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The Treaty of Tarbagatai (or Chuguchak; ) of 7 October O.S..html"_;"title="Old_Style.html"_;"title="5_September_Old_Style">O.S.">Old_Style.html"_;"title="5_September_Old_Style">O.S./nowiki>_1864_was_a_border_protocol_between_Qing_dynasty.html" "title="Old_Style">O.S..html" ;"title="Old_Style.html" ;"title="5 September Old Style">O.S.">Old_Style.html" ;"title="5 September Old Style">O.S./nowiki> 1864 was a border protocol between Qing dynasty">Qing China The Qing dynasty, officially the Great Qing (), was the last dynasty A dynasty (, ) is a sequence of rulers from the same family,''Oxford English Dictionary'', "dynasty, ''n''." Oxford University Press Oxford University Pre ...
and the Russian Empire that defined most of the western extent of their border in central Asia, between Outer Mongolia and the Khanate of Kokand. The signatories were, for Russia, Ivan Zakharov, consul-general of
Ili Ili, ILI, Illi may refer to: Abbreviations * Irish Life International, part of Irish Life and Permanent * Intuitive Logical Introvert, a personality type in socionics * Influenza-like illness * Iran Language Institute, a state-owned, non-profit o ...
, and Ivan Fedorovich Babkov, colonel of the Separate Siberian Corps of the General Staff, and, for China, Ming I, general of
Uliastai Uliastai ( mn, Улиастай; ), also spelled Uliyasutai or Oulia-Sontai, and sometimes known as Javkhlant, is a city in Mongolia Mongolia (, Mongolian language, Mongolian: , Mongolian script, Traditional Mongolian: ') is a landlocked cou ...
; Hsi Lin, ''amban'' of Tarbagatai; and Bolgosu, Tarbagatai brigade commander. By this agreement, Russia gained about 350,000 square miles of territory at the expense of Chinese Xinjiang, and
Lake Balkhash Lake Balkhash ( kk, Балқаш көлі, ''Balqaş kóli'', ; russian: озеро Балхаш, ozero Balkhash) is one of the largest lakes in Asia and 15th largest in the world. It is in the east of Central Asia Central Asia is a region in ...

Lake Balkhash
went from lying on the border to being entirely surrounded by Russia. It is sometimes numbered among the "
unequal treaties Unequal treaty is the name given by the Chinese to a series of treaties signed between China (mostly referring to the Qing dynasty The Qing dynasty, officially the Great Qing (), was the last Dynasties in Chinese history, dynasty in t ...
". Most of this land transfer was rural and related to
water rights Water right in water law Water (chemical formula H2O) is an Inorganic compound, inorganic, transparent, tasteless, odorless, and Color of water, nearly colorless chemical substance, which is the main constituent of Earth's hydrosphere an ...
. The city of
Almaty Almaty (; ; cyrl, Алматы), formerly known as Alma-Ata and Verny (russian: Верный), is the largest city in Kazakhstan, with a population of about 2,000,000 people, about 11% of the country's total population, and more than 2.7 milli ...

Almaty
is the most prominent urban center to have been built on this formerly Qing land. Nearby
Bishkek Bishkek ( ky, Бишкек, Bişkek, بىشکەک, ), formerly Pishpek and Frunze (russian: Фрунзе), is the Capital city, capital and largest city of Kyrgyzstan (Kyrgyz Republic). Bishkek is also the administrative centre of the Chuy Regi ...

Bishkek
, sacked four years earlier, appears not to have ever been officially under Qing suzerainty, but perhaps loosely associated. A Russian and Chinese border commission assembled at T'a-ch'eng (also known as Tarbagatai or Chuguchak) in China on 13 May 1861 in order to map the western border in accordance with Article III of the
Treaty of Peking The Convention of Peking or First Convention of Peking is an agreement comprising three distinct treaties A treaty is a formal legally binding written agreement between actors in international law. It is usually entered into by sovereign s ...

Treaty of Peking
of 1860. The actual surveying did not begin until 11 July 1862. Both countries sought to influence the survey by the threat of military force and by alliances with local tribes, but the Russian delegation was under orders to insist on a border determined by topography and not by the boundaries between local ethnic groups. According to Babkov, "The deployment of our forces on the border clearly demonstrated to the Chinese that we had the means to uphold our demands with an armed hand whenever we wished. his deploymenton our side of the Chinese pickets, under no circumstances can be considered a violation of international law or of friendly relations: all forces are deployed on the lands of the Kirghiz, who are Russian subjects, and ... are under strict orders never to cross the permanent Chinese picket line." Negotiations were burdened by disagreements in interpreting Article II of the Treaty of Peking. The Chinese argued that it could not be taken as the basis for negotiations since the Chinese delegate who negotiated it was ignorant of central Asian conditions. The article also failed to distinguish between the different Chinese picket lines. The Chinese delegation argued that the outermost picket line was intended, while the Russians insisted that only the innermost picket line of permanent control could count. Both claimed the inhabitants between the two picket lines as their own subjects. The Russians rejected all Chinese maps as unscientific. The first round of negotiations ended in failure in September 1862. In the summer of 1863 the Russians sent out an independent survey team, which resulted in skirmishes between Russian and Chinese troops. The objective of Russian policy in settling its border with China in 1858–64 was to establish control over a region and negotiate recognition of its sovereignty after the fact. The intensification of the Dungan Revolt that broke out in the spring of 1862 drew China's attention away from the border and toward internal security in Xinjiang. When the Chinese finally signed a protocol delimiting the border in Russia's favour, the delegates warned the Russians that the rebels were approaching Tarbagatai. The rebel leader,
Yaqub Beg Muhammad Yaqub Bek (محمد یعقوب بیگ; uz, Яъқуб-бек, ''Ya’qub-bek''; ; 182030 May 1877) was a Khoqandi adventurer of Uzbek or Tajik descent who was the ruler of Yettishar (Kashgaria) from 1865 to 1877. He held the title o ...
, initially refused to recognise the new border and recruited Kirghiz from the Russian side. As a result of the rebellion, the border markers, which were to be set up in 1865, were not put in place until 1869. Further border protocols were signed at Khovd in 1869 and at Tarbagatai in 1870. __NOTOC__


See also

*
Treaty of Kulja The Treaty of Kulja (also spelled Kuldja) () was an unequal treaty Unequal treaty is the name given by the Chinese to a series of treaties signed between the Qing dynasty The Qing dynasty, officially the Great Qing (), was the last History ...
(1851), a previous trade treaty for the same area


Notes


Sources

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External links


Text of the Treaty of Tarbagatai
{{Qing dynasty topics Tarbagatai China–Russia treaties Tarbagatai Tarbagatai