other, and that they often were not able to tell the difference between Turks and Tibetans. On
Western Turkic Western may refer to: Places *Western, Nebraska, a village in the US *Western, New York, a town in the US *Western Creek, Tasmania, a locality in Australia *Western Junction, Tasmania, a locality in Australia *Western world, countries that ide ...

Western Turkic
coins "the faces of the governor and governess are clearly mongoloid (a roundish face, narrow eyes), and the portrait have definite old Türk features (long hair, absence of headdress of the governor, a tricorn headdress of the governess)". Other early-attested Turkic speaking groups were the ''Xinli'' 薪犁, later known as '' Xue'' 薛 in the 7th century and the ''Gekun'' (鬲昆) or ''Jiankun'' (堅昆), later known as ''Jiegu'' (結骨), ''Hegu'' (紇骨), ''Hegusi'' (紇扢斯), ''Hejiasi'' (紇戛斯), ''Hugu'' (護骨), ''Qigu'' (契骨), ''Juwu'' (居勿), and ''Xiajiasi'' (黠戛斯), all being transcriptions of
KyrgyzKyrgyz, Kirghiz or Kyrgyzstani may refer to: *Things related to Kyrgyzstan *Kyrgyz people *Kyrgyz language *Kyrgyz culture *Kyrgyz cuisine *Yenisei Kirghiz *The Fuyu Kyrgyz language, Fuyü Gïrgïs language in Northeastern China {{Disambig Languag ...
. Historians Joo-Yup Lee and Shuntu Kuang concluded, based on genetic data and historical descriptions of Turkic-speaking peoples by Persians, Arabs, and Chinese, that Turkic peoples initially "possessEast Asian physiognomy" but that some Turkic-speakers had occasionally "West-Eurasian physiognomy" (e.g.
Yenisei Kyrgyz The Yenisei Kyrgyz ( otk, 𐰶𐰃𐰺𐰴𐰕:𐰉𐰆𐰑𐰣, Qırqız bodun; ), were an ancient Turkic peoples, Turkic people who dwelled along the upper Yenisei River in the southern portion of the Minusinsk Depression from the 3rd centur ...
es).


Remarks


Xiongnu (3rd c. BCE – 1st c. CE)

The earliest separate Turkic peoples, such as the ''Gekun'' (鬲昆) and ''Xinli'' (薪犁), appeared on the peripheries of the late
Xiongnu The Xiongnu (, ) were a tribal confederation A confederation (also known as a confederacy or league) is a union of sovereign groups or states united for purposes of common action. Usually created by a treaty A treaty is a formal ...

Xiongnu
confederation about 200 BCE
Sima Qian Sima Qian (; ; ) was a Chinese historian of the early Han dynasty#REDIRECT Han dynasty The Han dynasty () was the second Dynasties in Chinese history, imperial dynasty of China (202 BC – 220 AD), established by the rebel leader Liu B ...

Sima Qian
''
Records of the Grand Historian The ''Records of the Grand Historian'', also known by its Chinese name ''Shiji'', is a monumental history of ancient China and the world finished around 94 BC by the Western Han Dynasty official Sima Qian after having been started by his father ...

Records of the Grand Historian
'
Vol. 110
"後北服渾庾、屈射、丁零、鬲昆、薪犁之國。於是匈奴貴人大臣皆服,以冒頓單于爲賢。" tr. "Later e wentnorth subjugated the nations of Hunyu, Qushe, Dingling, Gekun, and Xinli. Therefore, the Xiongnu nobles and dignitaries all admired regarded
Modun chanyu Modun, Maodun, Modu (, c. 234 – c. 174 BCE) was the son of Touman and the founder of the empire of the Xiongnu. He came to power by ordering his men to kill his father in 209 BCE. Modu ruled from 209 BCE to 174 BCE. He was a military leader und ...
as capable"
(contemporaneous with the Chinese
Han Dynasty#REDIRECT Han dynasty The Han dynasty () was the second Dynasties in Chinese history, imperial dynasty of China (202 BC – 220 AD), established by the rebel leader Liu Bang and ruled by the House of Liu. Preceded by the short-lived Qin dynas ...

Han Dynasty
)Findley (2005), p. 29. and later among the Turkic-speaking
Tiele Tiele may refer to: *Tiele people The Tiele (, Turkic ''*Tegreg'' " eople of theCarts"), also transliterated as Dili (), Chile (), Zhile (), Tele (), also named Gaoche or Gaoju (, "High Carts"), were a tribal confederation of Turkic ethnic orig ...
as '' Hegu'' (紇骨)Pulleyblank, E. G. "The Name of the Kirghiz." Central Asiatic Journal 34, no. 1/2 (1990). p. 99 and '' Xue'' (薛). It has even been suggested that the Xiongnu themselves, who were mentioned in Han Dynasty records, were
Proto-Turkic The Proto-Turkic language is the linguistic reconstruction Linguistic reconstruction is the practice of establishing the features of an unattested ancestor language of one or more given languages. There are two kinds of reconstruction: * Inter ...
speakers. Although little is known for certain about the Xiongnu language(s), it seems likely that at least a considerable part of Xiongnu tribes spoke a Turkic language. Some scholars believe they were probably a confederation of various ethnic and linguistic groups. A genetic research in 2003, of the remains of 62 individuals buried between the 3rd century BC and the 2nd century AD at the Xiongnu necropolis at Egyin Gol in northern Mongolia, found that these individuals have similar DNA sequences as many modern Turkic groups, supporting the view that the Xiongnu were at least partially of Turkic origin.These examined individuals were found to be primarily of East Asian ancestry. Using the only extant possibly Xiongnu writings, the rock art of the Yinshan and
Helan Mountains The Helan Mountains, frequently called Alashan Mountains in older sources, are an isolated desert mountain range forming the border of Inner Mongolia Inner Mongolia or Nei Mongol (; ''Öbür Monggol'', /ɵwɵr mɔŋɢɔɮ/, Mongolian Cyri ...
, some scholars argue that the older Xiongnu writings are precursors to the earliest known
Turkic Turkic may refer to: * anything related to the country of Turkey * Turkic languages, a language family of at least thirty-five documented languages ** Turkic alphabets (disambiguation) ** Turkish language, the most widely spoken Turkic language * T ...
alphabet, the
Orkhon script The Old Turkic script (also known as variously Göktürk script, Orkhon script, Orkhon-Yenisey script, Turkic runes) was the alphabet An alphabet is a standardized set of basic written symbols or graphemes (called letter (alphabet), le ...
. Petroglyphs of this region dates from the 9th millennium BCE to the 19th century, and consists mainly of engraved signs (petroglyphs) and few painted images. Excavations done during 1924–1925 in Noin-Ula kurgans located in the
Selenga The Selenga or Selenge ( ; bua, Сэлэнгэ гол / Сэлэнгэ мүрэн, translit=Selenge gol / Selenge müren; russian: Селенга́, ) is a major river in Mongolia Mongolia (, Mongolian language, Mongolian: , Mongolian scrip ...

Selenga
River in the northern
Mongolia Mongolia (, mn, Монгол Улс, Mongol Uls, Mongolian script, Traditional Mongolian: '; literal translation, lit. "Mongol Nation" or "State of Mongolia") is a landlocked country in East Asia. It is bordered by Russia Mongolia–Russia ...

Mongolia
n hills north of
Ulaanbaatar Ulaanbaatar (; mn, Улаанбаатар, , "Red Hero"), previously anglicised as Ulan Bator, is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that ar ...

Ulaanbaatar
produced objects with over 20 carved characters, which were either identical or very similar to the
runic Runes are the letter (alphabet), letters in a set of related alphabets known as runic alphabets, which were used to write various Germanic languages before the adoption of the Latin alphabet and for specialised purposes thereafter. The Scandinav ...

runic
letters of the Turkic Orkhon script discovered in the
Orkhon Valley Orkhon Valley Cultural Landscape (; mn, Орхоны хөндийн соёлын дурсгал, Orkhony xöndiiyn soyoliyn dursgal, Mongolian Script The classical or traditional Mongolian script, also known as the , was the first Mongolian ...
.


Huns (4th–6th c. CE)

The
Hun The Huns were a nomadic people A nomad ( frm, nomade "people without fixed habitation") is a member of a community without fixed habitation which regularly moves to and from the same areas. Such groups include hunter-gatherers, pastoral ...

Hun
hordes ruled by
Attila Attila (; ), frequently called Attila the Hun, was the ruler of the Huns The Huns were a nomadic people who lived in Central Asia, the Caucasus, and Eastern Europe between the 4th and 6th century AD. According to European tradition, ...

Attila
, who invaded and conquered much of Europe in the 5th century, might have been, at least partially, Turkic and descendants of the Xiongnu.G. Pulleyblank, "The Consonantal System of Old Chinese: Part II", Asia Major n.s. 9 (1963) 206–65 In the 18th century, the French scholar
Joseph de Guignes __NOTOC__ Joseph de Guignes (19 October 1721 – 19 March 1800) was a French orientalist, sinologist Sinology or Chinese studies, is an academic discipline that focuses on the study of China China, officially the People's Republic of China ...
became the first to propose a link between the Huns and the
Xiongnu The Xiongnu (, ) were a tribal confederation A confederation (also known as a confederacy or league) is a union of sovereign groups or states united for purposes of common action. Usually created by a treaty A treaty is a formal ...

Xiongnu
people, who were northern neighbours of
China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in . It is the world's , with a of more than 1.4 billion. China spans five geographical and 14 different countries, the in the world after . Covering an area of ap ...

China
in the 3rd century BC. Since Guignes' time, considerable scholarly effort has been devoted to investigating such a connection. The issue remains controversial. Their relationships to other peoples known collectively as the
Iranian Huns The term Iranian Huns is sometimes used for a group of different tribes that lived in Afghanistan Afghanistan (; Pashto/Dari language, Dari: , Pashto: , Dari: ), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country at the ...
are also disputed. Some scholars regard the Huns as one of the earlier Turkic tribes, while others view them as Proto-Mongolian or
Yeniseian The Yeniseian languages (sometimes known as Yeniseic or Yenisei-Ostyak;"Ostyak" is a concept of areal rather than genetic linguistics. In addition to the Yeniseian languages it also includes the Uralic languages The Uralic languages (; some ...
in origin.
Linguistic Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign language) and writing. Most languages have a writing ...
studies by Otto Maenchen-Helfen and others have suggested that the language used by the Huns in Europe was too little documented to be classified. Nevertheless, many of the proper names used by Huns appear to be Turkic in origin. Turkic peoples originally used their own alphabets, like Orkhon and Yenisey runiforms, and later the . Traditional national and cultural symbols of the Turkic peoples include
wolves The wolf (''Canis lupus''), also known as the gray wolf or grey wolf, is a large canine native to Eurasia Eurasia () is the largest continental area on Earth, comprising all of Europe and Asia. Primarily in the Northern Hemisphere, N ...

wolves
in
Turkic mythology Turkic mythology contains myths and legends told by the Turkic people The Turkic peoples are a collection of ethnic groups of Central Asia, Central, East Asia, East, North Asia, North and West Asia as well as parts of Europe and North Afric ...
and tradition; as well as the color blue,
iron Iron () is a with Fe (from la, ) and 26. It is a that belongs to the and of the . It is, on , right in front of (32.1% and 30.1%, respectively), forming much of Earth's and . It is the fourth most common . In its metallic state, iron ...

iron
, and fire.
Turquoise Turquoise is an opaque, blue-to-green mineral that is a hydrated phosphate of copper Copper is a chemical element with the Symbol (chemistry), symbol Cu (from la, cuprum) and atomic number 29. It is a soft, malleable, and ductility, duct ...
blue (the word ''turquoise'' comes from the word meaning "Turkish") is the color of the stone
turquoise Turquoise is an opaque, blue-to-green mineral that is a hydrated phosphate of copper Copper is a chemical element with the Symbol (chemistry), symbol Cu (from la, cuprum) and atomic number 29. It is a soft, malleable, and ductility, duct ...

turquoise
still used in
jewelry Jewellery or jewelry consists of decorative items worn for personal adornment 150px, The principal adornment of these girls from the Bundu tribe in Sierra Leone is the adornment of bodies and faces with markings produced by the smearing on by ...

jewelry
and as a protection against the
evil eye The evil eye ( el, μάτι, ; tr, Nazar; he, עַיִן הָרָע; it, malocchio; ar, عين الحسد, ; fa, چشم ) is a supernatural belief in curse, brought about by a malevolent glare, usually given to a person when one is unaware. ...

evil eye
.


Steppe expansions


Göktürks – Turkic Khaganate (5th–8th c.)

The first mention of Turks was in a
Chinese Chinese can refer to: * Something related to China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, world's most populous country, with a populat ...
text that mentioned trade between Turk tribes and the
Sogdians:''This category Category, plural categories, may refer to: Philosophy and general uses *Categorization, categories in cognitive science, information science and generally *Category of being *Categories (Aristotle), ''Categories'' (Aristotle) *C ...
along the
Silk Road The Silk Road () was and is a network of trade route A trade route is a logistical network identified as a series of pathways and stoppages used for the commercial transport of cargo. The term can also be used to refer to trade over bodies of ...

Silk Road
. The Ashina clan migrated from
Pingliang Pingliang () is a prefecture-level city in eastern Gansu Gansu (; Chinese postal romanization, alternately romanized as Kansu) is a landlocked provinces of China, province in Northwest China. Its capital and largest city is Lanzhou, in the south ...

Pingliang
(now in modern
Gansu province Gansu (; alternately romanized as Kansu) is a landlocked province A province is almost always an administrative division within a country or state. The term derives from the ancient Roman '' provincia'', which was the major territorial and ...
,
China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in . It is the world's , with a of more than 1.4 billion. China spans five geographical and 14 different countries, the in the world after . Covering an area of ap ...

China
) to the
Rouran The Rouran Khaganate, also Juan-Juan Khaganate (), was a tribal confederation and later state founded by a people of Proto-Mongolic Proto-Mongolic is the hypothetical ancestor language of the modern Mongolic languages. It is very close to the M ...
s seeking inclusion in their confederacy and protection from the prevailing dynasty. The Ashina tribe were famed
metalsmith A metalsmith or simply smith is a craftsperson fashioning useful items (for example, tools, kitchenware, tableware, jewellery, Armor and weapons) out of various metals. Smithing is one of the oldest list of metalworking occupations, metalworking o ...
s and were granted land near a mountain
quarry Image:0 Carrières du Hainaut à Soignies (2).JPG, Stone quarry in Soignies, Hainaut (province), Belgium A quarry is a type of open-pit mining, open-pit mine in which dimension stone, rock (geology), rock, construction aggregate, riprap, ...

quarry
which looked like a
helmet A helmet is a form of protective gear Personal protective equipment (PPE) is protective clothing, helmets, goggles, or other garments or equipment designed to protect the wearer's body from injury or infection. The hazards addressed by p ...

helmet
, from which they were said to have gotten their name 突厥 (''Tūjué''), the first recorded use of "Turk" as a political name. In the 6th-century, Ashina's power had increased such that they conquered the Tiele on their Rouran overlords' behalf and even overthrew Rourans and established the First Turkic Khaganate. In the 6th century, 400 years after the collapse of northern Xiongnu power in
Inner Asia Inner Asia refers to landlocked regions within East Asia and North Asia that are part of today's Western China, Mongolia Mongolia (, Mongolian language, Mongolian: , Mongolian script, Traditional Mongolian: ') is a landlocked country in ...
, the
Göktürks The Göktürks, Celestial Turks or Blue Turks ( otk, 𐱅𐰇𐰼𐰰:𐰉𐰆𐰑𐰣, Türük Bodun; zh, 突厥 ''Tūjué''; Wade-Giles: ''T'u-chüeh'') were a nomadic confederation of Turkic peoples in medieval Inner Asia. The Göktürks, un ...
assumed leadership of the Turkic peoples. Formerly in the Xiongnu nomadic confederation, the Göktürks inherited their traditions and administrative experience. From 552 to 745, Göktürk leadership united the
nomad A nomad ( frm, nomade "people without fixed habitation") is a member of a community without fixed habitation who regularly moves to and from the same areas. Such groups include hunter-gatherer A hunter-gatherer is a human Humans (''Homo ...

nomad
ic Turkic tribes into the
Göktürk Empire , conventional_long_name = First Turkic Khaganate , status = Khaganate (Nomadic empire) , capital = , common_languages = , year_start = 552 , year_end = 603 , image_map ...
on Mongolia and Central Asia. The original
Old Turkic Old Turkic (also East Old Turkic, Orkhon Turkic, Old Uyghur) is the earliest attested form of Turkic, found in Göktürk and Uyghur inscriptions dating from about the 7th century AD to the 13th century. It is the oldest attested member of th ...
name ''Kök Türk'' derives from ''kök'' ~ ''kö:k'', "sky, sky-coloured, blue, blue-grey". Unlike its Xiongnu predecessor, the Göktürk Khaganate had its temporary
Khagan Khagan or Qaghan ( otk, 𐰴𐰍𐰣, Kaɣan, mn, Xаан or ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ, Khaan, ota, خواقين, Ḫākan, or خان ''Ḫān'', tr, Kağan or ''Hakan'', ug, قاغان, Qaghan) ''Khāqān'', alternatively spelled Kağan, Kagan, Kha ...
s from the Ashina clan, who were ''subordinate'' to a
sovereign Sovereign is a title which can be applied to the highest leader in various categories. The word is borrowed from Old French Old French (, , ; Modern French French ( or ) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family. It descende ...
authority controlled by a council of tribal chiefs. The
Khaganate A khaganate or khanate was a political entity ruled by a Khan (title), khan, khagan, khatun, or khanum. This political entity was typically found on the Eurasian Steppe and could be equivalent in status to tribe, tribal chiefdom, principality, ...

Khaganate
retained elements of its original
shamanistic Shamanism is a religious practice that involves a practitioner who is believed to interact with a spirit world through altered states of consciousness An altered state of consciousness (ASC), also called altered state of mind or mind alterati ...

shamanistic
religion, that later evolved into
Tengriism Tengrism (also known as Tengriism, Tengerism, or Tengrianism) is an ancient ethnic and state Turkic peoples, Turko-Mongolic peoples, Mongolic religion originating in the Eurasian Steppe, Eurasian steppes, based on folk shamanism, monotheistic at ...
, although it received missionaries of
Buddhist Buddhism (, ) is the world's fourth-largest religion Religion is a - of designated and practices, , s, s, , , , , or , that relates humanity to , , and elements; however, there is no scholarly consensus over what precisely constitu ...

Buddhist
monks and practiced a syncretic religion. The Göktürks were the first Turkic people to write
Old Turkic Old Turkic (also East Old Turkic, Orkhon Turkic, Old Uyghur) is the earliest attested form of Turkic, found in Göktürk and Uyghur inscriptions dating from about the 7th century AD to the 13th century. It is the oldest attested member of th ...
in a runic script, the
Orkhon script The Old Turkic script (also known as variously Göktürk script, Orkhon script, Orkhon-Yenisey script, Turkic runes) was the alphabet An alphabet is a standardized set of basic written symbols or graphemes (called letter (alphabet), le ...
. The Khaganate was also the first state known as "Turk". It eventually collapsed due to a series of dynastic conflicts, but many states and peoples later used the name "Turk". The Göktürks (
First Turkic Kaganate , conventional_long_name = First Turkic Khaganate , status = Khaganate A khaganate or khanate was a political entity ruled by a khan, khagan Khagan or Qaghan ( otk, 𐰴𐰍𐰣, Kaɣan, mn, Xаан or ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ, ...
) quickly spread west to the Caspian Sea. Between 581 and 603 the
Western Turkic Khaganate The Western Turkic Khaganate () or Onoq Khaganate ( otk, 𐰆𐰣:𐰸:𐰉𐰆𐰑𐰣, On oq budun, Ten arrow people) was a Turkic Turkic may refer to: * anything related to the country of Turkey * Turkic languages, a language family of at lea ...

Western Turkic Khaganate
in Kazakhstan separated from the
Eastern Turkic Khaganate The Eastern Turkic Khaganate () was a Turkic khaganate formed as a result of the internecine wars in the beginning of the 7th century (AD 581–603) after the Göktürk Khaganate (founded in the 6th century in Mongolia by the Ashina cla ...
in Mongolia and
Manchuria Manchuria is an exonym An endonym (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its populatio ...

Manchuria
during a civil war. The Han-Chinese successfully overthrew the Eastern Turks in 630 and created a military Protectorate until 682. After that time the
Second Turkic Khaganate , conventional_long_name = Second Turkic Khaganate , image_coat = Tamga of Ashina.png , symbol_type = Tamga of Ashina tribe , government_type = Hereditary monarchy , image_map = Map of Second Turkic Khaganate.png , image_map_alt = Loca ...
ruled large parts of the former Göktürk area. After several wars between Turks, Chinese and Tibetans, the weakened Second Turkic Khaganate was replaced by the
Uyghur Khaganate The Uyghur Khaganate (or Uyghur Empire or Uighur Khaganate, self defined as Toquz-Oghuz country; otk, 𐱃𐰆𐰴𐰕:𐰆𐰍𐰕:𐰉𐰆𐰑𐰣, Toquz Oγuz budun, Tang-era names, with modern Hanyu Pinyin ''Hanyu Pinyin'' (), often ab ...

Uyghur Khaganate
in the year 744.Haywood, John (1998), ''Historical Atlas of the Medieval World, AD 600–1492'', Barnes & Noble


Bulgars, Golden Horde and the Siberian Khanate

The
Bulgars The Bulgars (also Bulghars, Bulgari, Bolgars, Bolghars, Bolgari, Proto-Bulgarians) were Turkic semi-nomadic warrior tribes that flourished in the Pontic–Caspian steppe and the Volga region during the 7th century. They became known as nomadi ...

Bulgars
established themselves in between the Caspian and Black Seas in the 5th and 6th centuries, followed by their conquerors, the
Khazars The Khazars; he, כוזרים, Kuzarim; la, Gazari, or ; zh, 突厥曷薩 ; 突厥可薩部 ''Tūjué Kěsà bù'' () were a semi-nomad A nomad ( frm, nomade "people without fixed habitation") is a member of a community without fixe ...

Khazars
who converted to Judaism in the 8th or 9th century. After them came the
Pechenegs The Pechenegs or Patzinaks were a from speaking the which belonged to the branch of the . Ethnonym The Pechenegs were mentioned as ''Bjnak'', ''Bjanak'' or ''Bajanak'' in medieval and texts, as ''Be-ča-nag'' in documents, and as '' ...
who created a large confederacy, which was subsequently taken over by the
Cumans The Cumans (or Kumans), also known as Polovtsians or Polovtsy (plural only, from the Russian exonym An endonym (from Greek: , 'inner' + , 'name'; also known as autonym) is a common, internal name A name is a term used for identification by ...
and the
Kipchaks The Kipchaks, also known as Kipchak Turks, Qipchaq or Polovtsians, were a Turkic Turkic may refer to: * anything related to the country of Turkey * Turkic languages, a language family of at least thirty-five documented languages ** Turkic alpha ...
. One group of Bulgars settled in the Volga region and mixed with local
Volga Finns The Volga Finns (sometimes referred to as Eastern Finns) are a historical group of indigenous peoples of Russia living in the vicinity of the Volga, who speak Uralic languages. Their modern representatives are the Mari people, the Erzya and ...
to become the
Volga Bulgars Volga Bulgaria ( tt, Идел Болгар, chv, Атӑлҫи Пӑлхар) or Volga–Kama Bulghar, was a historic Bulgar state that existed between the 7th and 13th centuries around the confluence of the Volga The Volga (; rus, Во́лг ...
in what is today
Tatarstan The Republic of Tatarstan,; tt, Татарстан Республикасы, Tatarstan Respublikası or simply Tatarstan,, tt, is a Republics of Russia, republic of Russia located in Eastern Europe. It is a part of the Volga Federal District ...

Tatarstan
. These Bulgars were conquered by the Mongols following their westward sweep under
Genghis Khan Genghis Khan (August 18, 1227), born Temüjin, was the founder and first () of the , which became the in history after his death. He came to power by uniting many of the s of , and, after being proclaimed the universal , or ''Genghis Khan'', he ...

Genghis Khan
in the 13th century. Other Bulgars settled in Southeastern Europe in the 7th and 8th centuries, and mixed with the population, adopting what eventually became the Slavic
Bulgarian language #REDIRECT Bulgarian language #REDIRECT Bulgarian language Bulgarian (, ; bg, label=none, български, bălgarski, ) is a South Slavic languages, South Slavic language spoken in Southeastern Europe, primarily in Bulgaria. It is the lang ...

Bulgarian language
. Everywhere, Turkic groups mixed with the local populations to varying degrees. The Volga Bulgaria became an Islamic state in 922 and influenced the region as it controlled many trade routes. In the 13th century, Mongols invaded Europe and established the
Golden Horde The Golden Horde, self-designated as Ulug Ulus, 'Great State' in Turkic, was originally a Mongol The Mongols ( mn, Монголчууд, , ''Mongolchuud'', ; russian: Монголы, ) are an ethnic group to the , and the of Russia. ...
in Eastern Europe, western & northern Central Asia, and even western Siberia. The
Cuman-Kipchak Confederation The name Cumania originated as the Latin exonym for the Cuman–Kipchak confederation, which was a Turkic people, Turkic confederation in the western part of the Eurasian Steppe, between the 10th and 13th centuries. The confederation was domina ...
and Islamic
Volga Bulgaria Volga Bulgaria ( tt, Идел Болгар, chv, Атӑлçи Пӑлхар) or Volga–Kama Bulghar, was a historic Bulgar state that existed between the 7th and 13th centuries around the confluence of the Volga The Volga (; russian: Во ...

Volga Bulgaria
were absorbed by the Golden Horde in the 13th century; in the 14th century, Islam became the official religion under
Uzbeg Khan The Uzbeks ( uz, , , , ) are a Turkic Turkic may refer to: * anything related to the country of Turkey * Turkic languages, a language family of at least thirty-five documented languages ** Turkic alphabets (disambiguation) ** Turkish langua ...
where the general population (Turks) as well as the aristocracy (Mongols) came to speak the
Kipchak language The Kipchak language (also spelled Qypchaq) is an extinct Turkic language The Turkic languages are a language family A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech ( spoken language), gestures (Signe ...
and were collectively known as "
Tatars The Tatars (; tt, , , , crh, tatarlar; otk, 𐱃𐱃𐰺, Tatar) is an umbrella term for different Turkic peoples, Turkic ethnic groups bearing the name "Tatar". Initially, the ethnonym ''Tatar'' possibly referred to the Tatar confederation ...
" by Russians and Westerners. This country was also known as the
Kipchak KhanateKipchak may refer to: * Kipchaks, a medieval Turkic people * Kipchak languages, a Turkic language group * Kipchak language, an extinct Turkic language of the Kipchak group * Kipchak Khanate or Golden Horde * Kipchak Mosque, a mosque in the village o ...
and covered most of what is today
Ukraine Ukraine ( uk, Україна, Ukraïna, ) is a country in . It is the in Europe after , which it borders to the east and north-east. Ukraine also shares borders with to the north; , , and to the west; and to the south; and has a coastli ...

Ukraine
, as well as the entirety of modern-day southern and eastern
Russia Russia ( rus, link=no, Россия, Rossiya, ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the eastern region of . There is no consistent definition of the precise area it covers, partly because th ...

Russia
(the European section). The Golden Horde disintegrated into several khanates and hordes in the 15th and 16th century including the
Crimean Khanate The Crimean Khanate ( crh, , or ), own name — Great Horde and Desht-i Kipchak (), in old European historiography and geography — Little Tartary ( la, Tartaria Minor) was a Crimean Tatars, Crimean Tatar state existing from 1441 to 1783, the ...

Crimean Khanate
,
Khanate of Kazan The Khanate of Kazan ( tt, Qazan Xanlığı; Russian language, Russian: Казанское ханство, Romanization of Russian, Romanization: ''Kazanskoye khanstvo'') was a medieval Tatar Turkic state that occupied the territory of former Vo ...
, and
Kazakh Khanate The Kazakh Khanate ( kk, Қазақ Хандығы, , ) was a successor of the Golden Horde The Golden Horde ( tt, , , ), self-designated as Ulug Ulus, 'Great State' in Turkic, was originally a Mongols, Mongol and later Turkicized khan ...

Kazakh Khanate
(among others), which were one by one conquered and annexed by the Russian Empire in the 16th through 19th centuries. In Siberia, the
Siberian Khanate The Khanate of Sibir ( sty, Sıbır Qağanlıq), also historically called the Khanate of Turan, was a Turkic Khanate A khaganate or khanate was a political entity ruled by a khan, khagan Khagan or Qaghan ( otk, 𐰴𐰍𐰣, Kaɣan, m ...
was established in the 1490s by fleeing Tatar aristocrats of the disintegrating
Golden Horde The Golden Horde, self-designated as Ulug Ulus, 'Great State' in Turkic, was originally a Mongol The Mongols ( mn, Монголчууд, , ''Mongolchuud'', ; russian: Монголы, ) are an ethnic group to the , and the of Russia. ...
who established Islam as the official religion in western Siberia over the partly Islamized native
Siberian Tatars Siberian Tatars ( sty, , ), the indigenous Turkic-speaking population of the forests and steppes of South Siberia Siberia (; rus, Сибирь, r=Sibir', p=sʲɪˈbʲirʲ, a=Ru-Сибирь.ogg) is an extensive geographical region spannin ...

Siberian Tatars
and indigenous Uralic peoples. It was the northernmost Islamic state in recorded history and it survived up until 1598 when it was conquered by Russia.


Uyghur Khaganate (8th–9th c.)

The Uyghur empire ruled large parts of Mongolia, Northern and Western China and parts of northern Manchuria. They followed largely
Buddhism Buddhism (, ) is the world's fourth-largest religion Religion is a social Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in interacting populations. This interaction is considered social whether they are aware of it or not, and ...

Buddhism
and
animistic Animism (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman R ...

animistic
traditions. During the same time, the
Shatuo The Shatuo (also transcribed as Sha-t'o, Sanskrit Sart Sart is a name for the settled inhabitants of Central Asia Central Asia is a region in Asia which stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China and Mongolia in the east, and f ...
Turks emerged as power factor in Northern and Central China and were recognized by the Tang Empire as allied power. The Uyghur empire fell after several wars in the year 840. The
Shatuo The Shatuo (also transcribed as Sha-t'o, Sanskrit Sart Sart is a name for the settled inhabitants of Central Asia Central Asia is a region in Asia which stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China and Mongolia in the east, and f ...
Turks had founded several short-lived
sinicized Sinicization, sinofication, sinification, or sinonization (from the prefix , 'Chinese, relating to China') is the process by which non-Chinese societies come under the influence of Chinese culture, particularly Han-Chinese culture, language, so ...
dynasties in northern China during the
Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period The Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period (), from 907 to 979 was an era of political upheaval and division in 10th-century history of China, Imperial China. Five states quickly succeeded one another in the Central Plain (China), Central Plain ...
. The official language of these dynasties was Chinese and they used Chinese titles and names. Some Shaotuo Turks emperors also claimed patrilineal Han Chinese ancestry.According to ''
Old History of the Five Dynasties The ''Old History of the Five Dynasties'' (''Jiù Wǔdài Shǐ'') was an official history mainly focus on Five Dynasties The Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period (907–979) was an era of political upheaval and division in 10th-century Impe ...
'', vol. 99, and ''
New History of the Five Dynasties The ''Historical Records of the Five Dynasties'' (''Wudai Shiji'') is a Chinese history book on the Five Dynasties period (907–960), written by the Song dynasty official Ouyang Xiu in private. It was drafted during Ouyang's exile from 1036 to 1 ...
'', vol. 10.
Liu Zhiyuan Liu Zhiyuan () (March 4, 895 – March 10, 948), later changed to Liu Gao (), formally Emperor Gaozu of (Later) Han (), was the ethnically-Shatuo founder of the Later Han (Five Dynasties), Later Han, the fourth of the Five Dynasties in the Five Dy ...
was of Shatuo origin. According to ''
Wudai Huiyao ''Wudai Huiyao'' (五代會要, "Institutions of the Five Dynasties Period") is a Chinese historiography Chinese historiography is the study of the techniques and sources used by historians to develop the recorded history of China The earli ...
''
vol. 1
Liu Zhiyuan's great-great-grandfather Liu Tuan (劉湍) (titled as Emperor Mingyuan posthumously, granted the temple name of Wenzu) descended from Liu Bing (劉昞), Prince of Huaiyang, a son of
Emperor Ming of Han Emperor Ming of Han (15June 28– 5September 75), born and also known as and as , was the second emperor of China Emperor of China, or ''Huángdì'' (), was the monarch A monarch is a head of state A head of state (or chief of ...
According to ''
Old History of the Five Dynasties The ''Old History of the Five Dynasties'' (''Jiù Wǔdài Shǐ'') was an official history mainly focus on Five Dynasties The Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period (907–979) was an era of political upheaval and division in 10th-century Impe ...
'', vol. 99, and ''
New History of the Five Dynasties The ''Historical Records of the Five Dynasties'' (''Wudai Shiji'') is a Chinese history book on the Five Dynasties period (907–960), written by the Song dynasty official Ouyang Xiu in private. It was drafted during Ouyang's exile from 1036 to 1 ...
'', vol. 10.
Liu Zhiyuan Liu Zhiyuan () (March 4, 895 – March 10, 948), later changed to Liu Gao (), formally Emperor Gaozu of (Later) Han (), was the ethnically-Shatuo founder of the Later Han (Five Dynasties), Later Han, the fourth of the Five Dynasties in the Five Dy ...
was of Shatuo origin. According to ''
Wudai Huiyao ''Wudai Huiyao'' (五代會要, "Institutions of the Five Dynasties Period") is a Chinese historiography Chinese historiography is the study of the techniques and sources used by historians to develop the recorded history of China The earli ...
''
vol. 1
Liu Zhiyuan's great-great-grandfather Liu Tuan (劉湍) (titled as Emperor Mingyuan posthumously, granted the temple name of Wenzu) descended from Liu Bing (劉昞), Prince of Huaiyang, a son of
Emperor Ming of Han Emperor Ming of Han (15June 28– 5September 75), born and also known as and as , was the second emperor of China Emperor of China, or ''Huángdì'' (), was the monarch A monarch is a head of state A head of state (or chief of ...
After the fall of the Tang-Dynasty in 907, the Shatuo Turks replaced them and created the
Later Tang Tang, known in historiography as the Later Tang, was a short-lived imperial dynasty A dynasty (, ) is a sequence of rulers from the same family,''Oxford English Dictionary'', "dynasty, ''n''." Oxford University Press Oxford Unive ...

Later Tang
Dynasty in 923. The Shatuo Turks ruled over a large part of northern China, including
Beijing Beijing ( ), as Peking ( ), is the of the . It is the world's , with over 21 million residents within an of 16,410.5 km2 (6336 sq. mi.). It is located in , and is governed as a under the direct administration of the with .Figures ...

Beijing
. They adopted Chinese names and united Turkic and Chinese traditions. Later Tang fall in 937 but the Shatuo rose to become one of the most powerful clans of China. They created several other dynasies, including the Later Jin and Later Han. The Shatuo Turks were later assimilated into the
Han Chinese The Han Chinese (), or the Han people (), is an East Asian East Asia is the east East is one of the four cardinal direction The four cardinal directions, or cardinal points, are the directions north North is one of the four ...
ethnic group after they were conquered by the
Song dynasty The Song dynasty (; ; 960–1279) was an imperial dynasty of China that began in 960 and lasted until 1279. The dynasty was founded by Emperor Taizu of Song Emperor Taizu of Song (21 March 927 – 14 November 976), personal name Zhao Kua ...
. The Yenisei Kyrgyz allied with China to destroy the Uyghur Khaganate in 840. The Kyrgyz people ultimately settled in the region now referred to as
Kyrgyzstan russian: Киргизская Республика, Kirgizskaya Respublika , image_flag = Flag of Kyrgyzstan.svg , image_coat = Emblem of Kyrgyzstan.svg , symbol_type = Emblem , motto = " ...

Kyrgyzstan
.


Central Asia


Kangar union (659–750)

The Kangar Union (''Qanghar Odaghu'') was a
Turkic Turkic may refer to: * anything related to the country of Turkey * Turkic languages, a language family of at least thirty-five documented languages ** Turkic alphabets (disambiguation) ** Turkish language, the most widely spoken Turkic language * T ...
state in the former territory of the Western Turkic Khaganate (the entire present-day state of
Kazakhstan Kazakhstan ( kk, Қазақстан, Qazaqstan; russian: Казахстан, Kazakhstan), officially the Republic of Kazakhstan,; russian: Республика Казахстан, Respublika Kazakhstan, link=no) is a country located mainly in ...

Kazakhstan
, without
Zhetysu Zhetysu, or Jeti-Suu ( kk, , Жетісу, pronounced ; ky, ''Jeti-Suu'', (), meaning "seven rivers"; also transcribed ''Zhetisu'', ''Jetisuw'', ''Jetysu'', ''Jeti-su'', ''Jity-su'', ''Жетысу'',, National Geospatial-Intelligence Agen ...
). The ethnic name Kangar is a medieval name for the
Kangly The Kangly (康曷利; : Kānghélì; (): /kʰɑŋ-ɦɑt̚-liɪH/ or 康里 pinyin: ''Kānglĭ'' < MC-ZS: /kʰɑŋ-lɨX/; : قنكلى ''Kaγnï'' or قنكلى ''Kaŋlï'', also spelled Qanglı, Kanly, Kangly, Qangli, Kangli or Kanka ...
people, who are now part of the , Uzbek, and Karakalpak nations. The capital of the Kangar union was located in the Ulytau mountains. The Pechenegs, three of whose tribes were known as Kangar (
Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as of ...
: Καγγαρ), after being defeated by the Oghuzes,
Karluks The Karluks (also Qarluqs, Qarluks, Karluqs, otk, 𐰴𐰺𐰞𐰸, Qarluq, fa, خَلُّخ, ''Khallokh'', ar, قارلوق, ''Qarluq'') were a prominent nomadic A nomad ( frm, nomade "people without fixed habitation") is a member of a ...
, and
Kimek The Yemek ( ar, Īmāk / Yamāk) was a Turkophone tribe known from Arab The Arabs (singular Arab ; singular ar, عَرَبِيٌّ, ISO 233: , Arabic pronunciation: , plural ar, عَرَبٌ, ISO 233: , Arabic pronunciation: ) are an ethnic ...
- Kypchaks, attacked the
Bulgars The Bulgars (also Bulghars, Bulgari, Bolgars, Bolghars, Bolgari, Proto-Bulgarians) were Turkic semi-nomadic warrior tribes that flourished in the Pontic–Caspian steppe and the Volga region during the 7th century. They became known as nomadi ...

Bulgars
and established the Pecheneg state in Eastern Europe (840–990 CE).


Oghuz Yabgu State (766–1055)

The Oguz Yabgu State (''Oguz il'', meaning "Oguz Land,", "Oguz Country")(750–1055) was a
Turkic Turkic may refer to: * anything related to the country of Turkey * Turkic languages, a language family of at least thirty-five documented languages ** Turkic alphabets (disambiguation) ** Turkish language, the most widely spoken Turkic language * T ...
state, founded by
Oghuz Turks The Oguz or Ghuzz Turks (: ٱغُز, ''Oγuz'', ota, اوغوز, Oġuz) were a western that spoke the of the . In the 8th century, they formed a conventionally named the in Central Asia. The name ''Oghuz'' is a word for "tribe". source ...
in 766, located geographically in an area between the coasts of the and
Aral Sea The Aral Sea (Aral ; kk, Aral teńizi, Арал теңізі, uz, Orol dengizi, Орол денгизи, kaa, Aral ten'izi, Арал теңизи, russian: Аральское море) was an endorheic lake lying between Kazakhstan Kaza ...

Aral Sea
s. Oguz tribes occupied a vast territory in
Kazakhstan Kazakhstan ( kk, Қазақстан, Qazaqstan; russian: Казахстан, Kazakhstan), officially the Republic of Kazakhstan,; russian: Республика Казахстан, Respublika Kazakhstan, link=no) is a country located mainly in ...

Kazakhstan
along the Irgiz,
Yaik The Ural (russian: Урал, ), known as Yaik (russian: Яик, ba, Яйыҡ, translit=Yayıq, ; kk, Жайық, translit=Jayıq, جايىق, ) before 1775, is a river flowing through Russia Russia (russian: link=no, Россия, , ), ...
, Emba, and Uil rivers, the Aral Sea area, the
Syr Darya uz, Sirdaryo, Сирдарё tg, Сирдарё , name_native_lang = , name_other = Jaxartes, Seyhun , name_etymology = unknown , image = Syr Darya.jpg , image_size = 290px , image_caption = Syr Darya ...

Syr Darya
valley, the foothills of the
Karatau Mountains The Karatau or Qaratau ( kk, Қаратау жотасы, Qarataw jotasy) is a mountain range located in southern Kazakhstan. The name Karatau means ''Black Mountain'' in the Kazakh language. The mountains have deposits of phosphorite, lead and z ...
in
Tien-Shan The Tian Shan,, dng, Тянсан, ; otk, 𐰴𐰣 𐱅𐰭𐰼𐰃, ; tr, Tanrı Dağı; mn, Тэнгэр уул, ; ug, تەڭرىتاغ, , ; kk, Тәңіртауы / Алатау, , ; ky, Теңир-Тоо / Ала-Тоо, , ; uz, Tyan-S ...

Tien-Shan
, and the
Chui River The Chu (Shu or Chuy) ( kk, Шу, ''Shý'', شۋ; ky, Чүй, ''Çüy'', چۉي; dng, Чў, ''Çw'' (from , ''Chǔ''); russian: Чу) is a river in Northern Kyrgyzstan Kyrgyzstan, officially the Kyrgyz Republic, also known as Kirghizia (in ...
valley (see map). The Oguz political association developed in the 9th and 10th centuries in the basin of the middle and lower course of the Syr Darya and adjoining the modern western Kazakhstan steppes.


Iranian, Indian, Arabic, and Anatolian expansion

Turkic peoples and related groups migrated west from present-day
Northeastern China Northeast China, is a geographical region of China. It usually corresponds specifically to the three provinces east of the Greater Khingan Range, namely Liaoning Liaoning (), is a coastal province A province is almost always an admini ...
,
Mongolia Mongolia (, mn, Монгол Улс, Mongol Uls, Mongolian script, Traditional Mongolian: '; literal translation, lit. "Mongol Nation" or "State of Mongolia") is a landlocked country in East Asia. It is bordered by Russia Mongolia–Russia ...

Mongolia
,
Siberia Siberia (; rus, Сибирь, r=Sibir', p=sʲɪˈbʲirʲ, a=Ru-Сибирь.ogg) is an extensive geographical region, constituting all of North Asia, from the Ural Mountains in the west to the Pacific Ocean in the east. It has been a part of R ...

Siberia
and the
Turkestan Turkestan, also spelled Turkistan ( fa, ترکستان, Torkestân, lit=Land of the Turks), is a historical region in Central Asia Central Asia is a region in Asia which stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China and Mongolia in the ...

Turkestan
-region towards the Iranian plateau, South Asia, and
Anatolia Anatolia,, tr, Anadolu Yarımadası), and the Anatolian plateau. also known as Asia Minor, is a large peninsula in Western Asia and the westernmost protrusion of the Asian continent. It makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey. The region ...
(modern Turkey) in many waves. The date of the initial expansion remains unknown.


Persia


= Ghaznavid dynasty (977–1186)

= The Ghaznavid dynasty ( fa, غزنویان ''ġaznaviyān'') was a
Persianate A Persianate society is a society that is based on or strongly influenced by the Persian language Persian (), also known by its endonym Farsi (, ', ), is a Western Iranian language belonging to the Iranian branch of the Indo-Iranian subd ...
Muslim Muslims () are people who follow or practice Islam Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission o God Oh God may refer to: * An exclamation; similar to "oh no", "oh yes", "oh my", "aw goodness", "ah gosh", ...

Muslim
dynasty of Turkic ''
mamluk Mamluk ( ar, مملوك, mamlūk (singular), , ''mamālīk'' (plural), translated as "one who is owned", meaning "", also as ''Mameluke'', ''mamluq'', ''mamluke'', ''mameluk'', ''mameluke'', ''mamaluke'', or ''marmeluke'') is a term most commo ...

mamluk
'' origin, at their greatest extent ruling large parts of
Iran Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia, and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia Western Asia, West Asia, or Southwest Asia, is the westernmost subregion A subregion is a part of a larger regio ...

Iran
,
Afghanistan Afghanistan (; Pashto/Dari language, Dari: , Pashto: , Dari: ), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country at the crossroads of Central Asia, Central and South Asia. Afghanistan is bordered by Pakistan to the ea ...

Afghanistan
, much of
Transoxiana Transoxiana or Transoxania is an ancient name referring to a region and civilization located in lower roughly corresponding to modern-day eastern , , southern and southern . Geographically, it is the region between the rivers to its south and ...
and the northwest Indian subcontinent (part of Pakistan) from 977 to 1186.C.E. Bosworth: ''The Ghaznavids''. Edinburgh, 1963 C.E. Bosworth, "Ghaznavids", in ''
Encyclopaedia of Islam The ''Encyclopaedia of Islam'' (''EI'') is an encyclopaedia An encyclopedia or encyclopaedia (British English) is a reference work or compendium providing summaries of knowledge either from all branches or from a particular field or dis ...
'', Online Edition; Brill, Leiden; 2006/2007
The dynasty was founded by
Sabuktigin Abu Mansur Nasir al-Din Sabuktigin ( fa, ابو منصور سبکتگین) (ca 942 – August 997), also spelled as ''Sabuktagin'', ''Sabuktakin'', ''Sebüktegin'' and ''Sebük Tigin'', was the founder of the Ghaznavid dynasty, ruling from 367 A. ...
upon his succession to rule of the region of
Ghazna Ghazni ( prs, غزنی, ps, غزني), historically known as Ghaznin () or Ghazna () and also transliterated as Ghuznee, is a city in southeastern Afghanistan Afghanistan (; /: , Pashto: , Dari: ), officially the Islamic Republic of Af ...
after the death of his father-in-law,
Alp Tigin Alp-Tegin, ( fa, الپتگین ''Alptegīn'' or ''Alptigīn'') was a Turkic people, Turkic slave commander of the Samanid Empire, who would later become the semi-independent governor of Ghazna from 962 until his death in 963. Before becoming gove ...
, who was a breakaway ex-general of the
Samanid Empire The Samanid Empire ( fa, سامانیان, Sāmāniyān) also known as the Samanian Empire, Samanid dynasty, Samanid amirate, or simply Samanids) was a Sunni Islam, Sunni Iranian peoples, Iranian empire, from 819 to 999. The empire was centred in ...
from
Balkh ), named for its green-tiled ''Gonbad'' ( fa, گُنبَد, dome), in July 2001 , image_flag = , flag_size = , image_seal = , seal_size = , image_shield ...

Balkh
, north of the
Hindu Kush The Hindu Kush ( Dari, Pashto Pashto (,; / , ), sometimes spelled Pukhto or Pakhto, is an Eastern Iranian language of the Indo-European family. It is known in Persian literature as Afghani (, ). The language is natively spoken ...
in
Greater Khorasan Greater KhorāsānDabeersiaghi, Commentary on Safarnâma-e Nâsir Khusraw, 6th Ed. Tehran, Zavvâr: 1375 (Solar Hijri Calendar) 235–236 or Khorāsān ( pal, Xwarāsān; fa, wikt:خراسان, خراسان ), is a historical eastern region ...
.Encyclopædia Britannica
"Ghaznavid Dynasty"
Online Edition 2007
Although the dynasty was of
Central Asian Central Asia is a region in Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere, Eastern and Northern Hemisphere, Northern Hemisphere of the Earth, Hemispheres. It shares the continent ...
Turkic origin, it was thoroughly
Persianised Persianization (), or Persification (), is a sociological Sociology is the study of society A society is a Social group, group of individuals involved in persistent Social relation, social interaction, or a large social group sharing ...
in terms of language, culture, literature and habits and hence is regarded by some as a "Persian dynasty".


= Seljuk Empire (1037–1194)

= The Seljuk Empire ( fa, آل سلجوق, translit=Āl-e Saljuq, lit=House of Saljuq) or the Great Seljuq Empire was a
high medieval The High Middle Ages, or High Medieval Period, was the period Period may refer to: Common uses * Era, a length or span of time * Full stop (or period), a punctuation mark Arts, entertainment, and media * Period (music), a concept in musical c ...
Turko-Persian The composite Turco-Persian tradition
''Turko-Persia in historical perspective'', Cambridge University Press, 1991
Sunni Muslim Sunni Islam () is by far the largest branch A branch ( or , ) or tree branch (sometimes referred to in botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, ...
empire An empire is a "political unit" made up of several territories and peoples, "usually created by conquest, and divided between a dominant center and subordinate peripheries". Narrowly defined, an empire is a sovereign state called an empire and w ...

empire
, originating from the
Qiniq Image:SSI Micro Nunavut.jpg, Qiniq's coverage area in Nunavut. Qiniq serves 25 communities in Nunavut. Qiniq, from the Inuktitut root word for "to search", is a Canadian company, which uses satellite and wireless communications technology to provi ...
branch of
Oghuz Turks The Oguz or Ghuzz Turks (: ٱغُز, ''Oγuz'', ota, اوغوز, Oġuz) were a western that spoke the of the . In the 8th century, they formed a conventionally named the in Central Asia. The name ''Oghuz'' is a word for "tribe". source ...
. At its greatest extent, the Seljuk Empire controlled a vast area stretching from western
Anatolia Anatolia,, tr, Anadolu Yarımadası), and the Anatolian plateau. also known as Asia Minor, is a large peninsula in Western Asia and the westernmost protrusion of the Asian continent. It makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey. The region ...
and the
Levant The Levant () is an term referring to a large area in the region of . In its narrowest sense, it is equivalent to the , which included present-day , , , , and most of southwest of the middle . In its widest historical sense, the Levant ...

Levant
to the
Hindu Kush The Hindu Kush ( Dari, Pashto Pashto (,; / , ), sometimes spelled Pukhto or Pakhto, is an Eastern Iranian language of the Indo-European family. It is known in Persian literature as Afghani (, ). The language is natively spoken ...
in the east, and from
Central Asia Central Asia is a region in Asia Asia () is 's largest and most populous , located primarily in the and . It shares the continental of with the continent of and the continental landmass of with both Europe and . Asia covers an area ...

Central Asia
to the
Persian Gulf The Persian Gulf ( fa, خلیج فارس, translit=xalij-e fârs, lit=Gulf of , ) is a in . The body of water is an extension of the () through the and lies between to the northeast and the to the southwest.United Nations Group of Exper ...
in the south. The Seljuk empire was founded by
Tughril Beg Tughril Bey (; full name 300px, First/given, middle and last/family/surname with John Fitzgerald Kennedy as example. This shows a structure typical for the Anglosphere, among others. Other cultures use other structures for full names. A per ...
(1016–1063) and his brother
Chaghri Beg Abu Suleiman Dawud Chaghri Beg ibn Mikail, better known simply as Chaghri Beg (989–1060), ''Da'ud b. Mika'il b. Saljuq'', also spelled Chaghri, was the co-ruler of the early Seljuk Empire The Great Seljuk Empire ( fa, آل سلجوق, transl ...
(989–1060) in 1037. From their homelands near the
Aral Sea The Aral Sea (Aral ; kk, Aral teńizi, Арал теңізі, uz, Orol dengizi, Орол денгизи, kaa, Aral ten'izi, Арал теңизи, russian: Аральское море) was an endorheic lake lying between Kazakhstan Kaza ...

Aral Sea
, the Seljuks advanced first into
Khorasan Khorasan may refer to: * Greater Khorasan, a historical region which lies mostly in modern-day northern/northwestern Afghanistan, northeastern Iran, southern Turkmenistan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan * Khorasan Province, a pre-2004 province of Iran, ...
and then into mainland
Persia Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia, and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia. It is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Tu ...

Persia
, before eventually conquering eastern Anatolia. Here the Seljuks won the battle of Manzikert in 1071 and conquered most of Anatolia from the
Byzantine Empire The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire, or Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire The Roman Empire ( la, Imperium Rōmānum ; grc-gre, Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, Basileía tôn ...

Byzantine Empire
, which became one of the reasons for the
first crusade The First Crusade (1096–1099) was the first of a series of religious wars, or Crusades, initiated, supported and at times directed by the Latin Church in the medieval period. The objective was the recovery of the Holy Land from Muslim conqu ...
(1095–1099). From c. 1150–1250, the Seljuk empire declined, and was invaded by the
Mongols The Mongols ( mn, Монголчууд, , ''Mongolchuud'', ; russian: Монголы, ) are an East Asian East Asia is the eastern region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") ...
around 1260. The Mongols divided Anatolia into
emirate An emirate is a territory ruled by an emir Emir (; ar, أمير ' ), sometimes Romanization of Arabic, transliterated amir, amier, or ameer, is a word of Arabic language, Arabic origin that can refer to a male monarch, aristocratic, aristoc ...
s. Eventually one of these, the
Ottoman Ottoman is the Turkish spelling of the Arabic masculine given name Uthman (name), Uthman (Arabic: عُثْمان ''‘uthmān''). It may refer to: Governments and dynasties * Ottoman Caliphate, an Islamic caliphate from 1517 to 1924 * Ottoman Empi ...
, would conquer the rest.


= Remarks

=


= Timurid Empire (1370–1507)

= The
Timurid Empire The Timurid Empire ( fa, ), self-designated as Gurkani ( fa, , ''Gūrkāniyān''), was a Persianate A Persianate society is a society that is based on or strongly influenced by the Persian language Persian (), also known by its endonym ...
were a Turko-Mongol empire founded in the late 14th century by
Timurlane Timur ( chg, ''Temür'' "Iron"; 9 April 133617–19 February 1405), later Timūr Gurkānī ( chg, ''Temür Küregen''), sometimes spelled Taimur and historically best known as Amir Timur or Tamerlane ( fa, تيمور لنگ ; chg, Aqsa ...
, a descendant of Genghis Khan. Timur, although a self-proclaimed devout Muslim, brought great slaughter in his conquest of fellow Muslims in neighboring Islamic territory and contributed to the ultimate demise of many Muslim states, including the Golden Horde.


= Central Asian khanates (1501–1920)

= The Bukhara Khanate was an Uzbek state that existed from 1501 to 1785. The khanate was ruled by three dynasties of the
Shaybanids 170px, The trellis-walled yurt of Khan_(title).html"_;"title="Muhammad_Shaybani_Khan_(title)">Khan. The_Shaybanids_(_fa.html" ;"title="Khan_(title)">Khan..html" ;"title="Khan_(title).html" ;"title="Muhammad Shaybani Khan (title)">Khan.">Khan_(titl ...
, Janids and the Uzbek dynasty of Mangits. In 1785, Shahmurad, formalized the family's dynastic rule (
Manghit The Mangghud, Manghud ( mn, Мангуд, ''Mangud'') were a Mongol tribe of the Urud-Manghud federation. They established the Nogai Horde in the 14th century and the Manghit Dynasty to rule the Emirate of Bukhara in 1785. They took the Islamic t ...
dynasty), and the khanate became the
Emirate of Bukhara The Emirate of Bukhara ( uz, Buxoro amirligi) was a Central Asian polity that existed from 1785 to 1920 in what is now modern-day Uzbekistan Uzbekistan (, ; uz, Ozbekiston, ), officially the Republic of Uzbekistan ( uz, Ozbekiston Respublikas ...
(1785–1920). In 1710, the Kokand Khanate (1710–1876) separated from the Bukhara Khanate. In 1511–1920,
Khwarazm Khwarazm , or Chorasmia (Old Persian Old Persian is one of the two directly attested Old Iranian languages (the other being Avestan language, Avestan) and it is the ancestor of Middle Persian (the language of Sasanian Empire). Like other ...

Khwarazm
(Khiva Khanate) was ruled by the Arabshahid dynasty and the Uzbek dynasty of Kungrats.


= Safavid dynasty (1501–1736)

= The
Safavid dynasty The Safavid dynasty (; fa, دودمان صفوی, Dudmâne Safavi, ) was one of the most significant ruling dynasties of Safavid Iran, Iran from 1501 to 1736. The Safavid dynasty had its origin in the Safavid order of Sufism, which was establi ...
of
Persia Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia, and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia. It is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Tu ...

Persia
(1501–1736) were of mixed ancestry (RM Savory. Ebn Bazzaz.
''Encyclopædia Iranica''
and
Azerbaijani Azerbaijani may refer to: * Something of, or related to Azerbaijan * Azerbaijanis * Azerbaijani language See also

* Azerbaijan (disambiguation) * Azeri (disambiguation) * Azerbaijani cuisine * Culture of Azerbaijan * {{Disambig Language a ...
,"Peoples of Iran"
''Encyclopædia Iranica''. RN Frye.
which included intermarriages with
Georgian Georgian may refer to: Common meanings * Anything related to, or originating from Georgia (country) **Georgians, an indigenous Caucasian ethnic group **Georgian language, a Kartvelian language spoken by Georgians **Georgian scripts, three scripts ...

Georgian
,
CircassianCircassian may refer to: * Pertaining to Circassia, a formerly independent country located in present-day European Russia ** Circassian coast, on the Black Sea * Circassians, also known as Adyghe people ** Circassian beauties, an idealized image of ...

Circassian
, and
Pontic Greek Pontic Greek ( el, Ποντιακή διάλεκτος, ; Pontic Greek: , or ) is a variety of Modern Greek originally spoken in the Pontus area on the southern shores of the Black Sea , with the skyline of Batumi Batumi (; ka, ...
Anthony Bryer. "Greeks and Türkmens: The Pontic Exception", ''Dumbarton Oaks Papers, Vol. 29'' (1975), Appendix II "Genealogy of the Muslim Marriages of the Princesses of Trebizond" dignitaries). Through intermarriage and other political considerations, the Safavids spoke Persian and Turkish, and some of the Shahs composed poems in their native Turkish language. Concurrently, the Shahs themselves also supported Persian literature, poetry and art projects including the grand Shahnama of
Shah Tahmasp Tahmasp I (; , fa, شاه تهماسپ یکم) (22 February 1514 – 14 May 1576) was an influential Shah Shah (; fa, شاه, Šāh, pronounced , "king") is a title given to the emperors, kings, princes and lords of Iran Iran ( fa, ...

Shah Tahmasp
.Ira Marvin Lapidus, ''A history of Islamic Societies'', Cambridge University Press, 2002, 2nd edition. pg 445: To bolster the prestige of the state, the Safavid dynasty sponsored an Iran-Islamic style of culture concentrating on court poetry, painting, and monumental architecture that symbolized not only the Islamic credentials of the state but also the glory of the ancient Persian traditions." The Safavid dynasty ruled parts of
Greater Iran ( BC) at its greatest extent () File:Achaemenid_(greatest_extent).svg, Achaemenid Empire (550 BC–330 BC) at its greatest extent () Greater Iran ( fa, ایران بزرگ, translit=Irān-e Bozorg) refers to the regions of Western Asia, ...
for more than two centuries. and established the
Twelver Twelver ( ar, ٱثْنَا عَشَرِيَّة; ' fa, شیعه دوازده‌امامی, '), also known as Imamiyyah ( ar, إِمَامِيَّة), is the largest branch of Shia Islam, Shia Islam, with about 85% of all Shias. The term ''Twelve ...
school of
Shi'a Islam Shia Islam or Shi'ism is the second largest branch The branches and leaves of a tree. A branch ( or , ) or tree branch (sometimes referred to in botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life a ...
RM Savory, ''Safavids'', ''
Encyclopedia of Islam An encyclopedia or encyclopaedia (British English) is a reference work or compendium providing summaries of knowledge either from all branches or from a particular field or discipline. Encyclopedias are divided into article (publishing), art ...
'', 2nd ed.
as the official
religion Religion is a social Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in interacting populations. This interaction is considered social whether they are aware of it or not, and whether the exchange is voluntary/involuntary. Etymology ...

religion
of their empire, marking one of the most important turning points in
Muslim history Muslims () are people who follow or practice Islam Islam (;There are ten pronunciations of ''Islam'' in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the ''s'' is or , and whether the ''a'' is prono ...


= Afsharid dynasty (1736–1796)

= The
Afsharid dynasty The Afsharid dynasty ( fa, افشاریان) was an Iran Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia, and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia Western Asia, West Asia, or Southwest Asia, is the ...
was named after the Turkic Afshar tribe to which they belonged. The Afshars had migrated from
Turkestan Turkestan, also spelled Turkistan ( fa, ترکستان, Torkestân, lit=Land of the Turks), is a historical region in Central Asia Central Asia is a region in Asia which stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China and Mongolia in the ...

Turkestan
to
Azerbaijan Azerbaijan (, ; az, Azərbaycan ), officially the Republic of Azerbaijan ( az, Azərbaycan Respublikası ), is a country in the Transcaucasia, Caucasus region of Eurasia. Located at the crossroads of Eastern Europe and Western Asia, it is boun ...

Azerbaijan
in the 13th century. The dynasty was founded in 1736 by the military commander
Nader Shah Nader Shah Afshar ( fa, نادر شاه افشار; also known as ''Nader Qoli Beyg'' or ''Tahmāsp Qoli Khan'' ) (August 1688 – 19 June 1747) was one of the most powerful Iranian rulers in Iranian history, ruling as List of kings of Persia, ...

Nader Shah
who deposed the last member of the
Safavid dynasty The Safavid dynasty (; fa, دودمان صفوی, Dudmâne Safavi, ) was one of the most significant ruling dynasties of Safavid Iran, Iran from 1501 to 1736. The Safavid dynasty had its origin in the Safavid order of Sufism, which was establi ...
and proclaimed himself King of
Iran Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia, and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia Western Asia, West Asia, or Southwest Asia, is the westernmost subregion A subregion is a part of a larger regio ...

Iran
. Nader belonged to the Qereqlu branch of the Afshars. During Nader's reign, Iran reached its greatest extent since the
Sassanid Empire The Sasanian () or Sassanid Empire, officially known as the Empire of Iranians ( Middle Persian: 𐭠𐭩𐭥𐭠𐭭𐭱𐭲𐭥𐭩 '' Ērānshahr''), and called the Neo-Persian Empire by historians, was the last Persian imperial dynasty bef ...
.


= Qajar dynasty (1789–1925)

= The Qajar dynasty a royal dynasty of created by the Turkic Qajar tribe, ruling over Iran from 1789 to 1925.Abbas Amanat, ''The Pivot of the Universe: Nasir Al-Din Shah Qajar and the Iranian Monarchy, 1831–1896'', I. B. Tauris, pp 2–3; "In the 126 years between the fall of the Safavid state in 1722 and the accession of Nasir al-Din Shah, the Qajars evolved from a shepherd-warrior tribe with strongholds in northern Iran into a Persian dynasty." The Qajar family took full control of Iran in 1794, deposing
Lotf 'Ali Khan Lotf Ali Khan ( fa, لطفعلى خان زند) (c. 1769 – 1794) was the last Shah Shah (; fa, شاه, Šāh, pronounced , "king") is a title given to the emperors, kings, princes and lords of Iran Iran ( fa, ایران ), also cal ...
, the last
Shah Shah (; fa, شاه, Šâh or Šāh, , ) was a title given to the emperors and kings of Iran Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran ( fa, جمهوری اسلامی ایران ), is ...

Shah
of the
Zand dynasty The Zand dynasty ( fa, سلسله زندیه, '; ) was an Iran Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran ( fa, جمهوری اسلامی ایران ), is a country in Western Asia. It is ...

Zand dynasty
, and re-asserted Iranian sovereignty over large parts of the
Caucasus The Caucasus (), or Caucasia (), is a region spanning Europe Europe is a which is also recognised as part of , located entirely in the and mostly in the . It comprises the westernmost peninsulas of the of Eurasia, it shares the contin ...
. In 1796,
Mohammad Khan Qajar Agha Mohammad Khan Qajar ( fa, آغا محمد خان قاجار, translit=Āghā Mohammad Khān-e Qājār; 14 March 1742 – 17 June 1797), also known by his regnal name of Agha Mohammad Shah (, ), was the founder of the Qajar dynasty of Iran, rul ...

Mohammad Khan Qajar
seized
Mashhad Mashhad ( fa, مشهد, Mašhad ), also spelled Mashad or Meshad, is the second-most-populous city in Iran and the capital of Razavi Khorasan Province. It is located in the northeast of the country. It has a population of 3,001,184 (2016 census ...

Mashhad
with ease, putting an end to the
Afsharid dynasty The Afsharid dynasty ( fa, افشاریان) was an Iran Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia, and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia Western Asia, West Asia, or Southwest Asia, is the ...
, and Mohammad Khan was formally crowned as Shah after his punitive campaign against Iran's Georgian subjects.
Michael Axworthy Michael George Andrew Axworthy (26 September 1962 – 16 March 2019) was a British academic, author, and commentator. He was the head of the Iran section at the British Foreign & Commonwealth Office between 1998–2000. Personal life and famil ...

''Iran: Empire of the Mind: A History from Zoroaster to the Present Day''
Penguin UK, 6 November 2008.
In the Caucasus, the Qajar dynasty permanently lost many of Iran's integral areas to the
Russians , native_name_lang = ru , image = , caption = Wedding ceremony in the national Russian tradition. , population = 134 million , popplace = 117,319,000 , region1 = , pop1 = 7,170,00 ...
over the course of the 19th century, comprising modern-day
Georgia Georgia usually refers to: * Georgia (country), a country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia * Georgia (U.S. state), one of the states of the United States of America Georgia may also refer to: Historical states and entities * Democratic Republ ...
,
Dagestan village of Grar File:Сулакский каньон.jpg, Kara-Koysu River Canyon Dagestan (; russian: Дагеста́н), officially the Republic of Dagestan (russian: Респу́блика Дагеста́н), is a republics of Russia, rep ...

Dagestan
,
Azerbaijan Azerbaijan (, ; az, Azərbaycan ), officially the Republic of Azerbaijan ( az, Azərbaycan Respublikası ), is a country in the Transcaucasia, Caucasus region of Eurasia. Located at the crossroads of Eastern Europe and Western Asia, it is boun ...

Azerbaijan
and
Armenia Armenia (; hy, Հայաստան, translit=Hayastan, ), officially the Republic of Armenia,, is a landlocked country A landlocked country is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is ...

Armenia
.Timothy C. Dowling
''Russia at War: From the Mongol Conquest to Afghanistan, Chechnya, and Beyond''
pp 728-730 ABC-CLIO, 2 December 2014
The dynasty was founded by
Agha Mohammad Khan Qajar Agha Mohammad Khan Qajar ( fa, آغا محمد خان قاجار, translit=Āghā Mohammad Khān-e Qājār; 14 March 1742 – 17 June 1797), also known by his regnal name of Agha Mohammad Shah (, ), was the founder of the Qajar dynasty of Iran, rul ...
and continued until
Ahmad Shah Qajar Ahmad Shah Qajar ( fa, احمد شاه قاجار; January 21, 1898 – February 21, 1930) was Shah of Iran This article lists the monarchs of Persia Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia and officially the Islamic Republic of ...

Ahmad Shah Qajar
.


South Asia

The
Delhi Sultanate The Delhi Sultanate was an Islamic empire based in Delhi that stretched over large parts of the Indian subcontinent for 320 years (1206–1526).
is a term used to cover five short-lived,
Delhi Delhi (; ''Dillī''; ''Dillī''; ''Dêhlī''), officially the National Capital Territory (NCT) of Delhi, is a city and a of containing , the capital of India. * * * Straddling the river, but primarily its western or right bank, Delhi ...

Delhi
-based kingdoms three of which were of Turkic origin in
medieval India Medieval India refers to a long period of the history of the Indian subcontinent between the "ancient period" and "modern period". It is usually regarded as running between the breakup of the Gupta Empire in the 6th century AD and the start o ...
. These Turkic dynasties were the
Mamluk dynasty Mamluk (Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language that first emerged in the 1st to 4th centuries CE.Semitic languages: an international handbook / edited by Stefan Weninger; in collaboration with Geoffrey Khan, Michael P. Stre ...
(1206–90); the Khalji dynasty (1290–1320); and the
Tughlaq dynasty The Tughlaq dynasty (Ṭughlāq or Arabic script: ) also referred to as Tughluq or Tughluk dynasty, was a Muslim Muslims () are people who follow or practice Islam Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submiss ...
(1320–1414).
Southern India South India is a region consisting of the southern part of India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, second-most populous ...

Southern India
also saw many Turkic origin dynasties like the
Adil Shahi dynasty The Adil Shahi or Adilshahi, was a Shia Muslim Shia Islam or Shi'ism is one of the two main Islamic schools and branches, branches of Islam. It holds that the Prophets and messengers in Islam, Islamic prophet Muhammad in Islam, Muhammad ...
, the
Bidar Sultanate Bidar sultanate was one of the Deccan sultanates of late medieval southern India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, second ...
, and the
Qutb Shahi dynasty The Qutb Shahi dynasty ruled the Golconda Sultanate in south India from 1518 AD to 1687 AD. The Qutb Shahis were descendants of Qara Yusuf from Kara Koyunlu, Qara Qoyunlu, a Turkoman (ethnonym), Turkoman Muslim tribe. After the collapse of Bahman ...
, collectively known as the
Deccan sultanates#REDIRECT Deccan sultanates The Deccan sultanates were five late-medieval Indian kingdoms—on the Deccan Plateau between the Krishna River and the Vindhya Range—that were ruled by Muslim dynasties: namely Ahmadnagar, Berar, Bidar, Bija ...
. The
Mughal Empire The Mughal, Mogul, or Moghul Empire was an early modern The early modern period of modern history Human history, or world history, is the narrative of Human, humanity's past. It is understood through archaeology, anthropology, ge ...
was a Turko-Mongol founded Indian empire that, at its greatest territorial extent, ruled most of South Asia, including
Afghanistan Afghanistan (; Pashto/Dari language, Dari: , Pashto: , Dari: ), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country at the crossroads of Central Asia, Central and South Asia. Afghanistan is bordered by Pakistan to the ea ...

Afghanistan
, Pakistan, India,
Bangladesh Bangladesh (, bn, বাংলাদেশ, ), officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh, is a country in South Asia South Asia is the southern region of Asia, which is defined in both geography, geographical and culture, ethno-c ...

Bangladesh
and parts of
Uzbekistan Uzbekistan (, ; uz, Ozbekiston, ), officially the Republic of Uzbekistan ( uz, Ozbekiston Respublikasi), is a landlocked country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land ...

Uzbekistan
from the early 16th to the early 18th centuries. The Mughal dynasty was founded by a Chagatai Turkic prince named
Babur Babur ( fa, , lit= tiger, translit= Bābur; 14 February 148326 December 1530), born Zahīr ud-Dīn Muhammad, was the founder of the Mughal Empire The Mughal Empire, Mogul or Moghul Empire, was an Early modern period, early modern e ...

Babur
(reigned 1526–30), who was descended from the Turkic conqueror
Timur Timur ; chg, ''Aqsaq Temür'', 'Timur the Lame') or as ''Sahib-i-Qiran'' ( 'Lord of the Auspicious Conjunction'), his epithet. ( chg, ''Temür'', 'Iron'; 9 April 133617–19 February 1405), later Timūr Gurkānī ( chg, ''Temür Kür ...

Timur
(Tamerlane) on his father's side and from Chagatai, second son of the
Mongol The Mongols ( mn, Монголчууд, , ''Mongolchuud'', ; russian: Монголы, ) are an ethnic group to the , and the of Russia. The Mongols are the principal member of the large family of . The in Western Mongolia as well as the ...

Mongol
ruler
Genghis Khan Genghis Khan (August 18, 1227), born Temüjin, was the founder and first () of the , which became the in history after his death. He came to power by uniting many of the s of , and, after being proclaimed the universal , or ''Genghis Khan'', he ...

Genghis Khan
, on his mother's side.
Encyclopædia Britannica The (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia") is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia which is now published exclusively as an online encyclopedia, online encyclopaedia. It was formerly published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., a ...
Articl
Mughal Dynasty
/ref> A further distinction was the attempt of the Mughals to integrate Hindus and Muslims into a united Indian state. and the Last Turkic dynasty in India were the
Hyderabad State Hyderabad State (), also known as Hyderabad Deccan, was an Indian princely state A princely state, also called a native state, feudatory state or Indian state (for those states on the subcontinent), was a vassal state under a local or in ...
lasted from 1724–1948 located in the south-central region of India.


Arab world

The Arab Muslim
Umayyads The Umayyad dynasty ( ar, بَنُو أُمَيَّةَ, Banū Umayya, Sons of Umayya) or Umayyads () were the ruling family of the Muslim caliphate A caliphate ( ar, خِلَافَة, ) is an Islamic state under the leadership of an Islam ...
and
Abbasids The Abbasid Caliphate ( or ar, اَلْخِلَافَةُ ٱلْعَبَّاسِيَّةُ, ') was the third caliphate A caliphate or khilāfah ( ar, خِلَافَة, ) is an institution or public office governing a territory under I ...

Abbasids
fought against the pagan Turks in the
Türgesh The Türgesh or Türgish ( otk, 𐱅𐰇𐰼𐰏𐰾:𐰉𐰆𐰑, Türügeš budun, Türgesh people 突騎施/突骑施, Pinyin: tūqíshī, Wade–Giles: t'u-ch'i-shih; Old Tibetan: ''Du-rgyas'') were a Turkic peoples, Turkic tribal confederati ...
Khaganate in the
Muslim conquest of Transoxiana The Muslim conquest of Transoxiana or Arab conquest of Transoxiana were the 7th and 8th century Muslim conquests, conquests, by Umayyad and Abbasid Arab peoples, Arabs, of Transoxiana, the land between the Amu Darya, Oxus (Amu Darya) and Syr ...
. Turkic soldiers in the army of the
Abbasid The Abbasid Caliphate ( or ar, اَلْخِلَافَةُ ٱلْعَبَّاسِيَّةُ, ') was the third caliphate A caliphate ( ar, خِلَافَة, ) is an Islamic state under the leadership of an Islam Islam (;There ar ...

Abbasid
caliphs A caliphate ( ar, خِلَافَة, ) is an Islamic state An Islamic state is a form of government based on Islamic law. As a term, it has been used to describe various historical Polity, polities and theories of governance in the Islami ...
emerged as the de facto rulers of most of the Muslim Middle East (apart from
Syria Syria ( ar, سُورِيَا or ar, سُورِيَة, ''Sūriyā''), officially the Syrian Arab Republic ( ar, ٱلْجُمْهُورِيَّةُ ٱلْعَرَبِيَّةُ ٱلسُّورِيَّةُ, al-Jumhūrīyah al-ʻArabīyah as-S ...

Syria
and
Egypt Egypt ( ar, مِصر, Miṣr), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a spanning the and the of . It is bordered by the to , the () and to , the to the east, to , and to . In the northeast, the , which is the northern arm of the R ...

Egypt
), particularly after the 10th century. The Oghuz and other tribes captured and dominated various countries under the leadership of the
Seljuk dynasty The Seljuk dynasty, or Seljuks ( ; fa, آل سلجوق ''Al-e Saljuq'', alternatively spelled as Seljuqs or Saljuqs), also known as Seljuk Turks, Seljuk Turkomans "The defeat in August 1071 of the Byzantine emperor Romanos Diogenes by the Turkom ...
and eventually captured the territories of the Abbasid dynasty and the
Byzantine Empire The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire, or Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire The Roman Empire ( la, Imperium Rōmānum ; grc-gre, Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, Basileía tôn ...

Byzantine Empire
.


Anatolia – Ottomans

After many battles, the western
Oghuz Turks The Oguz or Ghuzz Turks (: ٱغُز, ''Oγuz'', ota, اوغوز, Oġuz) were a western that spoke the of the . In the 8th century, they formed a conventionally named the in Central Asia. The name ''Oghuz'' is a word for "tribe". source ...
established their own state and later constructed the
Ottoman Empire The Ottoman Empire (; ', ; or '; )info page on bookat Martin Luther University) // CITED: p. 36 (PDF p. 38/338). was an empire that controlled much of Southeastern Europe, Western Asia, and North Africa, Northern Africa between the 14th ...
. The main migration of the Oghuz Turks occurred in medieval times, when they spread across most of Asia and into Europe and the Middle East.Carter V. Findley, ''The Turks in World History'' (Oxford University Press, October 2004) They also took part in the military encounters of the
Crusades The Crusades were a series of religious wars initiated, supported, and sometimes directed by the Latin Church in the medieval period. The term refers especially to the Eastern Mediterranean campaigns in the period between 1095 and 1271 that h ...

Crusades
. In 1090–91, the Turkic Pechenegs reached the walls of
Constantinople la, Constantinopolis ota, قسطنطينيه , alternate_name = Byzantion (earlier Greek name), Nova Roma ("New Rome"), Miklagard/Miklagarth (Old Norse Old Norse, Old Nordic, or Old Scandinavian is a stage of development of North Germa ...

Constantinople
, where Emperor
Alexius I Alexios I Komnenos ( grc-gre, Ἀλέξιος Ά Κομνηνός, – 15 August 1118), Latinization of names, Latinized Alexius I Comnenus, was Byzantine Empire, Byzantine List of Byzantine Emperors, emperor from 1081 to 1118. Although h ...

Alexius I
with the aid of the Kipchaks annihilated their army. As the
Seljuk Empire The Great Seljuk Empire or the Seljuk Empire, was a high medieval The High Middle Ages, or High Medieval Period, was the period of European history that lasted from around AD 1000 to 1250. The High Middle Ages In the history of Eu ...

Seljuk Empire
declined following the
Mongol invasion The Mongol invasions and conquests took place during the 13th and 14th centuries, creating history's largest contiguous empire - The Mongol Empire, which by 1300 covered large parts of Eurasia. Historians regard the Mongol devastation as one of ...
, the
Ottoman Empire The Ottoman Empire (; ', ; or '; )info page on bookat Martin Luther University) // CITED: p. 36 (PDF p. 38/338). was an empire that controlled much of Southeastern Europe, Western Asia, and North Africa, Northern Africa between the 14th ...
emerged as the new important Turkic state, that came to dominate not only the Middle East, but even southeastern Europe, parts of southwestern Russia, and northern Africa.


Islamization

Turkic peoples like the
Karluks The Karluks (also Qarluqs, Qarluks, Karluqs, otk, 𐰴𐰺𐰞𐰸, Qarluq, fa, خَلُّخ, ''Khallokh'', ar, قارلوق, ''Qarluq'') were a prominent nomadic A nomad ( frm, nomade "people without fixed habitation") is a member of a ...
(mainly 8th century),
Uyghurs The Uyghurs ( or ; ; ; zh, s=, t=, p=Wéiwú'ěr, IPA: ), alternatively spelled Uighurs, Uyghers, Uygurs or Uigurs, are a Turkic peoples, Turkic ethnic group originating from and culturally affiliated with the general region of Central Asi ...
,
KyrgyzKyrgyz, Kirghiz or Kyrgyzstani may refer to: *Things related to Kyrgyzstan *Kyrgyz people *Kyrgyz language *Kyrgyz culture *Kyrgyz cuisine *Yenisei Kirghiz *The Fuyu Kyrgyz language, Fuyü Gïrgïs language in Northeastern China {{Disambig Languag ...

Kyrgyz
,
Kazakhs The Kazakhs (also spelled Qazaqs; Kazakh: , , , , , ; the English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medi ...

Kazakhs
, and
Turkmens Turkmens ( tk, , , , ; historically the Turkmen), also known as Turkmen Turks ( tk, , ), are a Turkic ethnic group native to Central Asia Central Asia is a region in Asia which stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China and Mongol ...
later came into contact with
Muslim Muslims () are people who follow or practice Islam Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission o God Oh God may refer to: * An exclamation; similar to "oh no", "oh yes", "oh my", "aw goodness", "ah gosh", ...

Muslim
s, and most of them gradually adopted
Islam Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission
o God Oh God may refer to: * An exclamation; similar to "oh no", "oh yes", "oh my", "aw goodness", "ah gosh", "ah gawd"; see interjection An interjection is a word or expression that occurs as an utterance on its own and expresses a spontaneous feeling ...
) is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic monotheistic religion teaching that Muhammad is a Muhammad in Islam, messenger of God.Peters, F. E. 2009. "Allāh." In , ed ...
. Some groups of Turkic people practice other religions, including their original animistic-shamanistic religion,
Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic, Monotheism, monotheistic religion based on the Life of Jesus in the New Testament, life and Teachings of Jesus, teachings of Jesus, Jesus of Nazareth. It is the Major religious groups, world's ...

Christianity
,
Burkhanism Burkhanism or Ak Jang ( alt, Ак јаҥ), is a new religious movement A new religious movement (NRM), also known as a new religion or an alternative spirituality, is a religious or spirituality, spiritual group that has modern origins but is ...
,
Jew Jews ( he, יְהוּדִים ISO 259-2ISO The International Organization for Standardization (ISO; ) is an international standard are technical standards developed by international organizations (intergovernmental organizations), suc ...

Jew
s (
Khazars The Khazars; he, כוזרים, Kuzarim; la, Gazari, or ; zh, 突厥曷薩 ; 突厥可薩部 ''Tūjué Kěsà bù'' () were a semi-nomad A nomad ( frm, nomade "people without fixed habitation") is a member of a community without fixe ...

Khazars
,
Krymchaks The Krymchaks (Krymchak language, Krymchak: , , , ) are Jewish ethno-religious communities of Crimea derived from Turkic languages, Turkic-speaking adherents of Rabbinic Judaism.Crimean Karaites The Crimean Karaites or Krymkaraylar (Crimean Karaim: Кърымкъарайлар, ''Qrımqaraylar'', singular къарай, ''qaray''; Trakai Trakai () (see names section for alternate and historic names) is a historic city and lake resort ...
),
Buddhism Buddhism (, ) is the world's fourth-largest religion Religion is a social Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in interacting populations. This interaction is considered social whether they are aware of it or not, and ...

Buddhism
and a small number of Zoroastrians.


Modern history

The Ottoman Empire gradually grew weaker in the face of poor administration, repeated wars with
Russia Russia ( rus, link=no, Россия, Rossiya, ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the eastern region of . There is no consistent definition of the precise area it covers, partly because th ...
, Austria and Hungary, and the emergence of nationalist movements in the Balkans, and it finally gave way after World War I to the present-day
Republic of Turkey Turkey ( tr, Türkiye ), officially the Republic of Turkey, is a country located mainly on Anatolia Anatolia,, tr, Anadolu Yarımadası), and the Anatolian plateau. also known as Asia Minor, is a large peninsula in Western Asia and ...
. Ethnic nationalism also developed in Ottoman Empire during the 19th century, taking the form of
Pan-Turkism has official status Pan-Turkism is a political movement that emerged during the 1880s among Turkic intellectuals of the Russian region of Baku Governorate (modern-day Azerbaijan) and the Ottoman Empire (modern-day Turkey), with its aim being th ...
or
Turanism Turanism, also known as pan-Turanianism or pan-Turanism, is a Nationalism, nationalist cultural and political movement proclaiming the need for close cooperation or political unification between (culturally, linguistically or ethnically related) p ...
. The Turkic peoples of Central Asia were not organized in nation-states during most of the 20th century, after the collapse of the
Russian Empire The Russian Empire, . commonly referred to as Imperial Russia, was a historical that extended across and from 1721, succeeding the following the that ended the . The Empire lasted until the was proclaimed by the that took power after the ...
living either in the Soviet Union or (after a short-lived
First East Turkestan Republic The Turkic Islamic Republic of East Turkestan (IRET; ug, شەرقىي تۈركىستان ئىسلام جۇمھۇرىيىتى, , Шәрқий Түркистан Ислам Җумхурийити; ) was a short-lived breakaway Islamic republic f ...
) in the Chinese Republic. In the 20th century Turkey was the only independent Turkic country most of the time. In 1991, after the disintegration of the
Soviet Union The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR),. was a that spanned during its existence from 1922 to 1991. It was nominally a of multiple national ; in practice and were highly until its final years. The ...
, five Turkic states gained their independence. These were
Azerbaijan Azerbaijan (, ; az, Azərbaycan ), officially the Republic of Azerbaijan ( az, Azərbaycan Respublikası ), is a country in the Transcaucasia, Caucasus region of Eurasia. Located at the crossroads of Eastern Europe and Western Asia, it is boun ...

Azerbaijan
,
Kazakhstan Kazakhstan ( kk, Қазақстан, Qazaqstan; russian: Казахстан, Kazakhstan), officially the Republic of Kazakhstan,; russian: Республика Казахстан, Respublika Kazakhstan, link=no) is a country located mainly in ...

Kazakhstan
,
Kyrgyzstan russian: Киргизская Республика, Kirgizskaya Respublika , image_flag = Flag of Kyrgyzstan.svg , image_coat = Emblem of Kyrgyzstan.svg , symbol_type = Emblem , motto = " ...

Kyrgyzstan
,
Turkmenistan Turkmenistan ( or ; tk, Türkmenistan, ), also known as Turkmenia, is a Landlocked country, landlocked country in Central Asia, bordered by Kazakhstan to the Kazakhstan-Turkmenistan border, northwest, Uzbekistan to the Turkmenistan–Uzbekista ...

Turkmenistan
, and
Uzbekistan Uzbekistan (, ; uz, Ozbekiston, ), officially the Republic of Uzbekistan ( uz, Ozbekiston Respublikasi), is a landlocked country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land ...

Uzbekistan
. Other Turkic regions such as
Tatarstan The Republic of Tatarstan,; tt, Татарстан Республикасы, Tatarstan Respublikası or simply Tatarstan,, tt, is a Republics of Russia, republic of Russia located in Eastern Europe. It is a part of the Volga Federal District ...

Tatarstan
,
Tuva Tuva (; russian: Тува́) or Tyva ( tyv, Тыва), officially the Tyva Republic (russian: Респу́блика Тыва́, r=Respublika Tyva, p=rʲɪˈspublʲɪkə tɨˈva; tyv, Тыва Республика, translit=Tyva Respublika ...

Tuva
, and
Yakutia Sakha, also known as Yakutia or Yakutiya,; sah, Саха Сирэ, r= Saqa Sire, p= saˈxa sɪrjə), and officially known as the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) ( rus, Республика Саха (Якутия), r= Respublika Sakha (Yakutiya), p= ...

Yakutia
remained in the
Russian Federation Russia ( rus, link=no, Россия, Rossiya, ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe and Northern Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by area, largest country in the world, covering over , and encom ...

Russian Federation
.
Chinese Turkestan East Turkestan, also East Turkistan ( ug, شەرقىي تۈركىستان, Sherqiy Türkistan, Шәрқий Түркистан, bold=no; zh, s=东突厥斯坦), varies in meaning by context and usage. The term was coined in the 19th century b ...
remained part of the
People's Republic of China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere ...

People's Republic of China
. Immediately after the independence of the Turkic states, Turkey began seeking diplomatic relations with them. Over time political meetings between the Turkic countries increased and led to the establishment of TÜRKSOY in 1993 and the
Turkic Council The Turkic Council, officially the Cooperation Council of Turkic-Speaking States, is an international organization ''International Organization'' is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal that covers the entire field of international relation ...

Turkic Council
in 2009, which later was renamed to Organization of Turkic States in 2021.


Archaeology

*
Kizil-Koba cultureKizil-Koba is a Middle Paleolithic culture belonging to local Tauri tribes who lived in the 9th–8th millennia BC in the Eastern Crimea Crimea (; ; uk, Крим, Krym; crh, Къырым, translit=Kirim/Qırım; grc, Κιμμερία/Τα ...
*
Xinglongwa culture The Xinglongwa culture () ( 6200– 5400 BC) was a Neolithic culture in northeastern China, found mainly around the Inner Mongolia-Liaoning border at the Liao River basin. Xinglongwa pottery was primarily cylindrical, and baked at low temperature ...
*
Hongshan culture The C-shaped jade dragon of Hongshan Culture The Hongshan culture () was a Neolithic culture in the Liao river basin in northeast China. Hongshan sites have been found in an area stretching from Inner Mongolia to Liaoning, and dated from about 47 ...
* Čaatas culture * Kurumchi culture * Saltovo-Mayaki * Tashtyk culture * Saimaluu Tash * Bilär * Por-Bazhyn * Ordu-Baliq * Jankent


International organizations

There are several international organizations created with the purpose of furthering cooperation between countries with Turkic-speaking populations, such as the Joint Administration of Turkic Arts and Culture (TÜRKSOY) and the Parliamentary Assembly of Turkic-speaking Countries (TÜRKPA) and the
Turkic Council The Turkic Council, officially the Cooperation Council of Turkic-Speaking States, is an international organization ''International Organization'' is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal that covers the entire field of international relation ...

Turkic Council
. The TAKM – Organization of the Eurasian Law Enforcement Agencies with Military Status, was established on 25 January 2013. It is an Intergovernmental organization, intergovernmental military law enforcement (gendarmerie) organization of currently three Turkic countries (
Azerbaijan Azerbaijan (, ; az, Azərbaycan ), officially the Republic of Azerbaijan ( az, Azərbaycan Respublikası ), is a country in the Transcaucasia, Caucasus region of Eurasia. Located at the crossroads of Eastern Europe and Western Asia, it is boun ...

Azerbaijan
,
Kyrgyzstan russian: Киргизская Республика, Kirgizskaya Respublika , image_flag = Flag of Kyrgyzstan.svg , image_coat = Emblem of Kyrgyzstan.svg , symbol_type = Emblem , motto = " ...

Kyrgyzstan
and Turkey) and
Kazakhstan Kazakhstan ( kk, Қазақстан, Qazaqstan; russian: Казахстан, Kazakhstan), officially the Republic of Kazakhstan,; russian: Республика Казахстан, Respublika Kazakhstan, link=no) is a country located mainly in ...

Kazakhstan
as observer.


TÜRKSOY

Türksoy carries out activities to strengthen cultural ties between Turkic peoples. One of the main goals to transmit their common cultural heritage to future generations and promote it around the world. Every year, one city in the Turkic world is selected as the "Cultural Capital of the Turkic World". Within the framework of events to celebrate the Cultural Capital of the Turkic World, numerous cultural events are held, gathering artists, scholars and intellectuals, giving them the opportunity to exchange their experiences, as well as promoting the city in question internationally.


Organization of Turkic States

The Organization of Turkic States, founded on 3 November 2009 by the ''Nakhchivan Agreement'' confederation,
Kazakhstan Kazakhstan ( kk, Қазақстан, Qazaqstan; russian: Казахстан, Kazakhstan), officially the Republic of Kazakhstan,; russian: Республика Казахстан, Respublika Kazakhstan, link=no) is a country located mainly in ...

Kazakhstan
,
Kyrgyzstan russian: Киргизская Республика, Kirgizskaya Respublika , image_flag = Flag of Kyrgyzstan.svg , image_coat = Emblem of Kyrgyzstan.svg , symbol_type = Emblem , motto = " ...

Kyrgyzstan
and Turkey, aims to integrate these organizations into a tighter geopolitical framework. The member countries are
Azerbaijan Azerbaijan (, ; az, Azərbaycan ), officially the Republic of Azerbaijan ( az, Azərbaycan Respublikası ), is a country in the Transcaucasia, Caucasus region of Eurasia. Located at the crossroads of Eastern Europe and Western Asia, it is boun ...

Azerbaijan
,
Kazakhstan Kazakhstan ( kk, Қазақстан, Qazaqstan; russian: Казахстан, Kazakhstan), officially the Republic of Kazakhstan,; russian: Республика Казахстан, Respublika Kazakhstan, link=no) is a country located mainly in ...

Kazakhstan
,
Kyrgyzstan russian: Киргизская Республика, Kirgizskaya Respublika , image_flag = Flag of Kyrgyzstan.svg , image_coat = Emblem of Kyrgyzstan.svg , symbol_type = Emblem , motto = " ...

Kyrgyzstan
, Turkey and
Uzbekistan Uzbekistan (, ; uz, Ozbekiston, ), officially the Republic of Uzbekistan ( uz, Ozbekiston Respublikasi), is a landlocked country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land ...

Uzbekistan
. The idea of setting up this cooperative council was first put forward by Kazakh President Nursultan Nazarbayev back in 2006. Hungary has announced to be interested in joining the Organization of Turkic States. Since August 2018, Hungary has official observer status in the Organization of Turkic States.
Turkmenistan Turkmenistan ( or ; tk, Türkmenistan, ), also known as Turkmenia, is a Landlocked country, landlocked country in Central Asia, bordered by Kazakhstan to the Kazakhstan-Turkmenistan border, northwest, Uzbekistan to the Turkmenistan–Uzbekista ...

Turkmenistan
also joined as an observer state to the organization at 8th summit.


Demographics

The distribution of people of Turkic cultural background ranges from
Siberia Siberia (; rus, Сибирь, r=Sibir', p=sʲɪˈbʲirʲ, a=Ru-Сибирь.ogg) is an extensive geographical region, constituting all of North Asia, from the Ural Mountains in the west to the Pacific Ocean in the east. It has been a part of R ...

Siberia
, across Central Asia, to Southern Europe. the largest groups of Turkic people live throughout Central Asia—
Kazakhstan Kazakhstan ( kk, Қазақстан, Qazaqstan; russian: Казахстан, Kazakhstan), officially the Republic of Kazakhstan,; russian: Республика Казахстан, Respublika Kazakhstan, link=no) is a country located mainly in ...

Kazakhstan
,
Kyrgyzstan russian: Киргизская Республика, Kirgizskaya Respublika , image_flag = Flag of Kyrgyzstan.svg , image_coat = Emblem of Kyrgyzstan.svg , symbol_type = Emblem , motto = " ...

Kyrgyzstan
,
Turkmenistan Turkmenistan ( or ; tk, Türkmenistan, ), also known as Turkmenia, is a Landlocked country, landlocked country in Central Asia, bordered by Kazakhstan to the Kazakhstan-Turkmenistan border, northwest, Uzbekistan to the Turkmenistan–Uzbekista ...

Turkmenistan
,
Uzbekistan Uzbekistan (, ; uz, Ozbekiston, ), officially the Republic of Uzbekistan ( uz, Ozbekiston Respublikasi), is a landlocked country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land ...

Uzbekistan
, and
Azerbaijan Azerbaijan (, ; az, Azərbaycan ), officially the Republic of Azerbaijan ( az, Azərbaycan Respublikası ), is a country in the Transcaucasia, Caucasus region of Eurasia. Located at the crossroads of Eastern Europe and Western Asia, it is boun ...

Azerbaijan
, in addition to Turkey and
Iran Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia, and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia Western Asia, West Asia, or Southwest Asia, is the westernmost subregion A subregion is a part of a larger regio ...

Iran
. Additionally, Turkic people are found within Crimea, Altishahr region of western
China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in . It is the world's , with a of more than 1.4 billion. China spans five geographical and 14 different countries, the in the world after . Covering an area of ap ...

China
, northern Iraq, Israel,
Russia Russia ( rus, link=no, Россия, Rossiya, ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the eastern region of . There is no consistent definition of the precise area it covers, partly because th ...

Russia
,
Afghanistan Afghanistan (; Pashto/Dari language, Dari: , Pashto: , Dari: ), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country at the crossroads of Central Asia, Central and South Asia. Afghanistan is bordered by Pakistan to the ea ...

Afghanistan
, Cyprus, and the Balkans: Moldova, Bulgaria, Romania, Greece and former Yugoslavia. A small number of Turkic people also live in Vilnius, the capital of Lithuania. Small numbers inhabit eastern Poland and the south-eastern part of Finland. There are also considerable populations of Turkic people (originating mostly from Turkey) in Germany, United States, and Australia, largely because of migrations during the 20th century. Sometimes ethnographers group Turkic people into six branches: the
Oghuz Turks The Oguz or Ghuzz Turks (: ٱغُز, ''Oγuz'', ota, اوغوز, Oġuz) were a western that spoke the of the . In the 8th century, they formed a conventionally named the in Central Asia. The name ''Oghuz'' is a word for "tribe". source ...
, Kipchaks, Kipchak, Karluks, Karluk,
Siberia Siberia (; rus, Сибирь, r=Sibir', p=sʲɪˈbʲirʲ, a=Ru-Сибирь.ogg) is an extensive geographical region, constituting all of North Asia, from the Ural Mountains in the west to the Pacific Ocean in the east. It has been a part of R ...

Siberia
n, Chuvash people, Chuvash, and Sakha language, Sakha/Yakut branches. The Oghuz have been termed Western Turks, while the remaining five, in such a classificatory scheme, are called Eastern Turks. The genetic distances between the different populations of Uzbeks scattered across Uzbekistan is no greater than the distance between many of them and the Karakalpaks. This suggests that Karakalpaks and Uzbeks have very similar origins. The Karakalpaks have a somewhat greater bias towards the eastern markers than the Uzbeks. Historical population: The following incomplete list of Turkic people shows the respective groups' core areas of settlement and their estimated sizes (in millions):


Cuisine

Markets in the steppe region had a limited range of foodstuffs available—mostly grains, dried fruits, spices, and tea. Turks mostly herded sheep, goats and horses. Dairy was a staple of the nomadic diet and there are many Turkic words for various dairy products such as ''süt'' (milk), ''yagh'' (butter), ayran, ''kaymak, qaymaq'' (similar to clotted cream), Kumis, qi̅mi̅z (fermented mare's milk) and ''qurut'' (dried yoghurt). During the Middle Ages Kazakh cuisine, Kazakh,
KyrgyzKyrgyz, Kirghiz or Kyrgyzstani may refer to: *Things related to Kyrgyzstan *Kyrgyz people *Kyrgyz language *Kyrgyz culture *Kyrgyz cuisine *Yenisei Kirghiz *The Fuyu Kyrgyz language, Fuyü Gïrgïs language in Northeastern China {{Disambig Languag ...

Kyrgyz
and Tatar cuisine, Tatars, who were historically part of the Turkic nomadic group known as the
Golden Horde The Golden Horde, self-designated as Ulug Ulus, 'Great State' in Turkic, was originally a Mongol The Mongols ( mn, Монголчууд, , ''Mongolchuud'', ; russian: Монголы, ) are an ethnic group to the , and the of Russia. ...
, continued to develop new variations of dairy products. Nomadic Turks cooked their meals in a ''Kazan (cookware), qazan'', a pot similar to a cauldron; a wooden rack called a ''qasqan'' can be used to prepare certain steamed foods, like the traditional meat dumplings called ''Manti (food), manti''. They also used a ''saj'', a griddle that was traditionally placed on stones over a fire, and ''skewer, shish''. In later times, the Persian tava was borrowed from the Persians for frying, but traditionally nomadic Turks did most of their cooking using the qazan, saj and shish. Meals were served in a bowl, called a ''chanaq'', and eaten with a knife (''bïchaq'') and spoon (''qashi̅q''). Both bowl and spoon were historically made from wood. Other traditional utensils used in food preparation included a thin rolling pin called ''oqlaghu'', a colander called ''süzgu̅çh'', and a grinding stone called ''tāgirmān''. Medieval grain dishes included preparations of whole grains, soups, porridges, breads and pastries. Fried or toasted whole grains were called ''qawïrmach'', while ''köchä'' was crushed grain that was cooked with dairy products. ''Salma'' were broad noodles that could be served with boiled or roasted meat; cut noodles were called ''tutmaj'' in the Middle Ages and are called ''kesme'' today. There are many types of bread doughs in Turkic cuisine. ''Saj bread, Yupqa'' is the thinnest type of dough, ''Bawirsaq, bawi̅rsaq'' is a type of fried bread dough, and ''Shelpek, chälpäk'' is a deep fried flat bread. ''Qatlama'' is a fried bread that may be sprinkled with dried fruit or meat, rolled, and sliced like pinwheel sandwiches. ''Toqach'' and ''chöräk'' are varieties of bread, and Börek, böräk is a type of filled pie pastry. Herd animals were usually slaughtered during the winter months and various types of sausages were prepared to preserve the meats, including a type of sausage called ''sujuk''. Though prohibited by halal, Islamic dietary restrictions, historically Turkic nomads also had a variety of blood sausage. One type of sausage, called ''Qazı, qazi̅'', was made from horsemeat and another variety was filled with a mixture of ground meat, offal and rice. Chopped meat was called ''qïyma'' and spit-roasted meat was ''söklünch''—from the root ''sök-'' meaning "to tear off", the latter dish is known as kebab in modern times. ''Kavurma, Qawirma'' is a typical fried meat dish, and ''kullama'' is a soup of noodles and lamb.


Religion


Early Turkic mythology and Tengrism

Pre-Islamic
Turkic mythology Turkic mythology contains myths and legends told by the Turkic people The Turkic peoples are a collection of ethnic groups of Central Asia, Central, East Asia, East, North Asia, North and West Asia as well as parts of Europe and North Afric ...
was dominated by Shamanism in Central Asia, Shamanism, Animism and Tengrism. The Turkic Animism, Turkic animistic traditions were mostly focused on ancestor worship, Polytheism, polytheistic-animism and shamanism. Later this animistic tradition would form the more organized Tengrism. The chief deity was Tengri, a sky god, worshipped by the upper classes of early Turkic society until Manichaeism was introduced as the official religion of the
Uyghur Empire , status = Khaganate (Nomadic empireNomadic empires, sometimes also called steppe empires, Central or Inner Asian empires, were the empires erected by the bow and arrow, bow-wielding, horse-riding, Eurasian nomads, nomadic people ...
in 763. The gray wolf, wolf symbolizes honour and is also considered the mother of most Turkic peoples. Asena (Ashina Tuwu) is the wolf mother of Tumen Il-Qağan, the first Khan of the
Göktürks The Göktürks, Celestial Turks or Blue Turks ( otk, 𐱅𐰇𐰼𐰰:𐰉𐰆𐰑𐰣, Türük Bodun; zh, 突厥 ''Tūjué''; Wade-Giles: ''T'u-chüeh'') were a nomadic confederation of Turkic peoples in medieval Inner Asia. The Göktürks, un ...
. The horse and bird of prey, predatory birds, such as the eagle or falcon, are also main figures of Turkic mythology.


Religious conversions


Buddhism

Tengri Bögü Khan made the now extinct Manichaeism the state religion of
Uyghur Khaganate The Uyghur Khaganate (or Uyghur Empire or Uighur Khaganate, self defined as Toquz-Oghuz country; otk, 𐱃𐰆𐰴𐰕:𐰆𐰍𐰕:𐰉𐰆𐰑𐰣, Toquz Oγuz budun, Tang-era names, with modern Hanyu Pinyin ''Hanyu Pinyin'' (), often ab ...

Uyghur Khaganate
in 763 and it was also popular in
Karluks The Karluks (also Qarluqs, Qarluks, Karluqs, otk, 𐰴𐰺𐰞𐰸, Qarluq, fa, خَلُّخ, ''Khallokh'', ar, قارلوق, ''Qarluq'') were a prominent nomadic A nomad ( frm, nomade "people without fixed habitation") is a member of a ...
. It was gradually replaced by the Mahayana Buddhism. It existed in the Buddhist Uyghur Gaochang up to the 12th century. Tibetan Buddhism, or Vajrayana was the main religion after Manichaeism. They worshipped Buddha, Täŋri Täŋrisi Burxan, Guanyin, Quanšï Im Pusar and Maitreya, Maitri Burxan. Turkic Muslim conquest in the Indian subcontinent and west Xinjiang attributed with a rapid and almost total disappearance of it and other religions in North India and Central Asia. The Yugur, Sari Uygurs "Yellow Yughurs" of Western China, as well as the Tuvans of Russia are the only remaining
Buddhist Buddhism (, ) is the world's fourth-largest religion Religion is a - of designated and practices, , s, s, , , , , or , that relates humanity to , , and elements; however, there is no scholarly consensus over what precisely constitu ...

Buddhist
Turkic peoples.


Islam

Most Turkic people today are Sunni Muslims, although a significant number in Turkey are Alevis. Alevi Turks, who were once primarily dwelling in eastern Anatolia, are today concentrated in major urban centers in western Turkey with the increased urbanism. Azeris are traditionally Shiite Muslims. Religious observance is less stricter in the Republic of Azerbaijan compared to Iranian Azerbaijan.


Christianity

The major Christian-Turkic peoples are the Chuvash people, Chuvash of Chuvash Republic, Chuvashia and the Gagauz people, Gagauz (''Gökoğuz'') of Moldova. The traditional religion of the Chuvash people, Chuvash of Russia, while containing many ancient Turkic concepts, also shares some elements with Zoroastrianism, Khazar Judaism, and Islam. The Chuvash converted to Eastern Orthodox Christianity for the most part in the second half of the 19th century. As a result, festivals and rites were made to coincide with Orthodox feasts, and Christian rites replaced their traditional counterparts. A minority of the Chuvash still profess their traditional faith. Church of the East was popular among Turks such as the
Naimans The Naiman (Mongolian language, Mongolian: Найман/Naiman, "eight"; ; Kazakh language, Kazakh: Найман; Uzbek language, Uzbek: Nayman) is a medieval tribe originating in the territory of modern Western Mongolia (possibly during the time of ...
. It even revived in Gaochang and expanded in Xinjiang in the Yuan dynasty period. It disappeared after its collapse. Today there are several groups that support a revival of the ancient traditions. Especially after the collapse of the
Soviet Union The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR),. was a that spanned during its existence from 1922 to 1991. It was nominally a of multiple national ; in practice and were highly until its final years. The ...
, many in
Central Asia Central Asia is a region in Asia Asia () is 's largest and most populous , located primarily in the and . It shares the continental of with the continent of and the continental landmass of with both Europe and . Asia covers an area ...

Central Asia
converted or openly practice animistic and shamanistic rituals. It is estimated that about 60% of Kyrgyz people practice a form of animistic rituals. In
Kazakhstan Kazakhstan ( kk, Қазақстан, Qazaqstan; russian: Казахстан, Kazakhstan), officially the Republic of Kazakhstan,; russian: Республика Казахстан, Respublika Kazakhstan, link=no) is a country located mainly in ...

Kazakhstan
there are about 54.000 followers of the ancient traditions.


= Muslim Turks and non-Muslim Turks

= Kara-Khanids performed a mass conversion campaign against the Buddhist Uyghur Turks during the Islamization and Turkification of Xinjiang. The non-Muslim Turks worship of Tengri and other gods was mocked and insulted by the Muslim Turk Mahmud al-Kashgari, who wrote a verse referring to them – ''The Infidels – May God destroy them!'' The Basmil, Yabāḳu and Uyghur states were among the Turkic peoples who fought against the Kara-Khanids spread of Islam. The Islamic Kara-Khanids were made out of Tukhai, Yaghma, Çiğil and Karluk. Kashgari claimed that the Prophet assisted in a miraculous event where 700,000 Yabāqu infidels were defeated by 40,000 Muslims led by Arslān Tegīn claiming that fires shot sparks from gates located on a green mountain towards the Yabāqu. The Yabaqu were a Turkic people. Mahmud al-Kashgari insulted the Uyghur Buddhists as "Uighur dogs" and called them "Tats", which referred to the "Uighur infidels" according to the Tuxsi and Taghma, while other Turks called Persians "tat". While Kashgari displayed a different attitude towards the Turks diviners beliefs and "national customs", he expressed towards Buddhism a hatred in his Diwan where he wrote the verse cycle on the war against Uighur Buddhists. Buddhist origin words like toyin (a cleric or priest) and Burxān or Furxan (meaning Buddha, acquiring the generic meaning of "idol" in the Turkic language of Kashgari) had negative connotations to Muslim Turks.


Old sports


Tepuk

Mahmud al-Kashgari in his ''Dīwān Lughāt al-Turk'', described a game called "tepuk" among Turks in Central Asia. In the game, people try to attack each other's castle by kicking a ball made of sheep leather.


Kyz kuu

Kyz kuu (chase the girl) has been played by Turkic people at festivals since time immemorial.


Jereed

Horses have been essential and even sacred animals for Turks living as nomadic tribes in the Central Asian steppes. Turks were born, grew up, lived, fought and died on horseback. Jereed became the most important sporting and ceremonial game of Turkish people.


Kokpar

The Buzkashi, kokpar began with the nomadic Turkic peoples who have come from farther north and east spreading westward from China and Mongolia between the 10th and 15th centuries.


Jigit

"Dzhigit, jigit" is used in the Caucasus and Central Asia to describe a skillful and brave equestrian, or a brave person in general.


Gallery


Bezeklik caves and Mogao grottoes

Images of Buddhist and Manichean Turkic Uyghurs from the Bezeklik Thousand Buddha Caves, Bezeklik caves and Mogao Caves, Mogao grottoes. File:Dunhuang Uighur king.jpg, Uyghur king from Turfan, from the murals at the Dunhuang Mogao Caves. File:Uighur prince from Bezeklik murals.jpg, Uyghur prince from the Bezeklik murals. File:Uighur woman from Bezeklik murals.jpg, Uyghur woman from the Bezeklik murals. File:UighurPrincess.png, Uyghur Princess. File:Museum für Indische Kunst Dahlem Berlin Mai 2006 064.jpg, Uyghur Princesses from the Bezeklik murals. File:Museum für Indische Kunst Dahlem Berlin Mai 2006 063.jpg, Uyghur Princes from the Bezeklik murals. File:Uigure-bezeklik-17.jpg, Uyghur Prince from the Bezeklik murals. File:Uigure-bezeklik-19.jpg, Uyghur noble from the Bezeklik murals. File:Manichaean Temple Banner (MIK III 6283).jpg, Uyghur Manichaeism, Manichaean Elect depicted on a temple banner from Qocho. File:Museum für Indische Kunst Dahlem Berlin Mai 2006 067.jpg, Uyghur donor from the Bezeklik murals. File:ManichaeanElectaeKocho10thCentury.jpg, Uyghur Manichaean Electae from Qocho. File:Museum für Indische Kunst Dahlem Berlin Mai 2006 066.jpg, Uyghur Manichaean clergymen from Qocho. File:Museum für Indische Kunst Dahlem Berlin Mai 2006 061.jpg, Murals from the Nestorian temple at Qocho, Fresco of Palm Sunday from Qocho. File:Manicheans.jpg, Manicheans from Qocho


Medieval times

File:Omurtag1.jpg, Khan Omurtag of Old Great Bulgaria, Bulgaria, from the Chronicle of John Skylitzes.


Modern times

File:Azerigirls.JPG,
Azerbaijani Azerbaijani may refer to: * Something of, or related to Azerbaijan * Azerbaijanis * Azerbaijani language See also

* Azerbaijan (disambiguation) * Azeri (disambiguation) * Azerbaijani cuisine * Culture of Azerbaijan * {{Disambig Language a ...
girls in traditional dress. File:Gagauz.jpg, Gagauz people, Gagauz women and man. File:Young bashqorts.jpg, Bashkirs, Bashkir boys in national dress. File:Головной убор чувашской девушки тухъя. XIX век. Средненизовая этнографическая группы (анат енчи).jpg, A Chuvashes, Chuvash girl in traditional dress. File:Хакасы.JPG, Khakas people with traditional instruments. File:Ногайцы 01.jpg, Nogais, Nogai man in national costume. File:Dursunbey yerelkıyafeti.JPG, Turkish girls in their traditional clothes, Dursunbey, Balikesir Province. File:Turkman girl in national dress.jpg, Turkmens, Turkmen girl in national dress. File:Мөгелер биле Даңгыналар2. 2016.jpg, Tuvans, Tuvan men and women in Kyzyl,
Tuva Tuva (; russian: Тува́) or Tyva ( tyv, Тыва), officially the Tyva Republic (russian: Респу́блика Тыва́, r=Respublika Tyva, p=rʲɪˈspublʲɪkə tɨˈva; tyv, Тыва Республика, translit=Tyva Respublika ...

Tuva
. File:Kazakh man in traditional costume.jpg, man in traditional clothing. File:Samsa or Somsa in Uzbekistan.jpg, Uzbek with traditional cuisine. File:KyrgyzEagleHuntsman.jpg,
KyrgyzKyrgyz, Kirghiz or Kyrgyzstani may refer to: *Things related to Kyrgyzstan *Kyrgyz people *Kyrgyz language *Kyrgyz culture *Kyrgyz cuisine *Yenisei Kirghiz *The Fuyu Kyrgyz language, Fuyü Gïrgïs language in Northeastern China {{Disambig Languag ...

Kyrgyz
traditional eagle hunter. File:Tuvan shamans19.jpg, Tuvans, Tuvan traditional shaman. File:Sakha family.jpg, Yakut Sakha family in traditional attire.


See also

* Turkic migrations *
Turkic mythology Turkic mythology contains myths and legends told by the Turkic people The Turkic peoples are a collection of ethnic groups of Central Asia, Central, East Asia, East, North Asia, North and West Asia as well as parts of Europe and North Afric ...
* Turko-Persian tradition * Turko-Mongol * Turkology * List of Turkic dynasties and countries


References


Sources

* * * * * * * * * * Text was copied from this source, which is available under
Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
*


Further reading

* Alpamysh, H.B. Paksoy
Central Asian Identity under Russian Rule
(Hartford: AACAR, 1989) * * Amanjolov A.S., "History of the Ancient Turkic Script", Almaty, "Mektep", 2003, * Baichorov S.Ya., "Ancient Turkic runic monuments of the Europe", Stavropol, 1989 (in Russian). * Baskakov, N.A. 1962, 1969. ''Introduction to the study of the Turkic languages''. Moscow (in Russian). * Beckwith, Christopher I. (2009): ''Empires of the Silk Road: A History of Central Eurasia from the Bronze Age to the Present''. Princeton: Princeton University Press. . * Boeschoten, Hendrik & Lars Johanson. 2006. ''Turkic languages in contact''. Turcologica, Bd. 61. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz. . * Chavannes, Édouard (1900): ''Documents sur les Tou-kiue (Turcs) occidentaux.'' Paris, Librairie d'Amérique et d'Orient. Reprint: Taipei. Cheng Wen Publishing Co. 1969. * Clausen, Gerard. 1972. ''An etymological dictionary of pre-thirteenth-century Turkish''. Oxford: Oxford University Press. * Deny, Jean et al. 1959–1964. ''Philologiae Turcicae Fundamenta''. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz. * Findley, Carter Vaughn. 2005. ''The Turks in World History''. Oxford University Press. ; (pbk.) * Golden, Peter B. ''An introduction to the history of the Turkic peoples: Ethnogenesis and state-formation in medieval and early modern Eurasia and the Middle East'' (Otto Harrassowitz (Wiesbaden) 1992) * * * Heywood, Colin. ''The Turks (The Peoples of Europe)'' (Blackwell 2005), . * Hostler, Charles Warren. ''The Turks of Central Asia'' (Greenwood Press, November 1993), . * Ishjatms N., "Nomads In Eastern Central Asia", in the "History of civilizations of Central Asia", Volume 2, UNESCO Publishing, 1996, . * Johanson, Lars & Éva Agnes Csató (ed.). 1998. ''The Turkic languages''. London: Routledge. . * Johanson, Lars. 1998. "The history of Turkic." In: Johanson & Csató, pp. 81–125
Classification of Turkic languages
* Johanson, Lars. 1998. "Turkic languages." In: ''Encyclopædia Britannica''. CD 98. Encyclopædia Britannica Online, 5 September. 2007
Turkic languages: Linguistic history
* Kyzlasov I.L., "Runic Scripts of Eurasian Steppes", Moscow, Eastern Literature, 1994, . * Lebedynsky, Iaroslav. (2006). ''Les Saces: Les « Scythes » d'Asie, VIIIe siècle apr. J.-C.'' Editions Errance, Paris. . * Malov S.E., "Monuments of the ancient Turkic inscriptions. Texts and research", M.-L., 1951 (in Russian). * Mukhamadiev A., "Turanian Writing", in "Problems Of Lingo-Ethno-History Of The Tatar People", Kazan, 1995 (Азгар Мухамадиев, "Туранская Письменность", "Проблемы лингвоэтноистории татарского народа", Казань, 1995) (in Russian). * Menges, K. H. 1968. ''The Turkic languages and peoples: An introduction to Turkic studies''. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz. * Öztopçu, Kurtuluş. 1996. Dictionary of the Turkic languages: English, Azerbaijani, Kazakh, Kyrgyz, Tatar, Turkish, Turkmen, Uighur, Uzbek. London: Routledge. * Samoilovich, A. N. 1922. ''Some additions to the classification of the Turkish languages''. Petrograd. * Schönig, Claus. 1997–1998. "A new attempt to classify the Turkic languages I-III." ''Turkic Languages'' 1:1.117–133, 1:2.262–277, 2:1.130–151. * Vasiliev D.D. Graphical fund of Turkic runiform writing monuments in Asian areal. М., 198 (in Russian). * Vasiliev D.D. Corpus of Turkic runiform monuments in the basin of Enisei. М., 1983 (in Russian). * Voegelin, C.F. & F.M. Voegelin. 1977. ''Classification and index of the World's languages''. New York: Elsevier. * *


External links



at University of Michigan {{Turkic topics Turkic peoples, Ethnic groups in China Central Asian people Nomadic groups in Eurasia