BackgroundThe need to review the EU's constitutional framework, particularly in light of the accession of ten new Member States in 2004, was highlighted in a declaration annexed to the Treaty of Nice in 2001. The agreements at Nice had paved the way for further of the Union by reforming voting procedures. The Laeken declaration of December 2001 committed the EU to improving , and efficiency, and set out the process by which a aiming to achieve these goals could be created. The European Convention was established, presided over by former French , and was given the task of consulting as widely as possible across Europe with the aim of producing a first draft of the Constitution. The final text of the proposed Constitution was agreed upon at the summit meeting on 18–19 June 2004 under the presidency of Ireland. Until the Lisbon Treaty the EU did not have any explicit law respecting the foreign investment regulations. The , having been agreed by heads of government from the , was signed at a ceremony in Rome on 29 October 2004. Before it could enter into force, however, it had to be by each member state. Ratification took different forms in each country, depending on the traditions, constitutional arrangements, and political processes of each country. In 2005, s held in and rejected the . While the majority of the Member States already had ratified the European Constitution (mostly through parliamentary ratification, although Spain and Luxembourg held referendums), due to the requirement of unanimity to amend the treaties of the EU, it became clear that it could not enter into force. This led to a "period of reflection" and the political end of the proposed European Constitution.
New impetusIn 2007, Germany took over the rotating EU Presidency and declared the period of reflection over. By March, the 50th anniversary of the , the Berlin Declaration was adopted by all Member States. This declaration outlined the intention of all Member States to agree on a new treaty in time for the 2009 Parliamentary elections, that is to have a ratified treaty before mid-2009. Already before the Berlin Declaration, the Amato Group (officially the Action Committee for European Democracy, ACED)a group of European politicians, backed by the with two representatives in the group – worked unofficially on rewriting the Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe (EU Constitution). On 4 June 2007, the group released their text in French – cut from 63,000 words in 448 articles in the Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe to 12,800 words in 70 articles. In the Berlin Declaration, the EU leaders unofficially set a new timeline for the new treaty: *21–23 June 2007: European Council meeting in Brussels, mandate for (IGC) *23 July 2007: IGC in Lisbon, text of Reform Treaty *7–8 September 2007: Foreign Ministers' meeting *18–19 October 2007: European Council in Lisbon, final agreement on Reform Treaty *13 December 2007: Signing in Lisbon *1 January 2009: Intended date of entry into force
June European Council (2007)On 21 June 2007, the of heads of states or governments met in to agree upon the foundation of a new treaty to replace the rejected Constitution. The meeting took place under the German Presidency of the EU, with leading the negotiations as President-in-Office of the European Council. After dealing with other issues, such as deciding on the accession of and to the , negotiations on the Treaty took over and lasted until the morning of 23 June 2007. The hardest part of the negotiations was reported to be Poland's insistence on square root voting in the . The European Round Table of Industrialists (ERT) Members contributed to the preparation of the Lisbon Agenda, which sought to make Europe the 'most competitive and dynamic knowledge-based economy in the world' by the year 2010. But the implementation of the Agenda was less impressive than the declarations made at its adoption by the European Council in March 2000. ERT Members constantly stressed the need for better performance by national governments towards achieving the Lisbon targets within a specified timeframe that otherwise risked remaining beyond Europe's grasp. In subsequent years, ERT regularly contributed to the debate on how to ensure better implementation of the Lisbon Agenda across all EU Member States, including on ways to foster innovation and achieve higher industry investment in Research & Development in Europe. The agreement was reached on a 16-page mandate for an , that proposed removing much of the constitutional terminology and many of the symbols from the old European Constitution text. In addition, it was agreed to recommend to the IGC that the provisions of the old European Constitution should be amended in certain key aspects (such as voting or foreign policy). Due to pressure from the United Kingdom and Poland, it was also decided to add a protocol to the (clarifying that it did not extend the rights of the courts to overturn domestic law in Britain or Poland). Among the specific changes were greater ability to opt out in certain areas of legislation and that the proposed new voting system that was part of the European Constitution would not be used before 2014 (see Provisions below).; In the June meeting, the name 'Reform Treaty' also emerged, finally clarifying that the Constitutional approach was abandoned. Technically it was agreed that the Reform Treaty would amend both the (TEU) and the (TEC) to include most provisions of the European Constitution, however not to combine them into one document. It was also agreed to rename the treaty establishing the European Community, which is the main functional agreement including most of the substantive provisions of European primary law, to " Treaty on the Functioning of the Union". In addition, it was agreed, that unlike the European Constitution where a charter was part of the document, there would only be a reference to the to make that text legally binding. After the council, Poland indicated they wished to re-open some areas. During June, Poland's Prime Minister had controversially stated that Poland would have a substantially larger population were it not for World War II. Another issue was that Dutch prime minister Jan-Peter Balkenende succeeded in obtaining a greater role for national parliaments in the EU decision-making process, as he declared this to be non-negotiable for Dutch agreement.
Intergovernmental Conference (2007)Portugal had pressed and supported Germany to reach an agreement on a mandate for an (IGC) under their presidency. After the June negotiations and final settlement on a 16-page framework for the new Reform Treaty, the Intergovernmental conference on actually drafting the new treaty commenced on 23 July 2007. The IGC opened following a short ceremony. The Portuguese presidency presented a 145-page document (with an extra 132 pages of 12 protocols and 51 declarations) entitled the ''Draft Treaty amending the Treaty on European Union and the Treaty establishing the European Community'' and made it available on the website as a starting point for the drafting process. In addition to government representatives and legal scholars from each member state, the European Parliament sent three representatives. These were , Enrique Baron Crespo and . Before the opening of the IGC, the Polish government expressed a desire to renegotiate the June agreement, notably over the voting system, but relented under political pressure by most other Member States, due to a desire not to be seen as the sole trouble maker over the negotiations.
October European Council (2007)The October European Council, led by Portugal's Prime Minister and then President-in-Office of the European Council, , consisted of legal experts from all Member States scrutinising the final drafts of the Treaty. During the council, it became clear that the Reform Treaty would be called the 'Treaty of Lisbon', because its signing would take place in —Portugal being the holder of the presidency of the Council of the European Union at the time. At the European Council meeting on 18 and 19 October 2007 in Lisbon, a few last-minute concessions were made to ensure the signing of the treaty. That included giving Poland a slightly stronger wording for the revived Ioannina Compromise, plus a nomination for an additional Advocate General at the . The creation of the permanent "Polish" Advocate General was formally permitted by an increase of the number of Advocates General from 8 to 11. Despite these concessions and alterations, Giscard d’Estaing stated that the treaty included the same institutional reforms as those in the rejected Constitution, but merely without language and symbols that suggested Europe might have 'formal political status'. These 'more symbolic than substantial' concessions were designed 'to head off any threat of referenda' which had killed the Constitution.
SigningAt the meeting of the in October 2007, Portugal insisted that the Treaty (then called the 'Reform Treaty') be signed in , the Portuguese capital. This request was granted, and the Treaty was thus to be called the Treaty of Lisbon, in line with the tradition of European Union treaties. The Portuguese presidency was appointed to the job of organising the programme for a signing ceremony. The signing of the Treaty of Lisbon took place in Lisbon, Portugal on 13 December 2007. The , by virtue of holding at the time, arranged a ceremony inside the 15th-century , the same place Portugal's treaty of accession to the European Union (EU) was signed in 1985. Representatives from the 27 EU were present, and signed the Treaty as , marking the end of treaty negotiations. In addition, for the first time an EU treaty was also signed by the presidents of the three main EU institutions. Prime Minister of the United Kingdom did not take part in the main ceremony, and instead signed the treaty separately a number of hours after the other delegates. A requirement to appear before a committee of British MPs was cited as the reason for his absence.
Approval by the European ParliamentOn 20 February 2008, the European Parliament voted in favour of a non-binding resolution endorsing the Lisbon Treaty by 525 votes in favour and 115 against, on the basis of an analysis of the treaty's implications by the Parliament's s and Inigo Mendez de Vigo. They had been the Parliament's rapporteurs on the constitutional treaty.
Ratification (2009)All EU member states had to ratify the Treaty before it could enter into law. A national ratification was completed and registered when the instruments of ratification were lodged with the Government of Italy. The month following the deposition of the last national ratification saw the Treaty enter into force across the EU. Under the original timetable set by the German in the first half of 2007, the Treaty was initially scheduled to be fully ratified by the end of 2008, thus entering into force on 1 January 2009. This plan failed however, primarily due to the initial rejection of the Treaty in 2008 by the electorate in a referendum, a decision which was reversed in a second referendum in October 2009. , as required by its constitution, was the only member state to hold referendums on the Treaty. In the UK, the European Union (Amendment) Bill was debated in the House of Commons on 21 January 2008, and passed its second reading that day by a vote of 362 to 224; Prime Minister was absent that day; the Bill was proposed to the Commons by The Czech instrument of ratification was the last to be deposited in Rome on 13 November 2009. Therefore, the Treaty of Lisbon entered into force on 1 December 2009.
ImpactThe exact impact of the treaty on the functioning of the EU left many questions open (uncertainties which have led to calls for another new treaty in response to the economic crisis in the late 2000s). When its impact is assessed, the biggest winners from Lisbon have been Parliament, with its increase in power, and the European Council. The first months under Lisbon arguably saw a shift in power and leadership from the commission, the traditional motor of integration, to the European Council with its new full-time and longer-term President.European Council seen as winner under Lisbon Treaty
FunctioningAs an amending treaty, the Treaty of Lisbon is not intended to be read as an autonomous text. It consists of a number of amendments to the ("Maastricht Treaty") and the ("Treaty of Rome"), the latter renamed 'Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union' in the process. As amended by the Treaty of Lisbon, the Treaty on European Union provides a reference to the EU's Charter of Fundamental Rights, making that document legally binding. The Treaty on European Union, the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union and the Charter of Fundamental rights thus have equal legal value and combined constitute the European Union's legal basis. A typical amendment in Treaty of Lisbon text is: The commission has published
Fundamental Rights CharterThe fifty-five articles of the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union enshrine certain political, social, and economic rights for both European Union citizens and residents, into . It was drafted by the European Convention and solemnly proclaimed on 7 December 2000 by the , the and the . However its then legal status was uncertain and it did not have full legal effect until the entry into force of the Lisbon Treaty on 1 December 2009. In the rejected the charter was integrated as a part of the treaty itself. In the Lisbon Treaty, however, the charter is incorporated by reference and given legal status without forming part of the treaties. The EU must act and legislate consistently with the Charter and the EU's courts will strike down EU legislation which contravenes it. The Charter only applies to as regards their implementation of EU law and does not extend the competences of the EU beyond its competences as defined in the treaties.
Central BankThe European Central Bank gained the official status of being an EU institution, and the was given the right to appoint presidents of the European Central Bank through a qualified majority vote. On a related topic, the became the official currency of the Union (though not affecting opt-outs or the process of Eurozone enlargement).
JudiciaryUnder the Treaty of Lisbon, the Court of First Instance has been renamed the General Court. The Civil Service Tribunal and the (formerly named the ''Court of Justice of the European Communities'', and formally called only ''Court of Justice'' after the Treaty of Lisbon), along with the General Court, were established as sub-courts of a new EU institution named the . The jurisdiction of the courts continued to be excluded from matters of foreign policy, though new jurisdiction to review foreign policy sanction measures, as well as certain ' ' (AFSJ) matters not concerning policing and criminal cooperation, were added.
Council of MinistersThe treaty has expanded the use of (QMV) in the Council of Ministers by having it replace unanimity as the standard voting procedure in almost every policy area outside taxation and foreign policy. Moreover, taking effect in 2014, the definition of a ''qualified majority'' has changed: a qualified majority is reached when at least 55% of all member states, who comprise at least 65% of EU citizens, vote in favour of a proposal. When the Council of Ministers is acting neither on a proposal of the Commission nor on one of the High Representative, QMV requires 72% of the member states while the population requirement remains the same. However, the "blocking minority" that corresponds to these figures must comprise at least 4 countries. Hence, the voting powers of the member states are based on their population, and are no longer dependent on a negotiable system of voting points. The reform of (QMV) in the Council of the European Union, Council was one of the main issues in the negotiation of the Lisbon Treaty. The earlier rules for QMV, set in the Treaty of Nice and applying until 2014, required a majority of countries (50% / 67%), voting weights (74%), and population (62%). Between 2014 and 2017 a transitional phase is taking place where the new QMV rules apply, but where the old Nice treaty voting weights can be applied when a member state formally requests it. Moreover, from 2014 a new version of the 1994 "Ioannina compromise" allows small minorities of EU states to call for re-examination of EU decisions. The treaty instructs that Council deliberations on legislation (that include debate and voting) will be held in public (televised), as was already the case in the European Parliament. The Presidency of the Council of the European Union, Presidency of the Council of Ministers, rotates among member states every six months, with a "Trio" formed by three consecutive Presidencies in order to provide more continuity to their conduct. However, the Foreign Affairs Council (one configuration of the Council of ministers), is no longer chaired by the representative of the member state holding the Presidency, but rather by the person holding the newly created post of High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, High Representative. Additionally the Euro Group sub-unit of ECOFIN countries was formalized.
European CouncilThe officially gains the status of an EU institution, thus being separated from the Council of ministers. It continues to be composed of the head of state, heads of state head of government, or government of the Union's European Union member state, member states along with the (nonvoting) President of the European Commission and its own president. The President of the European Council is appointed for a two and a half-year term in a Qualified Majority Voting, qualified majority vote of the European Council. A president can be reappointed once, and be removed by the same voting procedure. Unlike the post of President of the European Commission, the appointment of the President of the European Council does not have to reflect the composition of the . The president's work involves coordinating the work of the European Council, hosting its meetings and reporting its activities to the after each meeting. This makes the president the lynchpin of negotiations to find agreement at European Council meetings, which has become a more onerous task with successive enlargement of the EU to 28 Member States. The president also chairs informal summits of the 19 Member States which use the euro as their currency. Additionally, the president provides external representation to the Union on foreign policy and security matters when such representation is required at the level of heads of state or government (bilateral summits and G8/G20). Under the Treaty of Lisbon, the European Council is charged with setting the strategic priorities of the Union, and in practice with handling crises. It has a key role in appointments, including the commission, the and the members of the Board of the European Central Bank; the suspension of membership rights; changing the voting systems in the treaties bridging clauses. Under the ''emergency break'' procedure, a state may refer contentious legislation from the Council of ministers to the European Council if it is outvoted in the Council of ministers, notwithstanding that it may still be outvoted in the European Council.
ParliamentThe legislative power of the increases, as the codecision procedure with the Council of the EU is extended to almost all areas of policy. This procedure is slightly modified and renamed ''ordinary legislative procedure''. In the few remaining areas, called "special legislative procedures", Parliament now has either the right of consent to a Council of the EU measure, or vice versa, except in the few cases where the old Consultation procedure still applies, wherein the Council of the EU will only need to consult the European Parliament before voting on the Commission proposal. Council is then not bound by the Parliament's position but only by the obligation to consult it. Parliament would need to be consulted again if the Council of ministers deviated too far from the initial proposal. The commission will have to submit each proposed budget of the European Union directly to Parliament, which must approve the budget in its entirety. The Treaty changes the way in which Member of the European Parliament, MEP seats are apportioned among member states. Rather than setting out a precise number (as it was the case in every previous treaty), the Treaty of Lisbon gives the power to the Council of the EU, acting unanimously on the initiative of the Parliament and with its consent, to adopt a decision fixing the number of MEPs for each member state. Moreover, the treaty provides for the number of MEPs to be Degressive proportionality, degressively proportional to the number of citizens of each member state. A draft decision fixing the apportionment of MEPs was annexed to the treaty itself and had Lisbon been in force at the time of 2009 European Parliament elections the apportionment would have been: In the meantime, Croatia's seats, when it joins, will be supernumerary. The number of MEPs will be limited to 750, in addition to the President of the European Parliament, President of the Parliament. Additionally, the Treaty of Lisbon will reduce the maximum number of MEPs from a member state from 99 to 96 (affects Germany) and increases the minimal number from 5 to 6 (affects Malta).
National parliamentsThe Treaty of Lisbon expanded the role of Member States' parliaments in the legislative processes of the EU by giving them a prior scrutiny of legislative proposals before the Council and the Parliament can take a position. The Treaty of Lisbon provides for national parliaments "to contribute to the good functioning of the Union" through receiving draft EU legislation, seeing to it that the Subsidiarity, principle of subsidiarity is respected, taking part in the evaluation mechanisms for the implementation of the Union policies in the Police and Judicial Co-operation in Criminal Matters, area of freedom, security and justice, being involved in the political monitoring of Europol and the evaluation of Eurojust's activities, being notified of applications for Enlargement of the European Union, EU accession, taking part in the inter-parliamentary cooperation between national parliaments and with the . The Treaty of Lisbon allows national parliaments eight weeks to study legislative proposals made by the and decide whether to send a reasoned opinion stating why the national parliament considers it to be incompatible with the principle of subsidiarity. National parliaments may vote to have the measure reviewed. If one third (or one quarter, where the proposed EU measure concerns freedom, justice and security) of national parliaments are in favour of a review, the commission would have to review the measure and if it decides to maintain it, must give a reasoned opinion to the Union legislator as to why it considers the measure to be compatible with subsidiarity.
CommissionThe European Commission, Commission of the European Communities will officially be renamed ''European Commission''. The Treaty of Lisbon stated that the size of the commission will reduce from one per member state to one for two-thirds of member states from 2014, with an equal rotation over time. This would have ended the arrangement which has existed since 1957 of having at least one Commissioner for each Member State at all times. However, the Treaty also provided that the European Council could unanimously decide to alter this number. Following the first Irish referendum on Lisbon, the European Council decided in December 2008 to revert to one Commissioner per member state with effect from the date of entry into force of the Treaty. The person holding the new post of ''High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy'' automatically becomes also a Vice-President of the European Commission, Vice-President of the Commission.
Foreign relations and security
High RepresentativeIn an effort to ensure greater coordination and consistency in EU foreign policy, the Treaty of Lisbon created a ''High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy'', de facto merging the post of High Representative for the Common Foreign and Security Policy and the European Commissioner for External Relations and European Neighbourhood Policy. The High Representative is Vice-President of the European Commission, Vice-President of the Commission, the administrator of the European Defence Agency but not the Secretary-General of the Council of the European Union, Secretary-General of the Council of Ministers, which becomes a separate post. He or she has a right to propose defence or security missions. In the proposed constitution this post was called the ''Union Minister of Foreign Affairs''. The High Representative for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy is in charge of an External Action Service of the European Union, External Action Service also created by the Treaty of Lisbon. This is essentially a common Foreign Office or Diplomatic Corps for the Union.
Mutual solidarityUnder the Treaty of Lisbon, Member States should assist if a member state is subject to a terrorist attack or the victim of a natural or man-made disaster (but any joint military action is subject to the provisions of Article 31 of the consolidated Treaty of European Union, which recognises various national concerns). In addition, several provisions of the treaties have been amended to include solidarity in matters of energy supply and changes to the energy policy within the EU.
Defence prospectsThe treaty foresees that the European Security and Defence Policy will lead to a common defence for the EU when the resolves unanimously to do so, and provided that all member states give their approval through their usual constitutional procedures. Additionally, the area of defence has become available to enhanced co-operation, potentially allowing for a defence integration that excludes member states with policies of neutrality. Countries with significant military capabilities are envisioned to form a Enhanced co-operation#Permanent Structured Cooperation in Defence, Permanent Structured Cooperation in Defence.
Legal consolidationPrior to the entry into force of the Treaty of Lisbon, the Union comprised a system of Three pillars of the European Union, three legal pillars, of which only the European Communities pillar had its own legal personality. The Treaty of Lisbon abolished this pillar system, and as a consolidated entity, the European Union succeeded the legal personality of the ''European Communities''. Therefore, the EU is now able to sign international treaties in its own name. The European Union gained for example membership of the World Trade Organization immediately after the entry into force of the Treaty of Lisbon, since the European Communities was already a member of that organisation.
EU evolution timeline
Defined policy areasIn the Lisbon Treaty the distribution of competences in various policy areas between Member States and the Union is explicitly stated in the following three categories:
Enlargement and secessionA proposal to enshrine the Copenhagen Criteria for further enlargement in the treaty was not fully accepted as there were fears it will lead to European Court of Justice, Court of Justice judges having the last word on who could join the EU, rather than political leaders. The treaty introduces an Withdrawal from the European Union, exit clause for members wanting to withdraw from the Union. This formalises the Withdrawal from the European Union#Procedure, procedure by stating that a member state must inform the before it can terminate its membership, and a withdrawal agreement would then be negotiated between the Union and that State, with the Treaties of the European Union, Treaties ceasing to be applicable to that State from the date of the agreement or, failing that, within two years of the notification unless the State and the Council both agree to extend this period. There have been several instances where a territory has ceased to be part of the Community, e.g. Greenland#Sovereignty, Greenland in 1985, though no member state had ever left at the time the Lisbon Treaty was ratified. Before the Lisbon Treaty came into force, the question of whether a member state had a Withdrawal from the European Union#Pre-Lisbon situation, legal right to leave the union was unclear. On 30 March 2017, the United Kingdom gave notice of Brexit, Britain's intention to leave the European Union. After negotiating a Brexit withdrawal agreement, the UK left the Union on 31 January 2020. A new provision in the Treaty of Lisbon is that the status of French, Dutch and Danish overseas territories can be changed more easily, by no longer requiring a full treaty revision. Instead, the European Council may, on the initiative of the member state concerned, change the status of an overseas countries and territories, overseas country or territory (OCT) to an outermost region (OMR) or vice versa. This provision was included on a proposal by the Netherlands, which was investigating the future of the Netherlands Antilles and Aruba in the European Union as part of an institutional reform process that was taking place in the Netherlands Antilles.
Revision proceduresThe Lisbon Treaty creates two different ways for further amendments of the European Union treaties: an ordinary revision procedure which is broadly similar to the present process in that it involves convening an intergovernmental conference, and a simplified revision procedure whereby Part three of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, which deals with Union policies and internal actions, could be amended by a unanimous decision of the subject to ratification by all member states in the usual manner. The Treaty also provides for the passerelle clauses which allows the European Council to unanimously decide to move from unanimous voting to qualified majority voting, and move from a Legislature of the European Union#Special legislative procedures, special legislative procedure to the . Ordinary revision procedure # Proposals to amend the treaties are submitted by a Member State, the European Parliament or the European Commission to the Council of Ministers who, in turn, submit them to the European Council and notify member states. There are no limits on what kind of amendments can be proposed. # The European Council, after consulting the European Parliament and the commission, votes to consider the proposals on the basis of a simple majority, and then either: #* The President of the European Council convenes a convention containing representatives of national parliaments, governments, the European Parliament and the European Commission, to further consider the proposals. In due course, the convention submits its final recommendation to the European Council. #* Or the European Council decides, with the consent of the European Parliament, not to convene a convention, and set the terms of reference for the inter-governmental conference itself. # The President of the European Council convenes an inter-governmental conference consisting of representatives of each member-state's government. The conference drafts and finalises a treaty based on the convention's recommendation or on the European Council's terms of reference. # EU leaders sign the treaty. # All member states must then ratify the treaty "in accordance with their respective constitutional requirements", if it is to come into force. Simplified revision procedure # Proposals to amend Part three of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union are submitted by a Member State, the European Parliament or the European Commission to the Council of Ministers who, in turn, submit them to the European Council and notify member states. Proposed amendments cannot increase the competences of the Union. # The European Council, after consulting the European Parliament and the commission, votes to adopt a decision amending Part three on the basis of the proposals by unanimity. # All member states must approve the decision "in accordance with their respective constitutional requirements", if it is to come into force. The Passerelle Clause The treaty also allows for the changing of voting procedures without amending the EU treaties. Under this clause the European Council can, after receiving the consent of the European Parliament, vote unanimously to: * allow the Council of Ministers to act on the basis of qualified majority in areas where they previously had to act on the basis of unanimity. (This is not available for decisions with defence or military implications.) * allow for legislation to be adopted on the basis of the ordinary legislative procedure where it previously was to be adopted on the basis of a special legislative procedure. A decision of the European Council to use either of these provisions can only come into effect if, six months after all national parliaments had been given notice of the decision, none object to it.
United Kingdom opt-out for justice and home affairsUnder the former third pillar, the Council of Ministers could adopt measures relating to justice and home affairs. These laws did not come within the body of European Community law, and had only the optional jurisdiction of the European Court of Justice. The commission could not bring enforcement action against any member state for failing to implement or for failing to correctly implement third pillar measures. The UK and Ireland had a flexible opt-out from justice and home affairs measures and could choose to participate in them on a case-by-case basis. Under the Treaty of Lisbon, the limitations on the powers of the Court of Justice and the commission would be lifted after a transitional period of five years which expired on 30 November 2014. In order to avoid submitting to the jurisdiction of the Court of Justice and to enforcement actions by the commission, the UK negotiated an opt-out which allowed them the option of a block withdrawal from all third pillar measures they had previously chosen to participate in. In October 2012 the UK government announced that it intended to exercise this opt-out and then selectively opt back into certain measures. The use of this opt-out by the UK did not affect the UK's flexible opt-out from justice and home affairs measures, or Ireland's identical opt-out.
See also* History of the European Union * Signing of the Treaty of Lisbon * Treaties of the European Union * Timeline of European Union history * Three pillars of the European Union
Further reading* Agarunova, Sabina, ed. ''Could the Lisbon Treaty bring the EU and its institutions closer towards democracy and reduce the democratic deficit?'' (2016
External links* Official websites