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The (TDM, ) is a subdivision of the
French Army The French Army, officially the Ground Army (french: Armée de Terre , ) to distinguish it from the French Air and Space Force The French Air and Space Force (AAE) (french: Armée de l'Air et de l'Espace, ) is the air File:Atmosphere gas ...
that includes several specialities:
infantry Infantry is an army specialization whose military personnel, personnel engage in military combat on foot, distinguished from cavalry, artillery, and armored warfare, armored forces. Also known as foot soldiers, infantrymen or infanteer, i ...

infantry
,
artillery Artillery is a class of heavy military ranged weapons built to launch Ammunition, munitions far beyond the range and power of infantry firearms. Early artillery development focused on the ability to breach defensive walls and fortifications dur ...

artillery
, armoured,
airborne Airborne or Airborn may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Films * Airborne (1962 film), ''Airborne'' (1962 film), a 1962 American film directed by James Landis * Airborne (1993 film), ''Airborne'' (1993 film), a comedy–drama film * Air ...
,
engineering Engineering is the use of scientific principles to design and build machines, structures, and other items, including bridges, tunnels, roads, vehicles, and buildings. The discipline of engineering encompasses a broad range of more specializ ...
, and transmissions (Signals). Despite its name, it forms part of the Army, not the Navy. The TDM has gradually become professionalized since 1970.


History

The were formerly known as the , with origins dating back to the (in reference to Troupes of La Marine). The French colonies were under the control of the (the equivalent of the
British Admiralty The Admiralty was the British government department The departments of the Government of the United Kingdom are the principal units through which it exercises executive authority; a few of them are titled Ministry (government department), mi ...
), accordingly, marines defended the colonies.


Ancien Régime


Origin

Renamed then during the dismantling of the
French Union French (french: français(e), link=no) may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to ** , which originated in France, and its various dialects ** , a nation and ethnic group identified with France ** , cooking traditions and practices Arts a ...

French Union
(1958), their origin can actually be found in the (french: Compagnies Ordinaires de la Mer) (''Ordinary Sea Companies''), created in 1622 by
Cardinal Richelieu Armand Jean du Plessis, Duke of Richelieu Duke of Richelieu was a title of French nobility. It was created on 26 November 1629 for Cardinal Richelieu, Armand Jean du Plessis de Richelieu (known as Cardinal Richelieu) who, as a Roman Catholic cl ...
. These companies were used to embark on royal naval ships to serve the
naval artillery Naval artillery is artillery Artillery is a class of heavy military ranged weapons built to launch Ammunition, munitions far beyond the range and power of infantry firearms. Early artillery development focused on the ability to breach defens ...
and participate in the boarding of enemy ships. These companies were also in charge of guarding the various sea ports. Despite the fact that the artillery of the marines was limited in numbers compared to those of the infantry marines (fusiliers and grenadiers), the ship's marine artillerymen were the determining factor for the , being in charge of displacing and mounting the naval guns under the orders of the respective marine artillery officer in charge. In the 18th century, they constituted the who essentially spread to (particularity: these marines were recruited in Europe, with marine officers recruited then on the spot due to an excellent knowledge of the local environment). Since then the anchor has been with the Troupes as the official symbol because of the former links to the Royal Navy. Decimated along with the rest of the
Marines Marines, or naval infantry, are typically a military force trained to operate in littoral zones The littoral zone or nearshore is the part of a sea, lake, or river that is close to the shore. In coastal environments, the littoral zone exten ...

Marines
during the
Seven Years' War The Seven Years' War (1756–1763) is widely considered to be the first global conflict in history, and was a struggle for world supremacy between Kingdom of Great Britain, Great Britain and Kingdom of France, France. In Europe, the conflict ar ...
, these troops were transferred to the
French Army The French Army, officially the Ground Army (french: Armée de Terre , ) to distinguish it from the French Air and Space Force The French Air and Space Force (AAE) (french: Armée de l'Air et de l'Espace, ) is the air File:Atmosphere gas ...
under the Choiseul ministries, and after their emancipation at the end of 1760, they retained a large number of officers issued from the Ministère de la Guerre, which would reproduce and compensate for the losses endured assisting the colonies during the
American Revolutionary War The American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), also known as the Revolutionary War and the American War of Independence, was initiated by delegates from Thirteen Colonies, thirteen American colonies of British America in Continental Congress ...
. An evolution in the mentality of the troops and an increasingly pronounced separation between the marines and their officers followed. A tentative close-up merger was attempted by two naval ship corps and their troops in 1786 with the companies of naval gunners assigned to ships of the Navy; however, the experiment came to little conclusion.


Ordinary Sea Companies and Troupes de la marine (1622–1673)

The separate companies of the and the founded by
ColbertColbert may refer to: People * Colbert (name), list of people with the name "Colbert". It usually refers to: :* Claudette Colbert (1903–1996), Oscar-winning French-American actress :* Jean-Baptiste Colbert (1619–1683), a Controller-General of ...

Colbert
were based in
Dunkerque Dunkirk (, ; french: Dunkerque ; vls, label= French Flemish, Duunkerke; nl, Duinkerke(n) ) is a commune A commune is an intentional community of people sharing living spaces, interests, values, beliefs, and often property Property (' ...

Dunkerque
,
Le Havre Le Havre (, ; nrf, Lé Hâvre) is an urban French commune A commune is an intentional community of people sharing living spaces, interests, values, beliefs, and often property Property (''latin: Res Privata'') in the Abstract and co ...

Le Havre
,
Brest Brest may refer to: Places * Brest, Belarus, a city formerly known as Brest-Litovsk * Brest, Čučer-Sandevo, a village in North Macedonia * Brest, France, a city and harbour in Brittany * Brest, Germany, a municipality * Brest, Kyustendil Province ...
, Rochefort and
Toulon Toulon (, , ; oc, label=Occitan language, Provençal, Tolon , , ) is a city on the French Riviera and a large port on the Mediterranean coast, with a major naval base. Located in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur Regions of France, region, and ...

Toulon
. They wore an off-white/grey uniform with blue
facings A facing colour is a common tailoring A tailor is a person who makes, repairs, or alters clothing professionally, especially suits and men's clothing. Although the term dates to the thirteenth century, ''tailor'' took on its modern sense in ...
. The 1670s saw significant changes in the organisation of the new corps, administered by Ministers
ColbertColbert may refer to: People * Colbert (name), list of people with the name "Colbert". It usually refers to: :* Claudette Colbert (1903–1996), Oscar-winning French-American actress :* Jean-Baptiste Colbert (1619–1683), a Controller-General of ...
and
François-Michel le Tellier, Marquis de Louvois François Michel Le Tellier, Marquis of Louvois (18 January 1641 – 16 July 1691) was the French French (french: français(e), link=no) may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to France France (), officially the French Republic (fr ...
, respectively Naval State Secretary and the Secretary of State of War. The four regiments of the la marine were transferred from the secretariat of La Marine to that of the secretariat of La Guerre. The regiments were no longer directly part of the
French Navy The French Navy (french: Marine nationale, lit=National Navy), informally , is the maritime arm of the French Armed Forces The French Armed Forces (french: Forces armées françaises) encompass the Army An army (from Latin ''arma'' "ar ...
although the designation was retained. During the
Revolution In political science Political science is the scientific study of politics Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with making decisions in groups, or other forms of power relations between individuals, suc ...

Revolution
, the La Marine, Royal-Marine, Royal-Vaisseux, and the ( re-baptized ) regiments were integrated definitively into the
French Army The French Army, officially the Ground Army (french: Armée de Terre , ) to distinguish it from the French Air and Space Force The French Air and Space Force (AAE) (french: Armée de l'Air et de l'Espace, ) is the air File:Atmosphere gas ...
, becoming respectively, the 11e, 60e, 43e and 61e regiments of de Ligne in 1791. The Marine Royale was a substantial force in 1671, consisting of 196 naval vessels. Colbert decided to create 100 companies of "guardian-soldiers" intended to form part of the crews of the larger naval vessels (french: Vaisseau). However, these men were redirected towards the
French Army The French Army, officially the Ground Army (french: Armée de Terre , ) to distinguish it from the French Air and Space Force The French Air and Space Force (AAE) (french: Armée de l'Air et de l'Espace, ) is the air File:Atmosphere gas ...
by Louvois in 1673. Starting from this date, senior naval and marine officers were obliged to separately recruit crews and marines for each ship. Using a system of «levées» (selective conscription) in the various sea ports, similar to the « marine press », the naval and marine officers were able to man their ships. However, the system reached its limitations quickly. The recruits often lacked discipline and experience, and were discharged or deserted following their first voyage, wasting months of training. Until 1682 there was a serious shortage of experienced sailors and soldiers in the French Navy.


Free Marine Companies and Marine Artillery Corps (1690–1761)

The Marine units were recreated at the end of the 17th century by re-organization of the infantry units dedicated to guarding military harbors (the Warden-Soldiers Companies or , created in 1671) and the artillery units dedicated to coastal battery service (Bomb Companies or , created in 1689), naval artillery training (Apprentice Gunner Companies or , created in 1689) and naval artillery administration (Artillery Commissaries or , created in 1631). * (Free Marine Companies) created in 1690. Each company was tasked to guard a military harbor and its immediate coastline. Beginning in 1695, the Companies were organized in battalions around the major harbors (
Brest Brest may refer to: Places * Brest, Belarus, a city formerly known as Brest-Litovsk * Brest, Čučer-Sandevo, a village in North Macedonia * Brest, France, a city and harbour in Brittany * Brest, Germany, a municipality * Brest, Kyustendil Province ...
, Rochefort,
Toulon Toulon (, , ; oc, label=Occitan language, Provençal, Tolon , , ) is a city on the French Riviera and a large port on the Mediterranean coast, with a major naval base. Located in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur Regions of France, region, and ...

Toulon
). The Marine Companies and Battalions were dissolved in 1761. * (Marine Artillery Corps), created in 1692 to oversee the training and use of coastal artillery. The Corps was disbanded in 1761.


Royal Marine Corps (1769–1786)

The infantry and marine artillery units were briefly merged into a single marine corps in 1769. Some colonial units were created at the same time, organized along the same lines of artillery and infantry units. * (Royal Marine Artillery and Infantry Corps), created in 1769. Its name was changed in 1772 to (Royal Marine Corps). The Corps was organized in eight regiments, each centered on a harbor: (
Bayonne Bayonne (; eu, Baiona ; oc, label=Gascon dialect, Gascon, Baiona ; es, Bayona) is a city and Communes of France, commune and one of the two Subprefectures in France, sub-prefectures of the Departments of France, department of Pyrénées-Atla ...

Bayonne
,
Bordeaux Bordeaux ( , ; Gascon language, Gascon oc, Bordèu ) is a port city on the river Garonne in the Gironde Departments of France, department in Southwestern France. The municipality (Communes of France, commune) of Bordeaux proper has a popula ...

Bordeaux
,
Brest Brest may refer to: Places * Brest, Belarus, a city formerly known as Brest-Litovsk * Brest, Čučer-Sandevo, a village in North Macedonia * Brest, France, a city and harbour in Brittany * Brest, Germany, a municipality * Brest, Kyustendil Province ...
,
Le Havre Le Havre (, ; nrf, Lé Hâvre) is an urban French commune A commune is an intentional community of people sharing living spaces, interests, values, beliefs, and often property Property (''latin: Res Privata'') in the Abstract and co ...

Le Havre
,
Marseille Marseille ( , , ; also spelled in English as Marseilles; oc, Marselha ) is the prefecture A prefecture (from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European langua ...

Marseille
, Rochefort,
Saint-Malo Saint-Malo (, , ; Gallo language, Gallo: ''Saent-Malô''; ) is a historic French port in Ille-et-Vilaine, Brittany (administrative region), Brittany on the English Channel coast. The walled city had a long history of piracy, earning much wealth ...

Saint-Malo
and
Toulon Toulon (, , ; oc, label=Occitan language, Provençal, Tolon , , ) is a city on the French Riviera and a large port on the Mediterranean coast, with a major naval base. Located in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur Regions of France, region, and ...

Toulon
). The corps was broken down in 1774, in line with
Antoine de Sartine Antoine Raymond Jean Gualbert Gabriel de Sartine, comte d'Alby (12 July 1729 – 7 September 1801) was a French statesman who served as Lieutenant General of Police of Paris Paris () is the Capital city, capital and List of communes in Fran ...

Antoine de Sartine
's reform of the navy. * ("Royal Marine Infantry Corps), created in 1774 with the infantry units of the Royal Marine Corps, organized in three ''divisions'' centered on the only three military harbors remaining: Brest, Rochefort and Toulon. The Corps' name was changed to in 1782, but it remained an infantry-only unit. The corps was disbanded in 1786. * (Marine Artillery), created in 1774 with the artillery units of the Royal Marine Corps, organized in three ''divisions'' centered on the same three military harbors: Brest, Rochefort and Toulon. The Marine Artillerymen were tasked to serve aboard Navy ships as well as manning the coastal batteries. The commanding officers of the Marine Artillery were naval officers. The corps was dispanded in 1786. * Colonial Regiments ** "Cap", created 1766, became the 106th Infantry Regiment ** "Pondichéry", set up 1772, became the 107th Infantry Regiment ** "Martinique et Guadeloupe", created 1772, became the 109th Infantry Regiment ** "Port-au-Prince", created 1773, became 110th Infantry Regiment


Revolution and First French Empire (1786–1816)

After 1786, the Marine units were often reduced to artillery units, except for some short-lived infantry regiments (1792–1794). * (Royal Sailors-Gunners Corps), created on 1 January 1786. The was an early attempt to use sailors for duties previously done by marines – soldiers specializing in naval and amphibious combat. This naval artillery corps was suppressed in 1792 and its duties transferred to a new marine unit. * (Marine Artillery and Infantry Corps), created in 1792. The Corps had four infantry regiments, two artillery regiments, two engineer companies and two training companies. The infantry units were transferred to the Army in 1794. * (Marine Artillery Corps), created in 1794 from the artillery units of the Artillery and Infantry Corps. It was organized in seven half-brigades and re-organized in four regiments in 1803. The Corps gained the title ''Impérial'' at
Napoléon I
Napoléon I
's coronation (1804) and ''Royal'' at
Louis XVIII Louis XVIII (Louis Stanislas Xavier; 17 November 1755 – 16 September 1824), known as the Desired (), was King of France The monarchs of the Kingdom of France The Kingdom of France ( fro, Reaume de France, frm, Royaulme de Franc ...
's return (1814 and 1815). These units fought for France during the
French Revolutionary Wars The French Revolutionary Wars (french: Guerres de la Révolution française) were a series of sweeping military conflicts lasting from 1792 until 1802 and resulting from the French Revolution. They pitted French First Republic, France against Gr ...
and in all the
Napoleonic Wars The Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815) were a series of major World war, global conflicts pitting the First French Empire, French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon, Napoleon I, against a fluctuating array of Coalition forces of the Napoleonic W ...
.


19th century

The colonial expansion of the 19th century saw the extensive use of French sailors and marines serving together in Southeast Asia, the Pacific, and West Africa. The were tasked with insuring the French presence in its Asian, African, and American colonies. The revolutionary period saw a definite division in 1792 between the reconstituted and the ships of the navy. Under Napoleon, the were used primarily as
line infantry Line infantry was the type of infantry Infantry is an army specialization whose military personnel, personnel engage in military combat on foot, distinguished from cavalry, artillery, and armored warfare, armored forces. Also known as ...
. Following the disbandment of the
Imperial Guard An imperial guard or palace guard is a special group of troops (or a member thereof) of an empire, typically closely associated directly with the Emperor or Empress regnant, Empress. Usually these troops embody a more elite status than other impe ...
, under the
Restoration Restoration is the act of restoring something to its original state and may refer to: * Conservation and restoration of cultural heritage * Restoration style Film and television * ''The Restoration'' (1909 film), a film by D.W. Griffith starr ...
, separate marine artillery () and marine infantry () units were created as part of a reorganization between 1818 and 1822. These two corps were popularly known as « bigors » and « marsouins » respectively. Starting in 1831, these two arms ceased to serve on board naval ships and were exclusively armed with regular army equipment and weapons. Their role was now to serve on land in the new French colonial territories, as well as defending the large naval ports and bases in France itself. The diverse colonial or exterior operations administered by the
July Monarchy The July Monarchy (french: Monarchie de juillet, officially the Kingdom of France, french: Royaume de France) was a liberal Liberal or liberalism may refer to: Politics *a supporter of liberalism, a political and moral philosophy **Liberal ...
, essentially conducted by the Marines and their troops, led to the rehabilitation and the increase of the latter in 1846. The revolution of 1848 led to a draconian reduction in size. The
Crimean War The Crimean War, , was a military conflict fought from October 1853 to February 1856 in which Russian Empire, Russia lost to an alliance of Second French Empire, France, the Ottoman Empire, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, ...
saw them, along with the equipment of naval vessels of the
fleet Fleet may refer to: Vehicles *Fishing fleet A fishing fleet is an aggregate of commercial fishing Ship, vessels. The term may be used of all vessels operating out of a particular port, all vessels engaged in a particular type of fishing (as in t ...
, illustrating their capability during the Siege of Sevastopol while aiding the heavy artillery pieces ( to constitute a siege artillery ) to disembark from the naval vessels under the orders of
Admiral Admiral is one of the highest ranks in some navy, navies, and in many navies is the highest rank. In the Commonwealth of Nations, Commonwealth nations and the United States, a "full" admiral is equivalent to a "full" general officer, general in ...

Admiral
Charles Rigault de Genouilly Admiral Pierre-Louis-Charles Rigault de Genouilly (, 12 April 1807 – 4 May 1873) was a French naval officer. He fought with distinction in the Crimean War The Crimean War, , was a military conflict fought from October 1853 to February ...

Charles Rigault de Genouilly
. Honored since 1855, with the return of their staff of 1846, the marines demonstrated their capability during the expeditions of the
Second French Empire The Second French Empire (; officially the French Empire, ), was the 18-year Imperial Imperial is that which relates to an empire, emperor, or imperialism. Imperial or The Imperial may also refer to: Places United States * Imperial, Cali ...

Second French Empire
. In 1870, marine artillery and infantry were for the first time regrouped in a grand unit:
Blue Division The Blue Division ( es, División Azul, german: Blaue Division) was a unit of volunteers from Francoist Spain Francoist Spain ( es, España franquista), known in Spain as the Francoist dictatorship ( es, dictadura franquista), was the period ...
of general Élie de Vassoigne, named after the blue uniforms worn by the soldiers to differentiate them from the line troops. Following the
Franco-Prussian War The Franco-Prussian War or Franco-German War,, german: Deutsch-Französischer Krieg often referred to in France as the War of 1870, was a conflict between the Second French Empire The Second French Empire (; officially the French Empire ...
, the marines participated to the construction of the second colonial empire of France.


Marine Infantry and Marine Artillery Regiments (1816–1900)

The 21 February 1816, royal ordinance of Louis XVIII re-establishing authorized two regiments. This was increased to three regiments in 1838 and four in 1854. The 1st Regiment was located in Cherbourg, the 2nd in Brest, the 3rd in Rochefort and the 4th in Toulon. In 1890, was increased to eight regiments. , created in 1793, was formed into a single regiment in 1814. A second was added on 8 July 1893. Battles fought in this era included Bomarsund (1854) in the Baltic, Sea of Azoff and the Crimea (1855-56), Ki Hoa in China (1860), and the
Battle of Puebla The Battle of Puebla ( es, Batalla de Puebla; french: Bataille de Puebla) took place on 5 May 1862, near Puebla City during the Second French intervention in Mexico The Second French Intervention in Mexico ( es, Segunda intervención Fran ...
in Mexico (1863). Their most famous battle was
Bazeilles Bazeilles is a commune A commune is an intentional community of people sharing living spaces, interests, values, beliefs, and often property Property (''latin: Res Privata'') in the Abstract and concrete, abstract is what belongs to or ...
(1870) in the Franco-Prussian War. The fought in the
Sino-French War The Sino-French War (, french: Guerre franco-chinoise, vi, Chiến tranh Pháp-Thanh), also known as the Tonkin War and Tonquin War, was a limited conflict fought from August 1884 to April 1885. There was no declaration of war A declaration ...
(August 1884 to April 1885) and during the period of undeclared hostilities in Tonkin (northern Vietnam) that preceded it. Between June 1883 and April 1886 the
Tonkin Expeditionary Corps The Tonkin Expeditionary Corps (french: corps expéditionnaire du Tonkin) was an important French military command based in northern Vietnam (Tonkin) from June 1883 to April 1886. The expeditionary corps fought the Tonkin Campaign (1883–86) taki ...
included several marine infantry battalions and marine artillery batteries. These units saw service in the
Sơn Tây Campaign ''Toxicodendron succedaneum'', the wax tree, Japanese Hazenoki tree (Sumac or wax tree), sơn in Vietnam or charão in Portuguese, is a flowering plant species in the genus ''Toxicodendron'' found in Asia, although it has been planted elsewhere, m ...
(December 1883), the Bắc Ninh Campaign (March 1884), the
Capture of Hưng Hóa The Capture of Hưng Hóa (12 April 1884) was an important French victory in the Tonkin Campaign (1883–86). Background Hưng Hóa was captured by the French a month to the day after the capture of Bắc Ninh. General Charles-Théodore Millot, ...
(April 1884), the
Bắc Lệ ambush The Bắc Lệ ambush (french: guet-apens de Bac-Lé, Vietnamese: ''trận Bắc Lệ'' or ''trận cầu Quan Âm'') was a clash during the Tonkin Campaign in June 1884 between Chinese troops of the Guangxi Army and a French column sent to occ ...
(June 1884), the Keelung Campaign (October 1884 to June 1885), the
Battle of Yu Oc The Battle of Yu Oc (19 November 1884) was a French victory during the Sino-French War. The battle was fought to relieve the French garrison of Tuyên Quang, under siege by the Tang Jingsong's Yunnan Army and Liu Yongfu's Black Flag Army. The Fr ...
(November 1884), the
Battle of Núi Bop The Battle of Nui Bop (3–4 January 1885) was a French victory during the Sino-French War. The battle was fought to clear Chinese forces away from the French forward base at Chu, and was an essential preliminary to the Lạng Sơn Campaign in F ...
(January 1885), the Lạng Sơn Campaign (February 1885) and the Pescadores Campaign (March 1885). In March 1885 the two marine infantry battalions in Lieutenant-Colonel Ange-Laurent Giovanninelli's 1st Brigade suffered heavy casualties storming the Chinese trenches at the Battle of Hòa Mộc. The French victory at Hòa Mộc relieved the
Siege of Tuyên Quang The siege of Tuyen Quang was an important confrontation between the French and the Chinese armies in Tonkin Tonkin, also spelled ''Tongkin'', ''Tonquin'' or ''Tongking'', is an exonym An endonym (from Greek: , 'inner' + , 'name'; also known a ...
, and was commemorated thereafter in an annual ceremony at Tuyên Quang in which a soldier of the French Foreign Legion (representing the besieged garrison) and a marine infantryman (representing the relief column) solemnly presented arms on the anniversary of the relief of the beleaguered French post. The French Navy itself, due to the trouble it was having in obtaining naval infantry detachments from the Ministry of the Navy, established the
Fusiliers Marins The ''Fusiliers marins'' (lit. "Navy Riflemen") are specialized French naval infantry Marines, or naval infantry, are typically a military force trained to operate in littoral zones The littoral zone or nearshore is the part of a sea, la ...
in 1856. The were initially composed of sailors, senior rates and naval officers who undertook special infantry training to form the "marine" detachments aboard ships and conduct small scale landings. Unlike their anglophone contemporaries, they are graded by
naval rates
naval rates
rather than adopting army ranks.


Transformation to Troupes Coloniales

In 1890 the Ministry of Colonies was separated from that of the
Ministère de la Marine The Ministry of the Navy (french: Ministère de la Marine) was a section of the France, French government – apart from the Ministry of War (France), Ministry of War – that was in charge of the French navy and colonies. The ministry combined t ...
. This raised the question of to which authority the , who only now served in the colonies, should be responsible. By a decree dated 7 July 1900 the renamed
troops A troop is a military sub-subunit Sub-subunit or sub-sub-unit is a subordinated element below platoon level of company-sized units or sub-units which normally might not be separately identified in authorization documents by name, number, o ...
were placed under the and were thus rebadged, now as part of the
French Army The French Army, officially the Ground Army (french: Armée de Terre , ) to distinguish it from the French Air and Space Force The French Air and Space Force (AAE) (french: Armée de l'Air et de l'Espace, ) is the air File:Atmosphere gas ...
, under one name – the , retaining the anchor badge as a reminder of their naval heritage. The were composed of two distinct corps. One was the colonial forces in metropolitan France, composed of Europeans who had voluntarily enlisted for successive service engagements of five years duration. These regulars (as opposed to
conscripts Conscription, sometimes called the draft in the United States, is the mandatory enlistment of people in a national service National service is a system of either compulsory or voluntary government service, usually military service Mili ...
) were assigned in small contingents to undertake tours of duty in the various French colonies outside North Africa. There they served either in (all white) units, or were employed as officers and NCOs in the recruitment, training and leadership of locally recruited indigenous troops (
tirailleurs A tirailleur (), in the Napoleonic era The Napoleonic era is a period in the history of France The first written records for the history of France appeared in the Iron Age France, Iron Age. What is now France made up the bulk of ...
, cipayes etc.). The proportion of European to "native" colonial troops were progressively reduced as additional locally recruited units were created during the late 19th and earlier 20th centuries. One problem of this system was the differences between the training and equipment required for colonial and European warfare. Service conditions in turn would differ between the various colonial territories in Africa and South East Asia. The two types of colonial troupes were however successfully employed in
World War I World War I, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war A world war is "a war engaged in by all or most of the principal nations of the world". The term is usually reserved for ...

World War I
and
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
, as well as the
Indochina War The First Indochina War (generally known as the Indochina War in France, and as the Anti-French Resistance War in Vietnam , image_map = , map_caption = , capital = Hanoi , coordinates ...
and the
Algerian War The Algerian War, also known as the Algerian Revolution or the Algerian War of Independence,( ar, الثورة الجزائرية '; '' ber, Tagrawla Tadzayrit''; french: Guerre d'Algérie or ') and sometimes in Algeria as the War of 1 November ...
. The Construction Service of the marine artillery (which designed and engineered the naval artillery guns in the metropolitan arsenals), became an integral part of the colonial artillery following the reorganisation of 1900. In 1909 those colonial artillery officers who specialised in artillery design and manufacture work were transferred into the newly created "Engineers of
Naval Artillery Naval artillery is artillery Artillery is a class of heavy military ranged weapons built to launch Ammunition, munitions far beyond the range and power of infantry firearms. Early artillery development focused on the ability to breach defens ...
"; a newly created corps of the French Navy which subsequently merged with the Naval Engineer Corps (responsible for the construction of naval ships) during the Second World War. In 1905, the strength of the stationed in (the 19 military districts of metropolitan) France was marked at 2,123 officers and 26,581 other ranks. The strength maintained in the colonies amounts to 1,743 officers, 21,516 European troops and 47,868 native soldiers.


Troupes Coloniales (1900–1958)

By the time the Troupes were transferred to the Army the unit names changed from "Marine" to "Colonial" while the remained part of the French Navy. The were still used in occasional amphibious landings but this was because of the ready availability of units normally based near naval embarkation ports or in colonial garrisons. In the World War I
Gallipoli campaign#REDIRECT Gallipoli campaign The Gallipoli campaign, or ). was a military campaign in the First World War World War I or the First World War, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28& ...
in the
Dardanelles satellite in September 2006. The body of water on the left is the Aegean Sea, while the one on the upper right is the Sea of Marmara. The Dardanelles is the tapered waterway running diagonally between the two seas, from the northeast to the ...
, the Corps expéditionnaire d'Orient was more than two-thirds including the 4th, 6th, 7th and 8th Colonial Infantry Regiments and Colonial Artillery. (The artillery element at Gallipoli did not contain any artillery units from the .) The were however far more likely to see action in African or Asian land campaigns or, during both World Wars, in France itself. In World War II, one Colonial unit did have "Marine" in its title – The Bataillon d'Infanterie de Marine du Pacifique (BIMP). Two divisions of the were trained in amphibious tactics by the Americans and performed amphibious landings at
Corsica Corsica (, Upper , Southern , ; french: link=no, Corse ; lij, link=no, Còrsega) is an island in the Mediterranean Sea The Mediterranean Sea is a connected to the , surrounded by the and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north ...
(6th Moroccan Mountain Division) and
Elba Elba ( it, isola d'Elba, ; la, Ilva; Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language used in ancient Greece and the classical antiquity, ancient world from around 1500 BC to 300 BC. It is often roughly divided into ...
(9th Colonial Infantry Division – 9e DIC). Both these divisions also landed in southern France in the follow-on echelons of Operation Dragoon. The French wanted the United States to transport these two divisions to the Pacific to fight against the Japanese and later retake French Indochina, but transport was a problem. The distinguished themselves in both World Wars. The most decorated regimental colors of the
French Armed Forces The French Armed Forces (french: Forces armées françaises) encompass the Army An army (from Latin ''arma'' "arms, weapons" via Old French ''armée'', "armed" eminine, ground force or land force is a fighting force that fights primarily on ...
are those of the Colonial Infantry Regiment of Morocco ( RICM) and the regimental colors of the
2nd Marine Infantry Regiment The 2nd Marine Infantry Regiment (french: 2e Régiment d'Infanterie de Marine, 2e RIMa) is a unit of the French Army The French Army, officially the Ground Army (french: Armée de Terre , ) to distinguish it from the French Air and Space Force ...
2e RIMa. After 1945 the decolonization wars involved the colonial troops in
Indochina Mainland Southeast Asia, also known as the Indochinese Peninsula or Indochina, is the continental portion of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia and South-East Asia, and also known as Southeastern Asia or SEA, is t ...
,
Algeria ) , image_map = Algeria (centered orthographic projection).svg , map_caption = , image_map2 = , capital = Algiers , coordinates = , largest_city = capital , religion = , official_languages = , languages_type = Oth ...
, and
Madagascar Madagascar (; mg, Madagasikara), officially the Republic of Madagascar ( mg, Repoblikan'i Madagasikara, links=no, ; french: République de Madagascar), and previously known as the Malagasy Republic The Malagasy Republic ( mg, Repoblika Mal ...
. Following 1962, operations in Africa were undertaken by the again renamed and the ''Légion étrangère'' which were the only units mainly or entirely composed of "engaged" (non-conscript) soldiers. This was also the case in
Tchad Chad (; ar, تشاد , ; french: Tchad, ), officially known as the Republic of Chad ( ar, جمهورية تْشَاد, link=no '; ), is a landlocked country in north North is one of the four compass points or cardinal directions. I ...

Tchad
and in
Lebanon Lebanon ( , ar, لُبْنَان, translit=lubnān, ), officially the Republic of Lebanon or the Lebanese Republic, is a country in Western Asia Western Asia, West Asia, or Southwest Asia, is the westernmost subregion A subregion is a part ...

Lebanon
and the former
Yugoslavia Yugoslavia (; sh, Jugoslavija / ; sl, Jugoslavija ; mk, Југославија ;; rup, Iugoslavia; hu, Jugoszlávia; Pannonian Rusyn Image:Novi Sad mayor office.jpg, 250px, Mayor office written in four official languages used in the ...

Yugoslavia
before metropolitan troops started also to recruit volunteer soldiers. The cessation of obligatory military service after 2001 permitted the deployment of the remainder of the
French Army The French Army, officially the Ground Army (french: Armée de Terre , ) to distinguish it from the French Air and Space Force The French Air and Space Force (AAE) (french: Armée de l'Air et de l'Espace, ) is the air File:Atmosphere gas ...
in overseas operations.


End of Troupes Coloniales and recreation of Troupes de Marines


Troupes de Marine (1958– present)

With France divesting itself of its colonies, on 1 December 1958 the title of (Overseas Troops) replaced that of . Finally, on 4 May 1961, the historic designation of "Troupes de marine" was readopted, this time for all the . They became a major component in France's . In July 1963 the 9th Marine Infantry Brigade (9e Brigade d'Infanterie de Marine) (9e BIMa) of the was formed a French . It was named after and carried the insignia of the 9th Colonial Infantry Division (9e DIC) that had performed a successful amphibious assault on Elba in World War II. The remaining overseas became part of the . In 1964 the was expanded by adding two
airborne brigades Airborne or Airborn may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Films * Airborne (1962 film), ''Airborne'' (1962 film), a 1962 American film directed by James Landis * Airborne (1993 film), ''Airborne'' (1993 film), a comedy–drama film * Air ...
and one motorized brigade and formed into the 11th , which became the 11th Parachute Division in 1971. The were removed from this division in 1976 to form a separate intervention force, and the was expanded on 1 January 1976 to form the (9e DIMa). This division was the amphibious component of the Force d'Intervention, which was renamed the Force d'Action Rapide (FAR) in 1983. Because of their overseas heritage and their use in the , the were mostly volunteer regulars, as in France, draftees are legally exempt from overseas duty. The conversion of the French Army into a smaller professional force led to the French Army's decision to make the brigade its largest formation and the was reduced in size on 1 July 1999 and became the
9th Light Armoured Marine Brigade (France) The 9 Marine Infantry Brigade (french: 9 Brigade d'Infanterie de Marine, 9 BIMa) is a light armoured, amphibious unit of the ''Troupes de marine The (TDM, ) is a subdivision of the French Army The French Army, officially the Ground Army ...
() and then back to the 9th Marine Infantry Brigade () in 2016. The are one of the "" (corps) of the French Army, which includes specialties associated with other corps (artillery, cavalry, signals, armour,
paratroopers A paratrooper is a military parachutist—someone trained to parachute A parachute is a device used to slow the motion of an object through an atmosphere An atmosphere (from the greek words ἀτμός ''(atmos)'', meaning 'vapour', ...
) but with overseas deployment as a specialisation.


Gallery

File:Marsouins 1870.gif, Marsouin in full
metropolitan Metropolitan may refer to: * Metropolitan area, a region consisting of a densely populated urban core and its less-populated surrounding territories * Metropolitan borough, a form of local government district in England * Metropolitan county, a type ...

metropolitan
dress, as worn until 1914. File:Troupes de marine detail.jpg, Officer and Marsouin (private) in colonial dress, late 19th century. Image:FrenchMarsouinsIndochina1888.jpg, Marine infantrymen in Tonkin, 1888. File:LaGuerreAMadagascar.jpg, French Marines in Madagascar (1894–1895). File:French Colonial army in Congo 1905.jpg, French colonial soldier in
Congo Congo may refer to either of two countries that border the Congo River The Congo River ( kg, Nzâdi Kôngo, french: Fleuve Congo, pt, Rio Congo), formerly also known as the Zaire River, is the second longest river in Africa Africa ...

Congo
(1905)


Nicknames

soldiers are known in French as ("
Harbour porpoise The harbour porpoise (''Phocoena phocoena'') is one of eight extant species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodiversity. A spec ...
"), allegedly because, like porpoises, they accompany ships without really being part of the crew. Marine Gunners are known as , a nickname whose origin is disputed. It could come from which was the order given for loading the guns on a ship. It could also come from ( winkle in English), either due to their toughness and unwillingness to desert their positions in combat or because their duties usually had them stuck on coastal rocks.


Composition

The include: * Infanterie de Marine ** Infantry (, abbreviation: -IMa) ** Light Cavalry (, abbreviation: -IMa). The
cavalry Historically, cavalry (from the French word ''cavalerie'', itself derived from "cheval" meaning "horse") are soldier A soldier is a person who is a member of a professional army An army (from Latin ''arma'' "arms, weapons" via O ...

cavalry
units of use the
military ranks Military ranks are a system of hierarchical A hierarchy (from Ancient Greek, Greek: , from , 'president of sacred rites') is an arrangement of items (objects, names, values, categories, etc.) that are represented as being "above", "below", o ...
of the
infantry Infantry is an army specialization whose military personnel, personnel engage in military combat on foot, distinguished from cavalry, artillery, and armored warfare, armored forces. Also known as foot soldiers, infantrymen or infanteer, i ...

infantry
, unlike the rest of the Army cavalry. In military slang, they don't refer to themselves as cavalry but as "armored colonials" (). ** Airborne Infantry (, abbreviation: -PIMa) * ** Artillery (, abbreviation: -AMa) * Recently, an engineer corps regiment became the first engineer regiment to inherit from Marine traditions. It's the 6ème Régiment du Génie.


Uniform

The modern uniform is the same as for other units of the French Army (light beige, plain green or woodland or desert camouflage according to circumstances). Distinctive features are a gold metal fouled anchor badge on a dark blue
beret A beret ( or ; ) is a soft, round, flat-crowned cap, usually of woven, hand-knitted wool, crocheted cotton, wool felt, or acrylic fibre. Mass production of berets began in 19th century France and Spain, and the beret remains associated with ...

beret
(Marine paratroopers wear
red beret The red beret is a military beret worn by many military, paramilitary, commando, and police forces but it mostly refers to Airborne troops all around the world. Carlists The red beret was worn as a distinguishing device by Carlists, Carlist Guías ...

red beret
s and their badge is a composite of the gold metal anchor and the silver wing of airborne units). This is worn either on the beret or embroidered on the front of the
kepi The kepi ( ) is a cap A cap is a kind of soft and flat headgear, usually with a visor. Caps have crowns that fit very close to the head. They made their first appearance as early as 3,200BC. Caps typically have a visor, or no brim at all. The ...
. The modern full dress includes a dark blue
kepi The kepi ( ) is a cap A cap is a kind of soft and flat headgear, usually with a visor. Caps have crowns that fit very close to the head. They made their first appearance as early as 3,200BC. Caps typically have a visor, or no brim at all. The ...
, yellow fringed
epaulette Epaulette (; also spelled epaulet) is a type of ornamental shoulder piece or decoration used as insignia of rank Rank is the relative position, value, worth, complexity, power, importance, authority, level, etc. of a person or object within a r ...

epaulette
s (official colour name is daffodil) and a navy blue cravat (scarf worn around the neck). A red waist
sash A sash is a large and usually colorful ribbon A ribbon or riband is a thin band of material, typically cloth A textile is a flexible material made by creating an interlocking network of yarns or threads, which are produced by spin ...

sash
is also sometimes worn by certain units with a history of colonial service in Africa and Indo-China. Historically, the uniform consisted of a blue kepi with red piping, double breasted navy blue tunic, lighter blue trousers, and yellow epaulettes. Worn by all ranks until 1914, the blue uniform was reissued for regular personnel in 1930 and is still worn by bandsmen. This traditional uniform gave the nickname of "the Blue Division" to the units involved in the 1870
Franco-Prussian War The Franco-Prussian War or Franco-German War,, german: Deutsch-Französischer Krieg often referred to in France as the War of 1870, was a conflict between the Second French Empire The Second French Empire (; officially the French Empire ...
. The
pith helmet The pith helmet also known as the safari helmet, sun helmet, topee, sola topee, topi, or salacot (also spelled salacco), is a lightweight cloth-covered helmet made of sholapith. The pith helmet is an adaptation of the native ''salakot'' headgear ...

pith helmet
was worn overseas during the colonial period, with blue, khaki or white uniforms according to circumstances. Until the early 1960s a dark blue (forage cap) with red piping and anchor badge was the usual distinction of the .


Gallery

File:Marche_du_Tchad_15-08-11.jpg, Troupes de marine on parade File:Béret des T.D.M.jpg, Beret of all the French Army's , except paratroopers. File:Fourragere 1er RIMa 2007 07 14.jpg, The distinctive badge with an anchor and the yellow epaulettes of the . This uniform is only used for parades. File:Calot des troupes coloniales.jpg, Calot " of tradition". File:Insigne infanterie de marine.png, Shoulder Patch of all marines (and infantry, paratroopers and light cavalry before the 2000s). File:Artillerie de Marine.jpg, Shoulder patch of the marine artillery before the 2000s. This patch is sometimes still worn but not official anymore. File:Képi troupe de marine de caporal - chef ou de sergent.JPG, Képi of a Marine sergeant of first sergeant.


Kepi and traditional epaulettes

The modern
kepi The kepi ( ) is a cap A cap is a kind of soft and flat headgear, usually with a visor. Caps have crowns that fit very close to the head. They made their first appearance as early as 3,200BC. Caps typically have a visor, or no brim at all. The ...
is presented to new recruits in a solemn ceremony. It is worn by officers and non-commissioned officers when another headdress is not prescribed. The kepi is entirely dark blue – a very dark blue, often mistaken for black – with a red (privates and corporals) or gold (non-commissioned officers and officers) trimming. All kepis display the anchor insignia of the Marines. When not being worn the kepi is expected to be positioned so that the anchor is always visible. The "traditional"
epaulettes Epaulette (; also spelled epaulet) is a type of ornamental shoulder piece or decoration used as insignia of military rank, rank by armed forces and other organizations. Flexible metal epaulettes (usually made from brass) are referred to as ''sh ...
used by the TdM are gold for officers and NCOs and wool of "daffodil" yellow for other ranks. This colour and pattern is derived from the historic epaulettes of the Metropolitan light infantry.


Golden Spurs

The officers of marine "mounted" units (that is to say those formerly using horses, or currently armored vehicles) have the privilege of wearing gold spurs for certain occasions. This differs from the usual French cavalry practice of wearing silver spurs. Tradition has it that Queen
Victoria of the United Kingdom Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland Queen may refer to: Monarchy * Queen regnant, a female monarch of a Kingdom ** List of queens regnant * Queen c ...

Victoria of the United Kingdom
requested this distinction for the marine troops from Emperor
Napoleon III Napoleon III (Charles Louis Napoléon Bonaparte; 20 April 18089 January 1873) was the first President of France The president of France, officially the President of the French Republic (french: Président de la République française), is t ...

Napoleon III
to honor the branch after the
Battle of Balaclava The Battle of Balaclava, fought on 25 October 1854 during the Crimean War, was part of the Siege of Sevastopol (1854–55), an Allied attempt to capture the port and fortress of Sevastopol, Russian Empire, Russia's principal naval base on the Bla ...
in the Crimea (1854) where marine infantry saved British troops from destruction.


Sword

The officers and senior non-commissioned-officer can wear, in special circumstances, a sword as a part of their dress uniform. This sword has a straight-edge blade, in contrast to other Army Corps' curved sabers and thus similar to those of the Royal Marines and the rest of the British Armed Forces. Since the Second World War, the sword is very rarely used.


Red Beret

The armored, artillery and infantry regiments of the Marines wear dark blue berets with golden anchor insignia. The parachute regiments of the Marines ( 1e RPIMa, 2e RPIMa, 3e RPIMa, 8e RPIMa) wear a red beret with anchor and wing insignia, except the 1e RPIMa, a Special Forces regiment, where soldiers wear a purple beret. The red beret was first introduced to the Free French Paratroopers of the SAS in August 1944, at the 2e RCP during a parade on 11 November 1944, this regiment for a first time dressed this beret with the insignia of the SAS. However, these paratroopers then belonged to the Air Force. In Indochina, the Infantry Metropolitan SAS Demi-Brigade retained the practice, which was readopted by the 1st SAS Parachute Demi-Brigade in 1948. The red beret, which was officially introduced as the standard uniform headdress on all
Paratroopers A paratrooper is a military parachutist—someone trained to parachute A parachute is a device used to slow the motion of an object through an atmosphere An atmosphere (from the greek words ἀτμός ''(atmos)'', meaning 'vapour', ...
in Indochina in 1952 by
Général is the French language, French word for general. There are two main categories of generals: the general officers (), which are the highest-ranking commanding officers in the armed forces, and the specialist officers with flag rank (), which are h ...

Général
Jean de Lattre de Tassigny Jean Joseph Marie Gabriel de Lattre de Tassigny (2 February 1889 – 11 January 1952) was a French général d'armée during World War II and the First Indochina War. He was posthumously elevated to the dignity of Marshal of France in 1952. As ...
(except for the
Legion Legion may refer to: Military * Roman legion The Roman legion ( la, legiō, ) was the largest military unit of the Roman army The Roman army (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic b ...
), became the norm for all airborne contingents of the
French Army The French Army, officially the Ground Army (french: Armée de Terre , ) to distinguish it from the French Air and Space Force The French Air and Space Force (AAE) (french: Armée de l'Air et de l'Espace, ) is the air File:Atmosphere gas ...
in 1957, with legionnaires
paratroopers A paratrooper is a military parachutist—someone trained to parachute A parachute is a device used to slow the motion of an object through an atmosphere An atmosphere (from the greek words ἀτμός ''(atmos)'', meaning 'vapour', ...
retaining their traditional
green beret The green beret was the official headdress Headgear, headwear, or headdress is the name given to any element of clothing A kanga, worn throughout the African Great Lakes region Clothing (also known as clothes, apparel, and attire ...
, and the 1e RPIMa which transitioned to a purple beret in 2015. File:Parachutistes coloniaux-béret modèle 1962.jpg, Beret badge worn by the paratroops of the French colonial troops.(Obsolete) File:Parachutistes coloniaux-béret.jpg, Current Beret badge worn by the Marine paratroops File:Béret de parachutiste des troupes de marine (france).jpg, red beret (Amaranth) of marine paratroops (France). Image:French milouf DF-ST-99-05514.JPEG, Marine parachutists in Rwanda. File:Compagnies du 1er RPIMa.JPG, The companies of the 1st Parachute Regiment of Marine Infantry, in 2008 in Bayonne. File:Garde du drapeau du 1er RPIMa.JPG, Color Guard of the 1st Parachute Regiment of Marine Infantry November 11, 2008, in Bayonne. File:RPIM-img 1026.jpg, Jumping uniform and equipment worn by parachutists of the Marine paratroops. File:Prise d'arme des compagnie du 1er RPIMa.JPG, Ceremonial parade of companies of the 1st Parachute Regiment of Marine Infantry, in 2008 at Bayonne. File:Colonel Harivongs , colonel Vidaud ..JPG, Change of command of Colonel of the 1st Parachute Regiment of Marine Infantry, in 2008 at Bayonne. File:Brevet Parachutiste.jpg, French military parachutist badge


Marsouins, Bigors and Biffins

The nickname used by Marsouins and Bigors for the other branches of the French Army is biffins (slang for ragmen). The name originated in the nineteenth century when sailors of the Fleet and Marine Infantry and Artillerymen, proud of their own smart appearance, accused the soldiers of the Army of being slovenly by comparison. The
Legion Legion may refer to: Military * Roman legion The Roman legion ( la, legiō, ) was the largest military unit of the Roman army The Roman army (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic b ...
is excused this nickname, probably reflecting a special relation between Marsouins and legionnaires.


Traditions

''The Feast of the Marines: in the name of God, long live the colonials!'' This expression is believed to have originated with the famous missionary
Charles de Foucauld Charles Eugène de Foucauld (Viscount of Foucauld, 15 September 1858 - 1 December 1916) was a cavalry officer in the French Army The French Army, officially the Ground Army (french: Armée de Terre , ) to distinguish it from the French Air a ...

Charles de Foucauld
who, when rescued by colonial troops, exclaimed "In the name of God, the great colonials!". Annual ceremonies celebrating the marine troops take place on 31 August and 1 September – the anniversary of the Blue Division. On 31 August detachments of all marine units parade at
Fréjus Fréjus (; ) is a commune An intentional community is a voluntary residential community designed from the start to have a high degree of group cohesiveness, social cohesion and teamwork. The members of an intentional community typically ...
where the Museum of Marine Troops is located. On 1 September veterans hold a ceremony at
Bazeilles Bazeilles is a commune A commune is an intentional community of people sharing living spaces, interests, values, beliefs, and often property Property (''latin: Res Privata'') in the Abstract and concrete, abstract is what belongs to or ...
in Ardennes.


The anchor of gold

As a naval symbol since ancient times, the
anchor An anchor is a device, normally made of metal, used to connect a Watercraft, vessel to the Seabed, bed of a body of water to prevent the craft from drifting due to Leeway, wind or Ocean current, current. The word derives from Latin ''ancora'' ...

anchor
appeared on the uniforms of French sailors from the late eighteenth century. The Marine Infantry and Artillery troops adopted this insignia at the same time and it remains the modern symbol of the . * 1772: a royal ordinance provides for the port anchor badge on the uniforms of the French Royal Navy, including the Marine Regiment. * 1900: the anchor is carried by the Colonial Infantry with their transfer to the Army. * 1916: the Colonial Troops adopt the badge of an anchor over a flaming grenade (the latter being a traditional distinction of elite troops). * 1919: All officers of the Colonial Troops adopt a gold anchor on their kepis. * 1920: an anchor entwined with a cable becomes the common badge of Colonial Troops. * 1933: Colonial Artillery gunners no longer wear the grenade insignia. * 1935: the anchor insignia appears alone on the armbands worn by
Staff Staff may refer to: Pole * Staff, a weapon used in stick-fighting Stick-fighting, stickfighting, or stick fighting is a variety of martial arts which use simple long, slender, blunt, hand-held, generally wooden "sticks" for fighting, such as a gun ...
officers of the Colonial Troops. * 1939: the anchor no longer to be worn with an intwined cable. * 1945: the anchor officially sanctioned to be worn on all the attributes (including headgear and uniforms) of the Colonial Troops. * 1953: approval of a "traditional" anchor design for the CT. * 1962: introduction of the TDM beret, regulated by the Corps, with the gold anchor badge as the DUI (
Distinctive unit insignia A distinctive unit insignia (DUI) is a metallic Heraldry, heraldic badge or device worn by soldiers in the United States Army. The DUI design is derived from the coat of arms authorized for a unit. DUIs may also be called "distinctive insignia" (D ...
). * 1985: "traditional" anchor now permitted to be worn on pennants and guidons.


Location

The particular role of this branch of the French Army is to consolidate various specialties: infantry, artillery, cavalry (armored), parachute forces, signals and engineers. These specialties, which are consolidated in the branch, form separate arms in the rest of the Army.


Current units

* Metropolitan France: ** (EMSOME), a headquarter ruling all French foreign and overseas units, Marine or Foreign Legion. The General commanding the EMSOME is nicknamed the "Father of the Marine Corps" (le Père de l'Arme des TDM) ** (RMT) in
Meyenheim Meyenheim () is a Communes of France, commune in the Haut-Rhin Departments of France, department in Grand Est in north-eastern France. See also * Communes of the Haut-Rhin département References

Communes of Haut-Rhin {{HautRhin-ge ...

Meyenheim
(mechanized infantry) ** in
Poitiers Poitiers (, , , ; Poitevin: ''Poetàe'') is a city on the Clain river in west-central France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a spanning and in the and the , and s. Its ext ...

Poitiers
(light armoured) ** ( 1er RPIMa) in
Bayonne Bayonne (; eu, Baiona ; oc, label=Gascon dialect, Gascon, Baiona ; es, Bayona) is a city and Communes of France, commune and one of the two Subprefectures in France, sub-prefectures of the Departments of France, department of Pyrénées-Atla ...

Bayonne
(
airborne Airborne or Airborn may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Films * Airborne (1962 film), ''Airborne'' (1962 film), a 1962 American film directed by James Landis * Airborne (1993 film), ''Airborne'' (1993 film), a comedy–drama film * Air ...
special forces) ** ( 3e RPIMa) in
Carcassonne Carcassonne (, also , , ; ; la, Carcaso) is a French fortified city A defensive wall is a fortification A fortification is a military A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized ...

Carcassonne
(airborne infantry) ** ( 8e RPIMa) in
Castres Castres (; ''Castras'' in the Languedocian dialect of Occitan Occitan (; oc, occitan, link=no , ), also known as ''lenga d'òc'' (; french: langue d'oc) by its native speakers, is a Romance language The Romance languages (less commonly ...
(airborne infantry) ** ( 1er RIMa) in
Angoulême Angoulême (; Poitevin-Saintongeais Poitevin-Saintongeais (french: poitevin-saintongeais, link=no, ; autonym: ''poetevin-séntunjhaes''; also called ''Parlanjhe'', ''Aguiain'' or even ''Aguiainais'' in French) is a langues d'oïl language spoken i ...
(light armoured) ** ( 2e RIMa) in
Le Mans Le Mans (, ) is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Routled ...

Le Mans
(infantry) ** ( 3e RIMa) in
Vannes Vannes (; br, Gwened) is a commune A commune is an intentional community of people sharing living spaces, interests, values, beliefs, and often property Property (''latin: Res Privata'') in the Abstract and concrete, abstract is w ...

Vannes
(infantry) ** ( 21e RIMa) in
Fréjus Fréjus (; ) is a commune An intentional community is a voluntary residential community designed from the start to have a high degree of group cohesiveness, social cohesion and teamwork. The members of an intentional community typically ...
(infantry) ** ( 1er RAMa) in
Châlons-en-Champagne Châlons-en-Champagne () is a city in the Grand Est region of France. It is the capital of the Departments of France, department of Marne (department), Marne, despite being only a quarter the size of the city of Reims. Formerly called Châlons ...

Châlons-en-Champagne
(artillery) ** ( 3e RAMa) in
CanjuersImage:Av nouguiere 01.jpg, Grand Plan : Grande Nouguière cave Canjuers is a calcareous plateau and a military camp in Provence in southeastern France. Geography Situated in the ''departments of France, département'' of the Var (department), Var in ...
(artillery) ** ( 11e RAMa) in
Saint-Aubin-du-Cormier Saint-Aubin-du-Cormier () is a Communes of France, commune in the Ille-et-Vilaine Departments of France, department in Brittany (administrative region), Brittany in northwestern France. Geography Saint-Aubin-du-Cormier is located at northeast of ...
(artillery) ** – (Marine Engineers) in
Angers Angers (, , ) is a city in western France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a transcontinental country This is a list of countries located on more than one continent ...

Angers
(engineers) * Overseas: ** ( 2e RPIMa) in Pierrefonds (Réunion) (airborne infantry) ** ( 5e RIAOM) in
Djibouti Djibouti, ar, جيبوتي ', french: link=no, Djibouti, so, Jabuuti officially the Republic of Djibouti, is a country located in the Horn of Africa The Horn of Africa (HoA), also known as the Somali Peninsula, is a large peninsu ...

Djibouti
** ( 6e BIMa) in Libreville (Gabon) (infantry) ** (9th Marine Infantry Regiment, 9e RIMa) in Cayenne (French Guiana) (infantry) ** (33rd Régiment d'Infanterie de Marine, 33e RIMa) in Fort-de-France (Martinique) (infantry) ** – (Pacific Marine Infantry Regiment - New Caledonia, RIMaP-NC) in Nouméa New Caledonia (infantry) ** (Pacific Marine Infantry Regiment - Papeete, RIMaP-P) in Papeete (infantry)


Dissolved units with their traditions trusted to other units

* * * * * * *


Other Parachute Marine units dissolved

* List of French paratrooper units, Battalions and Colonial Parachute Groups (B.C.C.P, G.C.C.P & B.P.C) * (List of French paratrooper units, 5e RPIMa) * (List of French paratrooper units, 6e RPIMa) * (List of French paratrooper units, 7e RPIMa) File:Garde du drapeau du 22e BIMa novembre 2008.GIF, Color Guard of the 22nd battalion of marines, November 11, 2008, in Nantes. Image:21e RIMa Bastille Day 2008.jpg, 21st Regiment of marine infantry, Bastille Day 2008 military parade on the Champs-Élysées, Paris. Image:Defile de certaine compagnies du 2e RIMa.jpg, Parade of Companies of the 2nd Marine Regiment, change of command. File:French Task Force Korrigan 2blog-post-8-13.jpg, Military marine troops French Task Force, August 13, 2009, GTIA Korrigan (French forces in Afghanistan ; List of French paratrooper units, 3e RIMa). Image:Frenchbugler.JPG, Clarion marine troops in Kuwait after the Operation Desert Storm. File:Ceremonie-de-creation-du-battle-group-richelieu.jpg, Ceremony of creation of battle group Richelieu, 2nd Regiment of Marines, before departure to Afghanistan. File:Bgroup1.JPG, The dissolution ceremony at Le Mans July 7, 2011, the battalion / battle group Richelieu of the 2nd Regiment of Marines after return from Afghanistan. File:Bgroup2.JPG, Following the dissolution of the battalion. File:Bgroup3.JPG, Following the dissolution of the battalion. File:Bgroup5.JPG, Following the dissolution of the battalion.


Anthem

(traditional) This song is sung at a brisk pace to marching music : In battle or storm, : The chorus of male songs, (repeat) : Our soul always ready to danger, : Brave and lightning guns. : Men of iron that nothing weary : We look death in the face, : In the roaring storm or rough fight. Forward! : To make a soldier of Marine : You need in the chest : The heart of a sailor and that of a soldier. : Often in the torrid zone, : The tooth tiger or lion : Fever or ball homicide : Just decimate our battalions. : So to the motherland, : We see, contorted with agony, : In a supreme effort to turn our front. Forward! : And we regret unanimous : Dear France, O sublime country! : This is for you to have one life to give. : Be proud soldier in the Navy, : Love thy victory bugles : And your face illuminated by burnished, : The brilliance of great deeds. : From the Bosphorus to Martinique, : From Senegal to the Pacific : We see your flag colors shine. Forward! : The glory took you under his wing, : For the honor always faithful, : You die in battle or you come back victorious. : In every battle in the Crimea, : We too have taken part : De Malakoff under fire, : We were climbing the walls. : At the sight of our uniforms, : That the fire or sword deforms, : The enemy turned pale, stepped back many times. Forward! : And on our foreheads that shines, : We can see the triple crown : The laurels of Podor, of Inkerman and Alma. : When Prussia inundating France, : About Us unleashed its fury, : At his balls as his spears : We have opposed our hearts. : And when the battle roared, : Our forehead, wounded by shrapnel, : Bloody, but untamed, defied the winners. Forward! : A Bazeilles The Cluze and Neuville, : When fighting against one hundred thousand, : The success betrays us but we kept the honor. : Constantly ready for any fight; : Valiant soldiers of our major ports, : No nothing can kill you : Who do you count your dead point : You reduce Chinese, Kanaka, : In Madagascar you, Annam and Tonkin. Forward! : Also under the sky its dome : Joined still halo : Son-Tay and Nouméa, Tamatave and Beijing : A day will come, dear hope, : Where the ardent call of bugles, : Will rise to our France : Avengers ... and we will. : So for us, oh what a feast! : We will give younger sisters, : For the victories of Jena, Auerstadt, Stettin. Forward! : Yes we love the holy wars : For the blood of heroes, our fathers, : In our blood on fire, do not flow in vain


Values of the Marine Troops

Formed initially to be deployed for service on France's overseas territories to maintain French interests, the marine troops have acquired a culture of openness. In addition, foreign missions have required the weapon it covers areas of varied specialties (combat infantry and armor, fire support, communications ...) the exercise of which, today, reinforces a long history of professionalism. Transcending the concept of mastering military equipment and technologies, the marine troops unite around a single symbol, the traditional golden anchor, that for those who serve marks a unique style whose main features are: * A brotherhood of gun mindset maintained by simple and warm human relationships between comrades in arms; * An ability to adapt to the most unusual situations, a true lifestyle product of history and operational experience repeated; * A "military humanism", perpetuating culture of others including the ability to make contacts with the most diverse populations and to gain their trust. This military humanism embodied by the tradition of multiculturalism are today carried on by the Specialised Headquarters for Overseas and Foreign Units (État-major spécialisé pour l’outre-mer et l’étranger). These high values of identity give meaning to the commitment of the Marsouin and Bigord and always based natural vocation of the marine troops serving both in the French overseas territories and abroad.


See also

* Marine (military), Marine corps * Tirailleur * French colonial flags * French colonial empire * List of French possessions and colonies * Moroccan Division (France), Moroccan Division


Sources

* , Paris: Charles-Lavauzelle, 1991, or . * Serge Saint-Michel & Rene Le Honzec, * CEHD (), , Paris, Lavauzelle, 2001, 444 p., * , Paris, H. Charles-Lavauzelle, 1903. * Louis Beausza, , Paris, L. Fournier et cie., 1939. * Marcel Vigneras, ''Rearming the French'', Office of the Chief of Military History, Dept. of the Army, 1957 * John C. Cornelius, Richard J. Sommers, Michael Winey, ''The Military Forces of France'', Washington, GPO, 1977. * Anthony Clayton, ''France, Soldiers and Africa'', London; Washington: Brassey's Defence Publishers, 1988, or . * Comité national des traditions des troupes de marine, , Paris:C. Lavauzelle, 1995, or .


References


External links

*
Unofficial site
(managed by the national federation of veterans of oversea and marine troops) *

*
Website of the in Fréjus
*

{{DEFAULTSORT:Troupes De Marine Marines, French Army Arms of the French Army Military units and formations established in 1622 1622 establishments in France