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The reorganization plan of the United States Army is a current modernization and reorganization plan of the United States Army that was implemented under the direction of Brigade Modernization Command. This effort formally began in 2006 when General Peter Schoomaker (the Army Chief of Staff at the time), was given the support to move the Army from its Cold War divisional orientation to a full-spectrum capability with fully manned, equipped and trained brigades; this effort was completed by the end of 2016. It has been the most comprehensive reorganization since World War II and included modular combat brigades, support brigades, and command headquarters, as well as rebalancing the active and reserve components. The plan was first proposed by the Army's 34th Chief of Staff, Eric Shinseki, in 1999, but was bitterly opposed internally by the Army. By 2020, the Army's 40th Chief of Staff was calling for transformational change, rather than incremental change by the Army.Jeff Martin (24 Jan 2020) Video: Can the Army achieve ‘transformational change’? | Defense News Weekly full episode, Jan. 24, 2020
Army Chief of Staff: "We need transformational change", rather than incremental change.
In 2021, Gen. McConville, the Army's 40th Chief of Staff, laid out Aimpoint 2035, a direction for the Army to achieve Corps-level Large-scale combat operations (LSCO) by 2035, with Waypoints from 2021 to 2028.Chief of Staff Paper #1 (16 Mar 2021) Army Multi-Domain Transformation: Ready to Win in Competition and Conflict
/ref> In the fall of 2018, Army Strategy for the next ten years was articulated.The Army Strategy
2018
The strategy listed four Lines of Effort to be implemented: #Build readiness by 2022 #Modernization in the midterm around 2022 #Reform by 2020 #Strengthen alliances and partnerships;Joe Lacdan, Army News Service (20 February 2020) CSA: Strong partnerships serve as deterrent to armed conflict
/ref>C. Todd Lopez, Defense.gov (July 16, 2019) Milley talks modernization at confirmation hearing
—Milley's priorities: "provide the best military advice, to maintain steady continuity of military leadership, implement the National Defense Strategy with emphasis on increasing the readiness and modernization of the joint force, maintain and grow our network of allies and partners, sustain great power peace in an era of great power competition and provide unwavering support, care and leadership to our troops and their Families."
Sydney J Freedberg Jr (July 11, 2019) Gen. Milley Pledges To Speak Truth To TrumpDavid Vergun, Defense.gov (July 16, 2019) Esper would continue Pentagon emphasis on readiness, partnerships, reform
Esper to prioritize training, modernization, building alliances and partnerships and reforming the Pentagon if he's confirmed to serve as secretary of defense. As Esper is now the nominee, Esper steps down as Acting Sec of defense, and reverts to being Sec of Army; McCarthy steps down as Acting Sec of Army; McCarthy reverts to Under Sec of Army, during the Senate confirmation proceedings.
Sean Kimmons, Army News Service (June 4, 2019) Pacific Pathways 2.0 to bolster presence in the theater
/ref>Paul McCleary (April 23, 2019) Build A ‘Five Eyes’ For Military Tech Sharing: Greenwalt
proposes to expand Five Eyes to share intelligence
in 2019 the efforts were augmented, in the Army Posture statement:Joe Lacdan, Army News Service (August 19, 2019) CSA: Prioritizing personnel starts with equal opportunity
40th CSA
#People & values Army News Release (May 24, 2019) Gen McConville confirmed as next chief of staff, 'people' to be his top priority
/ref>US Army Office of the Chief of Public Affairs (26 Mar 2021) People First
/ref>Thomas Brading, Army News Service (18 September 2020) People Strategy aims to improve diversity with tangible changes
/ref> IPPS-A News (August 19, 2016) Army Talent Management Task Force
Integrated Personnel and Pay System - Army
Joe Lacdan (September 12, 2019) Former Army ranger testifies at confirmation hearing for Army secretary
People and values
Thomas Brading, Army News Service (October 16, 2019) People are centerpiece of the Army, not 'interchangeable parts,' says CSA
IPPS-A, ATAP October 16, 2019: In the next two years the Army plans to field a new mobile short-range air defense system, an integrated visual augmentation system, the next generation squad weapon, precision strike missile, extended-range cannon, and the first hypersonic weapon battery"—Gen McConville
By 2028, in Multi-Domain Operations (MDO)— as part of the Joint force, Army Strategy is to counter a near-peer adversary which is capable of competition in all domains.US Army (2020) AMERICA’S ARMY: READY NOW,INVESTING IN THE FUTURE
FY19-21 accomplishments and investment plan
Todd South, Military Times (8 May 2019) 4 things the general in charge of the Army's newest command says are needed to win the wars of the future
/ref>Anthony Small, U.S. Army Futures Command (March 13, 2019) Futures Command highlights changes, new structure at SXSW
"Synchronizing or creating convergence allows the joint force to create overmatch" —Eric Wesley
William B King (AMC) (18 February 2020) Conference focuses on Army modernization, equipping Soldiers
Equipping Enterprise (AMC) + Modernization Enterprise (AFC)
In 2019, the planning was for Large Scale ground Combat Operations (LSCO) at echelons above the brigade combat team. Jim Garamone, Defense.gov (August 9, 2019) Milley discusses Army changes as he passes authority
/ref>Secretary Mark Esper and Chief of Staff Mark Milley (MARCH 26, 2019) ON THE POSTURE OF THE UNITED STATES ARMY
/ref> Multi-Domain Task Forces (MDTFs), which are experimental brigade-sized units, are to operate subordinate to a Theater fires command, or to a corps, or division headquarters, jointly or independently, depending on the mission. Sydney Freedberg, Jr. (27 April 2020) Army Rebuilds Artillery Arm For Large-Scale War
/ref> These MDTFs increase the "capability to connect with national assets" in space and cyber, with "the capacity to penetrate with long range fires, with the ability to integrate all domains". In the summer of 2018, the U.S. Army Futures Command (AFC),David Vergun, Army News Service (December 8, 2017) US Army Futures Command to reform modernization, says secretary of the ArmyArmy Directive 2017-33: Enabling the Army Modernization Task Force
AFC announcement, Friday (13 July 2018) Army Officials Announce New Army Command
video 34 minutes, 27 seconds
a new Army command for modernization was activated.Modernization turnaround worth the effort, says acting SecArmy McCarthy
/ref>Army’s modernization command taking shape under freshly picked leaders
/ref> The modernization effort, coordinated with US Army Forces Command (FORSCOM), Army Materiel Command (AMC), and US Army Training and Doctrine Command (TRADOC), addresses the long lead timesCol. Richard Hough (4 January 2018) Opinion: "Army’s Basic Illusions Gone; Time For Futures Command" ''Breaking Defense.com''
/ref> for introducing new materiel and capabilities into the brigades of the Army.Devon L. Suits, Army News Service (April 8, 2019) Acquisition reform requires culture shift, officials say
/ref>Michael A. Grinston, James C. McConville, and Ryan McCarthybr>(October 2019) 2019 Army Modernization Strategy
as cited b
Sydney Freedberg, Jr. (October 16, 2019) Army Launches 16-Year Plan To Tackle Russia, China
Summary
This planned Joint capability was demonstrated to the Combatant commanders (who are the "customers" for the capability) and the Joint Chiefs (who advise the government on the importance of this effort) at WSMR (White Sands Missile Range) in September 2020.THERESA HITCHENS (23 September 2020) Picking 1st ABMS Capabilities A Top Issue At Air Force Corona
in Nov 2020 at Air Force Academy


Origin and initial design

Before General Schoomaker's tenure, the Army was organized around large, mostly mechanized divisions, of around 15,000 soldiers each, with the aim of being able to fight two major theatres simultaneously. Under the new plan, the Army would be organized around modular brigades of 3,000–4,000 soldiers each, with the aim of being able to deploy continuously in different parts of the world, and effectively organizing the Army closer to the way it fights. An additional 30,000 soldiers were recruited as a short-term measure to assist in the structural changes, although a permanent end-strength change was not expected because of fears of future funding cuts, forcing the Army to pay for the additional personnel from procurement and readiness accounts. Up to 60% of the defense budget is spent on personnel and an extra 10,000 soldiers would cost US$1.4 billion annually. On November 22 and 23, 2002, the Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs held the "Belfer Center Conference on Military Transformation". It brought together present and former defense officials and military commanders for the stated purpose of assessing the Department of Defense's progress in achieving a "transformation" of U.S. military capabilities. The conference was held at the Belfer Center at Harvard University's John F. Kennedy School of Government. The United States Army War College and the Dwight D. Eisenhower National Security Series were co-sponsors. In some respects this could be said to have been the birthplace of Transformation as a formal paradigm. In 2004, the United States Army Forces Command (FORSCOM), which commands most active Army and Army Reserve Component forces based in the Continental United States, was tasked with supervising the modular transformation of its subordinate structure. In March 2004, a contract was awarded to Anteon Corporation (now part of General Dynamics) to provide Modularity Coordination Cells (MCCs) to each transforming corps, division and brigade within FORSCOM. Each MCC contained a team of functional area specialists who provided direct, ground-level support to the unit. The MCCs were coordinated by the Anteon office in Atlanta, Georgia. In 2007 a new deployment scheme known as Grow the Army was adopted that enabled the Army to carry out continuous operations. The plan was modified several times including an expansion of troop numbers in 2007 and changes to the number of modular brigades. On 25 June 2013, plans were announced to disband 13 modular brigade combat teams (BCTs) and expand the remaining brigades with an extra maneuver battalion, extra fires batteries, and an engineer battalion.

History of ARFORGEN

The Secretary of the Army approved implementing ARFORGEN, a transformational force generation model, in 2006
ARFORGEN process diagram2010 Army Posture Statement, Addendum F, Army Force Generation (ARFORGEN)
ARFORGEN model concept development began in the summer of 2004 and received its final approval from the Army's senior leadership in early 2006. Henry S. Kenyon (June 2006) U.S. Army Reforges Training and Readiness.
/ref> FORSCOM, Department of the Army AR 525-2
Military Operations, Army Force Generation, 14 Mar 2011
In 2016 the Army force generation process ARFORGEN was sidelined because it relied mostly on the Active Army, in favor of the total force policy, which includes the Reserve and National Guard; in the new model, the total force could have fallen to 980,000 by 2018,Soldiers need to be ready 100 percent of time, says FORSCOM commander
Army.mil, accessdate=2016-06-05
subject to DoD's Defense Strategic Guidance to the Joint Staff. By 15 June 2017, the Department of the Army approved an increase in the Active Army's end-strength from 475,000 to 476,000. The total Army end-strength increases to 1.018 million.Department of the Army announces force structure decisions for fiscal year 2017
accessdate=2017-06-25

accessdate=2017-02-02



Planning process, evolution, and transformation


The commander-in-chief directs the planning process, through guidance to the Army by the Secretary of Defense.Robert M. Gates (5 Jan 2012) "Defense Strategic Guidance"
/ref> Every year, Army Posture Statements by the Secretary of the Army and the Chief of Staff of the Army summarize their assessmentPerkins discusses operationalizing the Army Operating Concept (AOC)
AOC="Win in a Complex World"
of the Army's ability to respond to world events,McHugh & Odierno, A STATEMENT ON THE POSTURE OF THE UNITED STATES ARMY 2015
Army.mil, accessdate=2016-06-05
2017 DoD Posture Defense Statement
/ref> and also to transform for the future. In support of transformation for the future, TRADOC, upon the advice of the Army's stakeholders, has assembled 20 warfighting challenges.Army Warfighting Challenges (AWFCs)
accessdate=2016-10-25
These challenges are under evaluation during annual Army warfighting assessments, such as AWA 17.1, held in October 2016. AWA 17.1 is an assessment by 5,000 US Soldiers, Special Operations Forces, Airmen, and Marines,THE EVOLUTION OF THE ARMY WARFIGHTING ASSESSMENT
/ref> as well as by British, Australian, Canadian, Danish, and Italian troops.Army tests new warfighting tech at Army Warfighting Assessment
accessdate=2016-10-23
Special Operations Forces integrate into AWA 17.1
accessdate=2016-10-28
AWA 17.1: Increasing the pace of battle in a coalition environment
accessdate=2016-10-29
[[RIC-U might be used by a coalition partner to encrypt their individual networks, when interoperating with a US Army voice network.] For example, "reach-back" is among the capabilities being assessed; when under attack in an unexpected location, a Soldier on the move might use [[PM WIN-T|Warfighter Information Network-Tactical (WIN-T). At the halt, a light Transportable Tactical Command Communications (T2C2 Lite) systemASA(ALT) Weapon System Handbook (2018
Transportable Tactical Command Communications (T2C2)
/ref> Communications in Motion: Spc. Matthew Marcellus, 1st Armored Division (15 May 2019) Iron Soldiers train on inflatable satellite communications system T2C2
/ref>Mark Pomerleau (March 23, 2018) The Army’s newest satellite antenna is remarkably simple
/ref>Mr. Joe Welch, Lt. Col. Jack "Shane" Taylor and Mr. Michael Beery (July 12, 2016) Network Marketplace: Open for Business and Growing
/ref> could reach back to a mobile command post, to communicate the unexpected situation to higher echelons,Future warfighting calls for semi-independent units, empowered leaders
accessdate=2017-02-16
a building block in multi-domain operations.""We are going to have to empower nddecentralize leadership to make decisions and achieve battlefield effects in a widely dispersed environment where subordinate leaders, junior leaders ... may not be able to communicate to their higher headquarters, even if they wanted to," Milley said
C. Todd Lopez May 5, 2017 ''Army News Service'' Future warfare requires 'disciplined disobedience,' Army chief says
accessdate=2017-05-05
Army, Marine leaders bring multi-domain concept closer to reality
accessdate=2017-02-16
Air Force may join Army in refining multi-domain concept
accessdate=2017-03-18


Implementation and current status

Grow the Army was a transformation and re-stationing initiative of the United States Army which began in 2007 and was scheduled to be completed by fiscal year 2013. The initiative was designed to grow the army by almost 75,000 soldiers, while realigning a large portion of the force in Europe to the continental United States in compliance with the 2005 Base Realignment and Closure suggestions. This grew the force from 42 Brigade Combat Teams (BCTs) and 75 modular support brigades in 2007 to 45 Brigade Combat Teams and 83 modular support brigades by 2013. On 25 June 2013, US Army Chief of Staff General Raymond T. Odierno announced plans to disband 13 brigade combat teams and reduce troop strengths by 80,000 soldiers. While the number of BCTs will be reduced, the size of remaining BCTs will increase, on average, to about 4,500 soldiers. That will be accomplished, in many cases, by moving existing battalions and other assets from existing BCTs into other brigades. Two brigade combat teams in Germany had already been deactivated and a further 10 brigade combat teams slated for deactivation were announced by General Odierno on 25 June. (An additional brigade combat team was announced for deactivation 6 November 2014.) At the same time the maneuver battalions from the disbanded brigades will be used to augment armored and infantry brigade combat teams with a third maneuver battalion and expanded brigades fires capabilities by adding a third battery to the existing fires battalions. Furthermore, all brigade combat teams—armored, infantry and Stryker—will gain a Brigade Engineer Battalion, with "gap-crossing" and route-clearance capability. On 6 November 2014, it was reported that the 1st Armored Brigade Combat Team, 2nd Infantry Division, currently stationed in South Korea, was to be deactivated in June 2015 and be replaced by a succession of U.S.-based brigade combat teams, which are to be rotated in and out, at the same nine-month tempo as practiced by the Army from 2001–2014. Eleven brigades were inactivated by 2015. The remaining brigades as of 2015 are listed below. On 16 March 2016, the Deputy Commanding General (DCG) of FORSCOM announced that the brigades would now also train to move their equipment to their new surge location as well as to train for the requirements of their next deployment. By 2018, Secretary of the Army Mark Esper noted that even though the large deployments to Iraq and Afghanistan had ceased, at any given time, three of the Armored Brigade Combat Teams are deployed to EUCOM, CENTCOM, and INDOPACOM, respectively, while two Infantry Brigade Combat Teams are deployed to Iraq, and Afghanistan, respectively.(23 April 2018) Army Secretary Esper, senior NCO Dailey discuss modernization, recruiting, retention
/ref> In 2019 the Secretary of the Army asserted that the planning efforts, including Futures Command, the SFABs, and the Decisive Action readiness training of the BCTs are preparing the Army for competition with both near-peer and regional powers.Sydney J Freedberg Jr (May 20, 2019) Army Can Manage Both Mideast & Great Powers: Sec. Esper
/ref>Sean Kimmons, Army News Service (May 28, 2019) South Korean exercises being revised amid peace talks
Abrams USFK assessment
The Army and Marine Corps have issued "clear explanations and guidance for the 429 articles of the Geneva Conventions". Joseph Lacdan (22 January 2020) Army updates Law of Land Warfare doctrine to increase guidance, clarity
/ref>US Army FM 6-27, C1 (20 September 2019) THE COMMANDER'S HANDBOOK ON THE LAW OF LAND WARFARE
208 page handbook. The ''Department of Defense Law of War Manual'' (June 2015, updated December 2016) remains the authoritative statement
The Budget Control Act could potentially restrict funds by 2020. Devon L. Suits, Army News Service (March 28, 2018) CHIPS Articles: Army Secretary defines goals for coming decade — modernization, Futures Command
/ref>Jeff Martin (15 October 2018) How did the Army find $25 billion for new equipment?
video
Daniel Goure (October 18, 2018) Can Trump Rebuild The Military As Deficits Balloon?
/ref>Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (October 26, 2018) Joint Experiments Will Pick Budget Winners & Losers: Dunford
Task is to cut $33 Billion from 2020 budget
Youtube: What will $716 Billion Buy You? US Defense Budget 2019
Weapons
Michael J. Meese (23 Dec 2016) Chapter 4 : The American Defense Budget 2017–2020
Note Fed chart 1970-2026
Paul McLeary (October 26, 2018) Trump Orders DoD To Take Surprise $33B Budget Cut
2020 DoD budget cut from $733 billion to $700 billion
Paul McLeary (November 14, 2018) The Pentagon’s First-Ever Audit: A Big Disappointment?
/ref>Army Devon L. Suits, Army News Service (February 26, 2019) FY20 budget proposal realigns $30 billion
/ref> Sydney J Freedberg Jr (May 24, 2019) Defense Spending Will Bust BCA Caps: Mark Cancian
/ref> By the 2024-2025 time frame, the Fiscal Year Development Plan (FYDP) will have reallocated $10 billion more into development of the top 6 modernization priorities, taking those funds from legacy spending budgets.Sydney J Freedberg Jr (May 29, 2019) Army Big 6 Gets $10B More Over 2021-2025
/ref>

Reorganization plans by unit type

The Army has now been organized around modular brigades of 3,000–4,000 soldiers each, with the aim of being able to deploy continuously in different parts of the world, and effectively organizing the Army closer to the way it fights. The fact that this modernization is now in place has been acknowledged by the renaming of the 'Brigade Modernization Command' to the "U.S. Army Joint Modernization Command," on 16 February 2017.BMC redesignated JMC, New Name Better Reflects Evolving Organizational Mission
accessdate=2017-02-16


Modular combat brigades

Modular combat brigades are self-contained combined arms formations.Field Manual No. 3-96 (8 October 2015) Brigade Combat Team
FM 3-96
They are standardized formations across the active and reserve components, meaning an Armored BCT at Fort Hood is the same as one at Fort Stewart.One consequence of a standardized BCT is that actions performed by one BCT can be made in behalf of a successor BCT. Thus pre-positioned stocks can aid in the rapidity of deployment
Army Prepositioned Stocks site in the Netherlands was established 15 Dec 2016, which will store and service about 1,600 U.S. Army vehicles

U.S. military equipment to arrive in Germany, 6-9 Jan 2017Tank Brigade (3ABCT/4th ID) sets quick pace moving to EuropeSoldiers Journal: Rolling Into Europe (3ABCT/4th ID)
/ref> Reconnaissance plays a large role in the new organizational designs. The Army felt the acquisition of the target was the weak link in the chain of finding, fixing, closing with, and destroying the enemy. The Army felt that it had already sufficient lethal platforms to take out the enemy and thus the number of reconnaissance units in each brigade was increased.The Army is introducin
drones
in its combat aviation brigades in order to increase its reconnaissance capability.

(May 3, 2015) Apache helicopter squadron is the first unit to incorporate Shadow drones
/ref> The brigades sometimes depend on joint fires from the Air Force and Navy to accomplish their mission. As a result, the amount of field artillery has been reduced in the brigade design. The three types of BCTs are Armored Brigade Combat Teams (ABCTs), Infantry Brigade Combat Teams (IBCTs) (includes Light, Air Assault and Airborne units), and Stryker Brigade Combat Teams (SBCTs). Armored Brigade Combat Teams, or ABCTs consist of 4,743 troops. This includes the third maneuver battalion as laid out in 2013. The changes announced by the U.S. army on 25 June 2013, include adding a third maneuver battalion to the brigade, a second engineer company to a new Brigade Engineer Battalion, a third battery to the FA battalion, and reducing the size of each battery from 8 to 6 guns. These changes will also increase the number of troops in the affected battalions and also increase the total troops in the brigade. Since the brigade has more organic units, the command structure includes a deputy commander (in addition to the traditional executive officer) and a larger staff capable of working with civil affairs, special operations, psychological operations, air defense, and aviation units. An Armored BCT consists of: * the brigade headquarters and headquarters company (HHC): 43 officers, 17 warrant officers, 125 enlisted personnel – total: 185 soldiers. * the Brigade Engineer Battalion (BEB) (formerly Brigade Special Troops Battalion (BSTB)), consisted of a headquarters company, signal company, military intelligence company with a TUAV platoon and two combat engineer companies (A and B company). The former BSTB fielded 28 officers, 6 warrant officers, 470 enlisted personnel – total: 504 soldiers. Each of the combat engineer company fields 13× M2A2 Bradley Fighting Vehicle (BFV) Operation Desert Storm-Engineer (ODS-E), 1× M113A3 Armored Personnel Carrier (APC), 3× M1150 Assault Breacher Vehicle (ABV), 1× M9 Armored Combat Earthmover (ACE), and 2× M104 Heavy Assault Bridge (HAB). * a Cavalry (formerly Armed Reconnaissance) Squadron, consisting of a headquarters troop (HHT) and three reconnaissance troops and one armored troop. The HHT fields 2× M3A3 Cavalry Fighting Vehicles (CFVs) and 3× M7A3 Bradley Fire Support Vehicles, while each reconnaissance troop fields 7× M3A3 CFVs. The squadron fields 35 officers and 385 enlisted personnel – total: 424 soldiers. * three identical combined arms battalions, flagged as a battalion of an infantry, armored or cavalry regiment. Each battalion consists of a headquarters and headquarters company, two tank companies and two mechanized infantry companies. The battalions field 48 officers and 580 enlisted personnel each – total: 628 soldiers. The HHC fields 1× M1A2 main battle tank, 1× M2A3 infantry fighting vehicle, 3× M3A3 cavalry fighting vehicles, 4× M7A3 fire support vehicles and 4× M1064 mortar carriers with M120 120 mm mortars. Each of the two tank companies fields 14× M1A2 main battle tanks, while each mechanized infantry company fields 14× M2A3 infantry fighting vehicles. In 2016, the ABCT's combined arms battalions adopted a triangle structure, of two armored battalions (of two armored companies plus a single mechanized infantry company) plus a mechanized infantry battalion (of two mechanized companies and one armored company). This resulted in the reduction of two mechanized infantry companies; the deleted armored company was reflagged as a troop to the Cavalry Squadron. * a Field Artillery battalion, consisting of a headquarters battery, two cannon batteries with 8× M109A6 self-propelled 155 mm howitzers each (the changes announced by the U.S. Army on 25 June 2013, include adding a third battery to the FA battalion, and reducing the size of each battery from 8 to 6 guns; these changes also increase the number of troops in the affected battalions and also increase the total troops in the Brigade), and a target acquisition platoon. 24 officers, 2 warrant officers, 296 enlisted personnel – total: 322 soldiers. * a brigade support battalion (BSB),Lt. Col. Mike Hammond (July 18, 2019) In Search of Synchronized Tactical Logistics
The BSB Commander is responsible for "field trains command post (FTCP) and combat trains command post (CTCP) operations". —Army Field Manual 3-96
consisting of a headquarters, medical, distribution and maintenance company, plus six forward support companies, each of which support one of the three combined arms battalions, the cavalry squadron, the engineer battalion and the field artillery battalion. 61 officers, 14 warrant officers, 1,019 enlisted personnel – total: 1,094 soldiers. Infantry Brigade Combat Team, or IBCTs, comprised around 3,300 soldiers, in the pre-2013 design, which did not include the 3rd maneuver battalion. The 2013 end-strength is now 4,413 Soldiers: * Special Troops Battalion (now Brigade Engineer Battalion) * Cavalry Squadron * (2), later (3) Infantry Battalions * Field Artillery Battalion * Brigade Support Battalion Stryker Brigade Combat Team or SBCTs comprised about 3,900 soldiers, making it the largest of the three combat brigade constructs in the 2006 design, and over 4,500 Soldiers in the 2013 reform. Its design includes: * Headquarters Company * Cavalry Squadron (with three 14-vehicle, two-120 mm mortar reconnaissance troops plus a surveillance troop with UAVs and NBC detection capability) * (3) Stryker infantry battalions (each with three rifle companies with 12 infantry-carrying vehicles, 3 mobile gun platforms, 2 120 mm mortars, and around 100 infantry dismounts each, plus an HHC with scout, mortar and medical platoons and a sniper section.) * Engineer Company (folded into the Brigade Engineer Battalion) n additional engineer company was added to the battalion in the 2013 reform* Signal Company (folded into the Brigade Engineer Battalion) * Military Intelligence Company (with UAV platoon) (folded into the Brigade Engineer Battalion) * Anti-tank company (9 TOW-equipped Stryker vehicles) (folded into the Brigade Engineer Battalion) * Field Artillery Battalion (three 6-gun 155 mm Howitzer batteries, target acquisition platoon, and a joint fires cell) * Brigade Support Battalion (headquarters, medical, maintenance, and distribution companies)

Modular support brigades



Combat support brigades

Similar modularity will exist for support units which fall into five types: Aviation, Fires (artillery), Battlefield Surveillance (intelligence), Maneuver Enhancement (engineers, signal, military police, chemical, and rear-area support), and Sustainment (logistics, medical, transportation, maintenance, etc.). In the past, artillery, combat support, and logistics support only resided at the division level and brigades were assigned those units only on a temporary basis when brigades transformed into "brigade combat teams" for particular deployments. Combat Aviation Brigades are multi-functional, offering a combination of attack helicopters (i.e., Apache), reconnaissance helicopters (i.e., Kiowa), medium-lift helicopters (i.e., Blackhawks), heavy-lift helicopters (i.e., Chinooks), and medical evacuation (MEDEVAC) capability. Aviation will not be organic to combat brigades. It will continue to reside at the division-level due to resource constraints. Heavy divisions (of which there are six) will have 48 Apaches, 38 Blackhawks, 12 Chinooks, and 12 Medevac helicopters in their aviation brigade. These are divided into two aviation attack battalions, an assault lift battalion, a general aviation support battalion. An aviation support battalion will have headquarters, refuelling/resupply, repair/maintenance, and communications companies. Light divisions will have aviation brigades with 60 armed reconnaissance helicopters and no Apaches, with the remaining structure the same. The remaining divisions will have aviation brigades with 30 armed reconnaissance helicopters and 24 Apaches, with the remaining structure the same. Ten Army Apache helicopter units will convert to heavy attack reconnaissance squadrons, with 12 RQ-7B Shadow drones apiece. The helicopters to fill out these large, combined-arms division-level aviation brigades comes from aviation units that used to reside at the corps-level. Field Artillery Brigades (formerly known as "Fires Brigades" prior to 2014) provide traditional artillery fire (Paladin Howitzer, M270 MLRS, HIMARS) as well as information operations and non-lethal effects capabilities. After the 2013 reform, the expertise formerly embodied in the pre-2007 Division Artillery (DIVARTY) was formally re-instituted in the Division Artillery Brigades of 2015. The operational Fires battalions will now report to this new formulation of DIVARTY, for training and operational Fires standards, as well as to the BCT.Spc. Matthew Marcellus, 1st Armored Division (MAY 15, 2019) Agile and lethal: 4-27 Field Artillery conducts Table XVIII gunnery training May 7
accessdate=2019-08-11
Air Defense: The Army will no longer provide an organic air defense artillery (ADA) battalion to its divisions. Nine of the ten active component (AC) divisional ADA battalions and two of the eight reserve (ARNG) divisional ADA battalions will deactivate. The remaining AC divisional ADA battalion along with six ARNG divisional ADA battalions will be pooled at the Unit of Employment to provide on-call air and missile defense (AMD) protection. The pool of Army AMD resources will address operational requirements in a tailorable and timely manner without stripping assigned AMD capability from other missions. Maneuver short-range air defense (MSHORAD) Gary Sheftick, Army News Service (March 13, 2019) FY20 budget to boost air & missile defense
/ref> with laser cannon prototypes are fielding by 2020. Maneuver Enhancement Brigades are designed to be self-contained, and will command units such as chemical, military police, civil affairs units, and tactical units such as a maneuver infantry battalion. These formations are designed to be joint so that they can operate with coalition, or joint forces such as the Marine Corps, or can span the gap between modular combat brigades and other modular support brigades.In the 2013 reform
the active duty brigades are deactivating by 2015, leaving only the National Guard's, and the Reserve's, maneuver enhancement brigades.
/ref> Sustainment Brigades provide echelon-above-brigade-level logistics. On its rotation to South Korea, 3rd ABCT, 1st Armored Division deployed its supply support activity (SSA) common authorized stockage list (CASL)Lt. Col. Fenicia L. Jackson, Capt. Karina Cuenca, and Chief Warrant Officer 3 Daniel Austin (October 1, 2019) Early results testing the new CASL at NTC improves readiness
/ref> as well.Lt. Col. Charles L. Montgomery (April 1, 2019) Deploying an SSA's CASL for an armored brigade combat team
/ref> The CASL allows the ABCT to draw additional stocks beyond its pipeline of materiel from GCSS-A. The DoD-level Global Combat Support System includes an Army-level tool (GCSS-A), which runs on tablet computers with bar code readers which 92-A specialists use to enter and track materiel requests, as the materiel makes its way through the supply chain to the brigades.(31 May 2018) Additional supply system focus boosts student knowledge of new technology
/ref> This additional information can then be used by GCSS-A to trigger resupply for Army pre-positioned stocks, typically by sea. The data in GCSS-Army is displayed on the Commander's Dashboard —Army Readiness-Common Operating Picture (AR-COP).Maj. Gen. Rodney D. Fogg, Brig. Gen. Heidi J. Hoyle, and Percy Alexander (4 November 2019) Building the Army Readiness-Common Operating Picture
/ref> This dashboard is also available to the Commander at BCT, division, corps, and Army levels. The former Battlefield Surveillance Brigades, now denoted ''Military Intelligence Brigades (Expeditionary)'', will offer additional UAVs and long-term surveillance detachments. Each of the three active duty brigades is attached to an Army Corps.

Security Force Assistance Brigades

Security force assistance brigades (SFABs) are brigades whose mission is to train, advise, and assist (TAA) the armed forces of other states. The SFAB are neither bound by conventional decisive operations nor counter-insurgency operations. Operationally, a 500-soldier SFAB would free-up a 4500-soldier BCT from a TAA mission. On 23 June 2016 General Mark Milley revealed plans for train/advise/assist Brigades, consisting of seasoned officers and NCOs with a full chain of command,Priorities for Our Nation's Army with General Mark A. Milley
(23 Jun 2016)
but no junior Soldiers. In the event of a national emergency the end-strengths of the SFABs could be augmented with new soldiers from basic training and advanced individual training. An SFAB was projected to consist of 500 senior officers and NCOs, which, the Army says, could act as a cadre to reform a full BCT in a matter of months. In May 2017, the initial SFAB staffing of 529 soldiers was underway, including 360 officers. The officers will have had previous command experience. Commanders and leaders will have previously led BCTs at the same echelon. The remaining personnel, all senior NCOs, are to be recruited from across the Army.
accessdate=2017-05-05
Promotable E-4s who volunteer for the SFAB are automatically promoted to Sergeant upon completion of the Military Advisor Training Academy. A team of twelve soldiers would include a medic, personnel for intelligence support, and air support, as cited by Keller.Security Force Assistance Brigade (2 May 2018) ATP 3-96.1
152 pages
These SFABs would be trained in languages, how to work with interpreters, and equipped with the latest equipment Jared Serbu (August 24, 2018) Army experimenting with SOF-tested equipment while building long-term tactical network plan
/ref> such as Integrated Tactical Network (ITN)Sean Kimmons, Army News Service (July 18, 2019) Futures Command showcases efforts ahead of upcoming FOC
ITN for 1st, 2nd, and 3rd SFABs
using T2C2 systemsKimberly Underwood (20 August 2018) U.S. Army Fields Inflatable Satellite Antenna
/ref> including secure, but unclassified, communicationsBridget Lynch & Greg Hall, PEO C3T Public Affairs (September 5, 2018)U.S. Army PEO C3T (September 21, 2018) Army Awards 2-Channel Leader Radio Contract
/ref> and weapons to support coalition partners,AUSA (16 October 2017) AUSA Video clip, Warriors corner #9: All things Security Force Assistance Brigade (SFAB), part of the article, "First security force assistance brigade training for deployment"
/ref> as well as unmanned aircraft systems (UASs).(6 December 2017) Eyes in the Sky with 1st SFAB
/ref> The first five SFABs would align with the Combatant Commands (CENTCOM, USINDOPACOM, AFRICOM, ...) as required; an SFAB could provide up to 58 teams (possibly with additional Soldiers for force protection). Funding for the first two SFABs was secured in June 2017. By October 2017, the first of six planned SFABs (the 1st Security Force Assistance Brigade) was established at Fort Benning. On 16 October 2017, BG Brian Mennes of Force Management in the Army's G3/5/7 announced accelerated deployment of the first two SFABs, possibly by Spring 2018 to Afghanistan and Iraq, if required. This was approved in early July 2017, by the Secretary of Defense and the Chief of Staff of the Army. On 8 February 2018, 1st SFAB held an activation ceremony at Fort Benning, revealing its colors and heraldry for the first time, and then cased its colors for the deployment to Afghanistan. 1st Security Force Assistance Brigade deployed to Afghanistan in Spring 2018.U.S. Army Public Affairs (January 11, 2018) Department of the Army announces upcoming deployment of the 1st Security Force Assistance Brigade
/ref> On 8 December 2017, the Army announced the activation of the 2nd Security Force Assistance Brigade,Army announces activation of second Security Force Assistance Brigade at Fort Bragg
/ref> for January 2018, the second of six planned SFABs. The SFAB are to consist of about 800 senior and noncommissioned officers who have served at the same echelon, with proven expertise in advise-and-assist operations with foreign security forces. Fort Bragg was chosen as the station for the second SFAB in anticipation of the time projected to train a Security Force Assistance Brigade. On 17 January 2018 Chief of Staff Mark Milley announced the activation of the third SFAB.Jared Keller ''Task & Purpose'' (22 Jan 2018) The 1st SFAB’s Afghan Deployment Is A Moment Of Truth For The Global War On Terror
for 2018, with subsequent SFABs after the year
2nd SFAB undergoes three months of training beginning October 2018, to be followed by a Joint Readiness Training Center Rotation beginning January 2019, and deployment in spring 2019.Bridget Lynch & Greg Hall, PEO C3T Public Affairs (September 5, 2018) Network Support Continues for Army's SFABs
/ref> The 3rd, 4th, and 5th SFABs are to be stationed at Fort Hood, Fort Carson, and Joint Base Lewis-McChord, respectively;U.S. Army Office of the Chief of Public Affairs (18 May 2018) Army announces the stationing of three Security Force Assistance Brigades
/ref> the headquarters of the 54th Security Force Assistance Brigade, made up from the Army National Guard, will be in Indiana, one of six states to contribute an element of 54th SFAB. It is likely that these brigades will be seeing service within United States Central Command.SOF News (January 30, 2019) 54th Security Force Assistance Brigade
/ref>C. Todd Lopez (May 8, 2019) Success of first SFAB in Afghanistan proves 'Army got it right,' commander says
/ref> The Security Force Assistance Command (SFAC), a one-star division-level command and all six SFABs will be activated by 2020. The Security Force Assistance Directorate, a one-star Directorate for the SFABs, will be part of FORSCOM in Fort Bragg. SFAD will be responsible for the Military Advisor Training Academy as well. The 1st SFAB commander was promoted to Brigadier General in Gardez, Afghanistan on 18 August 2018. The 2nd SFAB commander was promoted to Brigadier General 7 September 2018. SFAC and 2nd SFAB were activated in a joint ceremony at Fort Bragg on 3 December 2018.Force Assistance Command Public Affairs (December 3, 2018) Security Force Assistance Command, 2nd Security Force Assistance Brigade activate at Fort Bragg
/ref> 2nd SFAB deployed to Afghanistan in February 2019. Todd South (8 May 2019) The next Army SFAB deployments might look a whole lot different from recent ones
/ref>U.S. Army Public Affairs (18 October 2018) Department of the Army announces upcoming 2nd Security Force Assistance Brigade unit rotation
to Afghanistan Spring 2019
3rd SFAB activated at Fort Hood on 16 July 2019; 3rd SFAB will relieve 2nd SFAB in Afghanistan for the Winter 2019 rotation. Security Assistance is part of The Army Strategy 2018's Line of Effort 4: "Strengthen Alliances and Partnerships". The Security Assistance Command is based at Redstone Arsenal Kari Hawkins (AMCOM) (September 16, 2009) Security Assistance Command plants its flag
/ref> (but the SFAC is based at Fort Bragg).

Army Field Support Brigades

Army Field Support Brigades (AFSBs) have been utilized to field materiel in multiple Combatant Command's Areas of Responsibility (AORs). Initially 405th AFSB prepositioned stocks for a partial brigade; eventually, the 405th was to field materiel for an ABCT, a Division headquarters, a Fires Brigade, and a Sustainment Brigade in their AOR, which required multinational agreements. Similarly, 401st AFSB configured materiel for an ABCT in their AOR as well. The objective has been combat configuration: maintain their vehicles to support a 96-hour readiness window for a deployed ABCT on demand. In addition, 403rd Army Field Support Brigade maintains prepositioned stocks for their AOR.

Command headquarters

Below the Combatant Commands echelon, Division commands will command and control their combat and support brigades.Headquarters, Dept of the Army (July 2019) ADP 6-0 Mission Command: Command and Control of Army Forces
4 chapters. See also ADP 3-0; ADP 6-22; FM 6-22; ADP 1-1; and ADP 5-0
Divisions will operate as plug-and-play headquarters commands (similar to corps) instead of fixed formations with permanently assigned units. Any combination of brigades may be allocated to a division command for a particular mission, up to a maximum of four combat brigades. For instance, the 3rd Infantry Division headquarters could be assigned two armor brigades and two infantry brigades based on the expected requirements of a given mission. On its next deployment, the same division may have one Stryker brigade and two armor brigades assigned to it. The same modus operandi holds true for support units. The goal of reorganization with regard to logistics is to streamline the logistics command structure David B. Larter (9 Oct 2018) The US Army is preparing to fight in Europe, but can it even get there?
/ref> so that combat service support can fulfill its support mission more efficiently.Capt. Richard Foote, 593rd Sustainment Command (Expeditionary) (April 21, 2017) Putting the expeditionary in ESC
/ref> Maj. Daniel J. N. Belzer (January 2, 2019) Command relationships between corps and ESCs
ESC = (Expeditionary Support Command); TSC = (Theater Support Command)
The division headquarters itself has also been redesigned as a modular unit that can be assigned an array of units and serve in many different operational environments.See, for exampl
Francis J.H. Park (November/December 2007) "The strategic plans and policy officer in the modular division"
/ref> The new term for this headquarters is the UEx (or Unit of Employment, X). The headquarters is designed to be able to operate as part of a joint force, command joint forces with augmentation, and command at the operational level of warfare (not just the tactical level). It will include organic security personnel and signal capability plus liaison elements. As of March 2015, nine of the ten regular Army division headquarters, and two national guard division headquarters are committed in support of Combatant Commands. When not deployed, the division will have responsibility for the training and readiness of a certain number of modular brigades units. For instance, the 3rd Infantry Division headquarters module based at Fort Stewart, GA is responsible for the readiness of its combat brigades and other units of the division (that is, 3rd ID is responsible for administrative control —ADCON of its downtrace units), assuming they have not been deployed separately under a different division. The re-designed headquarters module comprises around 1,000 soldiers including over 200 officers. It includes: * A Main Command Post where mission planning and analysis are conducted * A mobile command group for commanding while on the move * (2) Tactical Command Posts to exercise control of brigades"We need two command posts. We need to be able to shut one down and move it while the other is still in the fight." —MG Pat White, CG 1st Armored Divisio
Army senior leaders meet at Bliss for command post huddle
accessdate=2017-01-26
Abigail Meyer, Fort Bliss Public Affairs Office (01.18.2017) Army senior leaders meet at Bliss for command post huddle
/ref> * Liaison elements * A special troops battalion with a security company and signal company Divisions will continue to be commanded by major generals, unless coalition requirements require otherwise. Regional army commands (e.g. 3rd Army, 7th Army, 8th Army) will remain in use in the future but with changes to the organization of their headquarters designed to make the commands more integrated and relevant in the structure of the reorganized Army, as the chain of command for a deployed division headquarters now runs directly to an Army service component command (ASCC), or to FORSCOM. In January 2017, examples of pared-down tactical operations centers, suitable for brigades and divisions, were demonstrated at a command post huddle at Fort Bliss. The huddle of the commanders of FORSCOM, United States Army Reserve Command, First Army, I and III Corps, 9 of the Active Army divisions, and other formations discussed standardized solutions for streamlining command posts. The Army is paring-down the tactical operations centers, and making them more agile,Amy Walker, PEO C3T/PM Tactical Network Public Affairs (January 11, 2018) Army pushing to get Secure Wi-Fi on battlefield to gain strategic edge over enemiesDevon L. Suits (July 26, 2018) "CERDEC unveils more than a dozen new technologies for mission command" Kathryn Bailey, Communication-Electronics PAO (June 28, 2018) Command post modernization vision - first, make it mobileJustin Eimers (PEO C3T) (October 1, 2019) U.S. Army 'mission complete' on mission command software reduction
CPCE upgrades for upwards compatibility with system future versions. Remove redundant servers.
Staff Sgt. Samuel Northrup (April 1, 2019) New Army vehicles being developed to counter modern threats
to Command Post Directed Requirement Pilot Program of prototypes
Army improves mobility, readiness with new secure wireless systems
accessdate=2017-06-09
to increase their survivability.Maj. Jeremy Horton and Col. Ted Thomas, Mission Command Center of Excellence (27 May 2020) Adapt or Die: Command Posts - Surviving the Future Fight
/ref> By July 2019 battalion command posts have demonstrated jump times of just over 3 hours, at the combat training centers, repeated 90 to 120 times in a rotation. Todd South (June 4, 2019) How changes to mission command will mean soldiers taking risks and taking charge on complex battlefields
/ref>John Cogbill and Eli Myers (5 August 2020) Decentralizing the Fight: Re-imagining the Brigade Combat Team's Headquarters
Using 3rd BCT, 101st Airborne Division "Rakkasans" Headquarters March 2019 at JRTC, "maintained a dual-capable satellite/4G LTE GRRIP system at each location for redundancy, and a SMART-T at the rear and main command posts" for 99% uptime
The C5ISR center of CCDC ran a series of experiments (Network Modernization Experiment 2020 — NetModX 20) whether using LTE for connecting nodes in a distributed Command post environment was feasible, from July to October 2020.Stew Magnuson (22 Oct 2020) WEB EXCLUSIVE: Army Looks to Disperse Command Posts to Boost Survivability
/ref>

Four major commands

United States Army Futures Command (AFC), grew from 12 people ("a small agile command") at headquarters in 2018Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (13 Sep 2018) Futures Command Won’t Hurt Oversight, Army Tells Congress
/ref> to 24,000 in 25 states and 15 countries in 2019. Sean Kimmons, Army News Service (July 19, 2019) In first year, Futures Command grows from 12 to 24,000 personnel
/ref> Futures Command was slated to be the Army's fourth Army command (ACOM).Army Futures Command Task Force (28 March 2018) "Army Futures Command"
/ref> AFC joined the other Army commands FORSCOM, Army Materiel Command (AMC), and TRADOC as four-star commands. Austin, Texas became the station for the headquarters of Futures Command. Initial operating capability is slated for 2018.AUSA (27 March 2018) Army not ready to announce Futures Command home
/ref> (7 Nov 2017) Army Directive 2017-33 (Enabling the Army Modernization Task Force)
/ref> Although the Army has enjoyed overmatch for the past seventy years, more rapid modernization for conflict with near-peers is the reason for AFC, which will be focused on achieving clear overmatchUSArmy tweet: Futures Command will have the overarching objective to achieve clear overmatch in future conflicts, making Soldiers and units more lethal to win the nation's wars, then return home safely.
/ref> in six areas — long-range precision fires,Long-range, short term
/ref>Picatinny Arsenal, PEO (AMMO)
/ref> next-generation combat vehicle, future vertical lift platforms, a mobile & expeditionary Army network,First unit with TRILOS
/ref>Rapid Capabilities Office (RCO)
note PNT capability
air & missile defense capabilities,Army Will Field 100 Km Cannon, 500 Km Missiles: LRPF CFT
/ref> and soldier lethality (i.e. artillery, armor, aviation, signal, air defense artillery, and infantry respectively ''see: Futures''). In a reform-oriented break with Army custom, leaders of AFC headquarters were to locate in a downtown property of the University of Texas System, while project-driven soldiers and Army civilians were to co-locate with entrepreneurs/innovators in tech hubs, in the vision of Under Secretary of the Army Ryan D. McCarthy. The official activation ceremony of AFC was on 24 August 2018, in Austin, Texas; Sean Kimmons, Army News Service (August 15, 2018) Army Futures Command aims to tap into innovative culture in Austin and beyond
/ref> in a press conference on that day featuring Army Chief of Staff Milley, Secretary Esper, Mayor Adler, and AFC commander Murray,DVIDs video, 24 August 2018 press conference
/ref> Chief Milley noted that AFC was to actively reach out into the community in order to learn, and that Senator John McCain's frank criticism of the acquisition process was instrumental for modernization reform at Futures command. In fact, AFC soldiers were to blend into Austin by not wearing their uniforms o work side by side with civilians in the tech hubs Milley noted in the 24 August 2018 press conference. Secretary Esper said he expected failures during the process of learning how to reform the acquisition and modernization process. The organizational design of AFC was informed by the cancellation of the Army's Future Combat Systems project. Under Secretary of the Army Ryan D. McCarthy reviewed the reasons for that cancellation. Thus "unity of command and purpose" was a criterion for the design by unifying previous modernization efforts in a single command; the sub-goals would be met in do-able chunks.Ryan McCarthy (06 October 2017) Army Directive 2017-24 (Cross-Functional Team Pilot In Support of Materiel Development)
/ref> The ratio of uniformed personnel to Army civilian employees is expected to be a talent-based, task-based issue for the AFC commander.The expectation is that these reforms will enable cultural change across the entire Army, as a part of attaining full operational capability. The Program Executive Offices (PEOs) of ASA (ALT) will have a dotted-line relationship with Futures Command. In order to separate Army modernization from today's requirement for readiness, eight cross-functional teams (CFTs) The capabilities as prioritized by the Chief of Staff, will use subject matter experts in the realms of requirements, acquisition, science and technology, test, resourcing, costing, and sustainment, using Cross Functional Teams (CFTs) for: # Improve
long-range precision fires
(artillery):—(Fort Sill, Oklahoma) Lead: BG John Rafferty ... PEO Ammunition (AMMO)
Next-generation combat vehicle
(Detroit Arsenal, Warren, Michigan) Lead: BG Ross Coffman ... PEO Ground Combat Systems (GCS)
Vertical lift
platforms—(Redstone Arsenal, Huntsville, Alabama) Lead: BG Wally Rugen ... PEO Aviation (AVN) # Mobile an
expeditionary (usable in ground combat)
communications network (Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland) #
Network Command, Control, Communications and Intelligence
Lead: MG Pete Gallagher ... PEO Command Control Communications Tactical (C3T) #
Assured Position Navigation and Timing
(Redstone Arsenal, Huntsville, Alabama) Lead: William B. Nelson, SES
Air and missile defense
(Fort Sill, Oklahoma) Lead: BG Brian Gibson, ... PEO Missiles and Space (M&S) # Soldier lethality #
Soldier Lethality
(Fort Benning, Georgia) Lead: BG David M. Hodne ... PEO Soldier ## Synthetic Training Environment —(Orlando, Florida) Lead: MG Maria Gervais ... PEO Simulation, Training, & Instrumentation (STRI) *Above, 'dotted line' relationship (i.e., coordination) is denoted by a ' ... '
were transferred from the other three major commands to Futures Command.''Breaking Defense'' (26 March 2018) Army Outlines Futures Command; Org Chart In Flux
/ref> United States Army Research, Development and Engineering Command and the United States Army Capabilities Integration Center will report to the new command. ATEC retains its direct reporting relationship to the Chief of Staff of the Army. The first tranche of transfers into AFC included: Capabilities Integration Center (ARCIC), Capability Development and Integration Directorates (CDIDs), and TRADOC Analysis Center (TRAC) from TRADOC, and RDECOM (including the six research, development and engineering centers (RDECs), and the U.S. Army Research Laboratory (ARL)), and Army Materiel Systems Analysis Activity (AMSAA), from AMC, as announced by Secretary Esper on 4 June 2018.Army General order G.O.2018-10
/ref> TRADOC's new role is amended accordingly. The Principal Military Deputy to the ASA(ALT) was also to become deputy commanding general for Combat Systems, Army Futures Command, while leading the PEOs; he has directed each PEO who does not have a CFT to coordinate with, to immediately form one, at least informally. Ms. Audra Calloway (Picatinny) (September 19, 2018) With new Army Futures Command, senior acquisition leader discusses role of Program Executive Offices
/ref> General Murray has announced that AFC intends to be a global command, in its search for disruptive technologies. David Vergun, Army News Service (October 10, 2018) Army Futures Command to become 'global command,' says its leader
/ref> Army Chief of Staff Milley was looking for AFC to attain full operational capability (FOC) by August 2019, a goal since met. As this modernized materiel is fielded to the brigades, the scheme is to equip the units with the highest levels of readiness for deployment with upgraded equipment earliest, while continuing to train the remaining units to attain their full mission capability. Note that expertise, in say psychological operations, is not necessarily confined to the Active Army brigades; if some operation were to require the expertise of a National Guard unit for example, an echelon above brigade might require that a unit with the most modern materiel be formed, to utilize that expertise. The 10 Active Army divisions each have a deployable 3D printer for immediate operational requirements (to replace damaged materiel, subject to Army directives).ASA(ALT)br>Assistant Secretary of the Army (Acquisition, Logistics and Technology) (Friday, October 4, 2019) Army Advanced Manufacturing InitiativeRyan McCarthy (18 September 2019) Army Directive 2019-29 (Enabling Readiness and Modernization Through Advanced Manufacturing)
This directive is to be implemented by Materiel Command and Futures Command; the proponent will be ASA(ALT)
Mark Esper (07 Dec 2018) Army Directive 2018-26 (Enabling Modernization Through the Management of Intellectual Property)

Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (October 23, 2019) Army’s 3D Printing Hub Will Be Rock Island: Gen. Perna
The 10 Active Army divisions each have a deployable 3D printer as part of the Metal Working & Machining Shop Set (MWMSS), in expandable mobile containers. The 3D designs are downloaded from an interim digital repository developed in-house by Army Futures Command, the Repository for Additive Parts for Tactical and Operational Readiness (RAPTOR).
Industry Week Staff (May 21, 2019) Additive Manufacturing Center of Excellence Opens at Army Center
Rock Island Arsenal (RIA)
Sgt. Travis M. O'Brien (January 4, 2016) Advanced shop sets for Soldiers' advanced skill sets
MWMSS for MOS 91Es
Thomas Brading (December 5, 2019) Advanced manufacturing techniques set to cut costs, timelines

Thomas Brading (19 February 2020) Army scientists develop cutting-edge, durable 3D printing technology
/ref>Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (15 Dec 2020) Bullets, Beans & Data: The New Army Materiel Command EXCLUSIVE
ala RAPTOR: "Race to 5000" national stock numbers (3D models) in the 12 months in 2021.
By 2020, in the Fiscal Year 2021 budget request to Congress, the Army Acquisition Executive (AAE) was able to report progress in the partnership between Army Futures Command (viz. its CFTs) and his PEOs in ASA(ALT) —the office of Assistant Secretary of the Army (Acquisition, Logistics & Technology).Sean Kimmons, Army News Service (10 March 2020) Soldier-centered approach helping lead ground modernization efforts
FY2021 planning in the top six priorities for modernization * $9 billion was realigned using the "night court review" of items in the Army's budget over the next 5 fiscal years; $63 billion is now allocated for modernization in that 5 year period * For Soldier lethality: ** Enhanced Night Vision Goggle-Binocular was defined and fielded in 18 months ** Similarly, a software system for mission command, the Command Post Computing Environment has now been fielded * In Long range precision fires, successful tests have occurred in: ** ERCA (Extended range cannon artillery) has demonstrated accurate hits (within 1 meter) at over 40 miles range ** PrSM (Precision strike missile) has demonstrated 150 mile range within its expected accuracy and instrumentation in an overhead detonation


Multi-domain operations (MDO)

In 2017, the concept of multi-domain battle (MDB)Gen. David G. Perkins, U.S. Army (November-December 2017) ''Military Review'' III "Multi-Domain Battle The Advent of Twenty-First Century War"
/ref> had emerged from TRADOC,David Vergun (05.31.2017) Multi-domain battle has immediate applications, says Gen. Perkins
/ref> for which the Army sought joint approval from the other services; instead, the Air Force recommended multi-domain operations (MDO) as the operating concept.TRADOC Pamphlet 525-3-1 (6 December 2018) The U.S. Army in Multi-Domain Operations 2028
"describes how US Army forces, as part of the Joint Force, will militarily compete, penetrate, dis-integrate, and exploit our adversaries in the future.
Link moved here
/ref> Multi-domain operations cover integrated operation of cyberspace, space (meaning satellite operations, from the Army's perspective), land, maritime, and air. (Sep 16, 2015) Perkins discusses operationalizing the Army Operating Concept
/ref> A multi-domain task force was stood up in 2018 in I Corps for the Pacific, built around 17th Field Artillery Brigade. MDO in the Pacific has to involve maritime operations; MDO is planned for EUCOM in 2020.Maj. Richard W. Gibson (October 1, 2018) Applying Multi-Domain Concepts Against Counter-Space Threats
/ref> Multi-domain battalions, first stood up in 2019, comprise a single unit for air, land, space, and cyber domainsSydney J. Freedberg Jr. (24 Jan 2019) Hack, Jam, Sense & Shoot: Army Creates 1st Multi-Domain Unit
an MDO Battalion for Targeting, I Corps.
to ensure integration of cyber/EW, space, and information operations in more levels of command.

Deterrence

By 2020 the Army's programs for modernization were now framed as a decades-long process of cooperation with allies and partners,DEFENDER-EUROPE 20
videos, images and stories

"America's principal national defense strategy: deterrence in peacetime"
for competition with potential adversaries who historically have blurred the distinction between peace and war, Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (January 13, 2020) Infinite Games & War By Other Means: Ryan McCarthy
"We must be engaged in constant competition, versus an episodic engagement strategy" —Secretary Ryan McCarthy
Kyle Mizokami (8 Mar 2020) The Air Force’s New Weapon Is…Shipping Containers?
"Drone maker Kratos Defense is proposing inserting its new XQ-58A Valkyrie drone in a modified shipping container" into selected Indo-Pacific locations as pre-positioned stock for quick armed response to threats. Hundreds of containers could be deployed but not all need be occupied with Valkyries.
Garrett Reim (3 Mar 2020) Why the US Air Force might use ‘deception’ and UAVs hidden in shipping containers to fight China
/ref> in a continuum of conflict. New cyber authorities have been granted under National Security Presidential Memorandum (NSPM) 13;Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (17 September 2018) Trump Eases Cyber Ops, But Safeguards Remain: Joint Staff
/ref> persistent cyber engagements at Cyber command are the new norm for cyber operations.Mark Pomerleau (8 May 2019) New authorities mean lots of new missions at Cyber Command
/ref> The CG of Futures Command (AFC) has noted that MDO will tie together the initiatives of AFC; but failures are to be expected in the AFC initiatives, and the institutional response of the Army, which is traditionally risk-averse, will test how committed the nation is to Army reforms. Mesh networking is in play for the Mobile, Expeditionary Network: In Fiscal Year 2019, the network CFT, PEO 3CT, and PEO Soldier leveraged Network Integration Evaluation 18.2 for experiments with brigade level scalability. Theresa Hitchens (December 02, 2019) Hey SDA, AFRL Boosts Space-Based Internet Tests
/ref> Among the takeaways was to avoid overspecifying the requirements (in ITN U.S. Army (April 30, 2019) Profile: Program Executive Office for Command, Control and Communications-Tactical (PEO C3T)
/ref> Information Systems Initial Capabilities Document) to meet operational needs, Justin Eimers, PEO C3T (October 3, 2018) Network Cross-Functional Team, acquisition partners experimenting to modernize tactical network
/ref> such as interoperability with other networks.Joe Lacdan, Army News Service (October 25, 2018) Interoperability a key focus in building the Army's future network
/ref>DoD (May 16, 2018) Army Officials Testify on FY 2019 Budget Request
/ref> ITN —Integrated Tactical Network is being fielded to four brigades in 2021.Mark Pomerleau (21 Jan 2020) What a deployment to the Middle East means for testing a new Army network
An operational deployment begun 1 Jan 2020, which won't be instrumented, will provide some Soldier feedback, but instrumented testing is deferred until after redeployment.
Mark Pomerleau (25 September 2019) How the Army will test its new battlefield network
/ref> Up through 2028, every two years the Army will insert new capability sets for ITN (Capability sets '21, '23, '25, etc.).Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (3 April 2019) Multi-Domain Networks: The Army, The Allies & AI
Incremental ITN Capability sets '21, '23, '25
Devon L. Suits, Army News Service (June 21, 2019) New tech, accessibility to improve Army tactical networks
/ref>Amy Walker, PM Tactical Network, PEO C3T public affairs (December 4, 2019) Global network design unifies Army modernization efforts
GAIT will be used in Defender 2020


Competition

TRADOC designed exercises for Joint warfighter assessments —JWA 19,Amy Walker and Justin Eimers, PEO C3T Public Affairs (April 8, 2019) Multinational exercises aim to improve coalition data sharing
/ref>Shawn Nesaw (March 20, 2019) Latest sensor upgrades boost recon vehicle capabilities
NBCRV
Spc. Miguel Ruiz, Joint Modernization Command (MAY 8, 2019) Back to the future: US, partner nations assess future warfighting capabilities at JMC-sponsored JWA 19
/ref> at Fort Lewis, to clarify the jumps for Command Posts, to ensure their survivability during future operations. In 2019, there was a new focus on planning for large-scale ground combat operations (LSCO),Maj. Gen. Rodney D. Fogg, Brig. Gen. Douglas M. McBride Jr., and Maj. Graham Davidson (July 18, 2019) Focus:Sustaining the Future Fight
LSCO compared to Patton's 3rd Army
Gen. Gustave "Gus" Perna (July 18, 2019) AMC Commander: Battlefield Sustainment Requires Intuition
/ref>Lt. Gen. Michael Lundy, Col. Richard Creed, and Lt. Col. Scott Pence (July 18, 2019) Feeding the Forge: Sustaining Large-Scale Ground Combat Operations
/ref>Kyle Rempfer (September 20, 2019) Army’s new chief looks to prep the force for large-scale combat
40th CSA mulls deployments for Large-Scale Combat Operations — LSCO
"that will require echelons above brigade, all of which will solve unique and distinct problems that a given BCT can't solve by itself."— LTG Eric Wesley. Sydney J. Freedberg Jr.(April 03, 2019) How Army’s Multi-Domain Overhaul May Impact The National Guard
*'In 2009, the Army officially replaced “command and control” with “mission command” ..'
Col. Douglas M. McBride Jr. and Reginald L. Snell, Ph.D. (9 January 2017) Applying mission command to overcome challenges
Creating trust is the foundation for accomplishing the mission.
Computer simulations (DOTMLPF), of the survivability rates for the units, were then compared with the interaction strategies, tactics and operations of JWA 19, a highly contested environment. JWA 19 occurred at multiple operational speeds, in multiple domains served by multiple services (cyber: operating in milliseconds; air: operations at 500 miles per hour; maritime: 30 knots; and ground: 2 miles per hour). JWA 19 involved the militaries of the US, the United Kingdom, New Zealand, Canada, France, Australia and Singapore. In September and November 2019 the Department of Defense (DoD) "scheduled a series of globally integrated exercises with participation from across the US government interagency to refine our plans" — Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Joseph Dunford. This exercise was designed to help Secretary of Defense Mark Esper develop new plans, in the face of a change in chairmanship of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. Specifically what was missing in 2019 was a joint conceptSydney Freedberg, Jr. (January 14, 2020) Army Chief Seeks ‘Minimally Manned’ Vehicles, Joint C2
LRPF, ITN, IBCS, FARA, FLRAA, and "We need a joint command and control system" —Army Chief of Staff James C. McConville
shared at the appropriate operational speed between the several domains, among the respective services, when fighting a peer adversary.—LTG Eric WesleyDan Gouré (May 24, 2019) A New Joint Doctrine for an Era of Multi-Domain Operations
MDO- MDC2- Distributed Maritime Operations- Marine Corps Operating Concept- "distributed lethality to connect ships, submarines, aircraft and satellites in networks for sensing, commanding and shooting"
Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (September 12, 2019) Army Multi-Domain Wargame Reveals C2 Shortfalls
MDC2 software improvements needed
Theresa Hitchens (November 12, 2019) Navy, Air Force Chiefs Agree To Work On All Domain C2
Change nomenclature: from MDC2 to JADC2
Lt. Gen. David Perkins (June 18, 2013) Understanding
ission command is beyond C2
''Note the referenced LRHW graphic depicting a 2019 scenario''— Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (28 Feb 2020) Army Ramps Up Funding For Laser Shield, Hypersonic Sword
In FY2021 HELs funding is up 209 percent; LRHW funding is up 86 percent. RCCTO spending is $1 billion in 2021.
Sydney J. Freedberg, Jr. (17 Sep 2019) Target, Kaliningrad: Air Force Puts Putin On NoticeCharlie Gao (May 25, 2018) NATO's Worst Nightmare: Russia's Kaliningrad Is Armed to the TeethReuters Reporting by Jack Stubbs; Editing by Andrew Osborn (FEBRUARY 5, 2018) Russia deploys Iskander nuclear-capable missiles to Kaliningrad: RIA
RIA news agency
Joe Lacdan (September 25, 2019) More joint efforts likely as the Army prepares for multi-domain operations
Combined Resolve XII; 10th Mountain Div for Atlantic Resolve; 2/1CD & Cab/3ID to Eucom; AR to : Immediate Response (hosted by Croatia and Slovenia), Saber Guardian (in Bulgaria, Hungary and Romania), and Swift Response; Operation Cobra Gold (hosted by Thailand). A speedup in tempo by CFTs is needed.
This is a return to the use of echelons above brigade (Divisions, Corps, and Field Armies), with specific tasks to force current adversaries to return to competition, rather than conflict;CRS Insight (IN11019) (January 17, 2019) The U.S. Army and Multi-Domain OperationsTodd South (11 August 2019) This 3-star Army general explains what multi-domain operations mean for you
"think, assess and employ all domains when necessary"— General Wesley
Paul McCleary (4 September 2019) Major War Game To Jolt 4 Services, Force Decisions
/ref>Todd South (13 September 2019) Massive simulation shows the need for speed in multi-domain ops
"400 participants working with 55 formations, 64 concepts and 150 capabilities"
kill chains were formed within seconds, by live-fire demonstration, as of September 2020. In 2019 the 27th Secretary of Defense ordered the four services and the Joint staff to create a new joint warfighting concept for All-domain operations, operating simultaneously in the air, land, sea, space, cyber, and the electromagnetic spectrum (EMS). The 20th CJCS has allocated roles to each of the services in concept development for Joint All-Domain Operations (JADO);Theresa Hitchens and Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (22 July 2020) Milley Assigns Service Roles In All-Domain Ops Concept
/ref> *the Air Force takes the lead for command and control (C2). The Joint services each have a C2 concept to be scaled —for the Army, C2 requires thousands of connections with the sensors and shooters,Blue force tracking—The Army now has technology to keep track of its warfighters, down to the squad level position, or even individual soldier position. as compared with hundreds of connections with the sensors and shooters for the Air Force ABMS (Advanced Battle Management System);Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (22 Jan 2020) ABMS Can’t Be ‘Sole Solution’ For Joint C2, Army Tells Air Force — Exclusive
Scaling sensors, shooters, land-based C2, and JADC2
* the Navy will lead concept development in Joint fires: its newest equipment (the newer Littoral Combat Ships, the MQ-8C, and the Naval Strike Missile) provides standoff for the Navy against its near-peers. David Larter and Carl Pinze (September 15, 2019) Armed with a new missile, the LCS comes of age
/ref> Paul McLeary (28 August 2020) If It Floats, It Fights:’ Navy’s New Small Ship Strategy
/ref> In February 2020, voices at the tactical level were supporting cross-domain, cross-role, cross-service interoperation: "''Any'' sensor should be able to link to ''any'' shooter and ''any'' command and control node".Paul Birch, Ray Reeves and Brad DeWees (19 February 2020) How To Build JADC2 To Make It Truly Joint
"''Any'' sensor should be able to link to ''any'' shooter and ''any'' command and control node"
The combination of F-35-based targeting coordinates, Long range precision fires, and Low-earth-orbit satellite capability overmatches the competition, according to Lt. Gen. Eric Wesley.Joseph Lacdan, Army News Service (October 21, 2019) AFC deputy: Combined capabilities make military might more lethal
/ref> A Space sensor layer of satellites (at 1200 miles above earth) would position hundreds of Low-earth-orbit sensors for tracking hypersonic vehicles. This tracking layer would provide guidance information to the interceptors in the missile defense system.Loren Thompson (4 February 2020) Pentagon Aims To Build Vast Space Sensor Layer
/ref>Jay Koester(23 April 2020) JADC2 ‘Experiment 2’ provides looking glass into future experimentation
Army's Joint Modernization Command (JMC) JADC2 Experiments 1 and 2
* the Army will lead concept development for combat logistics.PB 700–20–03 Headquarters, Department of the Army (July-September 2020) ''Army Sustainment''
Army Sustainment Professional Bulletin (ASPB) Vol. 52, Issue 3
Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (13 Oct 2020) Army Ammo Plants At ‘The End Of The Rope’: Jette
AMMO JPEO-- Program objective memorandum needed for a 15-year plan to modernize the production of ammunition. The current 10-year plan is inadequate.
Kelsey Atherton (8 Oct 2020) New Pentagon Strategy To Share Data Like Ammunition David Norquist (30 Sep 2020) DoD Data Strategy
DDDS This strategy describes the problem and establishes the vision, guiding principles, essential capabilities, goals, and objectives for DoD, relative to data. Executive Summary: 3 clusters **8 Guiding Principles **4 Essential Capabilities **7 Goals (aka, VAULTIS)
* the service to lead concept development in 'Information advantage' is not yet determined by the Joint Staff J-7 as of 16 September 2020. Build a kill chain faster than the adversary's OODA loop.Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (4 Nov 2020) Military AI Is Bigger Than Just The Kill Chain: JAIC Chief
/ref> ''See Fog of war''Theresa Hitchens (16 September 2020) JROC Struggles To Build ‘Information Advantage’ Requirement
/ref>Royal United Services Institute - RUSI.org (19 Jun 2019) Session Six: Securing Information Advantage
39:07 minutes, 3 speakers 1. Disinformation and trust 2:00, 2. Information warfare 15:40, and 3. Kremlin messaging (as viewed by an observer based in Vilnius, Lithuania) 26:35. Summary 37:30
Ministry of Defence (Feb 2018) Joint Concept Note 2/18 Information Advantage
/ref>
*The authors provide "Overarching strategic concept for responding to gray zone threats" 36 suggestions for responses to micro-aggressions by Russia and China.
In late December 2019, the Air Force, Army, and Navy ran a Joint all-domain command and control (JADC2)Justin Lee (November 21, 2019) MILCOM 2019 HIGHLIGHTS URGENT NEED FOR JOINT ALL-DOMAIN COMMAND AND CONTROL
/ref> Theresa Hitchens (November 14, 2019) OSD & Joint Staff Grapple With Joint All-Domain Command
Joint Chiefs of Staff#Joint Staff buy-in
connection exercise of Advanced Battle Management System (ABMS)Lauren C. Williams (NOV 13, 2019) Air Force gears up for first 'connect-a-thon'
/ref> for the first time. This exercise is denoted ''ABMS Onramp'', and will occur at four month intervals. JADC2 is a joint multi-domain operation (MDO); the exercise will involve the Army's Long range fires, ground-based troops, and Sentinel radar. The Air Force contributes F-22s and F-35s, while the Navy is bringing F-35Cs and a destroyer to ABMS Onramp.Theresa Hitchens (6 Dec 2019, updated 5:21pm) First Multi Domain C2 Exercise Planned: ABMS Onramp
/ref> Theresa Hitchens (21 Jan 2020) ABMS Demos Speed New Capabilities To Warfighters
connections: C130 to LEO Starlink; F22 to F35;
The December 2019 exercise used a NORTHCOM scenario. Theresa Hitchens (December 23, 2019) OSD, Services Get First Look At Air Force Multi-Domain Chops
/ref> The April 2020 test of ABMS was delayed by the COVID-19 pandemic. The test was to have spanned bases from Eglin AFB to Nellis AFB; from Yuma Proving Ground to White Sands Missile Range— in this test, a simulated attack was to take place on 3 geographic commands: on Space Command, on Northern Command, and on Strategic Command's nuclear command, control, and communications. JADC2 is to ensure continuity of commander's intent— instead, JADC2 was to be exercised in late August or early September 2020.Theresa Hitchens (5 May 2020) The Key To All-Domain Warfare Is ‘Predictive Analysis:’ Gen. O’Shaughnessy
/ref>Theresa Hitchens (14 May 2020) MDA: All-Domain C2 Key To Countering Hypersonic Missiles
/ref>Theresa Hitchens (10 June 2020) CQ Brown Brings Pacific Focus; Keen Interest In Joint Ops
Air Force Chief of Staff Gen. Charles Brown
IBCS —Integrated Air and Missile Defense Battle Command System— is undergoing a Limited user test in August-September 2020 in preparation for a Milestone C acquisition decision.Theresa Hitchens (4 Aug 2020) Army IBCS Critical To JADC2: STRATCOM’s Adm. Richard
IBCS is a critical building block for JADC2; the ABMS test is a separate project. Thirty-three different hardware platforms, some using 5G, 70 industry teams, and 65 government teams participated in this ABMS Onramp, the first week in September 2020. Theresa Hitchens (25 August 2020) More Ambitious ABMS Demo Uses 5G: Roper
*AFWERXbr>(25 August 2020) Dr. Will Roper ABMS 'Ask Me Anything'
1:30:33 ABMS (Advanced battle management system) requires Internet of Military Things. **5:00 Foundational IoT: Containerized software systems, forming the connective tissue between domains, devices, platforms, populations. **16:15 There is not going to be one machine-to-machine system in the future force, but rather a set of machine-to-machine data-exchanges (in publishable, understandable, communicable, discoverable formats). **22:50 A new kind of requirements process (horizontal (modernize seamlessly over time) rather than vertical, top-down processes for hardware). If a standard exists, such as 5G, or APIs, use it. **27:50 A culture change, elevating data in importance, over bullets, will be required to win wars. Simplification of the ABMS user interface will be necessary, in order to present the relevant mission-dependent data to the Soldier, or Combatant commander. **31:30 There will be so much happening, that phone calls will be seen as the obstacle they are, during ABMS Onramp, just like the COVID-19 data needs. **35:00 deviceONE operates on SIPRNET tablets today. Portions of ABMS are operational today (25 August 2020). **39:50 a devOps mentality will be required; X as a Service (XaaS) is needed for Developer's adaptability and agility in the face of uncertain threats --an OODA loop with 4-month cycles. Agility and adaptability are needed for the Onramps. A set of Use cases are the targets to be sought during the development process. **49:20 70 industry team offerings are welcome, include 50%-solutions as well. **52:00 There is no way the Acquisition process can have a lead Systems Integrator to serve as Prime Contractor for a program— Replace this with a tool, a common infrastructure (tech stack) with full authorities (IRAD, Design Reviews, -- DoD has to be good at IT). **56:10 for the Army, ABMS means National-level situation awareness, that is tuned, relevant to the mission— from the Soldier on the ground, or to the Combatant Commander. **1:00:00 Use robotic agents (drones as wingmen or battle-buddies) to absorb threats at the tip of the spear; 1:06:00 pull people back from the tip of the spear, in favor of robots. Have people make the calls/commands to direct the strikes; this will not replace the warfighter. **1:14:00 ABMS scale-up — If we fail, this won't be tried again for years.
Loren Thompson (28 Aug 2020) Air Force’s ‘Skyborg’ Robotic Wingman Will Revolutionize How Air Warfare Is Waged—And How Weapons Are Bought
/ref> In August 2020 a Large force test event (LFTE) was completed at Nellis AFB; the test event demonstrated the ability of F-35s to orchestrate SEAD (Suppression of Enemy Air Defense) using F-22s, F-15Es, E/A-18Gs, B-2s, and RQ-170s. In addition the ability of F-35s to direct Multi-Domain Operations (MDO) was demonstrated during the 2020 Orange Flag event at Edwards AFB (Orange Flag showed the ability of an F-35A to collect targeting data, relay that data to an airborne communications node, as well as to a simulated IBCS station).Theresa Hitchens (6 August 2020) AF Tests F-35, Stealth Fleet For Integrated Electronic Warfare
/ref> In Fall 2020, Futures Command is testing the data links between the Army's AI task force and its helicopters —Future Vertical Lift (FVL), its long-range missile launchers —Long range precision fires (LRPF), and its combat vehicles —(NGCV);Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (28 May 2020) Army Invites Air Force ABMS To Big Network Test: Project Convergence
/ref>Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (14 August 2020) Can Army Intel Data Feed The Kill Chain?
Quickly pooling data will take AI and cloud—"Project Convergence"
Joseph Lacdan, Army News Service (11 September 2020) Project Convergence aims to accelerate change in modernization efforts
At Yuma Proving Ground, success means to complete the demo in less than 20 seconds.
in Fall 2021 and going forward, the links between ABMS and Multi-domain operations are invited when the Army's Air and Missile Defense capabilities (AMD's IBCS and MSHORAD —Maneuver short-range air defense) have undergone further testing.Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (10 September 2020) Target Gone In 20 Seconds: Army Sensor-Shooter Test
/ref> In September 2020, an ABMS Demonstration at WSMR (White Sands Missile Range) shot down cruise missile surrogates with hypervelocity (speeds of Mach 5) projectiles jointly developed by the Army and Navy. The Army interceptor stems from an XM109 Paladin howitzer;Valerie Insinna (5 Sep 2020) Behind the scenes of the US Air Force’s second test of its game-changing battle management system
A hypervelocity projectile descended from a Paladin munition knocked down a cruise missile surrogate on 3 September 2020 at White Sands Missile Range (WSMR) *An ABMS Onramp Two vendor provided sensor towers and AI to track the cruise missile surrogates. *ABMS provided common picture to combatant commanders
the Navy interceptor stems from a deck gun.Theresa Hitchens (3 Sep 2020) ABMS Demo Proves AI Chops For C2
The ABMS demo had four phases, under computer control. The kill chains were formed in seconds rather than minutes. # Early detection, identification, and warning #* Scanning —Humans no longer need to dedicate their attention to a single, boring task. Replace the problem of stovepiped sensors / functions with more salient events. Let sensors perform direct machine-to-machine data exchanges in an Internet of Military Things and detect events which are salient to the mission. #* This allows concentration of effort by the Intelligence Community. Let machines follow the leads under Human direction # Red force tracking #* Use AI feeds to form the kill chains (plan the series of steps needed to kill a Red threat) #* Let machines follow Red trajectories to estimate the time needed to intercept a Red threat # Engaging red force threats #* Select an appropriate Blue interceptor (fast enough to engage Red threat, close enough to get past standoff distance) #* In two cases, hypervelocity (moving at Mach 5) munitions were launched from cannons (one Army, one Navy) to kill cruise missile surrogates. #* Other 'sensor-to-shooter' kill chains included AIM-9 missiles launched from F-16s and MQ-9s, as well as a ground-launched AIM-9 missile (which was designed to be an air-to-air munition). # Blue force tracking #* Develop dedicated Clouds- strategic cloud for the Commander, and tactical cloud for the individual Soldier
PATRICK TUCKER (11 SEPTEMBER 2020) The Air Force’s ‘Connect Everything’ Project Just Had a Big Success
The ABMS Onramp 2 demo occurred on 2 September 2020. Commanders were shown they had the same access to a Common Operational Picture, displayed on their tablets at the flight line, as they had on their screens earlier in the command center.
Colin Clark (19 Nov 2020) Preston Dunlap: ‘A Thousand Kill Chains In Your Pocket’
links to video
The data feeds used both 4G and 5G, as well as cloud-based AI feeds, to form the kill chains. The kill chains directing the intercepts were developed from 60 data feeds, and took seconds to develop, as opposed to the minutes which previous processes took. Other 'sensor-to-shooter' kill chains included AIM-9 missiles launched from F-16s and MQ-9s, as well as a ground-launched AIM-9 missile (which was designed to be an air-to-air munition). Four National Test Ranges were involved in the demonstration, as well as five combatant commands. In October 2020 the DoD Acquisition chief completed an extensive redesign of the Adaptive acquisition framework (AAF) including software acquisition, middle-tier acquisition, defense business systems, acquisition of services, urgent capability acquisition and major capability acquisition. AAF now adheres to the updated DoD 5000.01 policy approved in September 2020 by her lead, the Deputy Defense Secretary.Mandy Mayfield (7 October 2020) JUST IN: Pentagon to Streamline Software Development
AAF (Adaptive acquisition framework) now adheres to the updated DoD 5000.01 policy approved in September 2020 by Ellen Lord's lead, the Deputy Defense Secretary David Norquist
In March 2021, XVIII Airborne Corps hosts a Project Maven (AI-based) live-fire experiment which shares targeting data among F-35s, A-10s, HIMARS, and satellites.Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (23 Feb 2021) Army AI Gets Live Fire Test Next Week
/ref> In Fall 2021, a ''Joint Force'' (Army, Navy, Air Force, Marine Corps, and Special Operations) will use Project Convergence 2021 (PC21) to simulate the distances in the First island chain of the Pacific Ocean.Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (5 Apr 2021) Joint Force Vs. China: Project Convergence 21
/ref> A Multi-domain task force (MDTF), and Special Forces will take the lead during the Competition phase of the exercise.

Conflict

In the view of John Hyten, Vice Chairman of the Joint Chiefs, each force will have both a self-defense capability, and a deep strike capability,Connie Lee (9 Sep 2020) Hyten: New Warfighting Concept to Erase Battlefield Lines
/ref>Aaron Mehta (14 Aug 2020) ‘No lines on the battlefield’: Pentagon’s new war-fighting concept takes shape
/ref> operating under a unified command and control structure,Morgan Dwyer (10 July 2020) Making the most of the Air Force’s investment in Joint All Domain Command and Control
/ref> simultaneously across the domains, against the enemy. The potential capability exposed by the use of AI in September 2020 poses a choice for the combatant commanders, who need to select their top priority, by answering "What do you want and how do we do it?" in November 2020. Hyten now has an opportunity to shape the operation of the Joint requirements oversight council, say by providing a common operational picture to the combatant commanders and their forces in the respective domains, and by getting to a position of relative advantage very quickly (faster than the enemy's OODA loop)."Finding and engaging high-value relocatable ground systems within rapid timelines" is the Air Force's operational objective in this JADC2 exercise
Eliahu Norwood, Greg Grant, and Tyler Lewis (December 2019) A new battle command architecture for multi-domain operations: countering peer adversary power projection
Tie-in to MDC2, MDO


Return to competition

By 2020 the Joint all-domain concept was converging on the need to return to competition, Theresa Hitchens (3 March 2020) Attack On US Satellites Focus Of Next ABMS Test: Goldfein
Joint Chiefs will attend the next ABMS test, which will span bases from Eglin AFB to Nellis AFB; Yuma Proving Ground to White Sands Missile Range. All the joint chiefs plan to be there
Sydney J Freedberg Jr (13 Mar 2020) ‘No Timeout’ In Future Wars: Army Gen. Murray EXCLUSIVE
/ref> Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (21 April 2020) COVID-19: Army Futures Command Takes Wargames Online
"The competition phase is about ''deterring'' war"—Sydney J. Freedberg Jr.
just short of conflict between near-peer adversaries.

Alliances and partnerships

An ongoing series of programs to strengthen relationships between the Army and its allies and partners is being implemented.Headquarters DCS, G3-5-7 (July 23, 2018) U.S. Army Allies and Partners
9 lines of effort
An example exercise
Spc. Joseph Knoch, 5th Public Affairs Detachment (July 11, 2019) Guard units join US Army and Hungarian forces in exercise
3rd 197th Artillery Battalion from the Ohio and New Hampshire National Guards working alongside Hungarian Defense Forces (HDF)
Joe Lacdan, Army News Service (July 12, 2019) Relationship with allies key to maintaining competitive edge, says SF commander
From the perspective of Special Forces
"Interoperability is huge for our Army; we fight as a coalition..."—Lt. Gen. Jim Richardso
Joe Lacdan, Army News Service (April 4, 2019) Allies to join Army Futures Command
/ref> These programs include demonstrations of cooperation, interoperability, and preparedness of its partners.Sgt. LaShic Patterson (August 6, 2019) 2/2CR unloads vehicles at the Poti port for AS19
Agile Spirit 19: Vaziani Military Base, Tbilisi, Georgia
Maj. Kevin Sandell, U.S. Army Central Public Affairs (June 26, 2019) U.S. physician teaches Steppe Eagle 19 medical participants to 'race the Reaper'
/ref>Wendover Productions (27 August 2019) The US' Overseas Military Base Strategy
Estimates 800 current DoD bases, but some of them are transitory. Video clip.
For example, in 2019 the Army uses DoD's State Partnership Program, to link 22 National Guard Bilateral Affairs Officers (BAOs) with 22 allies or partners in the 54 countries in European Command's area to facilitate common defense interestsEric Schmitt ''The New York Times'' (14 July 2019) "Rehearsing for a Shadow War Against a Foe Embraced by Trump" pp. A1, A10.Reuters (11 Jan 2020) Minister says Britain must reduce military dependence on U.S.: report
/ref> with the US. In all, 89 partnerships now exist.BRADLEY BOWMAN and THOMAS PLEDGER (10 August 2020) Modernize The National Guard’s State Partnership Program

The opinion of a strategist and Civil affairs officer
''See: Foreign Area Officer (FAO) '' In 2019 Secretary of Defense Mark Esper identified the Indo-Pacific Theater as the priority theater for the United States.The Indo-Pacific Theater is "our priority theater"—Mark Esper
Aaron Mehta (27 August 2019) Esper calls for new basing investments in the Pacific
Sites to be determined
A multi-domain task force for the Indo-Pacific Theater is planned for a Defender exercise.Todd South (10 Jan 2020) The Pacific must mean more than Korea rotations for the Army to counter China
—Secretary McCarthy
Todd South (May 8, 2019) The Pacific push: New rotation, thousands more soldiers heading to the region as the Army readies for a new kind of fight
/ref>Jen Judson (4 February 2020) US Army wants to expand pre-positioned stock in Pacific
APS Preparation for 2021: Test of the 24-hour/7-days a week operations center, and Army sealift capability in Pacific, just as Defender 2020 is a "test of the rails and roads in Europe"
However, in light of the DoD 60-day travel ban due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the number of CONUS-based troops participating in Defender Europe 2020 was reduced to those troops already in Europe.Headquarters, United States European Command (11 March 2020) Exercise Defender-Europe 20 update
Troop reduction
Theresa Hitchens (13 March 2020) COVID-19: WH Relocates Space Council Meet; Space Symposium Postponed
/ref>U.S. Army (16 March 2020) DEFENDER-Europe 20 modified in size and scope
/ref>
/ref> In 2020 the Army lost 3 NTC training rotations to COVID-19. JWA 20 was intended to exercise Multi-domain operations, and multinational forces, in EUCOM for 2020. Sean Kimmons, Army News Service (October 11, 2018) Second phase of Multi-Domain Task Force pilot headed to Europe
/ref>Sydney J. Freedberg, Jr. (28 May 2019) Beyond INF: An Affordable Arsenal Of Long-Range Missiles?
INF Treaty likely to expire in August 2019
Paul McLeary (16 December 2019) From The Baltic To Black Seas, Defender Exercise Goes Big, With Hefty Price Tag
/ref> ''See: Vostok 2018.'' EUCOM's Multi-domain task force will be smaller than the Pacific's task force.Jen Judson (8 September 2019) US Army’s multidomain force emerges in Europe
/ref> It is expected that the task forces are to be employed in the Defender exercises in both EUCOMJacob Kriss, CECOM Public Affairs (October 16, 2019) CECOM Empowering Strategic Support Area Readiness: Strategic Power Projection
Pre-positioned stocks "with enough equipment for an entire brigade or division, up to 15,000"
and the Pacific. Defender-Europe 2020 was to test the ability to deploy 20,000 Soldiers across Europe, for a 37,000-member exercise. U.S. Army Public Affairs (October 7, 2019) Army exercise largest in 25 years
Test the ability to deploy 20,000 Soldiers to Europe
Lt. Gen. Stephen Twittybr>(October 1, 2019) Logistics Important to Shaping the European Theater
/ref>Major Bradley Cooper, U.S. Army (September 2019) Precision Logistics: Sustainment for Multi-Domain Operations
LSCO
Christopher Woody (Oct 16, 2019) The US Army is worried about a potential showdown with Russia, and it's practicing a new way to get to a fight in Europe
/ref>
"The wide-spanning maneuvers are to focus on the Baltic States, Poland and Georgia, involving more than 36,000 personnel from 11 countries (Lenta.ru, January 26, 2020)"
* Elements of the 1st Cavalry, 82nd Airborne, 1st Armored, 1st Infantry, and 3rd Infantry Divisions, 11 National Guard states and seven Army Reserve units were to rapidly deploy.US Army (October 15, 2019) Army Guard improves readiness, supports National Defense Strategy
"is in the process of realigning eight full National Guard divisions for the Army"
Sean Kimmons, Army News Service (October 15, 2019) Defender exercise to deploy 20,000 Soldiers to project power in Europe
/ref>JOHN VANDIVER (January 6, 2020) Middle East crisis could mean adjustments to Europe’s largest military exercise in decades
"The Army will adapt as needed, USAREUR officials said." *Task Force White Devil
82nd Airborne Division (20 February 2020) Nearly 800 Soldiers return home after Middle East deployment
1/82nd Airborne's 2nd Battalion, 504th Parachute Infantry Regiment (2-504th PIR), serving as Immediate Response Battalion (IRB) for Central command, as well as 3-73rd Cavalry Regiment, and 3-319th Field Artillery redeploys to home station **Troops returning from the deployment of 1/82ndAB BCT have been ordered to quarantine for two weeks without any flu-like symptoms, in response to the COVID-19 pandemic
Kyle Rempfer (19 March 2020) This is Fort Bragg’s FOB-style quarantine
(The specific action was possible because the deploying soldiers have a known PULHES Factor from their Readiness profile)
Aaron Mehta (15 Mar 2020) Estonia’s top military officer on putting aside national interests for regional defense
/ref> *# Reception, staging, onward movement and integration (RSOI) of a division-sized formation in EUCOM. A National Guard Brigade was to draw from pre-positioned stocks in EUCOM. *# An immediate response force from 82nd Airborne Division was to conduct joint forcible entries.Steve DeVane and Rachael Riley (Jan. 4, 2020) Fort Bragg community in North Carolina on edge as soldiers head to Middle East
82nd Airborne (with 18,000 troops) has an 18-hour readiness status (after the first phone call).—Secretary of Defense Mark Esper
*# A division command post spread across Europe was to conduct JWA 20, to test multi-domain operations (MDO) and other Futures Command capabilities, such as an initial prototype of Tactical Intelligence Targeting Access Node (TITAN), a ground station for integrating the data feed between "sensors and shooters". Sean Kimmons, Army News Service (7 February 2020 Vice chief of staff: Speed of modernization no longer at 'glacial pace'
/ref> *#*While in Europe, the units were to spread out across the region for separate exercises with allies and partners to participate in their annual exercises. *# A river crossing (see M1074 Joint Assault Bridge),Office of the Chief of Public Affairs (10.16.2019) 2019 AUSA Warriors Corner - The Art, Science, and Challenges of River Crossing (USACE)
/ref> forward passages of lines (one unit passes through a position held by another unit), and a maritime off-load mission was to have been conducted. *# Army forces were to clear the training areas, return pre-positioned stocks,(2020) DEFENDER Europe Trifold
/ref> consolidate, and redeploy (in this case, to home station). Returning troops were ordered to quarantine for two weeks without experiencing any flu-like symptoms. Social distancing, masks, and other protective measures were employed, in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. * Defender Europe 2021 will run from March til June 2021.Todd South (15 Mar 2021) Massive, Army-led NATO exercise Defender Europe kicks off
Defender Europe 2021
Defender Europe 2021 will integrate a V Corps command post exercise in preparation for operations with a multi-national division. Allies and partners will participate in the chain of command, as well. Sean Kimmons, Army News Service (10 February 2021) V Corps to be put through its paces before reaching full operational capability this fall
/ref> In April 2019 Germany's 1st Armored Division took the role of exercise High Command (HICON) at Hohenfels Training Area, primarily for German 21st Armored Brigade, the Lithuanian Iron Wolf Brigade, and their subordinate units; 5,630 participants from 15 nations took part in this Joint multinational exercise, which rotates the lead among the coalition partners. Germany's 1st Armored Division already had Dutch, British and Polish officers within its ranks.Sgt. Christopher Stewart (April 8, 2019) Germany's 1st Armored Division Spearheads Allied Spirit X
/ref> The Army's 2nd Battalion, 34th Armored Regiment, took part in the exercise.Spc. Yon Henderson (April 17, 2019) Exercise brings American firepower to European partners
/ref> Six engineering advisor teams from 1st Security Force Assistance Brigade provided hands-on experience and testing of secure communications between NATO allies and partners.Capt. Jay Beeman, 5th Battalion, 1st Security Force Assistance Brigade (April 30, 2019) Combat advisor teams sharpen skills in multinational exercise
/ref> Sgt. Sean Harding (25 February 2020) 3rd SFAB and Kurdish Peshmerga work side by side to defeat threats
Peshmerga refers to the Iraqi Kurdish Army.
A reciprocal exchange of general officers between France and the US is taking place in 2019, under the U.S. Army Military Personnel Exchange Program (MPEP).Devon L. Suits, Army News Service (July 19, 2019) Building relationships, interoperability through exchange program
/ref>Sydney J. Freedberg, Jr. (25 Nov 2020) Budget Up, French Army Preps For Major Wargames With US
Wargames are all-out stress tests for command posts, but simulate troop levels. Planned for Warfighter 21-04.
Such programs with the UK, Australia, and Canada have already existed with the US. A reciprocal pact for US and UK capabilities in Future Vertical Lift aircraft and Long Range Precision Fires artillery was signed in July 2020.Paul McLeary and Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (15 July 2020) US & UK Ink Pact On Next-Gen Aircraft, Long-Range Missiles
/ref> The UK and Australia are planning to participate in the US Army's Project Convergence 2022.Thomas Brading, Army News Service (12 February 2021) Army scales up joint capabilities as Project Convergence grows
/ref> In 2020 the Secretary of the Army announced 5-month extended rotations to Indo-Pacific countries such as Thailand, the Philippines, and Papua New Guinea.Thomas Brading, Army News Service (13 January 2020) More deployments, stronger presence set for Pacific, says SecArmy
/ref> Multi-Domain Operations (MDO) task forces in the region have already been engaging in MDO-like exercises in concert with the armed forces of Japan, Thailand, and Singapore. Two Multi-domain task forces are being requested for Indo-Pacom for 2021.Paul McLeary (2 April 2020) EXCLUSIVE Indo-Pacom Chief’s Bold $20 Billion Plan For Pacific; What Will Hill Do?
/ref>Thomas Brading, Army News Service (21 May 2020) Talent management key to filling future specialized MDO units
I2CEWS battalion needs to be filled using the Assignment Interactive Module 2.0 (AIM 2.0)
Sean Kimmons, Army News Service (24 October 2019) TITAN system being developed to tie 'deep sensing' to long-range fires
For use in I2CEWS battalion of a Multi-domain task force
5th Security Force Assistance Brigade is regionally aligned with USINDOPACOM,Kyle Rempfer (30 May 2020) Final SFAB activates with upcoming missions in Asia, as Army plans a Pacific Pathways restart
"5th SFAB has hired 90 percent of its required troops"
and plans to keep one-third of the brigade's advisor teams there at all times, while the other teams train at home station (JBLM), for their assignments in the region.Kyle Rempfer (1 Mar 2021) Security force assistance brigade wants a third of its members in Indo-Pacific at all times
/ref> The third and fourth ABMS Onramp exercises of Joint all-domain command and control (JADC2) are being planned in 2020, and 2021 for INDOPACOM, and EUCOM respectively. Theresa Hitchens (7 May 2020) New Air Force deviceONE To Allow Remote Top-Secret Access For Services, IC
/ref> Theresa Hitchens (29 June 2020) Air Force Eyes European ABMS Demo In Spring
/ref>Colin Clark (12 Nov 2020) Dunlap Unveils First ‘Global’ ABMS Exercise
Linked together by XQ-58 drones in May 2021
This is meant to bring key US allies into the planning for the Joint All-Domain Operations Concept, thereby enabling their "participation in planning, execution and then debrief" after a coalition exerciseTheresa Hitchens (29 June 2020) Air Force Eyes European ABMS Demo In Spring
/ref> in overmatching the adversary,Theresa Hitchens (24 August 2020) ‘Bold Quest’ To Demo Allied Connectivity For All-Domain Ops
" '.. incorporate and demonstrate' elements of Joint All-Domain Command and Control ( JADC2) — the capability to link sensors to shooters across air, land, sea, space and cyberspace — into Bold Quest" — need a joint experimental C2 environment for allies to connect to.
and maintaining a Common operational picture (COP), to review measured responses, both kinetic and nonkinetic. The COVID-19 pandemic actually provided the impetus for rapid fielding of a DoD technology for separating Top secret, Secret, and Unclassified messaging, a necessary function for the Intelligence community.KELSEY ATHERTON (10 September 2020) NSA Prepares Unclassified Threat Reports — From Home
/ref> In 2021 an MDTF exercised its sensor-to-shooter capabilities in operational vignettes at Joint Systems Integration Lab (JSIL, Aberdeen MD). The JSIL connection of experimental networks with Army battle labs is a way to determine the bandwidth needed for these vignettes, to prepare Project Convergence 2021 for Joint All-Domain Command and Control (JADC2). DoD's Joint AI Center (JAIC) has convened 100 online participants from 13 countries to discuss how to use AI in a way that is consonant with their national ethical principles, termed the 'AI Partnership for Defense' in 2020.Col. Christopher Holshek, USA Ret. (19 August 2020) Expanding Multi-Domain Operations to Win Moral Competition
A recommendation —"integrate military-civilian physical and informational power"
Sydney J. Freedberg, Jr. (24 February 2020) DoD Adopts AI Ethics Principles — But How Will They Be Enforced?
/ref>Sydney J. Freedberg, Jr. (16 Sep 2020) Military AI Coalition Of 13 Countries Meets On Ethics
/ref> In 2020 Army Chief of Staff Gen. James C. McConville discussed the combination of Multi-domain operations (MDO) and Joint All-Domain Command and Control (JADC2) with Air Force Chief of Staff Gen. Charles Q. Brown.Joseph Lacdan, Army News Service (25 September 2020) Army to build on results from first Project Convergence exercise
/ref> On 2 October 2020 the Chief of Staff of the Army and the Chief of Staff of the Air Force signed a Memorandum of understanding (MOU) on Combined Joint All-Domain Command and Control (CJADC2) of the two services, a two-year agreement. Their staffs will meet again in 60 days to show their progress on connecting the Army's Project Convergence and the Air Force's ABMS into an Internet of Military Things in 2021.Sydney J. Freedberg, Jr. and Theresa Hitchens (9 October 2020) Army, Air Force Get Serious On JADC2: Joint Exercises In 2021
/ref> Gen. David Goldfein and Gen. Jay Raymond (28 Feb 2020) America’s future battle network is key to multidomain defense
JADC2: " We cannot yet share data in a seamless and simultaneous way between the Army, Air Force, Navy, Marine Corps or the Space Force"
Freedberg (14 Oct 2020) Army Seeks Open Architecture For All Air & Ground Systems: Jette
In the spirit of MOSA, JADC2, & Project convergence: *Army Common Operating Environment (COE) *C5ISR/EW Modular Open Suite of Standards (CMOSS) *Future Air-Borne Capability Environment (FACE) *Integrated Sensor Architecture (ISA) *Sensor Open Systems Architecture (SOSA) *Vehicle Integration for C4ISR/EW Interoperability (VICTORY)
Defender Pacific 2021 focuses on the southwest Pacific region.Sydney J. Freedberg, Jr. (19 Jan 2021) Facing Cuts, Army Chief Touts Pacific Role
/ref> The Army will draw from a pre-positioned stock for its units, exercise its watercraft and an MDTF's long range precision fires. The 2021 Secretary of Defense, Lloyd Austin, stated he expected to "review our posture in the Pacific from all aspects including presence, capabilities, logistics, exercises, infrastructure, and capacity building and cooperation with allies and partners" during his questioning by the Senate Armed Services Committee.Colin Clark (20 Jan 3031) Austin To Scrub US Pacific Posture; More Bases, Troops Likely
/ref> In April 2021, the Army announced EUCOM's Multi-domain task force (MDTF), and a Theater Fires Command are to deploy to the European Theater, and will be based in Wiesbaden, Germany. The Fires command is a headquarters to coordinate Long range fires (for ranges from 300 miles to thousands of miles) for the European theater.Sydney J. Freedberg, Jr. (13 Apr 2021) BREAKING New Army Long-Range Units Head To Germany
/ref>

Training and readiness

Under Schoomaker, combat training centers (CTCs) emphasized the contemporary operating environment (such as an urban, ethnically-sensitive city in Iraq) and stress units according to the unit mission and the commanders' assessments, collaborating often to support holistic collective training programs, rather than by exception as was formerly the case. Schoomaker's plan was to resource units based on the mission they are expected to accomplish (major combat versus SASO, or stability and support operations), regardless of component (active or reserve). Instead of using snapshot readiness reports, the Army now rates units based on the mission they are expected to perform given their position across the three force pools ('reset', 'train/ready', and 'available'). The Army now deploys units upon each commanders' signature on the certificate of their unit's assessment (''viz.'', Ready). As of June 2016, only one-third of the Army's brigades were ready to deploy.The Hon. David Norquist, Deputy Secretary of Defense, DoD (10 Sep 2020) Closing Keynote: Day 2
''Defense News Conference 2020 : Sept 9 - 10'' 22:00 minutes
By 2019, two-thirds of the Active Army's brigadesArpi Dilanian and Matthew Howard (April 1, 2019) The number one priority: An interview with Gen. Mark Milley
Readiness (both current and future)
and half of the BCTs of the Total Army (both Active and Reserve components) are now at the highest level of readiness.Thomas Brading, Army News Service (October 22, 2019) Half of BCTs now at highest level of readiness, as Army looks to add more
/ref> The FY2021 budget request allows two-thirds of the Total Army (1,012,200 Soldiers by 2022) to reach the highest level of readiness by FY2022 —Maj. Gen. Paul Chamberlain.Mark Cancian and Adam Saxton (14 February 2020) 2021 Budget Spells The End of US Force Expansion
Reduced topline $740.5 billion; Army remains at 31 BCTs, 5 SFABs, and 11 CABs.
Thomas Brading, Army News Service (19 February 2020) Army leaders save $1.2 billion to fund modernization push
After a set of 'Night court' cuts
:"Soldiers need to be readyReady Army
is a proactive campaign to increase Army community resilience and enhance force readiness by informing Soldiers, their Families, Army Civilians and contractors of relevant hazards, and encouraging them to *Be Informed, *Make A Plan, *Build a Kit and *Get Involved." ''see: DEFCON''
100 percent of the time."—Robert B. Abrams, FORSCOM commander, June 2, 2016 Chief of Staff Mark Milley's readiness objective is that all operational units be at 90 percent of the authorized strength in 2018, at 100 percent by 2021, and at 105 percent by 2023. David Vergun (October 9, 2018) Army readiness, lethality increasing amid troubled world, says chief of staff
/ref>Mark Cancian (25 March 2019) 2020 Budget: One Half Step Towards A Great Power Strategy
Notes Army's difficulty reaching end-strength objectives.
The observer coach/trainersSgt. LaShawna Custom, 32nd Army Air and Missile Defense Command (March 27, 2019) OC/Ts improved readiness during Roving Sands 19
Observer-Coach/Trainer
at the combat training centers, recruiters,Gary Sheftick, Army News Service (May 13, 2019) Large cities see jump in recruits
/ref> and drill sergeants are to be filled to 100 percent strength by the end of 2018.‘ AUSA (October 26, 2018) Atrophied’ Recruiting Strategy Being Overhauled
surge operation in 22 cities, 3 other actions
In November 2018, written deployability standards (Army Directive 2018-22) were set by the Secretary and the Chief of Staff of the Army; failure to meet the standard means a soldier has six months to remedy this, or face separation from the Army.Army Directive 2018-22 (8 Nov 2018) Retention Policy for Non-Deployable Soldiers Joe Lacdan, Army News Service (November 15, 2018) Non-deployable directive to help Army work toward more 'lethal' forceLaven2 (20 November 2018) Non-deployable directive to help Army work toward more lethal force
/ref> The directive does not apply to about 60,000 of the 1,016,000 Soldiers of the Army; 70-80 percent of the 60,000 are non-deployable for medical reasons. Non-deployables have declined from 121,000 in 2017. The Army combat fitness test (ACFT) will test all soldiers; Kyle Rempfer (1 September 2020) A 59-year-old Army and Marine vet, who served in Afghanistan, just graduated Army basic combat training
after a 10-year break in service. He went through Marine Corps boot camp in 1978
at the minimum, the 3-Repetition Maximum Deadlift, the Sprint-Drag-Carry and an aerobic event will be required of all soldiers, including those with profiles (meaning there is an annotation in their record ''See: PULHES Factor)''; the assessment of the alternative aerobic test will be completed by 19 October 2019.U.S. Army Center for Initial Military Training Staff (May 20, 2019) Army to conduct assessment of alternate ACFT events
/ref>

Soldier and Family Readiness Groups

Soldiers and Army spouses belong to Soldier and Family Readiness Groups (SFRGs),Office of the Assistant Chief of Staff for Installation Management Friday, (August 16, 2019) Soldier and Family Readiness Groups
/ref> Joe Lacdan, Army News Service (June 12, 2019) Army making improvements to Family Readiness Groups
/ref> renamed from (FRGs) Devon L. Suits (October 17, 2018) Study reveals impact of Army Families on retention, recruiting
When spouses favor Army life, 93% of Soldiers stay; but when spouses do not, 44% stay in the Army.
which mirror the command structure of an Army unit — the spouse of the 40th Chief of Staff of the United States Army has served on the FRG at every echelon of the Army. The US Army (Aug 9, 2019) Change of Responsibility Ceremony: Army Chief of staff and sergeant major of the Army
/ref> The name change to SFRG is to be more inclusive of single soldiers, single parents, and also those with nontraditional families. An S/FRG seeks to meet the needs of soldiers and their families, for example during a deployment, or to address privatized housing deficiencies,US Army (6 March 2019) US Military plans release of Tenant bill of rights
/ref> or to aid spouses find jobs.(6 Feb 2019) Senior leaders discuss upcoming moves to ease family concerns
Army to receive authorization for direct hires of personnel, e.g., childcare workers
As a soldier transfers in and out of an installation, the soldier's entire family will typically undergo a permanent change of station (PCS) to the next post. PCS to Europe and Japan is now uniformly for 36 months, regardless of family status Sean Kimmons, Army News Service (June 11, 2019) Army lengthens tours for Soldiers in Europe, Japan
/ref> (formerly 36 months for families). Transfers typically follow the cycle of the school year to minimize disruption in an Army family. By policy, DoD families stationed in Europe and Japan who have school-aged children are served by American school systems— the Department of Defense Dependents Schools.Winifred Brown (20 May 2020) Retiring Camp Zama teacher reflects on 33 years of service
/ref> Noncombatant evacuation operations are a contingency which an FRG could publicize and plan for, should the need arise. When a family emergency occurs, the informal support of that unit's S/FRG is available to the soldier.Strangers as family 32nd AAMDC helps Soldier, family, in need
/ref> (But the Army Emergency Relief fund is available to any soldier with a phone call to their local garrison. Seventy-five Fisher Houses maintain home-away-from-home suites for families undergoing medical treatment of a loved one. The Army, Navy, and Air Force Medical Treatment Facilities (MTFs) are scheduled to complete their transfer to the Defense Health Agency (DHA) no later than 21 October 2021. This has been a ten-year process. The directors of each home installation's Medical treatment facility (MTF) continue to report to the commanders of their respective installations. This change transfers all civilian employees of each Medical treatment facility (MTF) to the Defense Health Agency (DHA).Army.mil Stand-to: Headquarters, U.S. Army Surgeon General (Friday, 24 January 2020) Transfer of Army Medical Treatment Facilities
(MTFs) to Defense Health Agency (DHA), no later than (NLT) 21 October 2021.
Sean Kimmons, Army News Service (6 December 2019) Surgeon general reaffirms promise of quality care during DHA transfer
/ref>) The name change links Soldier Readiness with Family Readiness. Commanders will retain full responsibility for Soldier sponsorship after a move, especially for first term Soldiers in that move. Devon L. Suits, Army News Service (15 August 2019) Army makes changes to Total Army Sponsorship Program
/ref> In response to Army tenant problems with privatized base housing, IMCOM was subordinated to Army Materiel Command (AMC) on 8 March 2019.Army News Service (11 Feb 2019) Installation Management Command to realign under Army Materiel Command
*"We are deeply troubled by the recent reports highlighting the deficient conditions in some of our family housing. It is unacceptable for our families who sacrifice so much to have to endure these hardships in their own homes."—Secretary of the Army, Dr. Mark T. Esper and Chief of Staff of the Army, Gen. Mark A. Milley
(2019 summary) Reuters special report on military housing
/ref>Army Public Affairs (2 October 2019) Army senior leaders discuss progress in reforming the Military Privatized Housing InitiativeU.S. Army Public Affairs (27 September 2019) Lt. Gen. Jason Evans confirmed as Army's new Deputy Chief of Staff, G-9
'DCS, G-9' was formerly known as the Assistant Chief of Staff for Installation Management (ACSIM)
By 2020, AMC's commander and the Residential community initiative (RCI) groups had formulated a 50-year plan. The Army's RCI groups, "seven private housing companies, which have 50-year lease agreements" on 98% of Army housing at 44 installations, will work with the Army for long-term housing improvements,Kari Hawkins, AMC (21 January 2020) Army focuses on making installations number one choice for military families
/ref>U.S. Army Public Affairs (6 February 2020) Army Secretary Ryan D. McCarthy, other service secretaries, meet with housing executives
Lists 7 measures
Devon L. Suits, Army News Service (March 4, 2020) DOD working to add key provisions to tenant bill of rights
3 more provisions sought: "a dispute resolution process, the right to withhold rent until a dispute is resolved, and access to a building's maintenance history before the move-in date"
and remediation. In 2020 Secretary McCarthy determined that the Sexual Harassment/Assault Response & Prevention (SHARP) program has failed to meet its mandate,Haley Britzky (19 Nov 2020) The Army’s ‘complete failure’ led to this private’s suicide after she was sexually assaulted, parents say
/ref> particularly for young unmarried Soldiers at Fort Hood and Camp Casey, South Korea.Ryan Morgan (8 Dec 2020) Video: Army Secretary says Army’s sexual assault prevention program ‘hasn’t achieved its mandate’
/ref> Missing soldiers were previously classified as Absent without leave until enough time has elapsed to be denoted deserters, rather than victims of a crime; the Army has established a new classification for missing Soldiers, to merit police investigation.https://federalnewsnetwork.com/army/2020/10/army-will-now-assume-soldiers-are-missing-and-not-awol-after-multiple-deaths-this-summer/ Scott Maucione (16 Oct 2020) Army will now assume soldiers are missing and not AWOL after multiple deaths this summer The U.S. Army (8 Dec 2020) Secretary of the Army McCarthy addresses the report of the Fort Hood Independent Review Committee
/ref> U.S. Army (8 Dec 2020) Army Senior Leader Message to the Force(8 Dec 2020) Independent Review Timeline

U.S. Army (8 Dec 2020) Secretary McCarthy holds Fort Hood Leaders Accountable, Announces New Investigations
detailing actions taken, at III Corps, 1st Cavalry Division, 3rd Cavalry Regiment, 6th Military Police Group (Criminal Investigation Command)
In response to the report of the Fort Hood Independent Review Committee, the Army has established the People first task force (PFTF), an Army-wide task force that is headed by 3 chairs: 1) Lt. Gen. Gary M. Brito, 2) Diane M. Randon, and 3) Sgt. Maj. Julie A.M. Guerra, who are: 1) the deputy chief of staff G-1, 2) the assistant deputy chief of staff G-2, and 3) the assistant deputy chief of staff G-2 Sgt. Maj. respectively.Devon Suits (21 Dec 2020) People first: New task force seeks Army-wide changes
/ref>

USAR mobilization

:''See: Soldier Readiness Processing'' Plans are being formulated for mobilization of the Army Reserve (42,000 to 45,000 soldiers) very quickly. For example, 'Ready Force X' (RFX) teams have fielded Deployment Assistance Team Command and Control Cells to expedite the associated equipment to the various ports and vessels which is required for the specific Reserve personnel who have been notified that they are deploying. FORSCOM's mobilization and force generation installations (MFGIs) have fluctuated from two primaryCapt. Joselyn Sydnor, 653rd Regional Support Group (July 17, 2019) Bliss MSF ROC drill tests MFGI capabilities
Mobilization Support Force (MSF).
installations (2018) to an envisioned eleven primary and fourteen contingency MFGIs, in preparation for future actions against near-peers.Sgt. 1st Class Brent Powell (September 26, 2019) Reserve brigade marks historic first with multi-state field training exerciseCapt. Joselyn Sydnor (October 2, 2019) 30th ABCT mobilization identifies challenges, successes of expansion
653rd Regional Support Group was mobilized as the Fort Bliss Mobilization Brigade; the mobilization of 30th ABCT was used to test out the mobilization process of the reserve component of the Army.
Linda Gerron (28 August 2020) U.S. Army Reserve aviation brigade adapts to COVID-19 challenges by conducting local command post exercise
11th ECAB local command post exercise without downtrace units


National Guard training

The 29th chief of the National Guard Bureau, as director of the Army National Guard, plans to align existing ARNG divisions with subordinate training formations.Staff Report, National Guard Bureau (1 August 2020) Army National Guard to establish eight Divisions by aligning existing ARNG Division Headquarters with down-trace formations for training
/ref> This plan increases the number of divisions in the Total Army from 10 to 18, and increases the readiness of the National Guard divisions, by aligning their training plans with large-scale combat operations. Additional advantages of the August 2020 plan are increased opportunity for talent management, from the Company to the Division level, and opportunity for leader development unfettered by geographical restriction.

"Associated units" training program

The Army announced a pilot program, 'associated units', in which a National Guard or Reserve unit would now train with a specific active Army formation. These units would wear the patch of the specific Army division before their deployment to a theater; 36th Infantry Division (United States) headquarters deployed to Afghanistan in May 2016 for a train, advise, assist mission. The Army Reserve, whose headquarters are colocated with FORSCOM, and the National Guard, are testing the associated units program in a three-year pilot program with the active Army. The program will use the First Army training roles at the Army Combat Training Centers at Fort Irwin, Fort Polk, and regional and overseas training facilities. The pilot program complements FORSCOM's total force partnerships with the National Guard, begun in 2014. Summer 2016 will see the first of these units. *Associated units ** 3rd Infantry BCT, 10th Mountain Division, stationed at Fort Polk, Louisiana, associated with the 36th Infantry Division, Texas Army National Guard ** 48th Infantry BCT, Georgia ARNG, associated with the 3rd Infantry Division, Stationed at Fort Stewart, Georgia ** 86th Infantry BCT, Vermont ARNG, associated with the 10th Mountain Division, stationed at Fort Drum, New York ** 81st Armored BCT, Washington ARNG, associated with the 7th Infantry Division, stationed at Joint Base Lewis-McChord, Washington ** Task Force 1-28th Infantry Battalion., 3rd Infantry Division, stationed at Fort Benning, Georgia, associated with the 48th Infantry BCT, Georgia Army National Guard ** 100th Battalion, 442nd Infantry Regiment, USAR, associated with the 3rd Infantry BCT, 25th Infantry Division, stationed at Schofield Barracks, Hawaii ** 1st Battalion (Airborne), 143rd Infantry Regiment Texas ARNG, associated with the 173rd Airborne BCT, stationed in Vicenza, Italy ** 1st Battalion, 151st Infantry Regiment, Indiana ARNG, associated with the 2nd Infantry BCT, 25th Infantry Division, stationed at Schofield Barracks ** 5th Engineer Battalion, stationed at Fort Leonard Wood, Missouri, associated with the 35th Engineer Brigade, Missouri ARNG ** 840th Engineer Company, Texas ARNG, associated with the 36th Engineer Brigade, stationed at Fort Hood, Texas ** 824th Quartermaster Company, USAR, associated with the 82nd Airborne Division's Sustainment Brigade, stationed at Fort Bragg, North Carolina ** 249th Transportation Company, Texas ARNG, associated with the 1st Cavalry Division's Sustainment Brigade., stationed in Fort Hood ** 1245th Transportation Company, Oklahoma ARNG, associated with the 1st Cavalry Division's Sustainment Brigade., stationed in Fort Hood ** 1176th Transportation Company, Tennessee ARNG, associated with the 101st Airborne Division's Sustainment Brigade, stationed at Fort Campbell, Kentucky ** 2123rd Transportation Company, Kentucky ARNG, associated with the 101st Airborne Division's Sustainment Brigade, stationed at Fort Campbell

Rifleman training

Soldiers train for weapons handling, and marksmanship first individually, on static firing ranges, and then on simulators such as an Engagement Skills Trainer (EST). More advanced training on squad level simulators (Squad Advanced Marksmanship-Trainer (SAMT)) place a squad in virtual engagements against avatars of various types,Capt. Matthew Pargett (March 25, 2019) Squad tactics tested on new virtual marksmanship trainer
/ref> using M4 carbine, M249 light machine gun and M9 Beretta pistol simulated weapon systems. Home stations are to receive Synthetic training environments (STEs) for mission training, as an alternative to rotations to the National Combat Training Centers, which operate Brigade-level training against an Opposing force (OPFOR) with near-peer equipment. Some installations have urban training facilities for infantrymen, in preparation for Brigade-level training.Sgt. Brandon Banzhaf (April 24, 2019) Focus on teamwork, education helps build a squad of infantrymen
/ref> A 2019 marksmanship manual "TC 3-20.40, Training and Qualification-Individual Weapons" (the ''Dot-40'') now mandates the use of the simulators,Franklin Fisher (August 22, 2019) Army overhauls small arms training with tougher standards, combat-like rigor
/ref> as if the Soldier were in combat. The Dot-40 is to be used by the entire Army, from the Cadets at West Point, to the Active Army, the Army Reserve, and Army National Guard; the Dot-40 tests how rapidly Soldiers can load and reload while standing, kneeling, lying prone, and firing from behind a barrier. The marksmanship tests of a Soldier's critical thinking, selecting targets to shoot at, in which order, and the accuracy of each shot are recorded by the simulators.

Stryker training

Up to a platoon-sized unit of a Stryker brigade combat team, and dismounted infantry, can train on Stryker simulators (Stryker Virtual Collective Trainer - SVCT), which are in the process of being installed at 8 home stations. The 4th is being completed.Joanna Bradley, CCDC Aviation & Missile Center Public Affairs (April 18, 2019) Aviation, Missile Center teams develops Stryker simulator
/ref> Forty-five infantrymen (4 Stryker shells) or thirty-six scouts (6 Stryker shells) can rehearse their battle rhythm on a virtual battlefield, record their lessons learned, give their after-action reports, and repeat, as a team. The Stryker gunner's seat comes directly from a Stryker vehicle and has a Common Remotely Operated Weapon Station (CROWS) and joystick to control a virtual .50 caliber machine gun or a virtual 30 mm autocannon. Other CROWS configurations are possible. Sgt. Jeff Clements, Virginia National Guard (11 September 2020) VNG Soldiers train on CROWS remote weapons system
/ref>

Digital air ground integration ranges (DAGIRs)

Live-fire digital air ground integration ranges (DAGIRs) were first conceptualized in the 1990s, and established in 2012,Juliet Van Wagenen (October 10, 2014) Lockheed Martin Delivers Digital Air Ground Integration Range to US Army
/ref> with follow-on in 2019.Eric Pilgrim, Fort Knox News (July 22, 2019) Army to break ground on Digital Air-Ground Integration Range this fall
/ref> The ranges initially included 23 miles of tank trails,Sundt Orogrande (2013 est.) Digital Air Ground Integration Range (DAGIR)
/ref> targets, battlefield effects simulators, and digital wiring for aerial scorekeeping. These ranges are designed for coordinating air and ground exercises before full-on sessions at the National Training Centers.

Training against OPFORs

To serve a role as an Opposing force (OPFOR) could be a mission for an Army unit, as temporary duty (TDY), during which they might wear old battle dress uniforms, perhaps inside-out.Mark Price (27 February 2020) Elaborate unconventional warfare exercise set for undisclosed sites in North Carolina
JFK Special Warfare school: acting as guerrilla freedom fighters
TRADOC's Mission Command Training Program, as well as Cyber Command designs tactics for these OPFORs. When a brigade trains at Fort Irwin, Fort Polk, or Joint Multinational Training Center (in Hohenfels, Germany) the Army tasks 11th Armored Cavalry Regiment, 1st Battalion, 509th Infantry Regiment (Abn), and 1st Battalion, 4th Infantry Regiment, respectively, with the OPFOR role,Mario J. Hoffmann (October 1, 2018) Modernizing the Army's OPFOR program to become a near-peer sparring partner
/ref> and provides the OPFOR with modern equipment (such as the FGM-148 Javelin) to test that brigade's readiness for deployment. Multiple integrated laser engagement systems serve as proxies for actual fired weapons, and Soldiers are lost to the commander from "kills" by laser hits.Jim Smilie (6 Sep 2018) Louisiana Army National Guard gears up for potential deployment in 2020
256th IBCT in XCTC training in 2018 against OPFORs, then JRTC in 2020.


Training against cyber

Deceptive data intended to divide deployed forces are making their way into the news feeds, and are falsely implicating actual soldiers who are deployed at the time of the false social media reports, which are mixing fact and fiction.Gina Harkins (16 Aug 2020) Fake News Is Wreaking Havoc on the Battlefield. Here's What the Military's Doing About It
/ref> Theresa Hitchens (19 Aug 2020) Air & Space Forces Add Cyber To All-Domain Ops Data Library
/ref> The Army now has its 10th direct-commissioned cyber officer: a Sergeant First Class with a computer engineering degree, and a masters in system engineering was commissioned a Major in the National Guard, 91st Cyber Brigade, on 30 July 2020.

Soldier integration facility

PEO Soldier has established a Soldier integration facility (SIF) at Fort Belvoir which allows prototyping and evaluation of combat capabilities for the Army Soldier.Todd South (7 Aug 2020) New Army soldier facility combines tech to sharpen soldier-squad lethality
/ref> CCDC Soldier center in Natick Massachusetts, Night Vision Lab at Fort Belvoir Virginia, and Maneuver Battle Lab at Fort Benning Georgia have prototyped ideas at the SIF.


Applications for Synthetic Training Environment (STE)


The Squad Advanced Marksmanship Training (SAMT) system, developed by the STE Cross-functional team from Futures Command, has an application for 1st SFAB.Patti Bielling, Synthetic Training Environment CFT (June 11, 2019) 1st SFAB Soldiers hone close combat skills on Army's newest virtual trainer
/ref> Bluetooth enabled replicas of M4 rifles and M9 and Glock 19 pistols, with compressed air recoil approximate the form, fit and function of the weapons that the Soldiers are using in close combat. For 1st SFAB, scenarios included virtual reality attacks which felt like engagements in a room. The scenarios can involve the entire SFAB Advisor team, and engagements can be repeated over and over again. Advanced marksmanship skills such as firing with the non-dominant hand, and firing on the move can be practiced. Nine Army sites are now equipped with the SAMT. Over twenty systems are planned for locations in the United States. The Close combat tactical trainers are in use, for example, to train 3rd Infantry Division headquarters for a gunnery training event (convoy protection role),Spc. William Griffen (20 February 2020) HHBN masters the fundamentals of convoy escort
/ref> and 2nd BCT/ 82nd Airborne close combat training. *"A simulation places leadership teams in a situation akin to a Combat Training Center rotation, an intellectually and emotionally challenging environment that forgives the mistakes of the participants"—Dr. Charles K. Pickar Dr. Charles K. Pickar, Naval Postgraduate School (October 29, 2019) An exercise to experience
Experential learning
Army ALT Magazine (January 29, 2019) Then And Now: Training for the Future
—Retired Gen. Peter W. Chiarelli, 32nd vice chief of staff of the Army: "I believe that a training environment .. should be a maneuver trainer, and it should be a gunnery trainer."
*"It is important for Soldiers to have an open and clear mind during the simulation so that they learn something from the experience."—Tim Glaspie *"Repetition increases a team’s situational understanding of the tactics they’ll use ..."—Maj. Anthony Clas Other training environments include MANPADS for SHORAD in the 14P MOS at Fort Sill.Army rebuilding short-range air defense Gary Sheftick, Army News Service (July 2, 2019) Army rebuilding short-range air defense
Manpads training for 14P MOS using synthetic training environment (STE)


Deployment scheme

The force generation system, posited in 2006 by General Schoomaker, projected that the U.S. Army would be deployed continuously. The Army would serve as an expeditionary force to fight a protracted campaign against terrorism and stand ready for other potential contingencies across the full-spectrum of operations (from humanitarian and stability operations to major combat operations against a conventional foe). Under ideal circumstances, Army units would have a minimum "dwell time," a minimum duration of which it would remain at home station before deployment. Active-duty units would be prepared to deploy once every three years. Army Reserve units would be prepared to deploy once every five years. National Guard units would be prepared to deploy once every six years. A total of 71 combat brigades would form the Army's rotation basis, 42 from the active component with the balance from the reserves. Thus, around 15 active-duty combat brigades would be available for deployment each year under the 2006 force-generation plan. An additional 4 or 5 brigades would be available for deployment from the reserve component. The plan was designed to provide more stability to soldiers and their families. Within the system, a surge capability would exist so that about an additional 18 brigades could be deployed in addition to the 19 or 20 scheduled brigades. From General Dan McNeil, former Army Forces Command (FORSCOM) Commander: Within the Army Forces Generation (ARFORGEN) model, brigade combat teams (BCTs) would move through a series of three force pools;GEN Charles C. Campbell (June 2009), "ARFORGEN
Maturing the Model, Refining the Process". ''Army Magazine'', AUSA.org
they would enter the model at its inception, the "reset force pool", upon completion of a deployment cycle. There they would re-equip and reman while executing all individual predeployment training requirements, attaining readiness as quickly as possible. Reset or "R" day, recommended by FORSCOM and approved by Headquarters, Department of the Army, would be marked by BCT changes of command, preceded or followed closely by other key leadership transitions. While in the reset pool, formations would be remanned, reaching 100% of mission required strength by the end of the phase, while also reorganizing and fielding new equipment, if appropriate. In addition, it is there that units would be confirmed against future missions, either as deployment expeditionary forces (DEFs-BCTs trained for known operational requirements), ready expeditionary forces (REFs-BCTs that form the pool of available forces for short-notice missions) or contingency expeditionary forces (CEFs-BCTs earmarked for contingency operations). Based on their commanders' assessments, units would move to the ready force pool, from which they could deploy should they be needed, and in which the unit training focus would be at the higher collective levels. Units would enter the available force pool when there is approximately one year left in the cycle, after validating their collective mission-essential task list proficiency (either core or theater-specific tasks) via battle-staff and dirt-mission rehearsal exercises. The available phase would be the only phase with a specified time limit: one year. Not unlike the division-ready brigades of past decades, these formations would deploy to fulfill specific requirements or stand ready to fulfill short-notice deployments within 30 days. The goal was to generate forces 12–18 months in advance of combatant commanders' requirements and to begin preparing every unit for its future mission as early as possible in order to increase its overall proficiency. Personnel management would also be reorganized as part of the Army transformation. Previously, personnel was managed on an individual basis in which soldiers were rotated without regard for the effect on unit cohesion. This system required unpopular measures such as "stop loss" and "stop move" in order to maintain force levels. In contrast, the new personnel system would operate on a unit basis to the maximum extent possible, with the goal of allowing teams to remain together longer and enabling families to establish ties within their communities. Abrams 2016 noted that mid-level Army soldiers found they faced an unexpected uptempo in their requirements, while entry-level soldiers in fact welcomed the increased challenge.

Sustainable Readiness Model

This model is "a structured progression of increased unit readiness over time, resulting in recurring periods of availability of trained, ready, and cohesive units prepared for operational deployment in support of geographic Combatant Commander requirements". Sean Kimmons (October 11, 2018) Second phase of Multi-Domain Task Force pilot headed to Europe
/ref> ARFORGEN was replaced by the Sustainable Readiness Model (SRM) in 2017. Office of the Chief of Public Affairs (Wednesday, October 4, 2017) Readiness 2017
/ref>Capt. Clare Saxton and 1st Lt. Getoar Luzha (November 20, 2017) 2nd Cavalry Regiment Stryker common chassis course
/ref> In 2016 the Chief of Staff of the Army identified the objective of a sustainable readiness process as over 66 percent of the Active Army in combat ready state at any time;CSA Mark Milley (20 Jan 2016) Army Readiness Guidance, 2016/2017
/ref> in 2019 the readiness objective of the National Guard and Army Reserve units was set to be 33 percent; Total Army readiness for deployment was 40 percent in 2019. In 2018 Chief of Staff Mark Milley's readiness objective is that all operational units be at 90 percent of the authorized strength in 2018, at 100 percent by 2021, and at 105 percent by 2023. The observer coach/trainers at the combat training centers, recruiters, and drill sergeants are to be filled to 100 percent strength by the end of 2018. The requested strength of the Active Army in FY2020 is increasing by 4,000 additional troops from the current 476,000 soldiers; this request covers the near-term needs for cyber, air & missile defense, and fires (Army modernization).ASA(ALT)br>Weapon Systems Handbook 2018update
Page 32 lists how this handbook is organized. 440 pages. *By Modernization priority *By Acquisition or Business System category (ACAT or BSC). The Weapon systems in each ACAT are sorted alphabetically by Weapon system name. Each weapon system might also be in several variants (Lettered); a weapon system's variants might be severally and simultaneously in the following phases of its Life Cycle, namely — °Materiel Solution Analysis; °Technology Maturation & Risk Reduction; °Engineering & Manufacturing Development; °Production & Deployment; °Operations & Support *ACAT I, II, III, IV are defined on page 404
The Acting CG of FORSCOM, Lt. Gen. Laura Richardson, has noted that the Sustainable Readiness Model uses the Army standard for maintenance readiness, denoted ''TM 10/20'', which makes commanders responsible for maintaining their equipment to the TM 10/20 standard, meaning that "all routine maintenance is executed and all deficiencies are repaired".HEARING BEFORE THE COMMITTEE ON ARMED SERVICES. UNITED STATES SENATE, ONE HUNDRED FOURTEENTH CONGRESS,FIRST SESSION (MARCH 25, 2015) THE CURRENT STATE OF READINESS OF U.S.FORCES IN REVIEW OF THE DEFENSE AUTHORIZATION REQUEST FOR FISCAL YEAR 2016 AND THE FUTURE YEARS DEFENSE PROGRAM
/ref> But Richardson has also spoken out about aviation-related supplier deficiencies hurting readiness both at the combatant commands and at the home stations.Sydney J. Freedberg, Jr. (April 17, 2019) Army Tells Shoddy Suppliers: Shape Up
/ref>Miles Brown (April 18, 2019) AMCOM transforming to support multi-domain operations
Bill Marriott: the aviation LCMC is responsible
The Regionally aligned readiness and modernization model (ReARMM) introduced in October 2020, is a force generation model which uses the total Army, the Reserve components as well as Active component when planning.Headquarters, Deputy Chief of Staff, G-3-5-7 (16 October 2020) Regionally Aligned Readiness and Modernization ModelAUSA (9 Nov 2020) AUSA 2020 CMF 6 - Regionally Aligned Readiness and Modernization Model (ReARMM)
video clip
Dynamic force employment (DFE) will be used more often.


Prepositioned stocks


Army Materiel Command (AMC), which uses Army Field Support Brigades (AFSBs) to provision the Combatant Commands, has established Army prepositioned stocks (APS) for supplying entire Brigade Combat Teams (BCTs),(2008) Army Prepositioned Stocks: Indispensable to America’s Global Force-projection Capability
/ref> at several areas of responsibility (AORs):Megan Cotton (June 6, 2019) Ensuring Readiness for Strategic Support: Strategic Power Projection
/ref> *APS-1 is Continental US (CONUS) *APS-2 in EUCOM, using several sites,Spc. Elliott Page (3 February 2020) Coleman Barracks Army Prepositioned Stock Site DEFENDER-Europe 20 Movement
/ref>Col. Rodney H. Honeycutt, Richard A. Bezold, and Robin T. Dothager (September 5, 2017) Establishing Europe's Army pre-positioned stocks
/ref> will accelerate the flow of up-to-date materiel there, to forward-operating sites.Lt. Col. Edward A. Fraser and Command Sgt. Maj. Robert V. Abernethy (April 1, 2019) Strong Europe: A continental-scale combat sustainment laboratory
includes Euler diagram of European alliances, partners, competitors
Paul McLeary (3 July 2019) US Upgrades Ukrainian Ports To Fit American Warships
Maritime Operations Centers at Ochakiv and Mykolaiv
*APS-3 in Pacific Ocean, uses ocean-going vessels.ASC Public Affairs release (9 September 25, 2012) Army strategic flotilla
/ref> *# The materiel positioning is allocated under the Calibrated force posture:Jen Judson (October 2020) Video: AUSA Interview: Gen. James McConville On Prepositioned Stock In The Pacific
/ref> *# Some materiel will be drawn by units under the Dynamic force employment (DFE) initiative *# Some troop units will be forward deployed *# Some troop units will rotate in *# Some prepositioned stock is under discussion with specific nations with agreements to be announced (currently classified as of October 2020) *# An SFAB is allocated to the Pacific AoR *APS-4 in NE Asia *APS-5 in CENTCOM's Camp Arifjan, Kuwait,Justin Graff, 401st AFSB Public Affairs (December 16, 2017) AMC deputy commander assesses APS-5 readiness, combat configuration
/ref> and SW Asia By 2020 AMC had seven Army prepositioned stocks.Devon L. Suits, Army News Service (10 February 2020) AMC evaluating power-projection capabilities in Defender-Europe 2020
Defender Pacific 2021 is in planning stage. To support readiness, 3-D printing rights are under negotiation.
Medical readiness is being tested by the U.S. Army Medical Materiel Agency, an LCMC. The LCMCs are stocking three additional locations in the US (APS-1), as well as APS-2 (EUCOM), and Korea, as of 12 February 2019. For example, during Operation Spartan Shield, the LCMC's relevant AFSB effected the hand-off of prepositioned stocks to 155th Armored Brigade Combat Team (ABCT) within 96 hours. In the same Operation, 155th ABCT was issued an entire equipment set for an ABCT, drawn from APS-5 stocks, over 13,000 pieces.

Air Defense Artillery deployments

On 27 March 2018 the 678th Air Defense Artillery Brigade (South Carolina National Guard) deployed to EUCOM, Ansbach Germany for a nine-month rotation, for the first time since the Cold War. Kyle Rempfer (2 April 2018) US air defense artillery brigade begins new European mission for first time since Cold War
/ref> 10th AAMDC is the executive agent for EUCOM. In September 2018, the ''Wall Street Journal'' reported that four Patriot systems— Two from Kuwait, and one apiece from Jordan and Bahrain are redeploying back to the U.S. for refurbishment and upgrades, and will not be replaced.Michael Bachner (26 September 2018) US said to pull Patriot air-defense systems from Mideast as threats shift
/ref>

Forward-deployed materiel

As the U.S. Army's only forward-deployed Airborne brigade, 173rd Airborne Brigade Combat Team, stationed in EUCOM, was supplied with new communications materiel — Integrated Tactical Networks (ITN) in 2018. New ground combat vehicles, the Infantry Carrier Vehicle - Dragoon (ICVD) are being supplied to 2nd Cavalry Regiment. ICVDs are Strykers with an unmanned turret and 30 mm autocannon (CROWS), and an integrated commander's station, upgraded suspension and larger tires.Spc. Kelsey VanFleet (September 28, 2018) US Army Europe: Modernizing at the tip of the spear
/ref>Jeff Martin (2019/10/22) Video: 30mm cannons and a new network: Here's what the Stryker brigade of the future will look like
Video interview, Col. William Venable
The Army brigades of EUCOM have been in position for testing materiel, as its elements engaged in a 2018 road march through Europe, training with 19 ally and partner nations in Poland in 2018.

Dynamic force employment

This initiative, designed by then-DoD-Secretary James Mattis, exercises the ability of selected BCTs to rapidly surge combat-ready forces into a theater, such as EUCOM, on short notice.John Vandiver, Defense Media Activity (27 March 2019) Soldiers head to Europe: Pentagon sends Fort Bliss troops on snap deployment
/ref> In several such cases, at the direction of the Secretary of Defense in March 2019, troops were rapidly alerted, recalled and deployed to a forward position, under (simulated) emergency conditions, to prove a capability (such as an ABCT, and a THAAD battery) David Burge (20 March 2019) B-2 THAAD deploys to Israel: 11th ADA Bde. unit participates in joint rapid deployment exercise
/ref>Capt. Robert N Durr 10th AAMDC (March 14, 2019
U.S. Deploys THAAD to Israel
/ref>Capt. Aaron Smith, 174th Air Defense Artillery Brigade (17 April 2019) USEUCOM concludes 11th ADA, THAAD task force deployment to Israel
/ref> against near-peers.Sgt. 1st Class Jason Epperson (May 22, 2019) US deploys THAAD anti-missile system in first deployment to Romania
/ref> The ABCT element next participated in a joint live-fire exercise with Polish troops of the 12th Mechanized Brigade, 12th Mechanised Division (Poland) in Drawsko Pomorskie Training Area, Poland.Spc. Christina Westover, 24th TPASE (April 10, 2019) Eurovision 2nd ABCT Soldiers, Polish 12th Mech. display might
/ref> (A Mission Command element of TRADOC served in the role of echelon-above-brigade for the maneuver and interoperability of the joint multi-national armored brigades.) In September 2018, the 278th Armored Cavalry Regiment had already assumed a forward deployment in Poland.Sgt Sarah Kirby 278th Armored Cavalry Regiment, Tennessee Army National Guard (September 2018) Tenn. Army National Guard Assumes Responsibility of NATO’s eFP Battle Group Poland!
/ref>Sean Kimmons, Army News Service (May 6, 2019) New capabilities, rotations to bolster Army presence in Eastern Europe
/ref> Poland and the US are planning for regular rotations going forward.U.S. Army Sgt. Kyle Larsen, 5th Mobile Public Affairs Detachment (June 27, 2019) 174th ADA and NATO demonstrate lethality over 16-day span
Tobruq Legacy 2019 (TOLY19) Ustka, Poland
Paul McLeary (December 13, 2019) Defense Chief: With Giant Exercise Looming, Poland Looks To Lead Central Europe
/ref>Paul McLeary (24 June 2020) Poland Talks New Bases As Duda Meets At White House
/ref> Similar initiatives are planned for other alliances.Sydney J. Freedberg, Jr. (June 13, 2019) Poland Deal Lays Groundwork For Division-Strength Deployment
A division-scale exercise next year in Europe, Defender 2020, will be the largest in a quarter-century. Establishes 7 major elements going forward beyond 2020.
In August 2020 Poland agreed to pay almost all costs associated with US presence in the country;Paul McLeary (3 August 2020) Poland Agrees To Pay Almost All Costs of US Troop Presence
/ref> a forward command post for V Corps in Poland has been codified in an Enhanced Defense Cooperation Agreement between the US and Poland.Kyle Rempfer (4 Aug 2020) Army’s resurrected V Corps will go to Poland
5500 US troops now authorized for Poland. Rotational forces of 200 troops from V Corps will staff the forward command post, out of a 630-member HHBN based at Fort Knox Kentucky.
Meghann Myers and Kyle Rempfer (4 Aug 2020) With the Germany withdrawal, Poland is set to be hosting a lot more US troops
/ref> Meghann Myers , Aaron Mehta , and Sebastian Sprenger (29 Jul 2020) Thousands of troops are coming home from Germany, but some of them could be going right back
FORSCOM exercised its Emergency deployment readiness exercises (EDREs) in 2019 by sending 2nd Brigade Combat Team, 10th Mountain Division to the Joint Readiness Training Center in Fort Polk LA by sealift, simultaneously exercising the logistics planners at Fort Drum, the seaports in Philadelphia PA, and Port Arthur TX as well as 2nd BCT.Arpi Dilantsian and Matthew Howard (April 1, 2019) Plan, prepare, practice: An interview with Lt. Gen. Laura Richardson
/ref> Through the EDRE program, 20 of the ports have been exercised to ready them for sealift deployments. A division-sized move of 20,000 pieces of equipment from the US to Europe began a month-long process in January 2020.U.S. Army Public Affairs (21 January 2020) Army begins movement for Defender-Europe 20 exercise
/ref> Sgt. 1st Class Kelvin Ringold (16 January 2020) 'Wolfpack' prepares for DEFENDER mission
13th Expeditionary Sustainment Command (ESC)
In 2020 the pre-COVID-19 plan was "wide-spanning maneuvers will focus on the Baltic States, Poland, and Georgia" (at the time) which would have involved 36,000 troops from 11 countries ranging from the Baltic to the Black Seas, a number still in flux. A number of the Defender-2020 objectives were met in 2020, despite a 60-day travel ban by DoD. By 2020 the 27th Secretary of Defense signaled that ABMS, its Internet of Military Things, and JADC2 were important parts for Dynamic force employment (DFE) in the Joint All-domain Operations Concept.Theresa Hitchens (16 Sep 2020) Esper Signals Importance Of All Domain & ABMS At AFA
/ref> The Combatant commanders at Eucom, and at IndoPacom seek the AGM-183A (ARRW) hypersonic weapon on the bomber fleet for Dynamic force employment. Theresa Hitchens (16 Sep 2020) Ray Wants ARRW ‘Soonest’ For B-52, B-1
/ref>

Force size and unit organization

Overall, the Army would end up with 71 brigade combat teams and 212 support brigades, in the pre-2013 design. The Regular Army would move from 33 brigade combat teams in 2003 to 43 brigade combat teams together with 75 modular support brigades, for a total of 118 Regular Army modular brigades. In addition the previously un-designated training brigades such as the Infantry Training Brigade at Fort Benning assumed the lineage & honors of formerly active Regular Army combat brigades. In 2017 there were 31 brigade combat teams in the Active Army. Within the Army National Guard, there were to be 28 brigade combat teams and 78 support brigades. Within the Army Reserve, the objective was 59 support brigades.(Chief of Staff Mark Milley credits a previous Chief, Creighton Abrams, for placing most of the support brigades in the reserve and national guard, in order to insure that the nation would use the total army, rather than only the active army alone, in an extended war involving the entire nation.) The Reserve component will be playing an increased role. In the Total Army, 8 ARNG divisions are to be trained to increase their readiness for Large scale combat operations, making 58 BCTs in the Total Army in 2018, and 6 SFABs in 2020.

Army commands

*United States Army Forces Command headquartered at Fort Bragg, North Carolina *United States Army Futures Command headquarters in Austin, Texas *United States Army Materiel Command headquartered at Redstone Arsenal, Alabama *United States Army Training and Doctrine Command headquartered at Joint Base Langley-Eustis, Virginia

Army service component commands

*Geographic commands **United States Army Africa / Ninth Army headquartered at Vicenza, Italy **United States Army Central / Third Army headquartered at Shaw Air Force Base, South Carolina **United States Army North / Fifth Army headquartered at Joint Base San Antonio, Texas **United States Army South / Sixth Army headquartered at Joint Base San Antonio, Texas **United States Army Europe / Seventh Army headquartered at Wiesbaden, Germany **United States Army Pacific headquartered at Fort Shafter, Hawaii *Functional commands **United States Army Space and Missile Defense Command headquartered at Redstone Arsenal, Alabama **United States Army Special Operations Command headquartered at Fort Bragg, North Carolina **Military Surface Deployment and Distribution Command headquartered at Scott Air Force Base, Illinois **United States Army Cyber Command headquartered at Fort Gordon, Georgia

Army direct reporting units

*United States Army Reserve Command headquartered at Fort Bragg, North Carolina *United States Army Medical Command (MEDCOM) *United States Army Intelligence and Security Command (INSCOM) headquartered at Fort Belvoir, Virginia *United States Army Corps of Engineers *United States Military Academy *United States Army Military District of Washington (MDW) headquartered at Fort McNair, District of Columbia *United States Army Criminal Investigation Command (USACIDC) headquartered at Marine Corps Base Quantico, Virginia *United States Army Test and Evaluation Command (ATEC)

Field armies

*First US Army, headquartered at Rock Island Arsenal, Illinois (A component of FORSCOM; responsible for training the reserve components when mobilized for overseas deployment) *Eighth US Army, headquartered at Camp Humphreys, South Korea (component of United States Forces Korea)

Army corps

*I Corps headquartered at Joint Base Lewis-McChord, Washington *III Corps headquartered at Fort Hood, Texas *V Corps headquartered at Fort Knox, Kentucky (to be active in autumn of 2020) *XVIII Airborne Corps headquartered at Fort Bragg, North Carolina

Divisions and brigades

:''Note: these formations were subject to change, announced in 2013 reform'' In the post-2013 design, the Regular Army was planned to reduce to 32 BCTs after all the BCTs had been announced for inactivation. The 2018 budget was to further reduce 40,000 active-duty soldiers from 490,000 in 2015 to 450,000 by 2018 fiscal year-end. Thirty installations would have been affected; six of these installations would have accounted for over 12,000 of those to be let go. In early 2015, the plan was to cut entire BCTs; by July 2015, a new plan, to downsize a BCT (4,500 soldiers) to a maneuver battalion task force (1,032 soldiers, with the possibility of upsizing if need be) was formulated. In 2015, a plan was instituted to allow further shrinking of the Army, by converting selected brigades to maneuver battalion task forces.Army to re-align brigades
Army.mil, accessed 2015-07-10
A maneuver battalion task force includes about 1,050 Soldiers rather than the 4,000 in a full BCT. This 9 July 2015 plan, however, would preclude rapid deployment of such a unit until it has been reconstituted back to full re-deployable strength. This is being addressed with the § "Associated units" training program from the Reserve and Guard. In 2017 the National Defense Strategy and National Security Strategy and a § Sustainable Readiness Model (SRM) managed to halt the cuts. Funding was allocated for two (out of six planned) Security Force Assistance Brigades (SFABs) in 2016U.S. Army Public Affairs (15 June 2017) Department of the Army announces force structure decisions for fiscal year 2017
/ref> composed of 529 senior officers and senior NCOs (a full chain of command for a BCT).C. Todd Lopez (19 September 2017) Security force assistance brigades to free brigade combat teams from advise, assist mission
/ref> By 2020 all 6 SFABs were activated. The changes announced so far affect:C. Todd Lopez (10 July 2015) Army to cut 40,000 Soldiers, 17,000 civilians
Army.mil accessed 2015-07-10
*The number of generals and SES's will decrease 25% by 2023, DoD-wide. *FORSCOM **Every HHBN (2-star, and higher, headquarters battalion) reduces by 10% **3rd ABCT, 3rd Infantry Division, Fort Benning **2nd SBCT, 25th Infantry Division, Schofield Barracks **3rd Expeditionary Sustainment Command relocates from Fort Knox to Fort Bragg **1st Theater Sustainment Command relocates from Fort Bragg to Fort KnoxCapt. Matthew Miller (July 18, 2019) Multi-Domain Intelligence Support for Sustainment
Risks of non delivery
*ARNG **81st Armored Brigade Combat Team, 40th Infantry Division to become an associated unit (SBCT) of 7th Infantry Division (81st's armor assets to be pre-positioned in Europe). * 1st Armored Division, at Fort Bliss (Texas), regionally aligned with Central Command (CENTCOM) ** Headquarters and Headquarters Battalion ** 1st Armored Brigade Combat Team, converted from Stryker BCT on 20 June 2019David Burge (12 June 2019) ‘Ready First’ gets an A: 1st SBCT to become 1st ABCT June 20, infantry battalions to reflag
/ref>1st Armored Division Public Affairs Office (September 20, 2018) Fort Bliss-based 1st Stryker Brigade Combat Team to be converted to an Armored Brigade
/ref>Staff Sgt. Kris Bonet, 1st Armored Brigade Combat Team, 1st Armored Division (SEPTEMBER 4, 2019) M1A2 SEP V2 arrive ‘Ready First’ receives tanks following armor conversion
/ref> ** 2nd Armored Brigade Combat Team ** 3rd Armored Brigade Combat Team ** 1st Armored Division Artillery ** Combat Aviation Brigade deploys to Afghanistan early 2019U.S. Army Public Affairs (October 18, 2018) Department of the Army announces upcoming 1st Armored Division Combat Aviation Brigade unit rotation
/ref> ** 1st Armored Division Sustainment Brigade * 1st Cavalry Division, at Fort Hood (Texas), regionally aligned with European Command (EUCOM) ** Headquarters and Headquarters Battalion ** 1st Armored Brigade Combat Team ** 2nd Armored Brigade Combat Team ** 3rd Armored Brigade Combat Team ** 1st Cavalry Division Artillery ** Combat Aviation Brigade ** 1st Cavalry Division Sustainment Brigade * 1st Infantry Division, at Fort Riley, (Kansas) ** Headquarters and Headquarters Battalion ** 1st Armored Brigade Combat Team ** 2nd Armored Brigade Combat Team, regionally aligned with African Command (AFRICOM) ** 1st Infantry Division Artillery ** Combat Aviation Brigade ** 1st Infantry Division Sustainment Brigade * 2nd Infantry Division, at Camp Humphreys, (South Korea) ** Headquarters and Headquarters Battalion ** 1x Rotation Armored Brigade Combat Team, at Camp Casey, Camp Hovey, and Camp Humphreys, South Korea ** Combat Aviation Brigade, at Camp Humphreys and K-16 Airfield, South Korea ** 2nd Infantry Division Sustainment Brigade, at Camp Carroll, Camp Stanley, and Camp Humphreys, South Korea * 3rd Infantry Division, at Fort Stewart, (Georgia) ** Headquarters and Headquarters Battalion ** 1st Armored Brigade Combat Team ** 2nd Armored Brigade Combat Team ** 48th Infantry Brigade Combat Team (Georgia Army National Guard) ** Task Force 1-28: 1st Battalion 28th Infantry Regiment, at Fort Benning, Georgia ** 3rd Infantry Division Artillery ** Combat Aviation Brigade, at Hunter Army Airfield, Georgia ** 3rd Infantry Division Sustainment Brigade * 4th Infantry Division, at Fort Carson, (Colorado), regionally aligned with European Command (EUCOM) ** Headquarters and Headquarters Battalion ** 1st Stryker Brigade Combat Team ** 2nd Stryker Brigade Combat Team(20 September 2018) Army to transition two brigades to add heavy firepower as it prepares for near-peer conflict
/ref>Staff Sgt. Neysa Canfield (15 June 2020) New Beginnings: Fort Carson infantry brigade converts to Stryker brigade
/ref> ** 3rd Armored Brigade Combat Team In May 2017, during their rotation to EUCOM, Combined Resolve VIII, 3rd ABCT/4th ID combined with land and aviation forces from six partner nations, Albania, Finland, Hungary, Kosovo, Romania and the Ukraine. The combined team will operate within 3rd ABCT's combined arms structure. The scenario is to defend a European nation from attack. in a NATO Article V incident.
(31 May 2017) 3/4 ID evolves into multinational brigade at Combined Resolve VIII
accessdate=2017-07-18
** 4th Infantry Division Artillery ** Combat Aviation Brigade ** 4th Infantry Division Sustainment Brigade * 7th Infantry Division (Headquarters only), at Joint Base Lewis-McChord, (Washington) ** Headquarters and Headquarters Battalion ** 1st Stryker Brigade Combat Team, 2nd Infantry Division ** 2nd Stryker Brigade Combat Team, 2nd Infantry Division ** 81st Stryker Brigade Combat Team (Washington Army National Guard) ** 2nd Infantry Division Artillery * 10th Mountain Division, at Fort Drum, (New York) ** Headquarters and Headquarters Battalion ** 1st Infantry Brigade Combat Team ** 2nd Infantry Brigade Combat Team ** 86th Infantry Brigade Combat Team (Vermont Army National Guard) ** 10th Mountain Division Artillery ** Combat Aviation Brigade ** 10th Mountain Division Sustainment Brigade * 25th Infantry Division, at Schofield Barracks, (Hawaii) ** Headquarters and Headquarters Battalion ** 1st Stryker Brigade Combat Team, at Fort Wainwright, (Alaska) ** 2nd Infantry Brigade Combat Team ** 3rd Infantry Brigade Combat Team ** 4th Infantry Brigade Combat Team (Airborne), at Joint Base Elmendorf-Richardson, (Alaska) ** 25th Infantry Division Artillery ** Combat Aviation Brigade ** 25th Infantry Division Sustainment Brigade * 82nd Airborne Division, at Fort Bragg, (North Carolina) ** Headquarters and Headquarters Battalion ** 1st Infantry Brigade Combat Team (Airborne) ** 2nd Infantry Brigade Combat Team (Airborne) ** 3rd Infantry Brigade Combat Team (Airborne) ** 82nd Airborne Division Artillery ** Combat Aviation Brigade ** 82nd Airborne Division Sustainment Brigade * 101st Airborne Division, at Fort Campbell, (Kentucky) ** Headquarters and Headquarters Battalion ** 1st Infantry Brigade Combat Team (Air Assault) ** 2nd Infantry Brigade Combat Team (Air Assault)Soldiers of the 2nd BCT/101st Airborne Division served as the first rotational brigade during NIE 17.2 in July 2017 at Fort Bliss. 1st Battalion 502nd Infantry Regiment served as their opposing force.
David Burge (16 July 2017) "Fort Campbell soldiers travel to Bliss for modernization mission" ''El Paso Times''
/ref> ** 3rd Infantry Brigade Combat Team (Air Assault) ** 101st Airborne Division Artillery ** Combat Aviation Brigade rotates stateside early 2019 ** 101st Airborne Division Sustainment Brigade * 2nd Cavalry Regiment (Stryker BCT), in Vilseck, (Germany)Paul McLeary (31 July 2020) Poland Wraps Deal For Permanent US Troops, Drones, Special Ops
In addition, *"4,500 members of the Second Cavalry Regiment in Germany will return to the US, and then begin rotations in the Black Sea region" *2000 troops to relocate from Stuttgart to Mons *On hold: 2000 Airmen were due to deploy from UK to Germany *An F-16 squadron will move from UK to Italy
* 3rd Cavalry Regiment (Stryker BCT), at Fort Hood, (Texas) * 3rd Infantry Brigade Combat Team, 36th Infantry Division (Associated Unit Program) at Fort Polk, (Louisiana) * 173rd Airborne Brigade Combat Team, in Vicenza, (Italy) Active-duty division: * 11 division headquarters (one division headquarters stationed overseas in South Korea) Active-duty combat brigades: 31 at the end of 2017 * 11 Armored Brigade Combat Teams ** 1st, 2nd, and 3rd ABCT at Fort Bliss (Texas), part of 1st Armored Division at Fort Bliss (Texas) ** 1st, 2nd, and 3rd ABCT at Fort Hood (Texas), part of 1st Cavalry Division at Fort Hood (Texas) ** 1st and 2nd ABCT at Fort Riley (Kansas), part of 1st Infantry Division at Fort Riley (Kansas) ** 1st and 2nd ABCT at Fort Stewart (Georgia), part of 3rd Infantry Division at Fort Stewart (Georgia) ** 3rd ABCT at Fort Carson (Colorado), part of 4th Infantry Division at Fort Carson (Colorado) * 7 Stryker Brigade Combat Teams ** 1st and 2nd SBCTs at Fort Carson (Colorado), part of 4th Infantry Division at Fort Carson (Colorado) ** 1st SBCT at Fort Wainwright (Alaska), administratively part of 25th Infantry Division at Schofield Barracks (Hawaii), but operationally under US Army Alaska at Joint Base Elmendorf–Richardson (Alaska) ** 1st and 2nd SBCT at Fort Lewis (Joint Base Lewis–McChord) (Washington), administratively under the 2nd Infantry Division at Camp Humphreys (South Korea), operationally under the 7th Infantry Division HQ at Joint Base Lewis–McChord (Washington) ** 2nd Cavalry Regiment (SBCT) at Rose Barracks in Vilseck (Germany), independent SBCT under US Army Europe at Lucius D. Clay Kaserne Barracks (Germany) ** 3rd Cavalry Regiment (SBCT) at Fort Hood (Texas), independent SBCT under III Corps at Fort Hood (Texas) * 5 Infantry Brigade Combat Teams (Light)Spartan Brigade to become Army's newest armored brigade
accessdate=2016-12-02
MICC supporting Army's efforts for newest armored brigade (24 March 2017)
accessdate=2017-03-30. The 10th in the Active component, but the 15th ABCT in the total force.
** 1st and 2nd IBCT at Fort Drum (New York), part of 10th Mountain Division at Fort Drum (New York) ** 2nd and 3rd IBCT at Schofield Barracks (Hawaii), part of 25th Infantry Division at Schofield Barracks (Hawaii) ** 3rd IBCT at Fort Polk (Louisiana), a regular army brigade under the Army National Guard's 36th Infantry Division at Austin (Texas) * 5 Infantry Brigade Combat Teams (Airborne) ** 1st, 2nd and 3rd IBCT (Airborne) at Fort Bragg (North Carolina), part of 82nd Airborne Division at Fort Bragg (North Carolina) ** 4th IBCT (Airborne) at Joint Base Elmendorf–Richardson (Alaska), administratively part of 25th Infantry Division at Schofield Barracks (Hawaii), but operationally under US Army Alaska at Joint Base Elmendorf–Richardson (Alaska) ** 173rd Airborne Brigade Combat Team at Caserma Ederle Barracks in Vicenza (Italy), independent brigade under US Army Europe at Lucius D. Clay Kaserne Barracks (Germany) * 3 Infantry Brigade Combat Teams (Air Assault) ** 1st, 2nd and 3rd IBCT (Air Assault) at Fort Campbell (Kentucky), part of 101st Airborne Division at Fort Campbell (Kentucky) :''See National Guard divisions for the 27 ARNG BCTs''

Support brigades

Active-duty Support Brigades (with reserve-component numbers in parenthesis: ARNG/USAR) * 12 Combat Aviation Brigades (12/2): ** 12th Combat Aviation Brigade, in Katterbach, (Germany) ** 16th Combat Aviation Brigade, at Joint Base Lewis-McChord, (Washington) ** 10 Combat Aviation Brigades as part of active army divisions * 3 Military Intelligence Brigades (Expeditionary) (2/3): ** 201st Military Intelligence Brigade, at Joint Base Lewis-McChord, (Washington) ** 504th Military Intelligence Brigade, at Fort Hood, (Texas) ** 525th Military Intelligence Brigade, at Fort Bragg, (North Carolina) * 5 Field Artillery Brigades (8/0): ** 17th Field Artillery Brigade, at Joint Base Lewis–McChord, (Washington) ** 18th Field Artillery Brigade, at Fort Bragg, (North Carolina) ** 41st Field Artillety Brigade, at Grafenwoehr, (Germany) ** 75th Field Artillery Brigade, at Fort Sill, (Oklahoma) ** 210th Field Artillery Brigade, at Camp Casey, (South Korea) * 6 Air Defense Artillery Brigades (3/0): ** 11th Air Defense Artillery Brigade, at Fort Bliss, (Texas) ** 31st Air Defense Artillery Brigade, at Fort Sill, (Oklahoma) ** 35th Air Defense Artillery Brigade, at Osan Air Base, (South Korea) ** 38th Air Defense Artillery Brigade, at Sagami Depot, (Japan) ** 69th Air Defense Artillery Brigade, at Fort Hood, (Texas) ** 108th Air Defense Artillery Brigade, at Fort Bragg, (North Carolina) * 5 Engineer Brigades (7/4): ** 18th Engineer Brigade, at Schweinfurt, (Germany) ** 20th Engineer Brigade, at Fort Bragg, (North Carolina) ** 36th Engineer Brigade, at Fort Hood, (Texas) ** 130th Engineer Brigade, at Schofield Barracks, (Hawaii) ** 555th Engineer Brigade, at Joint Base Lewis-McChord, (Washington) * 12 Sustainment Brigades (10/9): ** 16th Sustainment Brigade, in Bamberg, (Germany) ** 528th Sustainment Brigade (Special Operations) (Airborne), at Fort Bragg, (North Carolina) ** Ten Sustainment Brigades as part of active army divisions * 5 Military Police Brigades (4/4): ** 8th Military Police Brigade, at Schofield Barracks, (Hawaii) ** 16th Military Police Brigade, at Fort Bragg, (North Carolina) ** 18th Military Police Brigade, in Grafenwöhr, (Germany) ** 42nd Military Police Brigade, at Joint Base Lewis-McChord, (Washington) ** 89th Military Police Brigade, at Fort Hood, (Texas) * 1 Transportation Brigade (0/5): ** 7th Transportation Brigade, at Fort Eustis, (Virginia) * 5 Security Force Assistance Brigades (1/0) planned, 1st in 2017: ** 1st Security Force Assistance Brigade, at Fort Benning, (Georgia) ** 2nd Security Force Assistance Brigade, at Fort Bragg, (North Carolina) ** 3rd Security Force Assistance Brigade, at Fort Hood, (Texas) ** 4th Security Force Assistance Brigade, at Fort Carson, (Colorado) ** 5th Security Force Assistance Brigade, at Joint Base Lewis-McChord, (Washington) * 5 Medical Brigades (0/10): ** 1st Medical Brigade, at Fort Hood, (Texas) ** 30th Medical Brigade, in Sembach, (Germany) ** 44th Medical Brigade, at Fort Bragg, (North Carolina) ** 62nd Medical Brigade, at Joint Base Lewis-McChord, (Washington) ** 65th Medical Brigade, at Camp Humphreys, (South Korea) * 8 Signal Brigades (2/2): ** 1st Signal Brigade, at Camp Humphreys, (South Korea) ** 2nd Signal Brigade, in Wiesbaden, (Germany) ** 11th Signal Brigade, at Fort Hood, (Texas) ** 35th Signal Brigade, at Fort Gordon, (Georgia) ** 93rd Signal Brigade, at Fort Eustis, (Virginia) ** 106th Signal Brigade, at Fort Sam Houston, (Texas) ** 160th Signal Brigade, at Camp Arifjan, (Kuwait) ** 516th Signal Brigade, at Fort Shafter, (Hawaii) * 1 Chemical Brigade (1/1): ** 48th Chemical Brigade, at Fort Hood, (Texas)

See also

* Transformation of the Army National Guard * Revolution in Military Affairs * Network-centric warfare

Notes



Ready Army



References



External links

*
2007 Army Modernization Plan
*





* John Gordon
"Transforming for What? Challenges Facing Western Militaries Today"
''Focus stratégique'', Paris, Ifri, November 2008.

Graphic showing the three stages before deployment
discussionARFORGEN from Warrant Officer viewpoint
an
example of training for deployment
{{United States Department of Defense Category:21st-century history of the United States Army Category:Command and control Category:Net-centric Category:United States Army organization Category:Military reforms Category:BCT Modernization