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The Treaty of Paris of 1898 (
Filipino Filipino may refer to: * Something from or related to the Philippines The Philippines (; fil, Pilipinas, links=no), officially the Republic of the Philippines ( fil, Republika ng Pilipinas, links=no), * bik, Republika kan Filipin ...
: ''Kasunduan sa Paris ng 1898;''
Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards, a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language **Spanish cuisine Other places * Spanish, Ontario, Canada * Spanish River (disambiguation), the name of several ...

Spanish
: ''Tratado de París de 1898'') was a
treaty A treaty is a formal, legally binding written agreement between actors in international law International law, also known as public international law and law of nations, is the set of rules, norms, and standards generally accepted in relat ...

treaty
signed by
Spain , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = , national_anthem = , image_map = , map_caption = , image_map2 ...

Spain
and the
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...

United States
on December 10, 1898, that ended the
Spanish–American War The Spanish–American War (April 21 – August 13, 1898, es, Guerra hispano-estadounidense or ; fil, Digmaang Espanyol-Amerikano) was an armed conflict War is an intense armed conflict between State (polity), states, governments, S ...
. Under it, Spain relinquished all claim of sovereignty over and title to
Cuba Cuba ( , ), officially the Republic of Cuba ( es, República de Cuba, links=no ), is a country comprising the island of Cuba, as well as Isla de la Juventud Isla de la Juventud (; en, Isle of Youth) is the second-largest Cuban islan ...

Cuba
and also ceded
Puerto Rico Puerto Rico (; abbreviated PR; tnq, Boriken, ''Borinquen''), officially the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico ( es, link=yes, Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Rico, lit=Free Associated State of Puerto Rico) is a Caribbean island and Unincorporated ...

Puerto Rico
,
Guam Guam (; ch, Guåhan ) is an organized, unincorporated territory of the United States in the Micronesia Micronesia (, ; from grc, μικρός ''mikrós'' "small" and ''nêsos'' "island") is a subregion of Oceania, consisting of thousa ...

Guam
, and the
Philippines The Philippines (; fil, Pilipinas, links=no), officially the Republic of the Philippines ( fil, Republika ng Pilipinas, links=no), * bik, Republika kan Filipinas * ceb, Republika sa Pilipinas * cbk, República de Filipinas * hil, Republ ...

Philippines
to the United States. The cession of the Philippines involved a compensation of $20 million from the United States to Spain.Puerto Rico is spelled as "Porto Rico" in the treaty. The treaty came into effect on April 11, 1899, when the documents of
ratification Ratification is a principal Principal may refer to: Title or rank * Principal (academia) The principal is the chief executive and the chief academic officer of a university A university ( la, universitas, 'a whole') is an educational inst ...

ratification
were exchanged. It was the first treaty negotiated between the two governments since the 1819 Adams-Onís Treaty. The Treaty of Paris marked the end of the
Spanish Empire The Spanish Empire ( es, link=no, Imperio Español), also known as the Hispanic Monarchy ( es, link=no, Monarquía Hispánica) or the Catholic Monarchy ( es, link=no, Monarquía Católica) during the Early Modern period, was a colonial empire ...

Spanish Empire
, apart from some small holdings in
Northern Africa North Africa or Northern Africa is a region encompassing the northern portion of the African continent. There is no singularly accepted scope for the region, and it is sometimes defined as stretching from the Atlantic shores of Mauritania in th ...

Northern Africa
and several islands and territories around the
Gulf of Guinea pt, Golfo da Guiné , native_name_lang= , image= Gulf of Guinea (English).jpg , caption = Gulf of Guinea map showing the chain of islands formed by the Cameroon line The Cameroon line (, ) is a chain of volcanoes. It includes islands in the G ...
, also in
Africa Africa is the world's second-largest and second-most populous continent A continent is any of several large landmass A landmass, or land mass, is a large region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', ...

Africa
. It marked the beginning of the United States as a world power. Many supporters of the war opposed the treaty, which became one of the major issues in the election of 1900 when it was opposed by Democrat
William Jennings Bryan William Jennings Bryan (March 19, 1860 – July 26, 1925) was an American orator and politician. Beginning in 1896, he emerged as a dominant force in the Democratic PartyDemocratic Party most often refers to: *Democratic Party (United Stat ...

William Jennings Bryan
, who opposed imperialism. Republican President
William McKinley William McKinley (January 29, 1843September 14, 1901) was the 25th president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the and of the . The president directs the of the and is the of the . The power of ...
supported the treaty and was easily reelected.


Background

The Spanish–American War began on April 25, 1898, due to a series of escalating disputes between the two nations, and ended on December 10, 1898, with the signing of the Treaty of Paris. It resulted in Spain's loss of its control over the remains of its overseas empire.Library of Congress
"The World of 1898: The Spanish–American War: Introduction."
/ref> After much of mainland Latin America had achieved independence, Cuba tried its hand at revolution in 1868–1878, and again in the 1890s, led by
José Martí José Julián Martí Pérez (; January 28, 1853 – May 19, 1895) was a Cuban poet, philosopher, essayist, journalist, translator, professor, and publisher, who is considered a Hero of the Republic of Cuba, Cuban national hero because of his rol ...
. Martí returned to Cuba and participated at first in the struggles against the Spanish government, but was killed on May 19, 1895. The Philippines at this time also became resistant to Spanish colonial rule. August 26, 1896 presented the first call to revolt, led by Andrés Bonifacio, succeeded by Emilio Aguinaldo y Famy, who had his predecessor arrested. Bonifacio was executed on May 10, 1897. Aguinaldo then negotiated the
Pact of Biak-na-Bato The Pact of Biak-na-Bato, signed on December 15, 1897, created a truce between Spanish colonial Governor-General Fernando Primo de Rivera Fernando Primo de Rivera y Sobremonte, 1st Marquess of Estella (24 July 1831 – 23 May 1921) was a S ...
with the Spaniards and was exiled to Hong Kong along with the other revolutionary leaders. The Spanish–American War that followed had overwhelming U.S. public support due to the popular fervor towards supporting Cuban freedom as well as furthering U.S. economic interests overseas. The U.S. was particularly attracted to the developing sugar industry in Cuba. The U.S. military even resorted to falsifying reports in the Philippines in order to maintain public support for U.S. involvement abroad. The U.S. appealed to the principles of
Manifest Destiny Manifest destiny was a widely held cultural belief in the 19th-century United States that American settlers were destined to expand across North America North America is a continent A continent is any of several large lan ...

Manifest Destiny
and
expansionism In expansionism, states expand their territory through military empire-building or colonialism Colonialism is a practice or policy of control by one people or power over other people or areas, often by establishing colony, colonies and gener ...
to justify its participation in the war, proclaiming that it was America's fate and its duty to take charge in these overseas nations. On September 16, U.S. President
William McKinley William McKinley (January 29, 1843September 14, 1901) was the 25th president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the and of the . The president directs the of the and is the of the . The power of ...
issued secret written instructions to his emissaries as the Spanish–American War drew to a close:


Negotiations

Article V of the between United States and Spain on August 12, 1898 read as follows: The composition of the American commission was somewhat unusual in that three of its members were senators, which meant, as many newspapers pointed out, that they would later vote on the ratification of their own negotiations. These were American delegation's members: *
William R. Day William Rufus Day (April 17, 1849 – July 9, 1923) was an American diplomat and jurist, who served for nineteen years as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States An associate justice of the Supreme Court of the United ...
, chairman, a former
US Secretary of State The United States secretary of state is an officer of the United States who implements foreign policy ''Foreign Policy'' is an American news publication, founded in 1970 and focused on global affairs, current events, and domestic and inter ...
who had resigned from the position to lead the commission * William P. Frye, a senator from Maine *
Cushman Kellogg Davis Cushman Kellogg Davis (June 16, 1838November 27, 1900) was an American Republican politician who served as the seventh Governor of Minnesota and as a U.S. Senator from Minnesota. Early life and American Civil War Davis was born in Henderson, N ...

Cushman Kellogg Davis
, a senator from Minnesota * George Gray, a senator from Delaware *
Whitelaw Reid Whitelaw Reid (October 27, 1837 – December 15, 1912) was an American politician and newspaper editor, as well as the author of ''Ohio in the War'', a popular work of history. After assisting Horace Greeley Horace Greeley (February 3, 181 ...

Whitelaw Reid
, a former diplomat and a former nominee for
Vice President A vice president, also director in British English, is an officer An officer is a person A person (plural people or persons) is a being that has certain capacities or attributes such as reason Reason is the capacity of consciously apply ...
The Spanish commission included the following Spanish diplomats: * , * Buenaventura de Abarzuza, * José de Garnica, * Wenceslao Ramírez de Villa-Urrutia, * Rafael Cerero, and *
Jules Cambon Jules-Martin Cambon (5 April 1845 – 19 September 1935) was a French diplomat and brother to Paul Cambon Pierre Paul Cambon (20 January 1843 in Paris – 29 May 1924 in Paris) was a French diplomat and brother to Jules Cambon. Biography He w ...

Jules Cambon
(French diplomat). The American delegation, headed by former Secretary of State
William R. Day William Rufus Day (April 17, 1849 – July 9, 1923) was an American diplomat and jurist, who served for nineteen years as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States An associate justice of the Supreme Court of the United ...
, who had vacated his position as
US Secretary of State The United States secretary of state is an officer of the United States who implements foreign policy ''Foreign Policy'' is an American news publication, founded in 1970 and focused on global affairs, current events, and domestic and inter ...
to head the commission, arrived in Paris on September 26, 1898. The negotiations were conducted in a suite of rooms at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. At the first session, on October 1, the Spanish demanded that before the talks got underway, the return of the city of
Manila Manila ( , ; fil, Maynila, ), officially the City of Manila ( fil, Lungsod ng Maynila, ), is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are ...

Manila
, which had been captured by the Americans a few hours after the signing of the peace protocol in Washington, to Spanish authority. The Americans refused to consider the idea and, for the moment, it was pursued no further.
Felipe Agoncillo Felipe Agoncillo y Encarnación (May 26, 1859 – September 29, 1941) was the Filipino people, Filipino lawyer representative to the negotiations in Paris that led to the Treaty of Paris (1898), ending the Spanish–American War and achieving ...

Felipe Agoncillo
, a Filipino lawyer who represented the
First Philippine Republic The Philippine Republic ( es, República Filipina), more commonly known by historians as the First Philippine Republic or the Malolos Republic, was a polity in the Philippines. It was established by the promulgation of the Malolos Constitutio ...
, was denied participation in the negotiation. For almost a month, negotiations revolved around Cuba. The
Teller Amendment The Teller Amendment was an amendment to a joint resolution of the United States Congress The United States Congress or U.S. Congress is the bicameral legislature of the federal government of the United States and consists of the House ...
to the US
declaration of war A declaration of war is a formal act by which one state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (n ...
made it impractical for the US to annex the island, unlike Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines. At first, Spain refused to accept the Cuban national debt of four hundred million dollars, but ultimately, it had no choice. Eventually, it was agreed that Cuba was to be granted independence and for the Cuban debt to be assumed by Spain. It was also agreed that Spain would cede
Guam Guam (; ch, Guåhan ) is an organized, unincorporated territory of the United States in the Micronesia Micronesia (, ; from grc, μικρός ''mikrós'' "small" and ''nêsos'' "island") is a subregion of Oceania, consisting of thousa ...

Guam
and
Puerto Rico Puerto Rico (; abbreviated PR; tnq, Boriken, ''Borinquen''), officially the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico ( es, link=yes, Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Rico, lit=Free Associated State of Puerto Rico) is a Caribbean island and Unincorporated ...

Puerto Rico
to the United States. The negotiators then turned to the question of the
Philippines The Philippines (; fil, Pilipinas, links=no), officially the Republic of the Philippines ( fil, Republika ng Pilipinas, links=no), * bik, Republika kan Filipinas * ceb, Republika sa Pilipinas * cbk, República de Filipinas * hil, Republ ...

Philippines
. Spanish negotiators were determined to hang onto all they could and hoped to cede only
Mindanao Mindanao () is the List of islands of the Philippines, second-largest island in the Philippines, after Luzon and List of islands by population, seventh-most populous island in the world. Located in the southern region of the archipelago, the ...
and perhaps the
Sulu Islands The Sulu Archipelago (Tausug language, Tausug: ''Sūg'', ms, Kepulauan Sulu, fil, Kapuluan ng Sulu) is a chain of islands in the Pacific Ocean, in the southwestern Philippines. The archipelago forms the northern limit of the Celebes Sea and ...
. On the American side, Chairman Day had once recommended the acquisition of only the naval base in Manila, as a "hitching post." Others had recommended retaining only the island of
Luzon Luzon (; ) is the largest and most populous List of islands in the Philippines, island in the Philippines. It is ranked List of islands by area, 15th largest in the world by land area. Located in the northern portion of the archipelago, it is the ...
. However, in discussions with its advisers, the commission concluded that Spain, if it retained part of the Philippines, would be likely to sell it to another European power, which would likely be troublesome for America. On November 25, the American Commission cabled McKinley for explicit instructions. Their cable crossed one from McKinley saying that duty left him no choice but to demand the entire archipelago. The next morning, another cable from McKinley arrived: On November 4, the Spanish delegation formally accepted the American demand, and Spanish Prime Minister backed the commission. With the growing risk of the negotiations collapsing, there were mutters about resuming the war. The US elections on November 8, however, cut McKinley's
Republican Republican can refer to: Political ideology * An advocate of a republic, a type of government that is not a monarchy or dictatorship, and is usually associated with the rule of law. ** Republicanism, the ideology in support of republics or against ...
majority in the
US Congress The United States Congress is the legislature A legislature is an deliberative assembly, assembly with the authority to make laws for a Polity, political entity such as a Sovereign state, country or city. They are often contrasted wi ...
less than had been anticipated. The American delegation, therefore, took heart, and Frye unveiled a plan of offering Spain ten or twenty million dollars for the islands. After some discussion, the American delegation offered twenty million dollars on November 21, one tenth of a valuation that had been estimated in internal discussions in October, and requested an answer within two days. Montero Ríos said angrily that he could reply at once, but the American delegation had already departed from the conference table. When the two sides met again, Queen-Regent Maria Christina had cabled her acceptance. Montero Ríos then recited his formal reply: Work on the final draft of the treaty began on November 30. It was signed on December 10, 1898. The next step was ratification. In
Madrid Madrid ( , ) is the capital and most populous city of Spain , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = , national_anthem = , image_ ...

Madrid
, the
Cortes Generales The Cortes Generales (; en, Spanish Parliament, lit=General Courts) are the bicameral Bicameralism is the practice of having a legislature A legislature is an assembly Assembly may refer to: Organisations and meetings * Deliberative ...
, Spain's legislature, rejected it, but Maria Christina signed it as she was empowered to do by a clause in the Spanish constitution.


US ratification

In the
US Senate The United States Senate is the upper chamber of the United States Congress The United States Congress is the legislature of the federal government of the United States. It is Bicameralism, bicameral, comprising a lower body, the ...
, there were four main schools of thought on
US imperialism American imperialism consists of policies aimed at extending the political, economic and cultural influence of the United States over areas beyond its boundaries. Depending on the commentator, it may include military conquest, gunboat diplomacy ...
that influenced the debate on the treaty's ratification. Republicans generally supported the treaty, but those opposed either aimed to defeat the treaty or exclude the provision that stipulated the acquisition of the Philippines. Most Democrats favored expansion as well, particularly in the South. A minority of Democrats also favored the treaty on the basis of ending the war and granting independence to Cuba and the Philippines. During the Senate debate on ratification, Senators
George Frisbie Hoar George Frisbie Hoar (August 29, 1826 – September 30, 1904) was an American attorney and politician A politician is a person active in party politics A political party is an organization that coordinates candidate A candidate, or no ...
and
George Graham Vest George Graham Vest (December 6, 1830August 9, 1904) was a U.S. politician. Born in Frankfort, Kentucky Kentucky ( , ), officially the Commonwealth of Kentucky, is a U.S. state, state in the Upland South region of the United States, bordere ...

George Graham Vest
were outspoken opponents. Hoar stated: Some anti-expansionists stated that the treaty committed the US to a course of empire and violated the most basic tenets of the
US Constitution The Constitution of the United States is the supreme law A constitution is an aggregate of fundamental principles A principle is a proposition or value that is a guide for behavior or evaluation. In law Law is a system ...
. They argued that neither the Congress nor the President had the right to pass laws that governed colonial peoples who were not represented by lawmakers. Some Senate expansionists supported the treaty and reinforced such views by arguing: Expansionists said that the Constitution applied only to US citizens, an idea that was later supported by the
US Supreme Court The Supreme Court of the United States (SCOTUS) is the highest court in the federal judiciary of the United States of America The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or Americ ...

US Supreme Court
in the
Insular Cases The Insular Cases are a series of opinions by the Supreme Court of the United States, U.S. Supreme Court in 1901, about the status of Territories of the United States, U.S. territories acquired in the Spanish–American War.Lin, Tom C.W.Americans, ...
. As the Senate debate continued,
Andrew Carnegie Andrew Carnegie ( , November 25, 1835August 11, 1919) was a Scottish-American Scottish Americans or Scots Americans (Scottish Gaelic language, Scottish Gaelic: ''Ameireaganaich Albannach''; sco, Scots-American) are Americans whose ancestry ...

Andrew Carnegie
and former President
Grover Cleveland Stephen Grover Cleveland (March 18, 1837June 24, 1908) was an American lawyer and politician who served as the 22nd and 24th president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state A h ...

Grover Cleveland
petitioned the Senate to reject the treaty. Both men adamantly opposed such imperialist policies and participated in the
American Anti-Imperialist League The American Anti-Imperialist League was an organization established on June 15, 1898, to battle the American annexation of the Philippines as an insular area In the law of the United States The law of the United States comprises many l ...
, along with other such prominent members as
Mark Twain Samuel Langhorne Clemens (November 30, 1835 – April 21, 1910), known by his pen name A pen name, also called a ''nom de plume'' () or a literary double, is a pseudonym A pseudonym () (originally: ψευδώνυμος in Greek) or ...

Mark Twain
and
Samuel Gompers Samuel Gompers (; January 27, 1850December 13, 1924) was a British-born American cigar maker, labor union A trade union (or a labor union in American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United ...

Samuel Gompers
. The treaty was eventually approved on February 6, 1899, by a vote of 57 to 27, just over the two-thirds majority required. Only two Republicans voted against ratification:
George Frisbie Hoar George Frisbie Hoar (August 29, 1826 – September 30, 1904) was an American attorney and politician A politician is a person active in party politics A political party is an organization that coordinates candidate A candidate, or no ...
of
Massachusetts Massachusetts (, ), officially the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, is the most populous state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * ...

Massachusetts
and Eugene Pryor Hale of
Maine Maine () is a U.S. state, state in the New England region of the United States, bordered by New Hampshire to the west; the Gulf of Maine to the southeast; and the Provinces and territories of Canada, Canadian provinces of New Brunswick and Qu ...

Maine
. Senator had opposed entry into the Spanish–American War but supported McKinley after it began. He played a central role in winning the treaty's two-thirds majority ratification.


Provisions

The Treaty of Paris provided for the independence of Cuba from Spain, but the
US Congress The United States Congress is the legislature A legislature is an deliberative assembly, assembly with the authority to make laws for a Polity, political entity such as a Sovereign state, country or city. They are often contrasted wi ...
ensured indirect US control by the
Platt Amendment On March 2, 1901, the Platt Amendment was passed as part of the 1901 Army Appropriations Bill.Teller Amendment The Teller Amendment was an amendment to a joint resolution of the United States Congress The United States Congress or U.S. Congress is the bicameral legislature of the federal government of the United States and consists of the House ...
. Spain relinquished all claims of sovereignty over and title to Cuba. Upon Spain's departure, Cuba was to be occupied by the US, which would assume and discharge any obligations of
international law International law, also known as public international law and law of nations, is the set of rules, norms, and standards generally recognized as binding between nation A nation is a community A community is a social unitThe term "level of anal ...
by its occupation. The treaty also specified that Spain would cede
Puerto Rico Puerto Rico (; abbreviated PR; tnq, Boriken, ''Borinquen''), officially the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico ( es, link=yes, Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Rico, lit=Free Associated State of Puerto Rico) is a Caribbean island and Unincorporated ...

Puerto Rico
and the other islands under Spanish sovereignty in the
West Indies The West Indies are a subregion A subregion is a part of a larger region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, in ...
as well as the island of
Guam Guam (; ch, Guåhan ) is an organized, unincorporated territory of the United States in the Micronesia Micronesia (, ; from grc, μικρός ''mikrós'' "small" and ''nêsos'' "island") is a subregion of Oceania, consisting of thousa ...

Guam
in the
Mariana Islands The Mariana Islands (; also the Marianas; in ChamorroChamorro may refer to: * Chamorro language, an Austronesian language indigenous to The Marianas * Chamorro people, the indigenous people of the Mariana Islands in the Western Pacific * Chamorr ...
to the US. The treaty also specified that Spain would cede the Philippine Islands, including the islands within a specified line, to the US, and that the United States would pay to Spain the sum of twenty million dollars. Specifics of the cession of the Philippines were later clarified on November 7, 1900, when Spain and the U.S. signed the Treaty of Washington. This clarified that the territories relinquished by Spain to the United States included any and all islands belonging to the Philippine Archipelago, but lying outside the lines described in the Treaty of Paris. That treaty explicitly named the islands of Cagayan Sulu and
Sibutu , officially the , is a of the Philippines, in the Philippine Province, province of , . According to the , it has a population of people. Geography It lies about east of the coast of Sabah, Malaysia. The municipality covers the main island o ...
and their dependencies as among the relinquished territories. The boundary between the Philippines and
North Borneo North Borneo (usually known as British North Borneo, also known as the State of North Borneo) was a British Protectorate, British protectorate located in the northern part of the island of Borneo. The territory of North Borneo was originally estab ...
was further clarified by the Convention Between the United States and Great Britain (1930). More specifically, the Treaty address had seventeen articles addressing the following issues: Article 1 – Spanish relinquishment of sovereignty claim to Cuba and occupation of Cuba by the U.S. Article 2 – Spanish cession of Puerto Rico and Guam to the U.S. Article 3 – Spanish cession of the Philippines to the U.S. payment by the U.S. of $20,000,000 Article 4 – Spanish shipping in the Philippines Article 5 – Repatriation of Spanish soldiers and sailors captured at Manila; removal of Spanish forces from the Philippines and Guam; future of Spanish arms, equipment and supplies Article 6 – Release of all prisoners, including those involved in the insurrections in
Cuba Cuba ( , ), officially the Republic of Cuba ( es, República de Cuba, links=no ), is a country comprising the island of Cuba, as well as Isla de la Juventud Isla de la Juventud (; en, Isle of Youth) is the second-largest Cuban islan ...

Cuba
and the
Philippines The Philippines (; fil, Pilipinas, links=no), officially the Republic of the Philippines ( fil, Republika ng Pilipinas, links=no), * bik, Republika kan Filipinas * ceb, Republika sa Pilipinas * cbk, República de Filipinas * hil, Republ ...

Philippines
, held by Spain; the U.S. to do the same and also to encourage insurrectionist forces to do likewise. Article 7 – Both sides to relinquish all claims of loss Article 8 – Forts and other permanent installations, archives, and personal property Article 9 – Rights of Spanish citizens and native peoples in ceded lands Article 10 – Freedom of religion Article 11 – Courts Article 12 – Judicial proceedings Article 13 – Copyrights, patents, and artistic works Article 14 - Spanish ability to appoint consular offices Article 15 – Rights of merchant vessels Article 16 – Cuba after U.S. occupation Article 17 – Treaty ratification


Muslim sultanates issue

A major problem that ultimately led to the
Moro Rebellion The Moro Rebellion (1899–1913) was an armed conflict between the Moro people The collective term Moro people or Bangsamoro people refers to the 13 Islamized ethnolinguistic Austronesian people, Austronesian groups of Mindanao, Sulu A ...
and the prolonging of the long past 1902 (when the war was declared over by the United States against the Catholic Filipinos in northern Philippines) was that three sovereign, independent states known as sultanates in present-day southern Philippines were also given to the United States even though Spain had no sovereignty over them. They were the
Sultanate of Maguindanao The Sultanate of Maguindanao (Maguindanao language, Maguindanaon: ''Kasultanan nu Magindanaw''; Maguindanao language, Old Maguindanaon: كاسولتانن نو ماڬينداناو; Jawi script, Jawi: کسلطانن ماڬيندناو; Iranun la ...
, the
Sultanate of Sulu The Sultanate of Sulu ( ar, سلطنة سولك, Tausug language, Tausūg: كاسولتانن سين سوڬ, ) was a Muslim Sovereign state, state that ruled the islands in the Sulu Archipelago, parts of Mindanao in today's Philippines, certai ...
, and the
Confederation of sultanates in Lanao The Sultanates of Lanao in Mindanao Mindanao () is the List of islands of the Philippines, second-largest island in the Philippines, after Luzon and List of islands by population, seventh-most populous island in the world. Located in the ...
. The texts of the Spanish and English copies of the treaties and agreements with these Moro sultanates all claimed that sovereignty was handed over to the Spanish Empire and the United States, but the local language's copy of the texts always emphasized the sovereignty and independence of the sultanates and actually included provisions of
tribute A tribute (; from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be ...

tribute
(similar deal to the British leasing
Hong Kong Hong Kong (; , ), officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China (HKSAR), is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Pe ...

Hong Kong
from the Qing Dynasty) to be paid to the rulers by the Spanish and the Americans for a handful of lightly garrisoned coastal outposts in the sultanates.
Suzerainty Suzerainty () is a relationship in which one state or other polity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a collective identity, who are organized by some form of Institutionalisation, institutionalized soci ...
, not
sovereignty Sovereignty is the supreme authority within a territory. Sovereignty entails hierarchy within the state, as well as external autonomy for states. In any state, sovereignty is assigned to the person, body, or institution that has the ultimate a ...
, was the relationship between Spain and these three sultanates and it could be argued that the Spanish Empire had no right to include
Mindanao Mindanao () is the List of islands of the Philippines, second-largest island in the Philippines, after Luzon and List of islands by population, seventh-most populous island in the world. Located in the southern region of the archipelago, the ...
and the
Sulu Archipelago The Sulu Archipelago ( Tausug: سوڬ, ms, كڤولاوان سولو, fil, Kapuluan ng Sulu) is a chain of islands in the Pacific Ocean The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth's oceanic divisions. It extends from the Arc ...

Sulu Archipelago
in the Treaty of Paris. The United States even confirmed during the Kiram-Bates Treaty negotiations that Spain never had sovereignty. The United States fought long, brutal wars against the Moros in the sultanates from 1899-1913. They annexed the Sultanate of Maguindanao and the Confederation of sultanates in Lanao in 1905 after the Battle of the Malalag River and then annexed the Sultanate of Sulu in 1913 after the
Battle of Bud Bagsak The Battle of Bud Bagsak was a battle during the Moro Rebellion The Moro Rebellion (1899–1913) was an armed conflict between the Moro people and the United States military during the Philippine–American War. The word "Moro" – which ...


Aftermath

Victory in the Spanish–American War turned the US into a world power because the attainment of the territories of Guam, Puerto Rico, and the Philippines expanded its economic dominance in the Pacific. Its growth continued to have effects on US foreign and economic policy well into the next century. Furthermore, McKinley's significant role in advancing the ratification of the treaty transformed the presidential office from a weaker position to a prototype of the stronger presidency that is more seen today. The US military occupation also continued to have further impacts abroad. In the Philippines, revolts against US involvement, initiated on February 4, 1899, quickly surpassed the fighting that had just ended against the Spanish. As one Filipino writer noted in 1899:
Now here is a unique spectacle – the Filipinos fighting for liberty, the American people fighting to give them liberty.
According to the
US National Park Service The National Park Service (NPS) is an List of federal agencies in the United States, agency of the United States government that manages all List of areas in the United States National Park System, national parks, most National monument (United ...
, "The Spanish–American War and its aftermath delayed Philippine independence until after World War II, but established a relationship that fostered a substantial Filipino population within U.S. borders." In Cuba, the Platt Amendment allowed the US to continue its occupation without annexing it despite promises that had been made during the war and negotiations over Cuban freedom. To maintain control, the US government espoused the idea that the
Cuban people Cubans ( es, Cubanos) are people born in Cuba Cuba ( , ), officially the Republic of Cuba ( es, República de Cuba, links=no ), is a country comprising the island of Cuba, as well as Isla de la Juventud Isla de la Juventud (; en, ...
were unprepared for self-governance. As US Senator Stephen Elkins noted:
When Cuba shall become a part of the American Union and the isthmian canal shall be completed, which is now assured, Puerto Rico, Cuba, Hawaii and the Philippines will be outposts of the great Republic, standing guard over American interests in the track of the world's commerce in its triumphant march around the globe. Our people will soon see and feel that these island possessions belonging to the United States are natural and logical, and in the great part we are to play in the affairs of the world we would not only give them up but wonder how the working of our natural destiny we could get on without them. The splendid chain of island possessions, reaching half-way around the world, would not be complete without Cuba, the gem of the Antilles.Pérez, Louis A. (1998). ''War of 1898: The United States and Cuba in History and Historiography''. "Intervention and Intent." Pg. 49
Overall, those occupations greatly contributed to the growing economic role of the US.


See also

*
Spanish–American War The Spanish–American War (April 21 – August 13, 1898, es, Guerra hispano-estadounidense or ; fil, Digmaang Espanyol-Amerikano) was an armed conflict War is an intense armed conflict between State (polity), states, governments, S ...
* Philippine–American War *
Puerto Rican Campaign The Puerto Rico campaign was the American military sea and land operation on the island of Puerto Rico Puerto Rico (; abbreviated PR; tnq, Boriken, ''Borinquen''), officially the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico ( es, link=yes, Estado Lib ...
*
German–Spanish Treaty (1899) The German–Spanish Treaty of 1899, ( es, link=no, Tratado germano-español de 1899; german: link=no, Deutsch-Spanischer Vertrag 1899) signed by the German Empire and the Restoration (Spain), Kingdom of Spain, involved Spain selling the remaind ...
* Kiram-Bates Treaty


References


Further reading

* Grenville, John A. S. and George Berkeley Young. ''Politics, Strategy, and American Diplomacy: Studies in Foreign Policy, 1873-1917'' (1966) pp 267–96, on "The influence of strategy upon history: the acquisition of the Philippines"


External links


Law.yale.edu: Treaty of Peace Between the United States and Spain


— ''full text of the Treaty of Paris ending the Spanish–American War''.
Library of Congress Guide to the Spanish–American War


{{DEFAULTSORT:Treaty Of Paris (1898) Spanish–American War 1898 in Cuba 1898 in the Philippines Peace treaties of Spain, Paris (1898) Peace treaties of the United States, Paris (1898) Spain–United States relations Treaties concluded in 1898, Paris Treaties entered into force in 1899, Paris Treaties involving territorial changes, Paris Treaties of the Spanish Empire, Paris Treaties of Spain under the Restoration, Paris 1898 in Spain 1898 in the United States 1890s in Paris Banana Wars 1898 treaties December 1898 events