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Comte
Comte
Henri Marie Raymond de Toulouse-Lautrec-Monfa (24 November 1864 – 9 September 1901) was a French
painter Painting is the practice of applying paint Paint is any pigmented liquid, liquefiable, or solid mastic composition that, after application to a substrate in a thin layer, converts to a solid film. It is most commonly used to protect, ...

painter
,
printmaker 300px, Rembrandt, ''Self-portrait'', etching">Self-portrait.html" ;"title="Rembrandt, ''Self-portrait">Rembrandt, ''Self-portrait'', etching, c.1630 Printmaking is the process of creating artworks by printing Printing is a process for ...
,
draughtsman
draughtsman
,
caricaturist A caricaturist is an artist who specializes in drawing caricatures.https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/caricaturist List of caricaturists * Abed Abdi (born 1942) * Al Hirschfeld (1903–2003) * Alex Gard (1900–1948) * Alexander ...
and
illustrator An illustrator is an artist who specializes in enhancing writing or elucidating concepts by providing a visual representation that corresponds to the content of the associated text or idea. The illustration may be intended to clarify complicate ...
whose immersion in the colorful and theatrical life of Paris in the late 19th century allowed him to produce a collection of enticing, elegant, and provocative images of the modern, sometimes decadent, affairs of those times. Toulouse-Lautrec is among the best-known painters of the Post-Impressionist period, with
Paul Cézanne Paul Cézanne ( , , ; ; 19 January 1839 – 22 October 1906) was a French artist and Post-Impressionist painter whose work laid the foundations of the transition from the 19th-century conception of artistic endeavour to a new and radically di ...

Paul Cézanne
,
Vincent van Gogh Vincent Willem van Gogh (; 30 March 185329 July 1890) was a Dutch Post-Impressionist painter who posthumously became one of the most famous and influential figures in Western art ''; by Johannes Vermeer Johannes Vermeer ( , , #Pronun ...
,
Paul Gauguin Eugène Henri Paul Gauguin (, ; ; 7 June 1848 – 8 May 1903) was a French Post-Impressionist artist. Unappreciated until after his death, Gauguin is now recognized for his experimental use of color and Synthetist style that were distinct fro ...
and
Georges Seurat Georges Pierre Seurat ( , , ; 2 December 1859 – 29 March 1891) was a French post-Impressionist artist. He is best known for devising the painting techniques known as chromoluminarism and pointillism Pointillism (, ) is a technique of pai ...
. In a 2005 auction at
Christie's Christie's is a British auction house An auction is usually a process of buying and selling goods In economics Economics () is the social science that studies how people interact with value; in particular, the Production (economi ...

Christie's
auction house, '' La Blanchisseuse'', his early painting of a young laundress, sold for US$22.4 million and set a new record for the artist for a price at auction. Born into the
aristocracy Aristocracy ( grc-gre, ἀριστοκρατία , from 'excellent', and , 'rule') is a form of government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state State may refer to: A ...
, Toulouse-Lautrec broke both his legs around the time of his adolescence and, due to an unknown medical condition, was very short as an adult due to his undersized legs. In addition to his alcoholism, he developed an affinity for brothels and prostitutes that directed the subject matter for many of his works.


Early life

Henry Marie Raymond de Toulouse-Lautrec-Monfa was born at the Hôtel du Bosc in
Albi Albi (; oc, Albi ) is a commune An intentional community is a voluntary residential community designed from the start to have a high degree of group cohesiveness, social cohesion and teamwork. The members of an intentional community ty ...

Albi
,
Tarn Tarn may refer to: Places * Tarn (lake), a mountain lake or pool formed in a cirque excavated by a glacier England * Tarn or Barnsley, South Yorkshire, England * Tarn Crag (disambiguation), a number of hills in the English Lake District France ...
, in the
Midi-Pyrénées Midi-Pyrénées (; oc, Miègjorn-Pirenèus or ; es, Mediodía-Pirineos) is a former administrative region Administration may refer to: Management of organizations * Management Management (or managing) is the administration of an organi ...

Midi-Pyrénées
region of France, the firstborn child of Alphonse Charles ''
Comte
Comte
'' de Toulouse-Lautrec-Monfa (1838–1913) and his wife Adèle Zoë Tapié de Celeyran (1841–1930). The last part of his name means he was a member of an
aristocratic Aristocracy ( grc-gre, ἀριστοκρατία , from 'excellent', and , 'rule') is a form of government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state State may refer to: A ...
family (descendants of the
Counts of Toulouse The Count of Toulouse ( oc, comte de Tolosa, french: comte de Toulouse) was the ruler of Toulouse Toulouse ( , ; oc, Tolosa ) is the prefecture A prefecture (from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the I ...
and
Odet de Foix, Vicomte de Lautrec 250px, Odet de Foix, Vicomte de Lautrec, sketched by Jean Clouet (early 16th century). Odet de Foix, Vicomte de Lautrec (1485 – 15 August 1528) was a French military leader. He gained the reputation of a gallant and able soldier, but this s ...
and the
Viscount A viscount ( , for male) or viscountess (, for female) is a title A title is one or more words used before or after a person's name, in certain contexts. It may signify either generation, an official position, or a professional or academic qu ...
s of Montfa, a village and commune of the Tarn department of southern France, close to the cities of
Castres Castres (; ''Castras'' in the Languedocian dialect of Occitan Occitan (; oc, occitan, link=no , ), also known as ''lenga d'òc'' (; french: langue d'oc) by its native speakers, is a Romance language The Romance languages (less commonly ...
and
Toulouse Toulouse ( , ; oc, Tolosa ) is the prefecture A prefecture (from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area ...

Toulouse
). His younger brother was born in 1867 but died the following year. Both sons enjoyed the ''titres de courtoisie'' of ''
Comte
Comte
''. If Henri had outlived his father, he would have been accorded the family
title A title is one or more words used before or after a person's name, in certain contexts. It may signify either generation, an official position, or a professional or academic qualification. In some languages, titles may be inserted between the firs ...
of ''
Comte
Comte
de Toulouse-Lautrec''. After the death of his brother, Toulouse-Lautrec's parents separated and a
nanny A nanny is a person who provides child care Child care, otherwise known as day care, is the care and supervision of a child or multiple children at a time, whose ages range from two weeks to twenty years. Child care is a broad topic that covers ...

nanny
eventually took care of him.Author Unknown, "Toulouse-Lautrec" – published Grange Books.
Bookfinder – Toulouse Lautrec
/ref> At the age of eight, Toulouse-Lautrec went to live with his mother in Paris, where he drew sketches and caricatures in his exercise workbooks. The family quickly realized that his talents lay in drawing and painting. A friend of his father,
René Princeteau René Pierre Charles Princeteau (18 July 1843 – 31 January 1914) was a French animal painter. Life René Princeteau was born in Libourne into a noble family. He was deaf and mute from birth. He studied at the Institut National de Jeunes Sourds ...
, sometimes visited to give informal lessons. Some of Toulouse-Lautrec's early paintings are of horses, a specialty of Princeteau, and a subject Lautrec revisited in his "Circus Paintings". In 1875, Toulouse-Lautrec returned to Albi because his mother had concerns about his health. He took
thermal baths A spa is a location where mineral-rich spring (hydrology), spring water (and sometimes seawater) is used to give medicinal baths. Spa towns or spa resorts (including hot springs resorts) typically offer various health treatments, which are also ...
at Amélie-les-Bains, and his mother consulted doctors in the hope of finding a way to improve her son's growth and development.


Disability and health problems

Toulouse-Lautrec's parents, the '''' and ''Comtesse'', were first cousins (his grandmothers were sisters), and his congenital health conditions were attributed to a family history of
inbreeding Inbreeding is the production of offspring In biology, offspring are the young creation of living organisms, produced either by a Asexual reproduction, single organism or, in the case of sexual reproduction, two organisms. Collective offspri ...
. At the age of 13, Toulouse-Lautrec fractured his right
femur The femur (; ), or thigh bone, is the proximal Standard anatomical terms of location deal unambiguously with the anatomy of animals, including humans. Terms used generally derive from Latin or Greek language, Greek roots and used to describe s ...

femur
, and at 14, he fractured his left femur. The breaks did not heal properly. Modern physicians attribute this to an unknown
genetic disorder A genetic disorder is a health problem caused by one or more abnormalities in the genome In the fields of molecular biology Molecular biology is the branch of biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and li ...
, possibly
pycnodysostosis Pycnodysostosis (from Greek language, Greek: πυκνός (puknos) meaning "dense", ''dys'' ("defective"), and ''ostosis'' ("condition of the bone")), is a lysosomal storage disease of the bone caused by a mutation in the gene that codes the enzym ...
(sometimes known as Toulouse-Lautrec Syndrome), or a variant disorder along the lines of
osteopetrosis Osteopetrosis, literally "stone bone", also known as marble bone disease or Albers-Schönberg disease, is an extremely rare inherited disorder whereby the bone A bone is a rigid tissue Tissue may refer to: Biology * Tissue (biology), an ...
,
achondroplasia Achondroplasia is a genetic disorder A genetic disorder is a health problem caused by one or more abnormalities in the genome In the fields of molecular biology and genetics, a genome is all genetic information of an organism. It ...
, or
osteogenesis imperfecta Osteogenesis imperfecta (; OI), colloquially known as brittle bone disease, is a group of genetic disorders that all result in bone that bone fracture, breaks easily. The range of symptoms—on the skeleton as well as on the body's other orga ...
.
Rickets Rickets is a condition that results in weak or soft bones in children. Symptoms include bowed legs, stunted growth, bone pain, large forehead, and trouble sleeping. Complications may include bone fractures, muscle spasms, or an scoliosis, abnorm ...

Rickets
aggravated by praecox virilism has also been suggested. Afterward, his legs ceased to grow, so that as an adult he was . He developed an adult-sized torso while retaining his child-sized legs. Additionally, he is reported to have had hypertrophied genitals. Physically unable to participate in many activities enjoyed by boys his age, Toulouse-Lautrec immersed himself in art. He became a prominent Post-Impressionist painter,
art nouveau Art Nouveau (; ) is an international style Style is a manner of doing or presenting things and may refer to: * Architectural style, the features that make a building or structure historically identifiable * Design, the process of creating som ...
illustrator, and
lithographer Lithography () is a method of printing Printing is a process for mass reproducing text and images using a master form or template. The earliest non-paper products involving printing include cylinder seals and objects such as the Cyrus Cy ...
, and, through his works, recorded many details of the late-19th-century
bohemian A Bohemian () is a resident of Bohemia Bohemia ( ; cs, Čechy ; ; hsb, Čěska; szl, Czechy) is the westernmost and largest historical region of the Czech lands in the present-day Czech Republic. Bohemia can also refer to a wider area cons ...
lifestyle in Paris. Toulouse-Lautrec contributed several illustrations to the magazine ''
Le Rire ''Le Rire'' (, "Laughter") was a successful French humor magazine published from October 1894 until its final issue in April 1971. Founded in Paris during the Belle Époque by Felix Juven, ''Le Rire'' appeared as typical Parisians began to achiev ...
'' during the mid-1890s. After initially failing college entrance exams, he passed his second attempt and completed his studies.


Paris

During a stay in
Nice, France Nice ( , ; Niçard: , classical norm, or , nonstandard, ; it, Nizza ; grc, Νίκαια; la, Nicaea) is the Urban area (France)#List of France's aires urbaines (metropolitan areas), seventh most populous urban area in France and the prefectu ...

Nice, France
, his progress in painting and drawing impressed Princeteau, who persuaded Toulouse-Lautrec's parents to let him return to Paris and study under the portrait painter
Léon Bonnat Léon Joseph Florentin Bonnat (20 June 1833 – 8 September 1922) was a French painter, Grand Officer of the Légion d'honneur and professor at the Ecole des Beaux Arts. Early life Bonnat was born in Bayonne, but from 1846 to 1853 he lived in Madri ...

Léon Bonnat
. He moved to Paris in 1882. Toulouse-Lautrec's mother had high ambitions and, with the aim of her son becoming a fashionable and respected painter, used their family's influence to get him into Bonnat's studio. He was drawn to
Montmartre Montmartre ( , , ) is a large hill in 18th arrondissement of Paris, Paris's 18th arrondissement. It is high and gives its name to the surrounding district, part of the Rive Droite, Right Bank in the northern section of the city. The histori ...

Montmartre
, the area of Paris famous for its bohemian lifestyle and the haunt of artists, writers, and philosophers. Studying with Bonnat placed Toulouse-Lautrec in the heart of Montmartre, an area he rarely left over the next 20 years. After Bonnat took a new job, Toulouse-Lautrec moved to the studio of
Fernand Cormon Fernand Cormon (24 December 1845 – 20 March 1924) was a French painter born in Paris. He became a pupil of Alexandre Cabanel, Eugène Fromentin, and Jean-François Portaels, and one of the leading historical painters of modern France. Biograp ...

Fernand Cormon
in 1882 and studied for a further five years and established the group of friends he kept for the rest of his life. At this time, he met Émile Bernard and
Vincent van Gogh Vincent Willem van Gogh (; 30 March 185329 July 1890) was a Dutch Post-Impressionist painter who posthumously became one of the most famous and influential figures in Western art ''; by Johannes Vermeer Johannes Vermeer ( , , #Pronun ...
. Cormon, whose instruction was more relaxed than Bonnat's, allowed his pupils to roam Paris, looking for subjects to paint. During this period, Toulouse-Lautrec had his first encounter with a prostitute (reputedly sponsored by his friends), which led him to paint his first painting of a prostitute in
Montmartre Montmartre ( , , ) is a large hill in 18th arrondissement of Paris, Paris's 18th arrondissement. It is high and gives its name to the surrounding district, part of the Rive Droite, Right Bank in the northern section of the city. The histori ...

Montmartre
, a woman rumored to be Marie-Charlet.


Early career

In 1885, Lautrec started to exhibit his work at the cabaret of Aristide Bruant's ''Mirliton''. With his studies finished, in 1887, he participated in an exposition in Toulouse using the pseudonym "Tréclau," the
verlan Ambigram of the word "verlan". ''Verlan'' () is a type of argot in the French language, featuring inversion of syllables in a word, and is common in slang and youth language. It rests on a long French tradition of transposing syllables of indivi ...
of the family name "Lautrec." He later exhibited in Paris with Van Gogh and
Louis Anquetin Louis Anquetin (26 January 1861 – 19 August 1932) was a French painter. Biography Anquetin was born in Étrépagny, France, and educated at the Lycée Pierre Corneille in Rouen. In 1882 he came to Paris Paris () is the Capital city, c ...

Louis Anquetin
. In 1885, Toulouse Lautrec met
Suzanne Valadon Suzanne Valadon (23 September 18657 April 1938) was a French painter and artists' model who was born Marie-Clémentine Valadon at Bessines-sur-Gartempe, Haute-Vienne, France. In 1894, Valadon became the first woman painter admitted to the Sociét ...
. He made several portraits of her and supported her ambition as an artist. It is believed that they were lovers and that she wanted to marry him. Their relationship ended, and Valadon attempted suicide in 1888.


Rise to recognition

In 1888, the Belgian critic
Octave Maus Octave Maus (12 June 1856 – 26 November 1919) was a Belgian art critic, writer and lawyer. Maus worked with fellow writer/lawyer Edmond Picard Edmond Picard (15 December 1836 – 19 February 1924) was a Belgian jurist and writer. He was no ...
invited him to present eleven pieces at the ''Vingt'' (the 'Twenties') exhibition in Brussels in February. Van Gogh's brother
Theo Theo is a given name and a hypocorism. Greek origin Many names beginning with the root "Theo-" derive from the Ancient Greek word ''theos'' (''θεός''), which means god, for example: *Feminine names: Thea (name), Thea, Theodora (given name), Th ...
bought ''Poudre de Riz'' (Rice Powder) for 150 francs for the
Goupil & Cie Goupil & Cie is an international auction house and merchant of contemporary art and collectibles. Jean-Baptiste Adophe Goupil founded Goupil & Cie in 1850. Goupil & Cie became a leading art dealership in 19th-century France, with its headquarters ...
gallery. From 1889 until 1894, Toulouse-Lautrec took part in the
Salon des Indépendants Salon may refer to: * Beauty salon A beauty salon or beauty parlor is an establishment dealing with Cosmetics, cosmetic treatments for men and women. There's a difference between a beauty salon and a beauty parlor which is that a beauty salon ...
regularly. He made several landscapes of Montmartre. Tucked deep into Montmartre in the garden of Monsieur Pere Foret, Toulouse-Lautrec executed a series of pleasant
en plein air ''En plein air'' (; French language, French for "outdoors"), or ''plein air'' painting, is the act of painting outdoors. This method contrasts with studio painting or academic rules that might create a predetermined look. The theory of 'En ple ...
paintings of Carmen Gaudin, the same red-headed model who appears in ''The Laundress'' (1888). In 1890 during the banquet of the XX exhibition in Brussels, he challenged to a duel the artist Henri de Groux who criticized van Gogh's works. Signac also declared he would continue to fight for Van Gogh’s honor if Lautrec was killed. De Groux apologized for the slight and left the group and the duel never took place.


Interactions with women

In addition to his growing
alcoholism Alcoholism is, broadly, any drinking of alcohol In , alcohol is an that carries at least one (−OH) bound to a atom. The term alcohol originally referred to the primary alcohol (ethyl alcohol), which is and is the main alcoho ...
, Toulouse-Lautrec also frequented
prostitutes Prostitution is the business or practice of engaging in sexual activity in exchange for payment. Prostitution is sometimes described as sexual services, commercial sex or, colloquially, hooking. It is sometimes referred to euphemistically ...
. He was fascinated by their lifestyle and the lifestyle of the "urban
underclass The underclass is the segment of the population that occupies the lowest possible position in a class hierarchy, below the core body of the working class. The general idea that a class system includes a population ''under'' the working class has ...
" and incorporated those characters into his paintings. Fellow painter Édouard Vuillard later said that while Toulouse-Lautrec did engage in sex with prostitutes, "the real reasons for his behavior were moral ones ... Lautrec was too proud to submit to his lot, as a physical freak, an aristocrat cut off from his kind by his grotesque appearance. He found an affinity between his condition and the moral penury of the prostitute." The girls in the
brothel A brothel, bordello, ranch, or whorehouse is a place where people engage in sexual activity Human sexual activity, human sexual practice or human sexual behaviour is the manner in which humans experience and express their sexuality ...
s inspired Toulouse-Lautrec. He would frequently visit one located in Rue d'Amboise, where he had a favorite called Mireille. He created about a hundred drawings and fifty paintings inspired by the life of these women. In 1892 and 1893, he created a series of two women kissing called '' Le Lit'', and in 1894 painted '' Salón de la Rue des Moulins'' from memory in his studio. He declared, "A model is always a stuffed doll, but these women are alive. I wouldn't venture to pay them the hundred
sous The Sous region (also spelt Sus, Suss, Souss or Sousse) ( ar, سوس, sūs, shi, ⵙⵓⵙ, sus) is an area in mid-southern Morocco ) , image_map = Morocco (orthographic projection, WS claimed).svg , map_caption ...
to sit for me, and god knows whether they would be worth it. They stretch out on the sofas like animals, make no demand and they are not in the least bit conceited." He was well appreciated by the ladies, saying, "I have found girls of my own size! Nowhere else do I feel so much at home".


The Moulin Rouge

When the
Moulin Rouge Moulin Rouge (, ; ) is a cabaret in Paris, France Paris () is the Capital city, capital and List of communes in France with over 20,000 inhabitants, most populous city of France, with an estimated population of 2,175,601 residents as of ...

Moulin Rouge
cabaret Cabaret is a form of theatrical entertainment featuring music, song, dance, recitation, or drama. It is mainly distinguished by the performance venue, which might be a pub, a casino, a hotel, a restaurant, or a nightclub with a stage for performa ...

cabaret
opened in 1889, Toulouse-Lautrec was commissioned to produce a series of posters. His mother had left Paris and, though he had a regular income from his family, making posters offered him a living of his own. Other artists looked down on the work, but he ignored them. The cabaret reserved a seat for him and displayed his paintings. Among the well-known works that he painted for the Moulin Rouge and other Parisian nightclubs are depictions of the singer
Yvette Guilbert Yvette Guilbert (; born Emma Laure Esther Guilbert, 20 January 1865 – 3 February 1944) was a French cabaret singer and actress of the ''Belle Époque''. Biography Born in Paris into a poor family as Emma Laure Esther Guilbert, Guilbert be ...

Yvette Guilbert
; the dancer Louise Weber, better known as
La Goulue La Goulue (, meaning ''The Gourmand''), was the stage name of Louise Weber (12 July 1866 – 29 January 1929), a French can-can dancer who was a star of the Moulin Rouge, a popular cabaret in the Pigalle district of Paris, near Montmartre. Weber be ...

La Goulue
(The Glutton) who created the French can-can; and the much subtler dancer
Jane Avril up''Jane Avril'', c.1892, by Toulouse-Lautrec Jane Avril (9 June 186831st January 1943) was a French can-can dancer made famous by Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec through his paintings. Extremely thin, "given to jerky movements and sudden contortions" ...

Jane Avril
.


London

Toulouse-Lautrec's family was Anglophilic, and though he was not as fluent as he pretended to be, he spoke English well enough. He traveled to London, where he was commissioned by the J. & E. Bella company to make a poster advertising their paper
confetti Confetti are small pieces or streamers of paper Paper is a thin sheet material Material is a substance Substance may refer to: * Substance (Jainism), a term in Jain ontology to denote the base or owner of attributes * Chemical substa ...

confetti
(plaster confetti was banned after the 1892
Mardi Gras Mardi Gras (), or Fat Tuesday, refers to events of the Carnival Carnival is a Western Christian 250px, St. Peter's Basilica in Vatican City, the largest church building in the world today. Western Christianity is one of two sub-divi ...

Mardi Gras
) and the bicycle advert ''La Chaîne Simpson''. While in London, he met and befriended
Oscar Wilde Oscar Fingal O'Flahertie Wills Wilde (16 October 185430 November 1900) was an Irish poet and playwright. After writing in different forms throughout the 1880s, he became one of the most popular playwrights in London in the early 1890s. He is ...

Oscar Wilde
. When Wilde faced imprisonment in Britain, Toulouse-Lautrec became a very vocal supporter of him, and his portrait of Oscar Wilde was painted the same year as Wilde's trial.


Alcoholism

Toulouse-Lautrec was mocked for his short stature and physical appearance, which may have contributed to his
abuse of alcohol Alcohol abuse encompasses a spectrum of unhealthy alcohol (drug), alcohol drinking behaviors, ranging from binge drinking to alcohol dependence, in extreme cases resulting in health problems for individuals and large scale social problems such as a ...
. He initially drank only beer and wine, but his tastes expanded into
liquor Liquor or spirit (also hard liquor, or distilled alcohol) is an alcoholic drink An alcoholic drink is a drink A drink (or beverage) is a liquid A liquid is a nearly incompressible fluid In physics, a fluid is a substance tha ...

liquor
, namely
absinthe Absinthe (, ) is historically described as a highly alcoholic liquor, spirit (45–74% ABV / 90–148 U.S. proof). It is an anise-flavoured spirit derived from plants, including the flowers and leaves of ''Artemisia absinthium'' ("grand wormw ...

absinthe
. The "Earthquake Cocktail" ''(Tremblement de Terre)'' is attributed to Toulouse-Lautrec: a potent mixture containing half absinthe and half
cognac Cognac ( , also , ) is a variety of brandy Brandy is a liquor Liquor or spirit (also hard liquor, or distilled alcohol) is an alcoholic drink produced by distillation of grains, fruits, or vegetables that have already gone through al ...
in a wine goblet. Due to his underdeveloped legs, he walked with the aid of a cane, which he hollowed out and kept filled with liquor in order to ensure that he was never without alcohol.


Cooking skills

A fine and hospitable cook, Toulouse-Lautrec built up a collection of favorite recipes – some original, some adapted – which were posthumously published by his friend and dealer Maurice Joyant as ''L'Art de la Cuisine''. The book was republished in English translation in 1966 as ''The Art of Cuisine'' – a tribute to his inventive (and wide-ranging) cooking.


Death

By February 1899, Toulouse-Lautrec's
alcoholism Alcoholism is, broadly, any drinking of alcohol In , alcohol is an that carries at least one (−OH) bound to a atom. The term alcohol originally referred to the primary alcohol (ethyl alcohol), which is and is the main alcoho ...
began to take its toll and he collapsed from exhaustion. His family had him committed to
Folie Saint-James__NOTOC__ Folie or Folies may refer to: Places * Condé-Folie, commune in the Picardie region of France * Fains-la-Folie, commune in the Eure-et-Loir department in north-central France * Folies, commune in the Somme département in the Picardie regi ...

Folie Saint-James
, a
sanatorium A sanatorium (also spelled sanitarium or sanitorium) is a medical facility for long-term illness, most typically associated with the treatment of tuberculosis Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease An infection is the invasion o ...

sanatorium
in
Neuilly-sur-Seine Neuilly-sur-Seine (; literally 'Neuilly on Seine ) , mouth_location = Le Havre Le Havre (, ; nrf, Lé Hâvre) is an urban French commune A commune is an intentional community of people sharing living spaces, interests, va ...
for three months. While he was committed, he drew 39 circus portraits. After his release, he returned to the Paris studio for a time and then traveled throughout France. His physical and mental health began to decline rapidly owing to alcoholism and
syphilis Syphilis is a sexually transmitted infection Sexually transmitted infections (STIs), also referred to as sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and the older term venereal disease, are infection An infection is the invasion of an orga ...
, which he reportedly contracted from Rosa La Rouge, a prostitute who was the subject of several of his paintings. On 9 September 1901, at the age of 36, he died from complications due to alcoholism and syphilis at his mother's estate, Château Malromé, in Saint-André-du-Bois. He is buried in Cimetière de Verdelais,
Gironde Gironde ( US usually, , ; oc, Gironda, ) is a largest department Department may refer to: * Departmentalization, division of a larger organization into parts with specific responsibility Government and military *Department (country subdivi ...

Gironde
, a few kilometers from the estate. His last words reportedly were "Le vieux con!" ("The old fool!"), his goodbye to his father, though another version has been suggested, in which he used the word "hallali," a term used by huntsmen at the moment the hounds kill their prey: "Je savais, Papa, que vous ne manqueriez pas l'hallali." ("I knew, papa, that you wouldn't miss the death."). After Toulouse-Lautrec's death, his mother, Adèle ''
Comtesse Count (feminine: countess) is a historical title of nobility in certain European countries, varying in relative status, generally of middling rank in the hierarchy of nobility.L. G. Pine, Pine, L. G. ''Titles: How the King Became His Majesty'' ...

Comtesse
'' de Toulouse-Lautrec-Monfa, and his art dealer, Maurice Joyant, continued promoting his artwork. His mother contributed funds for a museum to be created in
Albi Albi (; oc, Albi ) is a commune An intentional community is a voluntary residential community designed from the start to have a high degree of group cohesiveness, social cohesion and teamwork. The members of an intentional community ty ...

Albi
, his birthplace, to show his works. This Musée Toulouse-Lautrec owns the most extensive collection of his works.


Art

In a career of less than 20 years, Toulouse-Lautrec created: * 737 canvased paintings * 275 watercolors * 363 prints and posters * 5,084 drawings * some ceramic and stained-glass work * an unknown number of lost works His debt to the
Impressionists Impressionism is a 19th-century art movement characterized by relatively small, thin, yet visible brush strokes, open Composition (visual arts), composition, emphasis on accurate depiction of light in its changing qualities (often accentuating the ...

Impressionists
, particularly the more figurative painters like and
Degas Edgar Degas (, ; born Hilaire-Germain-Edgar De Gas, ; 19 July 183427 September 1917) was a French Impressionist Impressionism is a 19th-century art movement characterized by relatively small, thin, yet visible brush strokes, open compositio ...

Degas
, is apparent, that within his works, one can draw parallels to the detached barmaid at ''
A Bar at the Folies-Bergère ''A Bar at the Folies-Bergère'' (french: Un bar aux Folies Bergère) is a painting by Édouard Manet, considered to be his last major work. It was painted in 1882 and exhibited at the Paris Salon of that year. It depicts a scene in the Folies Be ...
'' by Manet and the behind-the-scenes ballet dancers of Degas. His style was also influenced by the classical , which became popular in art circles in Paris. He excelled at depicting people in their working environments, with the color and movement of the gaudy nightlife present but the glamour stripped away. He was a master at painting crowd scenes where each figure was highly individualized. At the time they were painted, the individual figures in his larger paintings could be identified by silhouette ''alone'', and the names of many of these characters have been recorded. His treatment of his subject matter, whether as portraits, in scenes of Parisian nightlife, or as intimate studies, has been described as alternately "sympathetic" and "dispassionate". Toulouse-Lautrec's skilled depiction of people relied on his painterly style, which is highly
linear Linearity is the property of a mathematical relationship (''function Function or functionality may refer to: Computing * Function key A function key is a key on a computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to carry out se ...
and emphasizes
contour Contour may refer to: * Contour (linguistics) In phonetics Phonetics is a branch of linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language, meaning that it is a comprehensive, systematic, objective, and precise study of language ...
. He often applied paint in long, thin brushstrokes, which would leave much of the board underneath showing through the paint. Many of his works may be best described as "drawings in coloured paint." On 20 August 2018, Toulouse-Lautrec was the featured artist on the BBC television program ''Fake or Fortune?''. Researchers attempted to discover whether he created two discovered sketchbooks.


In popular culture


Films

*''
Moulin Rouge Moulin Rouge (, ; ) is a cabaret in Paris, France Paris () is the Capital city, capital and List of communes in France with over 20,000 inhabitants, most populous city of France, with an estimated population of 2,175,601 residents as of ...
'' (1952): A film about the artist, portrayed by
José Ferrer José Vicente Ferrer de Otero y Cintrón (January 8, 1912 – January 26, 1992), known as José Ferrer, was a Puerto Rican actor and director. He first achieved prominence for his portrayal of Cyrano de Bergerac Savinien de Cyrano de Bergera ...
*'' Casino Royale'' (1967): Evelyn Tremble (
Peter Sellers Peter Sellers (born Richard Henry Sellers; 8 September 1925 – 24 July 1980) was an English actor, comedian and singer. He performed in the BBC Radio comedy series ''The Goon Show'', featured on a number of hit comic songs and became known t ...
) dresses as Toulouse-Lautrec for Vesper Lynde ( Ursula Andress) *''
The Aristocats ''The Aristocats'' is a 1970 American animated romantic Romantic may refer to: Genres and eras * The Romantic era, an artistic, literary, musical and intellectual movement of the 18th and 19th centuries ** Romantic music, of that era ** Roman ...
'' (1970): In this animated film, Toulouse, the oldest kitten, is voiced by Gary Dubin *''
Revenge of the Pink Panther ''Revenge of the Pink Panther'' is a 1978 British comedy film A comedy film is a category of film A film, also called a movie, motion picture or moving picture, is a work of visual art used to simulate experiences that communicate id ...
'' (1978):
Inspector Clouseau Inspector Jacques Clouseau () is a fictional character In fiction, a character (sometimes known as a fictional character) is a person or other being in a narrative (such as a novel, Play (theatre), play, television series, film, or video game). ...
(Peter Sellers) disguises himself as Toulouse-Lautrec *'' Lautrec'' (1998): A French biographical film directed by Roger Planchon *''Moulin Rouge!'' (2001): A musical film in which the artist is a supporting character, portrayed by John Leguizamo *''Midnight in Paris'' (2011): A fantasy involving time travel. He is a supporting character, portrayed by Vincent Menjou Cortes


Television

*In ''SpongeBob SquarePants'', episode 11b of SpongeBob SquarePants (season 1), season 1, Patrick and SpongeBob are carrying Squidward around in servitude to him, with Squidward complaining it is "too hot" or "too wet," they stumble onto an aquatic version of the painting ''La Troupe de Mlle. Églantine''. Squidward quips, "Toulouse-Lautrec," playing on the Anaphora (rhetoric), anaphora of his previous lines. *In ''Sesame Street'', ''La Troupe de Mlle. Églantine'' was used as an animation about the letter D for "dance". *In , Bruno Solo plays Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec in the series 4, episodes 3 and 4 ''Danse de sang'' (2020).


Literature

*''Sacré Bleu: A Comedy d'Art'', by Christopher Moore (author), Christopher Moore, in which the ''bon vivant'' artist plays the role of co-detective with the fictional lead, Lucien Lessard, in trying to unravel the death of mutual friend
Vincent van Gogh Vincent Willem van Gogh (; 30 March 185329 July 1890) was a Dutch Post-Impressionist painter who posthumously became one of the most famous and influential figures in Western art ''; by Johannes Vermeer Johannes Vermeer ( , , #Pronun ...
. *''Sayonara Sorcier'', by Hozumi, a Japanese manga series where Toulouse-Lautrec appears as a main character aside Theodorus Van Gogh and Paul Gauguin. *''Lust for Life (novel), Lust for Life'' (1934), Historical fiction, historical novel based on the life of
Vincent van Gogh Vincent Willem van Gogh (; 30 March 185329 July 1890) was a Dutch Post-Impressionist painter who posthumously became one of the most famous and influential figures in Western art ''; by Johannes Vermeer Johannes Vermeer ( , , #Pronun ...
. *''Moulin Rouge (novel)'', by Pierre La Mure (1950), Historical fiction, historical novel based on the life of Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec.


Music

* "The Move", by the Beastie Boys from ''Hello Nasty'' (1998), which contains the line: "I'm up to my neck like Toulouse-Lautrec."


Selected works

:''See also :Paintings by Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec.''


Paintings

File:14 oct 14 violets vase toulouse.jpg, ''Bouquet of violets in a vase'', 1882, oil on panel, Dallas Museum of Art File:Portrait de Suzanne Valadon (Madame Suzanne Valadon, artiste peintre) - Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec.jpg, ''Portrait of Suzanne Valadon (Toulouse-Lautrec), Portrait de Suzanne Valadon'', 1885, oil on canvas, Museo Nacional de Bellas Artes (Buenos Aires), Museum, Buenos Aires File:Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec 018.jpg, ''La Blanchisseuse (Toulouse-Lautrec), The Laundress'', 1884–1888, oil on canvas, private collection File:Toulouse-Lautrec de Henri Vincent van Gogh Sun.jpg, ''Portrait of Vincent van Gogh (1887), Portrait of Vincent van Gogh'', 1887, pastel on cardboard, Van Gogh Museum, Amsterdam File:Lautrec equestrienne (at the cirque fernando) 1887-8.jpg, ''Equestrienne (At the Cirque Medrano, Circus Fernando)'', 1888, oil on canvas, Art Institute of Chicago File:Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, French - At the Moulin Rouge- The Dance - Google Art Project.jpg, ''At the Moulin Rouge, The Dance, At the Moulin Rouge'' 1890, oil on canvas, Philadelphia Museum of Art File:Lautrec gabrielle 1891.jpg, ''Portrait of Gabrielle'', 1891, oil on cardboard, Musee Toulouse-Lautrec, Museum Toulouse-Lautrec File:Toulouse-Lautrec - La Goulue arrivant au Moulin Rouge.jpg, ''
La Goulue La Goulue (, meaning ''The Gourmand''), was the stage name of Louise Weber (12 July 1866 – 29 January 1929), a French can-can dancer who was a star of the Moulin Rouge, a popular cabaret in the Pigalle district of Paris, near Montmartre. Weber be ...

La Goulue
arriving at the
Moulin Rouge Moulin Rouge (, ; ) is a cabaret in Paris, France Paris () is the Capital city, capital and List of communes in France with over 20,000 inhabitants, most populous city of France, with an estimated population of 2,175,601 residents as of ...

Moulin Rouge
'', 1892, oil on cardboard, Museum of Modern Art File:Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, 1892, Deux femmes dansant au Moulin-Rouge, oil on cardboard, 93 x 80 cm, National Gallery in Prague.jpg, ''At the Moulin Rouge (Two Women Waltzing)'', 1892, oil on cardboard, National Gallery in Prague File:Lautrec a corner in a dance hall 1892.jpg, ''Un coin du Moulin de la Galette'', National Gallery of Art, Washington D.C. File:Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, The Englishman at the Moulin Rouge, 1892.jpg, ''The Englishman at the Moulin Rouge'', 1892, oil on cardboard, Metropolitan Museum of Art File:Toulouse-Lautrec - Quadrille NGA.jpg, ''Quadrille at the
Moulin Rouge Moulin Rouge (, ; ) is a cabaret in Paris, France Paris () is the Capital city, capital and List of communes in France with over 20,000 inhabitants, most populous city of France, with an estimated population of 2,175,601 residents as of ...

Moulin Rouge
'', 1892, oil and gouache on cardboard, National Gallery of Art File:Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, 1892, Wadsworth Atheneum.jpg, ''
Jane Avril up''Jane Avril'', c.1892, by Toulouse-Lautrec Jane Avril (9 June 186831st January 1943) was a French can-can dancer made famous by Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec through his paintings. Extremely thin, "given to jerky movements and sudden contortions" ...

Jane Avril
leaving the Moulin Rouge'', c.1892, oil and gouache on cardboard, Wadsworth Atheneum, Wadsworth Atheneum Museum of Art File:Lautrec in bed 1893.jpg, ''Le Lit (Toulouse-Lautrec), In Bed'', 1893, oil on cardboard, Musée d'Orsay File:Rue des Moulins, 1894 sc001208.jpg, ''The Medical Inspection'' at the Rue des Moulins Brothels in Paris, Brothel, 1894, oil on cardboard on wood, National Gallery of Art File:Marcelle Lender Dancing the Bolero in Chilpéric A24275.jpg, ''Marcelle Lender Dancing the Bolero in "Chilpéric"'', 1895–96, oil on canvas, National Gallery of Art (Albi) Un examen à la faculté de Médecine de Paris - Toulouse-Lautrec 1901 MTL.216.jpg, ''Examination at faculty of medicine'', May–July 1901, oil on canvas – his last painting, Musee Toulouse-Lautrec, Museum Toulouse-Lautrec


Posters

File:Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec 003.jpg, ''Aristide Bruant in his cabaret'', 1892, lithography print File:Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec 002.jpg, ''Ambassadeurs – Aristide Bruant'', 1892, lithography print File:Lautrec reine de joie (poster) 1892.jpg, ''Reine de Joie'', 1892, chromolithography print File:Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec - Divan Japonais - Google Art Project.jpg, ''Divan Japonais (lithograph), Divan Japonais'', 1892–93, crayon, brush, spatter and transferred screen lithograph, printed in 4 color-layers File:Jane Avril by Toulouse-Lautrec.jpeg, ''Avril'' (
Jane Avril up''Jane Avril'', c.1892, by Toulouse-Lautrec Jane Avril (9 June 186831st January 1943) was a French can-can dancer made famous by Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec through his paintings. Extremely thin, "given to jerky movements and sudden contortions" ...

Jane Avril
), 1893, lithography printed in five colors File:Lautrec babylone d'allemagne (poster for 'the german babylon') 1894.jpg, ''The German Babylon'', 1894, lithography published by Victor Joze


Other

File:Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, Louis Comfort Tiffany, Au Nouveau Cirque, Papa Chrysanthème, c.1894, stained glass, 120 x 85 cm, Musée d'Orsay, Paris.jpg, With Louis Comfort Tiffany, ''Au Nouveau Cirque, Papa Chrysanthème'', c.1894, stained glass, 120 x 85 cm, Musée d'Orsay, Paris File:HTLMissIdaHeath.JPG, ''Miss Ida Heath'', 1894, crayon and brush lithograph with scraper File:HTLBoxWithGildedMask.png, ''The Box with the Gilded Mask'', 1894, color crayon, brush and spatter lithograph with scraper File:Der Jockey.jpg, ''The Jockey'', 1899, mix of lithograph, oil and watercolor on paper, Brooklyn Museum


Photos of Lautrec

File:Guibert 5.jpg, Photo by Maurice Guibert c.1887 File:Guibert 3.jpg, Photo by Maurice Guibert, 1892 File:Guibert 4.jpg, Photo by Maurice Guibert File:Toulouse-Lautrec in his workshop with a nude model (photo by Maurice Guibert).jpg, Lautrec with a nude model in his studio, by Maurice Guibert c. 1895


See also

* Art Nouveau posters and graphic arts * Salon des Cent * Les Maîtres de l'Affiche


References


Further reading

* * *Sawyer, Kenneth B. "Art Notes: Lautrec Works Shown at Gutman Memorial", ''The Sun'', 15 April 1956, 100. *"Rites for Nelson Gutman to be at 11 A.M. Tomorrow", ''The Sun'', 17 August 1955, 13. *Henry, Helen. "Juanita Greif Gutman Art Treasures: Works form the Collection She Left the Baltimore Museum of Art Go on Exhibit Next Sunday", ''The Sun'', 16 February 1964, SM9. *"Gutman Show-Savor it Slow", ''The Sun'', 8 March 1964 D4. *"Mrs. Gutman Funeral Set: Noted Collector of Art, Rare Books Traveled Widely", ''The Sun'', 7 September 1963, 1.


External links

*
Toulouse-Lautrec and Montmartre at the National Gallery of Art

''Young woman at a table'', 'Poudre de riz', 1887 Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec Collection Van Gogh MuseumToulouse Lautrec Museum

Bibliothèque numérique de l'INHA - Estampes de Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec (French National Institute of Art – Prints of Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec)

''Toulouse-Lautrec and Jane Avril beyond the Moulin Rouge'' - Courtauld Gallery, London
Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec
page on Check123 - Video Encyclopedia # 210313 Connection refused --> {{DEFAULTSORT:Toulouse-Lautrec, Henri Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, Paintings by Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, French male painters Post-impressionist painters 1864 births 1901 deaths Art Nouveau illustrators Art Nouveau painters French erotic artists French illustrators French poster artists French nobility Artists with disabilities French people with disabilities Lycée Condorcet alumni People from Albi Alcohol-related deaths in France Deaths from syphilis Burials in Nouvelle-Aquitaine 19th-century French painters 20th-century French painters 20th-century male artists 20th-century French printmakers People of Montmartre Moulin Rouge