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The Treaty of Tordesillas, ; pt, Tratado de Tordesilhas . signed in
Tordesillas Tordesillas () is a town and municipality in the province of Valladolid, Castile and León, central Spain , * gl, Reino de España, * oc, Reiaume d'Espanha, , , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de E ...
, Spain on 7 June 1494, and authenticated in
Setúbal Setúbal (, also , ; cel-x-proto, Caetobrix) is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. ...

Setúbal
, Portugal, divided the newly-discovered lands outside Europe between the
Portuguese Empire The Portuguese Empire ( pt, Império Português), also known as the Portuguese Overseas (''Ultramar Português'') or the Portuguese Colonial Empire (''Império Colonial Português''), was composed of the overseas colonies In political scie ...
and the
Spanish Empire The Spanish Empire ( es, link=no, Imperio Español), also known as the Hispanic Monarchy ( es, link=no, Monarquía Hispánica) or the Catholic Monarchy ( es, link=no, Monarquía Católica) during the Early Modern period, was a colonial empire ...

Spanish Empire
(
Crown of Castile The Crown of Castile was a medieval polity in the that formed in 1230 as a result of the third and definitive union of the crowns and, some decades later, the parliaments of the kingdoms of and upon the accession of the then Castilian king, ...

Crown of Castile
), along a
meridian Meridian, or a meridian line may refer to Science * Meridian (astronomy), imaginary circle in a plane perpendicular to the planes of the celestial equator and horizon **Central meridian (planets) * Meridian (geography), an imaginary arc on the E ...
370 leagues west of the
Cape Verde , national_anthem = () , official_languages = Portuguese Portuguese may refer to: * anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Portugal ** Portuguese cuisine, traditional foods ** Portuguese language, a Romance language *** P ...
islands, off the west coast of Africa. That line of demarcation was about halfway between the Cape Verde islands (already Portuguese) and the islands entered by
Christopher Columbus Christopher Columbus * lij, Cristoffa C(or)ombo * es, Cristóbal Colón * pt, Cristóvão Colombo * ca, Cristòfor (or ) * la, Christophorus Columbus. (; born between 25 August and 31 October 1451, died 20 May 1506) was an Italian ...

Christopher Columbus
on his first voyage (claimed for Castile and León), named in the treaty as Cipangu and
Antilia Antillia (or Antilia) is a phantom island that was reputed, during the 15th-century age of exploration, to lie in the Atlantic Ocean, far to the west of Portugal and Spain. The island also went by the name of Isle of Seven Cities (''Ilha das Sete ...
(
Cuba Cuba ( , ), officially the Republic of Cuba ( es, República de Cuba, links=no ), is a country comprising the island of Cuba, as well as Isla de la Juventud Isla de la Juventud (; en, Isle of Youth) is the second-largest Cuban islan ...

Cuba
and
Hispaniola Hispaniola (, also ; es, La Española; Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the powe ...
). The lands to the east would belong to Portugal and the lands to the west to Castile. The treaty was signed by Spain, , and by Portugal, . The other side of the world was divided a few decades later by the
Treaty of Zaragoza The Treaty of Zaragoza, also called the Capitulation of Zaragoza (alternatively spelled Saragossa) was a peace treaty between Castile and Portugal, signed on 22 April 1529 by King John III of Portugal and the Castilian emperor Charles V, in the ...
, signed on , which specified the
antimeridian The International Date Line zigzags around the 180th Meridian. The 180th meridian or antimeridian is the meridian 180° both east and west of the Prime Meridian A prime meridian is the meridian (geography), meridian (a line of longitude) i ...
to the line of demarcation specified in the Treaty of Tordesillas. Originals of both treaties are kept at the
General Archive of the Indies The Archivo General de Indias (, "General Archive of the Indies"), housed in the ancient merchants' exchange of Seville, Spain, the ''Casa Lonja de Mercaderes'', is the repository of extremely valuable archival documents illustrating the history ...
in Spain and at the
Torre do Tombo National Archive The National Archive of Torre do Tombo ( pt, Arquivo Nacional da Torre do Tombo, ) is the Portugal, Portuguese national archive located in the Freguesia (Portugal), civil parish of Alvalade (Lisbon), Alvalade, in the Concelho, municipality of centra ...
in Portugal. Despite considerable ignorance regarding the geography of the so-called New World, Portugal and Spain largely respected the treaty. The other European powers however did not sign the treaty and generally ignored it, particularly those that became
Protestant Protestantism is a form of that originated with the 16th-century , a movement against what its followers perceived to be in the . Protestants originating in the Reformation reject the Roman Catholic doctrine of , but disagree among themselves ...
after the
Reformation The Reformation (alternatively named the Protestant Reformation or the European Reformation) was a major movement within Western Christianity in Vatican City Vatican City (), officially the Vatican City State ( it, Stato della Cit ...
. Similarly, the Indigenous nations did not acknowledge the treaty, and as the legal foundation for the
Discovery Doctrine The discovery doctrine, also called doctrine of discovery, is a concept of public international law International law, also known as public international law and law of nations, is the set of rules, norms, and standards generally accepted in rel ...
, it has been a source of ongoing tension regarding land ownership into modern times, cited as recently as the 2005
United States Supreme Court The Supreme Court of the United States (SCOTUS) is the highest court in the Federal judiciary of the United States, federal judiciary of the United States of America. It has ultimate and largely Procedures of the Supreme Court of the United ...

United States Supreme Court
case '' Sherrill v. Oneida Nation''. The treaty was included by
UNESCO The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) (french: Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialised agency United Nations Specialized Agencies are autonomous orga ...

UNESCO
in 2007 in its
Memory of the World Programme UNESCO The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) (french: Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a List of specialized agencies of the United Nations, specialised age ...
.


Signing and enforcement

The Treaty of Tordesillas was intended to solve the dispute that arose following the return of Christopher Columbus and his crew, who had sailed under the Crown of Castile. On his way back to
Spain , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = , national_anthem = , image_map = , map_caption = , image_map2 ...

Spain
he first stopped at
Lisbon Lisbon (; pt, Lisboa ) is the capital and the largest city of Portugal, with an estimated population of 544,851 within its administrative limits in an area of 100.05 km2. Grande Lisboa, Lisbon's urban area extends beyond the city's admin ...

Lisbon
, where he requested another meeting with
King John II
King John II
to prove to him that there were more islands to the southwest of the Canary Islands. After learning of the Castilian-sponsored voyage, the Portuguese King sent a threatening letter to the
Catholic Monarchs The term Catholic Monarchs refers to Queen Isabella I of Castile and King Ferdinand II of Aragon Aragon ( or , Spanish and an, Aragón , ca, Aragó ) is an autonomous communities of Spain, autonomous community in Spain, coextensive with th ...
, King
Ferdinand Ferdinand is a Germanic nameGermanic given names are traditionally dithematic; that is, they are formed from two elements, by joining a prefix A prefix is an affix which is placed before the stem of a word. Adding it to the beginning of one w ...
and Queen Isabella, stating that by the
Treaty of Alcáçovas The Treaty of Alcáçovas (also known as Treaty or Peace of Alcáçovas-Toledo) was signed on 4 September 1479 between the Catholic Monarchs The term Catholic Monarchs refers to Queen Isabella I of Castile and King Ferdinand II of Aragon, wh ...
signed in 1479 and by the 1481
papal bull A papal bull is a type of public decree, letters patent, or charter issued by a pope of the Catholic Church. It is named after the leaden Seal (emblem), seal (''bulla (seal), bulla'') that was traditionally appended to the end in order to auth ...
'' Æterni regis'' that granted all lands south of the Canary Islands to Portugal, all of the lands discovered by Columbus belonged, in fact, to Portugal. The Portuguese king also stated that he was already making arrangements for a fleet (an armada led by
Francisco de Almeida Dom Francisco de Almeida (), also known as the Great Dom Francisco (c. 1450 – 1 March 1510), was a Portuguese nobleman, soldier and explorer Exploration is the act of searching for the purpose of discovery of information Information ...

Francisco de Almeida
) to depart shortly and take possession of the new lands. After reading the letter the Catholic Monarchs knew they did not have any military power in the Atlantic to match the Portuguese, so they pursued a diplomatic way out. On 1493 Pope Alexander VI (
Rodrigo Borgia Pope Alexander VI (born Rodrigo de Borja; ca-valencia, Roderic Llançol i de Borja ; es, Rodrigo Lanzol y de Borja, lang ; 1 January 1431 – 18 August 1503), was pope The pope ( la, papa, from el, πάππας, translit=pappas, ...
), an
Aragonese Aragonese or Aragones may refer to: * Something related to Aragon, an autonomous community and former kingdom in Spain * the Aragonese people, those originating from or living in the historical region of Aragon, in north-eastern Spain * the Aragone ...
from
Valencia Valencia ( va, València) is the capital of the Autonomous communities of Spain, autonomous community of Valencian Community, Valencia and the Municipalities of Spain, third-largest city in Spain after Madrid and Barcelona, surpassing 800,000 ...
by birth, decreed in the bull ''
Inter caetera ''Inter caetera'' ('Among other orks) was a papal bull issued by Pope Alexander VI Pope Alexander VI (born Rodrigo de Borja; ca-valencia, Roderic Llançol i de Borja ; es, Rodrigo Lanzol y de Borja, lang ; 1 January 1431 – 18 Aug ...
'' that all lands west of a pole-to-pole line 100 leagues west of any of the islands of the
Azores The Azores ( , also ; pt, Açores ), officially the Autonomous Region of the Azores (), is one of the two autonomous regions of Portugal The two Autonomous Regions of Portugal ( pt, Regiões Autónomas de Portugal) are the Azores (''Região ...

Azores
or the Cape Verde Islands should belong to Castile, although territory under Christian rule as of Christmas 1492 would remain untouched. The bull did not mention Portugal or its lands, so Portugal could not claim newly discovered lands even if they were east of the line. Another bull, ''
Dudum siquidem ''Dudum siquidem'' (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Ro ...
'', entitled ''Extension of the Apostolic Grant and Donation of the Indies'' and dated 1493, gave all mainlands and islands, "at one time or even still belonging to India" to Spain, even if east of the line. The Portuguese King John II was not pleased with that arrangement, feeling that it gave him far too little land—it prevented him from possessing India, his near term goal. By 1493 Portuguese explorers had reached the southern tip of Africa, the
Cape of Good Hope A cape is a sleeveless outer garment, which drapes the wearer's back, arms, and chest, and connects at the neck. History Capes were common in medieval Europe, especially when combined with a Hood (headgear), hood in the Chaperon (headgear), ...

Cape of Good Hope
. The Portuguese were unlikely to go to war over the islands encountered by Columbus, but the explicit mention of India was a major issue. As the Pope had not made changes, the Portuguese king opened direct negotiations with the Catholic Monarchs to move the line to the west and allow him to claim newly discovered lands east of the line. In the bargain, John accepted ''
Inter caetera ''Inter caetera'' ('Among other orks) was a papal bull issued by Pope Alexander VI Pope Alexander VI (born Rodrigo de Borja; ca-valencia, Roderic Llançol i de Borja ; es, Rodrigo Lanzol y de Borja, lang ; 1 January 1431 – 18 Aug ...
'' as the starting point of discussion with Ferdinand and Isabella, but had the boundary line moved 270 leagues west, protecting the Portuguese route down the coast of Africa and giving the Portuguese rights to lands that now constitute the Eastern quarter of Brazil. As one scholar assessed the results, "both sides must have known that so vague a boundary could not be accurately fixed, and each thought that the other was deceived, oncluding that it was adiplomatic triumph for Portugal, confirming to the Portuguese not only the true route to India, but most of the South Atlantic". The treaty effectively countered the bulls of Alexander VI but was subsequently sanctioned by
Pope Julius II Pope Julius II ( it, Papa Giulio II; la, Iulius II; born Giuliano della Rovere; 5 December 144321 February 1513) was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 1503 to his death in 1513. Nicknamed the ''Warrior Pope'' or the ...
by means of the bull ''Ea quae pro bono pacis'' of . Even though the treaty was negotiated without consulting the Pope, a few sources call the resulting line the "Papal Line of Demarcation". Very little of the newly divided area had actually been seen by Europeans, as it was only divided via the treaty. Castile gained lands including most of the Americas, which in 1494 had little proven wealth. The easternmost part of current Brazil was granted to Portugal when in 1500
Pedro Álvares Cabral Pedro Álvares Cabral ( or ; born ''Pedro Álvares de Gouveia''; c. 1467 or 1468 – c. 1520) was a Portuguese Portuguese may refer to: * anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Portugal ** Portuguese cuisine, trad ...
landed there while he was en route to India. Some historians contend that the Portuguese already knew of the South American bulge that makes up most of Brazil before this time, so his landing in Brazil was not an accident. One scholar points to Cabral's landing on the Brazilian coast 12 degrees farther south than the expected
Cape São Roque Cape São Roque ( Port. ''Cabo de São Roque'') or Cape of Saint Roch Roch or Rocco (lived c. 1348 – 15/16 August 1376/79 (traditionally c. 1295 – 16 August 1327) is a Catholic saint, a confessor whose death is commemorated on 16 August ...

Cape São Roque
, such that "the likelihood of making such a landfall as a result of freak weather or navigational error was remote; and it is highly probable that Cabral had been instructed to investigate a coast whose existence was not merely suspected, but already known". The line was not strictly enforced—the Spanish did not resist the Portuguese expansion of Brazil across the meridian. However, Spain attempted to stop the Portuguese advance in Asia, by claiming the meridian line ran around the world, dividing the whole world in half rather than just the Atlantic. Portugal pushed back, seeking another papal pronouncement that limited the line of demarcation to the Atlantic. This was given by Pope
Leo X Pope Leo X (born Giovanni di Lorenzo de' Medici, 11 December 14751 December 1521) was head of the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the List of Christian denominations by number of members, ...

Leo X
, who was friendly toward Portugal and its discoveries, in 1514 in the bull ''Praecelsae devotionis''. The divided possessions sanctioned by the treaty continued, even when Spain and Portugal were united under a single king between 1580 and 1640, until the treaty was superseded by the 1750 Treaty of Madrid. Emerging Protestant maritime powers, particularly England and The Netherlands, and other third parties such as Catholic France, did not recognize the division of the world between only two Catholic nations brokered by the pope.


Tordesillas meridian

The Treaty of Tordesillas only specified the line of demarcation in leagues from the Cape Verde Islands. It did not specify the line in degrees, nor did it identify the specific island or the specific length of its league. Instead, the treaty stated that these matters were to be settled by a joint voyage, which never occurred. The number of degrees can be determined via a ratio of marine leagues to degrees applied to the earth regardless of its assumed size, or via a specific marine league applied to the true size of the earth, called "our sphere" by historian Henry Harrisse. * The earliest Aragonese opinion was provided by Jaime Ferrer in 1495 at the request of the Aragonese king and Castilian queen to those monarchs. He stated that the demarcation line was 18° west of the most central island of the Cape Verde Islands, which is Fogo according to Harrisse, having a longitude of 24°25′ west of
Greenwich Greenwich ( , , , or ) is a town in South London, south-east London, England, located in the Historic county of England, historic county of Kent and the Ceremonial counties of England, ceremonial county of Greater London. It is situated east ...
, hence Ferrer placed the line at 42°25′W on his sphere, which was 21.1% larger than our sphere. Ferrer also stated that his league contained 32 Olympic stades, or according to Harrisse, thus Ferrer's line was west of Fogo at 47°37′W on our sphere. * The earliest surviving Portuguese opinion is on the
Cantino planisphere The Cantino planisphere or Cantino world map is a manuscript Portugal, Portuguese world map preserved at the Biblioteca Estense in Modena, Italy. It is named after Alberto Cantino, an agent for the Ercole I d'Este, Duke of Ferrara, Duke of Ferrara, ...
of 1502. Because its demarcation line was midway between Cape Saint Roque (northeast cape of South America) and the mouth of the
Amazon River The Amazon River (, ; es, Río Amazonas, pt, Rio Amazonas) in South America South America is a entirely in the and mostly in the , with a relatively small portion in the . It can also be described as the southern of a single con ...

Amazon River
(its estuary is marked ''Todo este mar he de agua doçe—''"All of this sea is fresh water"—and its river is marked ''Rio grande'', "great river"), Harrisse concluded that the line was at 42°30′W on our sphere. Harrisse believed the large estuary just west of the line on the Cantino map was that of the Rio Maranhão (this estuary is now the
Baía de São Marcos The Baía de São Marcos is a bay of the Atlantic Ocean in Maranhão state of northeastern Brazil. The bay is an estuary approximately long and up to wide. It receives several rivers, including the Grajaú River (Maranhão), Grajaú, Mearim Ri ...

Baía de São Marcos
and the river is now the Mearim), whose flow is so weak that its gulf does ''not'' contain fresh water. * In 1518 another Castilian opinion was provided by Martin Fernandez de Enciso. Harrisse concluded that Enciso placed his line at 47°24′W on his sphere (7.7% smaller than ours), but at 45°38′W on our sphere using Enciso's numerical data. Enciso also described the coastal features near which the line passed in a very confused manner. Harrisse concluded from this description that Enciso's line could also be near the mouth of the Amazon between 49°W and 50°W. * In 1524 the Castilian pilots (ships' captains) Thomas Duran, Sebastian Cabot (son of
John Cabot John Cabot ( it, Giovanni Caboto ; 1450 – 1500) was an Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, an ethnic group or simply a citizen of the Italian Republic ** Italian l ...

John Cabot
), and Juan Vespuccius (nephew of
Amerigo Vespucci Amerigo Vespucci (; ; 9 March 1451 – 22 February 1512) was an Italian-born merchant, explorer, and navigator from the Republic of Florence, from whose name the term " America" is derived. He became a Castillian citizen in 1505. Between 1 ...

Amerigo Vespucci
) gave their opinion to the Badajoz Junta, whose failure to resolve the dispute led to the Treaty of Saragossa. They specified that the line was 22° plus nearly west of the center of Santo Antão (the westernmost Cape Verde island), which Harrisse concluded was 47°17′W on their sphere (3.1% smaller than ours) and 46°36′W on our sphere. * In 1524 the Portuguese presented a globe to the Badajoz Junta on which the line was marked 21°30′ west of Santo Antão (22°6′36″ on our sphere).


Antimeridian: Moluccas and Treaty of Zaragoza

Initially, the line of demarcation did not encircle the earth. Instead, Spain and Portugal could conquer any new lands they were the first to discover, Spain to the west and Portugal to the east, even if they passed each other on the other side of the globe. But Portugal's discovery of the highly valued
Moluccas The Maluku Islands or the Moluccas () (''Molukken'') are an archipelago An archipelago ( ), sometimes called an island group or island chain, is a chain, cluster or collection of islands, or sometimes a sea containing a small number of sc ...
in 1512 caused Spain to argue in 1518 that the Treaty of Tordesillas divided the earth into two equal hemispheres. After the surviving ships of
Magellan Ferdinand Magellan ( or ; pt, Fernão de Magalhães, ; es, link=no, Fernando de Magallanes, ; c. 1480 – 27 April 1521) was a Portuguese people, Portuguese explorer who organised the Spanish expedition to the East Indies from 1519 to 1522, re ...

Magellan
's fleet visited the Moluccas in 1521, Spain claimed that those islands were within its western hemisphere. In the early 16th century, the Treaty between Spain and Portugal, concluded at Vitoria; 19 February 1524 and called for the Badajoz Junta to meet in 1524, at which the two countries tried to reach an agreement on the anti-meridian but failed. They finally agreed in a treaty signed at
Zaragoza Zaragoza, also known in English as Saragossa, is the capital city of the Province of Zaragoza, Zaragoza Province and of the autonomous communities of Spain, autonomous community of Aragon, Spain. It lies by the Ebro river and its tributaries, the ...

Zaragoza
that Spain would relinquish its claims to the Moluccas upon the payment of 350,000
ducat The ducat () was a gold or silver coin used as a trade coinTrade coins are coins minted Minted is an online marketplace of independent artists and designers. The company crowdsource Crowdsourcing is a sourcing model in which individuals or ...
s of gold by Portugal to Spain. To prevent Spain from encroaching upon Portugal's Moluccas, the anti-meridian was to be leagues or 17° to the east of the Moluccas, passing through the islands of Las Velas and Santo Thome. This distance is slightly smaller than the 300 leagues determined by Magellan as the westward distance from los Ladrones to the Philippine island of
Samar Samar ( ) is the third-largest and seventh-most populous island in the Philippines The Philippines (; fil, Pilipinas, links=no), officially the Republic of the Philippines ( fil, Republika ng Pilipinas, links=no), * bik, Republika kan ...
, which is just west of due north of the Moluccas. The Moluccas are a group of islands west of
New Guinea New Guinea (; Hiri Motu Hiri Motu, also known as Police Motu, Pidgin Motu, or just Hiri, is a language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign ...

New Guinea
. However, unlike the large modern
Indonesia Indonesia ( ), officially the Republic of Indonesia ( id, Republik Indonesia, links=yes ), is a country in Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia and South-East Asia, and also known as Southeastern Asia or SEA, is t ...

Indonesia
n
archipelago An archipelago ( ), sometimes called an island group or island chain, is a chain, cluster or collection of island An island (or isle) is an isolated piece of habitat that is surrounded by a dramatically different habitat, such as ...

archipelago
of the
Maluku Islands The Maluku Islands or the Moluccas () (''Molukken'') are an archipelago An archipelago ( ), sometimes called an island group or island chain, is a chain, cluster or collection of island An island (or isle) is an isolated piec ...

Maluku Islands
, to 16th-century Europeans the Moluccas were a small chain of islands, the only place on earth where
clove Cloves are the aromatic flower A flower, sometimes known as a bloom or blossom Image:Cerisier du Japon Prunus serrulata.jpg, Cherry blossoms in Paris in full bloom. In botany, blossoms are the flowers of stone fruit fruit tree, trees (genu ...

clove
s grew, just west of the large north Malukan island of
Halmahera Halmahera, formerly known as Jilolo, Gilolo, or Jailolo, is the largest island in the Maluku Islands. It is part of the North Maluku Provinces of Indonesia, province of Indonesia, and Sofifi, the capital of the province, is located on the west c ...

Halmahera
(called Gilolo at the time). Cloves were so prized by Europeans for their medicinal uses that they were worth their weight in gold. 16th- and 17th-century maps and descriptions indicate that the main islands were
Ternate Ternate is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Routledge. It ...

Ternate
,
Tidore Tidore ( id, Kota Tidore Kepulauan, lit. "City of Tidore Islands") is a city, island, and archipelago in the Maluku Islands The Maluku Islands or the Moluccas () (''Molukken'') are an archipelago An archipelago ( ), sometimes called a ...

Tidore
,
Moti Moti or MOTI may refer to: Names * Mordecai (disambiguation)Mordecai is one of the main personalities in the Book of Esther in the Hebrew Bible. Mordecai or Mordechai may also refer to: Mononym * Kevin Thorn, American professional wrestler who ...
,
Makian Makian (also Machian), known to local people as Mount Kie Besi, is a High island, volcanic island, one of the Maluku Islands within the province of North Maluku in Indonesia. It lies near the southern end of a chain of volcanic islands off the w ...
and
Bacan The Bacan Islands, formerly also known as the Bachans, Bachians, and Batchians, are a group of islands in the Moluccas The Maluku Islands or the Moluccas () (''Molukken'') are an archipelago An archipelago ( ), sometimes called an isla ...
, although the last was often ignored even though it was by far the largest island. The principal island was Ternate at the chain's northern end (0°47′N, only in diameter) on whose southwest coast the Portuguese built a stone fort ( Forte de São João Baptista de Ternate) during 1522–23, which could only be repaired, not modified, according to the Treaty of Saragossa. This north–south chain occupies two degrees of
latitude In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, inhabitants, and phenomena of the Earth and planets. The first person to use the ...

latitude
bisected by the equator at about 127°24′E, with Ternate, Tidore, Moti, and Makian north of the equator and Bacan south of it. Although the treaty's Santo Thome island has not been identified, its "Islas de las Velas" (Islands of the Sails) appear in a 1585 Spanish history of China, on the 1594 world map of
Petrus Plancius Petrus Plancius (; 1552 – May 15, 1622) was a Dutch-Flemish Flemish (''Vlaams'') is a Low Franconian dialect cluster of the Dutch language. It is sometimes referred to as Flemish Dutch (), Belgian Dutch ( ), or Southern Dutch (). Flemish ...

Petrus Plancius
, on an anonymous map of the Moluccas in the 1598 London edition of Linschoten, and on the 1607 world map of Petro Kærio, identified as a north–south chain of islands in the northwest Pacific, which were also called the "Islas de los Ladrones" (Islands of the Thieves) during that period. Their name was changed by Spain in 1667 to "Islas de las Marianas" (
Mariana Islands The Mariana Islands (; also the Marianas; in ChamorroChamorro may refer to: * Chamorro language, an Austronesian language indigenous to The Marianas * Chamorro people, the indigenous people of the Mariana Islands in the Western Pacific * Chamorr ...
), which include
Guam Guam (; ch, Guåhan ) is an organized, unincorporated territory of the United States in the Micronesia Micronesia (, ; from grc, μικρός ''mikrós'' "small" and ''nêsos'' "island") is a subregion of Oceania, consisting of thousa ...

Guam
at their southern end. Guam's longitude of 144°45′E is east of the Moluccas' longitude of 127°24′E by 17°21′, which is remarkably close by 16th-century standards to the treaty's 17° east. This longitude passes through the eastern end of the main north Japanese island of
Hokkaidō , officially Hokkaidō Circuit Prefecture, is the Japanese archipelago, second largest island of Japan and comprises the largest and northernmost Prefectures of Japan, prefecture. The Tsugaru Strait separates Hokkaidō from Honshu; the two islan ...
and through the eastern end of New Guinea, which is where Frédéric Durand placed the demarcation line. Moriarty and Keistman placed the demarcation line at 147°E by measuring 16.4° east from the western end of New Guinea (or 17° east of 130°E). Despite the treaty's clear statement that the demarcation line passes 17° east of the Moluccas, some sources place the line just east of the Moluccas. The Treaty of Saragossa did not modify or clarify the line of demarcation in the Treaty of Tordesillas, nor did it validate Spain's claim to equal hemispheres (180° each), so the two lines divided the earth into unequal hemispheres. Portugal's portion was roughly 191° whereas Spain's portion was roughly 169°. Both portions have a large uncertainty of ±4° because of the wide variation in the opinions regarding the location of the Tordesillas line. Portugal gained control of all lands and seas west of the Saragossa line, including all of Asia and its neighboring islands so far "discovered", leaving Spain most of the
Pacific Ocean The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbour and support life. 29.2% of Earth's surface is land consisting of continents and islands. ...

Pacific Ocean
. Although the Philippines were not named in the treaty, Spain implicitly relinquished any claim to them because they were well west of the line. Nevertheless, by 1542, King
Charles I of Spain (who was also Emperors Charles V of the Holy Roman Empire)
Charles I of Spain (who was also Emperors Charles V of the Holy Roman Empire)
decided to colonize the Philippines, judging that Portugal would not protest because the archipelago had no spices. Although a number of expeditions sent from
New Spain New Spain, officially the Viceroyalty of New Spain ( es, Virreinato de Nueva España, ), or Kingdom of New Spain, was an integral territorial entity of the Spanish Empire The Spanish Empire ( es, link=no, Imperio Español), also known as th ...

New Spain
arrived in the Philippines, they were unable to establish a settlement because the return route across the Pacific was unknown. King
Philip IIPhilip II may refer to: * Philip II of Macedon (382–336 BC) * Philip II (emperor) (238–249), Roman emperor * Philip II, Prince of Taranto (1329–1374) * Philip II, Duke of Burgundy (1342–1404) * Philip II, Duke of Savoy (1438-1497) * Philip ...

Philip II
succeeded in 1565 when he sent
Miguel López de Legazpi Miguel López de Legazpi (; c. 1502 – 20 August, 1572), also known as '' El Adelantado'' and ''El Viejo'' (The Elder), was a Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards, a nation and ethnic group indigeno ...
and Andrés de Urdaneta, establishing the initial Spanish trading post at
Cebu Cebu (; ceb, Sugbo), officially the Province of Cebu ( ceb, Lalawigan sa Sugbo; tl, Lalawigan ng Cebu), is a province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , ...

Cebu
and later founding
Manila Manila ( , ; fil, Maynila, ), officially the City of Manila ( fil, Lungsod ng Maynila, ), is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are ...

Manila
in 1571. Besides
Brazil Brazil ( pt, Brasil; ), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (Portuguese: ), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America. At 8.5 million square kilometers (3.2 million square miles) and with over 211 mill ...
and the Moluccas, Portugal eventually controlled
Angola , national_anthem = "Angola Avante "Angola Avante" (, ) is the national anthem A national anthem is a song that officially symbolizes a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often r ...
,
Mozambique Mozambique (), officially the Republic of Mozambique ( pt, Moçambique or , ; ny, Mozambiki; sw, Msumbiji; ts, Muzambhiki), is a country located in Southeastern Africa bordered by the Indian Ocean The Indian Ocean is the third-lar ...
,
Portuguese Guinea Portuguese Guinea ( pt, Guiné), called the Overseas Province of Guinea from 1951 until 1972 and then State of Guinea from 1972 until 1974, was a West Africa West Africa or Western Africa is the westernmost region of . The defines Western Af ...

Portuguese Guinea
, and
São Tomé and Príncipe São Tomé and Príncipe (; ; English: Saint Thomas and Prince), officially the Democratic Republic of São Tomé and Príncipe ( pt, República Democrática de São Tomé e Príncipe), is an island country An island country or an island n ...
(among other territories and bases) in
Africa Africa is the world's second-largest and second-most populous continent A continent is any of several large landmass A landmass, or land mass, is a large region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', ...

Africa
; several bases or territories as
Muscat Muscat ( ar, مَسْقَط, ) is the Capital (political), capital city and is the most populated city in Oman. It is the seat of the Muscat (governorate), Governorate of Muscat. According to the National Centre for Statistics and Information ( ...

Muscat
,
Ormus The Kingdom of Ormus (also known as Hormoz; fa, هرمز; pt, Ormuz) was located in the eastern side of the Persian Gulf The Persian Gulf ( fa, خلیج فارس, translit=xalij-e fârs, lit=Gulf of Fars, ) is a mediterranean sea ...
and
Bahrain Bahrain ( ; ar, البحرين, al-Baḥrayn, , locally ), officially the Kingdom of Bahrain ( ar, مملكة البحرين, links=no '), is a country in the Arab states of the Persian Gulf, Persian Gulf. The Island country, island nation c ...

Bahrain
in the Persian Gulf,
Goa Goa () is a state on the southwestern coast of India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, second-most populous country, the ...

Goa
,
Bombay Mumbai (, ; also known as Bombay — the official name until 1995) is the capital city A capital or capital city is the municipality holding primary status in a Department (country subdivision), department, country, Constituent state, ...

Bombay
and
Daman and Diu Daman and Diu (; Portuguese language, Portuguese: ''Damão e Diu''; ) is a district of the Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu, Dadra and Nagar Harveli and Daman and Diu union territory in western India. It was a separate union territory u ...
(among other coastal cities) in
India India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi Hindi (Devanagari: , हिंदी, ISO 15919, ISO: ), or more precisely Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: , ISO 15919, ISO: ), is an Indo-Aryan language spoken chiefly in Hindi Belt, ...

India
;
Ceylon Sri Lanka (, ; si, ශ්‍රී ලංකා, Śrī Laṅkā, translit-std=ISO; ta, இலங்கை, Ilaṅkai, translit-std=ISO), formerly known as Ceylon, and officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is an island ...

Ceylon
, and
Malacca Malacca, officially the State of Malacca, is a Federated state, state in Malaysia located in the southern region of the Malay Peninsula, next to the Strait of Malacca. Its capital is Malacca City, dubbed the Historic City, which has been liste ...
, bases in present-day Indonesia as
Makassar Makassar () is the capital city, capital of the Indonesian Provinces of Indonesia, province of South Sulawesi. It is the largest city in the region of Eastern Indonesia and the country's fifth-largest urban center after Jakarta, Surabaya, Bandu ...

Makassar
,
Solor Solor is a volcanic island located off the eastern tip of Flores Flores island () is one of the Lesser Sunda Islands The Lesser Sunda Islands ( id, Kepulauan Nusa Tenggara "southeastern archipelago" or "lesser sunda archipelago") are ...
, Ambon, and
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, the ''entrepôt''-base of
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and the entrepôt-enclave of
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Dejima
(
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Nagasaki
) in the Far East. Spain, on the other hand, would control vast western regions in the Americas, in areas ranging from the present-day United States to present-day Argentina, an empire that would extend to the Philippines, and bases in Ternate and
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Formosa
(17th century).


Effect on other European powers

The treaty was important in dividing Latin America, as well as establishing Spain in the western Pacific. However, it quickly became obsolete in North America, and later in Asia and Africa, where it affected colonization. It was ignored by other European nations, and with the decline of Spanish and Portuguese power, the home countries were unable to hold many of their claims, much less expand them into poorly explored areas. Thus, with sufficient backing, it became possible for any European state to colonize open territories, or those weakly held by Lisbon or Madrid. With the fall of
Malacca Malacca, officially the State of Malacca, is a Federated state, state in Malaysia located in the southern region of the Malay Peninsula, next to the Strait of Malacca. Its capital is Malacca City, dubbed the Historic City, which has been liste ...

Malacca
to the Dutch, the VOC (
Dutch East India Company The Dutch East India Company, officially the United East India Company ( nl, Vereenigde Oost Indische Compagnie; VOC), was a multinational corporation A multinational company (MNC) is a corporate A corporation is an organization—u ...

Dutch East India Company
) took control of Portuguese possessions in Indonesia, claiming Western New Guinea and Western Australia, as New Holland. Eastern Australia remained in the Spanish half of the world until claimed for Britain by
James Cook Captain Captain is a title for the commander of a military unit, the commander of a ship, aeroplane, spacecraft, or other vessel, or the commander of a port, fire department or police department, election precinct, etc. The captain is a milit ...

James Cook
in 1770. That said, "the current border between
Western Australia Western Australia (abbreviated as WA) is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspape ...

Western Australia
on the one hand, and
South Australia South Australia (abbreviated as SA) is a States and territories of Australia, state in the southern central part of Australia. It covers some of the most arid parts of the country. With a total land area of , it is the fourth-largest of Austral ...

South Australia
and the
Northern Territory The Northern Territory (NT; formally the Northern Territory of Australia) is an Australian territory in the central and central northern regions of Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, ...
on the other hand (originally the western border of New South Wales, 1788) is still based on the Tordesillas line ..rather than on Australian Aboriginal tribal boundaries". The attitude towards the treaty that other governments had was expressed by France's
Francis IFrancis I or Francis the First may refer to: * Francesco I Gonzaga (1366–1407) * Francis I, Duke of Brittany (1414–1450), reigned 1442–1450 * Francis I of France (1494–1547), reigned 1515–1547 * Francis I, Duke of Saxe-Lauenburg (1510–15 ...
, who declared, "The sun shines for me as it does for others. I would very much like to see the clause of Adam’s will by which I should be denied my share of the world."


Treaty of Madrid

On January 13, 1750, King John V of Portugal and Ferdinand VI of Spain signed the Treaty of Madrid, in which both parties sought to establish the borders between Brazil and Spanish America, admitting that the Treaty of Tordesillas, as it had been envisioned in 1494 had been superseded, and was considered void. Spain was acknowledged sovereignty over the Philippines, while Portugal would get the territory of the Amazon River basin. Portugal would relinquish the Colonia del Sacramento, colony of Sacramento, on the northern bank of the Río de la Plata, River Plata in modern-day Uruguay, while getting the territory of the Misiones Orientales, Seven Missions. Following the Guarani War, the treaty was annulled by Spain and Portugal in the Treaty of El Pardo (1761). The border was eventually settled in the First Treaty of San Ildefonso in 1777, with Spain acquiring territories east of the Uruguay River and Portugal acquiring territories in the Amazon Basin.


Modern claims

The Treaty of Tordesillas was invoked by Chile in the 20th century to defend the principle of an Antarctica, Antarctic sector extending along a meridian to the South Pole, as well as the assertion that the treaty made Spanish (or Portuguese) all undiscovered land south to the Pole. Indonesia took possession of Netherlands New Guinea in 1962, supporting its claim by stating the Empire of Majapahit had included western New Guinea, and that it was part of the Treaty of Tordesillas. The Treaty of Tordesillas was also invoked by Argentina in the 20th century as part of its Falkland Islands sovereignty dispute, claim to the Falkland Islands.


See also

* Catholic Church and the Age of Discovery * History of Portugal (1415–1578) * List of treaties


Notes


References


Citations


Bibliography

* Edward G. Bourne, 'The History and Determination of the Line of Demarcation by Pope Alexander VI, between the Spanish and Portuguese Fields of Discovery and Colonization', American Historical Association, ''Annual Report for 1891,'' Washington, 1892; ''Senate Miscellaneous Documents,'' Washington, Vol.5, 1891–92, pp. 103–30. * James R Akerman, ''The Imperial Map'' (Chicago: University of Chicago Press], 2009) 138. * Leonard Y. Andaya, ''The world of Maluku: Eastern Indonesia in the early modern period'' (Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1993, . * Emma Helen Blair, ed.
The Philippine Islands, 1493-1803 (vol 1 of 55)
(Cleveland, Ohio: 1903-1909), containing complete English translations of both treaties and related documents. * Stephen R. Bown
''1494: How a family feud in medieval Spain divided the world in half''
(New York: Thomas Dunne Books, 2012) . * Charles Corn, ''The Scents of Eden: A Narrative of the Spice Trade'', (New York: Kodansha, 1998), . * * Frances Gardiner Davenport, ed.
''European Treaties bearing on the History of the United States and its Dependencies to 1648''
(Washington, DC: Carnegie Institution of Washington, 1917/1967).
Translation of the Treaty of Tordesillas
by Davenport. * Henry Harrisse,
The Diplomatic History of America: Its first chapter 1452—1493—1494
' (London: Stevens, 1897). * * Waisberg, Tatiana,
The Treaty of Tordesillas and the (Re)Invention of International Law in the Age of Discovery
''Journal of Global Studies'', No 47, 2017.


External links



(about.com)
Treaty of Tordesillas
(Portuguese) from Archivo General de Indias
Treaty of Tordesillas
English translation from Blair—BROKEN LINK
''Compact Between the Catholic Sovereigns and the King of Portugal Regarding the Demarcation and the Division of the Ocean Sea''
English translation from Blair—BROKEN LINK {{DEFAULTSORT:Treaty Of Tordesillas 1494 in Portugal 1494 in Spain 1529 in law 1490s treaties History of North America History of South America History of the Americas Latin American history Ferdinand II of Aragon Geopolitical rivalry Isabella I of Castile Meridians (geography) Memory of the World Register in Spain Portugal–Spain relations Portuguese Empire Portuguese colonization of the Americas Spanish colonization of the Americas History of the Philippines (1565–1898) Treaties of the Kingdom of Portugal, Tordesillas Treaties of the Spanish Empire 1494 in the Spanish Empire 1494 in the Portuguese Empire History of the province of Valladolid