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The Tories were a
political faction A political faction is a group of individuals that share a common political purpose but differs in some respect to the rest of the entity. A faction within a group or political party may include fragmented sub-factions, "parties within a party," ...
(and, later, a
political party A political party is an organization that coordinates candidates to compete in a particular country's elections. It is common for the members of a party to hold similar ideas about politics, and parties may promote specific political ideology ...
) in the parliaments of
England England is a that is part of the . It shares land borders with to its west and to its north. The lies northwest of England and the to the southwest. England is separated from by the to the east and the to the south. The country cover ...
,
Scotland Scotland ( sco, Scotland, gd, Alba ) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Tele ...
,
Great Britain Great Britain is an island in the North Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe. With an area of , it is the largest of the British Isles, the List of European islands by area, largest European island, and the List of i ...
,
Ireland Ireland ( ; ga, Éire ; Ulster-Scots: ) is an island upright=1.15, Great_Britain.html"_;"title="Ireland_(left)_and_Great_Britain">Ireland_(left)_and_Great_Britain_(right),_are_large_islands_of_north-west_Europe image:Small_Island_in ...
and the
United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Some prefer to use Britain as shorth ...
. Between the 1670s and 1830s, the Tories contested power with their rivals, the Whigs. In 1678, the first Tories emerged in
England England is a that is part of the . It shares land borders with to its west and to its north. The lies northwest of England and the to the southwest. England is separated from by the to the east and the to the south. The country cover ...

England
as
Jacobites Jacobite may refer to: Religion * Jacobites, Jacob Baradaeus (died 578). Churches in the Jacobite tradition and sometimes called Jacobite include: ** Jacobite Syrian Christian Church, autonomous branch of the Syriac Orthodox Church in Kerala, Ind ...
, when they opposed the
Whig Whig or Whigs may refer to: Parties and factions In the British Isles * A pejorative nickname for the Kirk Party The Kirk Party were a radical Presbyterian faction of the Scotland, Scottish Covenanters during the Wars of the Three Kingdoms. ...
-supported
Exclusion Bill The Exclusion Crisis ran from 1679 until 1681 in the reign of King Charles II of England, Scotland and Ireland. Three Exclusion bills sought to exclude the King's brother and heir presumptive, James II of England, James, Duke of York, from the th ...
which set out to disinherit the
heir presumptive An heir presumptive is the person entitled to inherit a throne, peerage, or other hereditary honour, but whose position can be displaced by the birth of an heir apparent An heir apparent is a person who is first in an order of succession An ...
James, Duke of York James II and VII (14 October 1633 O.S.16 September 1701An assertion found in many sources that James died 6 September 1701 (17 September 1701 New Style Old Style (O.S.) and New Style (N.S.) indicate a dating system from before and after a c ...

James, Duke of York
, who eventually became James II of England and Ireland, VII of Scotland. During the Second Jacobite Revolution, involving James III (The Pretender), the Tories secretly worked with the Swedes and French in planning a revolution and coup. This party ceased to exist as an organised political entity in the early 1760s, although it was used as a term of self-description by some political writers, in some cases as an insult. A few decades later, a new Tory party would rise to establish a hold on government between 1783 and 1830, with
William Pitt the Younger William Pitt the Younger (28 May 175923 January 1806) was a prominent Tory A Tory () is a person who holds a political philosophy known as Toryism, based on a British version of Traditionalist conservatism, traditionalism and conservatism ...

William Pitt the Younger
followed by
Robert Jenkinson, 2nd Earl of Liverpool Robert Banks Jenkinson, 2nd Earl of Liverpool, (7 June 1770 – 4 December 1828) was a British Tory The Tories were a political faction Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with making decisions in grou ...
. While
Anglican Anglicanism is a Western Western may refer to: Places *Western, Nebraska, a village in the US *Western, New York, a town in the US *Western Creek, Tasmania, a locality in Australia *Western Junction, Tasmania, a locality in Australia * ...

Anglican
, there was a factional support for
Roman Catholicism The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with 1.3 billion baptised Baptism (from the Greek language, Greek noun βάπτισμα ''báptisma'') is a Christians, Christian r ...
. The Earl of Liverpool was succeeded by fellow Tory
Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington Field Marshal Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, (1 May 1769 – 14 September 1852) was an Anglo-Irish people, Anglo-Irish soldier and Tories (British political party), Tory statesman who was one of the leading military and political fi ...

Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington
, whose term included the
Catholic emancipation Catholic emancipation or Catholic relief was a process in the kingdoms of Great Britain Great Britain is an island in the North Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe. With an area of , it is the largest of the Brit ...
. This occurred mostly due to the election of
Daniel O'Connell Daniel O'Connell ( ga, Dónall Ó Conaill; 6 August 1775 – 15 May 1847), hailed in his time as The Liberator, was the acknowledged political leader of Ireland's Roman Catholic majority in the first half of the 19th century. His mobilisa ...

Daniel O'Connell
as a Catholic MP from Ireland. When the Whigs subsequently regained control, the
Representation of the People Act 1832 The Representation of the People Act 1832 (also known as the 1832 Reform Act, Great Reform Act or First Reform Act) was an Act of Parliament of the United Kingdom The Parliament of the United Kingdom is the supreme legislative body ...
removed the
rotten boroughs Old Sarum in Wiltshire, an uninhabited hill which until 1832 elected two Members of Parliament. Painting by John Constable, 1829 A rotten or pocket borough, also known as a nomination borough or proprietorial borough, was a parliamentary borough ...
, many of which were controlled by Tories. In 1832, the Tory ranks were reduced to 175 MPs. Under the leadership of
Robert Peel Sir Robert Peel, 2nd Baronet, (5 February 1788 – 2 July 1850) was a British statesman who served twice as (1834–1835 and 1841–1846) simultaneously serving as (1834-1835) and twice as (1822–1827 and 1828–1830). He is regarded as ...

Robert Peel
, the
Tamworth ManifestoThe Tamworth Manifesto was a political manifesto issued by Sir Robert Peel in 1834 in Tamworth, which is widely credited by historians as having laid down the principles upon which the modern British Conservative Party (UK), Conservative Party is ba ...
was issued and began to transform the Tories into the Conservative Party. However, Peel lost many of his supporters by repealing the
Corn Laws The Corn Laws were tariff A tariff is a tax A tax is a compulsory financial charge or some other type of levy imposed on a taxpayer (an individual or legal entity In law, a legal person is any person A person (plural people or per ...
, causing the party to break apart. One faction, led by
Edward Smith-Stanley, 14th Earl of Derby Edward George Geoffrey Smith-Stanley, 14th Earl of Derby, (29 March 1799 – 23 October 1869) was a three-time Prime Minister of the United Kingdom The prime minister of the United Kingdom is the head of government The head of gove ...

Edward Smith-Stanley, 14th Earl of Derby
and
Benjamin Disraeli Benjamin Disraeli, 1st Earl of Beaconsfield, (21 December 1804 – 19 April 1881), was twice Prime Minister of the United Kingdom The prime minister of the United Kingdom is the head of government The head of government is e ...

Benjamin Disraeli
, survived to become the modern
Conservative Party Conservative Party may refer to: Europe Current *Croatian Conservative Party, *Conservative Party (Czech Republic) *Conservative People's Party (Denmark) *Conservative Party of Georgia *Conservative Party (Norway) *Conservative Party (UK) Histor ...

Conservative Party
, whose members are commonly still referred to as Tories as they still often follow and promote the ideology of
Tory A Tory () is a person who holds a political philosophy Political philosophy or political theory is the philosophical Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about reason, existence, ...
ism.


Name

As a political term, ''Tory'' was an insult (derived from the
Middle Irish Middle Irish, sometimes called Middle Gaelic ( ga, An Mheán-Ghaeilge), is the Goidelic language The Goidelic or Gaelic languages ( ga, teangacha Gaelacha; gd, cànanan Goidhealach; gv, çhengaghyn Gaelgagh) form one of the two groups of In ...
word , modern
Irish Irish most commonly refers to: * Someone or something of, from, or related to: ** Ireland, an island situated off the north-western coast of continental Europe ** Northern Ireland, a constituent unit of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and North ...
, meaning "
outlaw An outlaw is a person declared as outside the protection of the law Law is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules to form a unified whole. A system, sur ...

outlaw
", "robber", from the Irish word , meaning "pursuit" since outlaws were "pursued men") that entered English politics during the
Exclusion Bill The Exclusion Crisis ran from 1679 until 1681 in the reign of King Charles II of England, Scotland and Ireland. Three Exclusion bills sought to exclude the King's brother and heir presumptive, James II of England, James, Duke of York, from the th ...
crisis of 1678–1681. ''Whig'' (from ''whiggamore'', a "cattle driver") was initially a Scottish insult for the
Covenanter Covenanters ( gd, Cùmhnantaich) were members of a 17th-century Kingdom of Scotland, Scottish religious and political movement, who supported a Presbyterian polity, Presbyterian Church of Scotland, and the primacy of its leaders in religious af ...
faction in Scotland who opposed the
Engagers The Engagers were a faction of the Scottish Covenanter Covenanters ( gd, Cùmhnantaich) were members of a 17th-century Scottish religious and political movement, who supported a Presbyterian Church of Scotland, and the primacy of its leaders ...
(a faction who supported
Charles ICharles I may refer to: Kings and emperors * Charlemagne (742–814), numbered Charles I in the lists of French and German kings * Charles I of Anjou (1226–1285), also king of Albania, Jerusalem, Naples and Sicily * Charles I of Hungary (1288 ...

Charles I
during the
Second English Civil War The 1648 Second English Civil War is one in a series of connected conflicts in the kingdoms of Kingdom_of_England, England, incorporating Wales, Kingdom_of_Scotland, Scotland, and Kingdom_of_Ireland, Ireland. Known collectively as the 1638 to ...
) and supported the
Whiggamore Raid The Whiggamore Raid (or "March of the Whiggamores") was a march on Edinburgh Edinburgh (; sco, Edinburgh; gd, Dùn Èideann ) is the capital city of Scotland and one of its 32 Council areas of Scotland, council areas. Historically part of th ...
that took place in September 1648. While the Whigs were those who supported the exclusion of from the succession to thrones of
Scotland Scotland ( sco, Scotland, gd, Alba Alba (Scottish Gaelic Scottish Gaelic ( gd, Gàidhlig or Scots Gaelic, sometimes referred to simply as Gaelic) is a Goidelic language (in the Celtic languages, Celtic branch of the Indo-European ...
and
England England is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to its west and Scotland to its north. The Irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea to the southwest. E ...
and
Ireland Ireland ( ; ga, Éire ; Ulster Scots dialect, Ulster-Scots: ) is an island in the Atlantic Ocean, North Atlantic. It is separated from Great Britain to its east by the North Channel (Great Britain and Ireland), North Channel, the Irish Sea ...
(the ''Petitioners''), the ''Tories'' were those who opposed the
Exclusion Bill The Exclusion Crisis ran from 1679 until 1681 in the reign of King Charles II of England, Scotland and Ireland. Three Exclusion bills sought to exclude the King's brother and heir presumptive, James II of England, James, Duke of York, from the th ...
(the Abhorrers). In 1757,
David Hume David Hume (; born David Home; 7 May 1711 NS (26 April 1711 OS) – 25 August 1776) Cranston, Maurice, and Thomas Edmund Jessop. 2020 999999 or triple nine most often refers to: * 999 (emergency telephone number) 250px, A sign on a beach ...

David Hume
wrote:


History


English Civil War

The first Tory party could trace its principles and politics to the
English Civil War The English Civil War (1642–1651) was a series of civil wars A civil war, also known as an intrastate war in polemology, is a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, ...
which divided England between the
Royalist A royalist supports a particular monarch A monarch is a head of stateWebster's II New College DictionarMonarch Houghton Mifflin. Boston. 2001. p. 707. Life tenure, for life or until abdication, and therefore the head of state of a monarchy. ...
or
Cavalier Cavalier () was first used by Roundhead Roundheads were the supporters of the Parliament of England during the English Civil War (1642–1651). Also known as Parliamentarians, they fought against King Charles I of England and his supporte ...

Cavalier
supporters of King
Charles ICharles I may refer to: Kings and emperors * Charlemagne (742–814), numbered Charles I in the lists of French and German kings * Charles I of Anjou (1226–1285), also king of Albania, Jerusalem, Naples and Sicily * Charles I of Hungary (1288 ...

Charles I
and the supporters of the
Long Parliament The Long Parliament was an English Parliament The Parliament of England was the legislature of the Kingdom of England from the mid 13th to 17th century. The first English Parliament was convened in 1215, with the creation and signing of ...
upon which the King had declared war. This action resulted from this parliament not allowing him to levy taxes without yielding to its terms. In the beginning of the Long Parliament (1641), the King's supporters were few, and the Parliament pursued a course of reform of previous abuses. The increasing radicalism of the Parliamentary majority, however, estranged many reformers even in the Parliament itself and drove them to make common cause with the King. The King's party thus comprised a mixture of supporters of royal
autocracy Autocracy is a system of government in which supreme power over a State (polity), state is concentrated in the hands of one person, whose decisions are subject to neither external legal restraints nor regularized mechanisms of popular control (ex ...
and of those Parliamentarians who felt that the Long Parliament had gone too far in attempting to gain executive power for itself and, more especially, in undermining the episcopalian government of the
Church of England The Church of England (C of E) is a Christian church Christian Church is a Protestant Protestantism is a form of Christianity that originated with the 16th-century Reformation, a movement against what its followers perceived to be Critic ...
, which was felt to be a primary support of royal government. By the end of the 1640s, the radical Parliamentary programme had become clear: reduction of the King to a powerless figurehead and replacement of Anglican episcopacy with a form of
Presbyterianism Presbyterianism is a part of the Reformed tradition Calvinism (also called the Reformed tradition, Reformed Christianity, Reformed Protestantism, or the Reformed faith) is a major branch of Protestantism Protestantism is a form ...
. This prospective form of settlement was prevented by a
coup d'état A coup d'état (; French for "blow of state"), often shortened to coup in English, (also known as an overthrow) is a seizure and removal of a government and its powers. Typically, it is an illegal, unconstitutional seizure of power by a politic ...
which shifted power from Parliament itself to the Parliamentary
New Model Army The New Model Army was a standing army formed in 1645 by the Roundhead, Parliamentarians during the First English Civil War, then disbanded after the Stuart Restoration in 1660. It differed from other armies employed in the 1638 to 1651 Wars ...
, controlled by
Oliver Cromwell Oliver Cromwell (25 April 15993 September 1658) was an English general and statesman who, first as a subordinate and later as Commander-in-Chief, led armies An army (from Latin ''arma'' "arms, weapons" via Old French ''armée'', "armed" e ...

Oliver Cromwell
. The Army had King
Charles ICharles I may refer to: Kings and emperors * Charlemagne (742–814), numbered Charles I in the lists of French and German kings * Charles I of Anjou (1226–1285), also king of Albania, Jerusalem, Naples and Sicily * Charles I of Hungary (1288 ...

Charles I
executed and for the next eleven years the British kingdoms operated under
military dictatorship A military dictatorship is a dictatorship in which the military exerts complete or substantial control over political authority, and the dictator is often a high-ranked military officer. The reverse situation is to have civilian control of the m ...
.
The Restoration Restoration is the act of restoring something to its original state and may refer to: * Conservation and restoration of cultural heritage * Restoration style Film and television * ''The Restoration'' (1909 film), a film by D.W. Griffith starr ...
of produced a reaction in which the King regained a large part of the power held by his father. However, Charles' ministers and supporters in England accepted a substantial role for Parliament in the government of the kingdoms. No subsequent British monarch would attempt to rule without Parliament, and after the
Glorious Revolution The Glorious Revolution of November 1688 ( ga, An Réabhlóid Ghlórmhar; gd, Rèabhlaid Ghlòrmhor; cy, Chwyldro Gogoneddus), the invasion also known as the ''Glorieuze Overtocht'' or Glorious Crossing by the Dutch, was the deposition of ...
of 1688, political disputes would be resolved through elections and parliamentary manoeuvring, rather than by an appeal to force. Charles II also restored
episcopacy An episcopal polity is a hierarchical form of church governance ("ecclesiastical polity") in which the chief local authorities are called bishop A bishop is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Clergy#Christianity, Christi ...
in the
Church of England The Church of England (C of E) is a Christian church Christian Church is a Protestant Protestantism is a form of Christianity that originated with the 16th-century Reformation, a movement against what its followers perceived to be Critic ...
. His first
Cavalier Parliament , as he would have dressed at the opening of the sessions of the Cavalier parliament. The Cavalier Parliament of England England is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with ...
began as a strongly royalist body, and passed a series of acts re-establishing the Church by law and strongly punishing dissent by both Roman Catholics and non-Anglican Protestants. These acts did not reflect the King's personal views and demonstrated the existence of a Royalist ideology beyond mere subservience to the Court. A series of disasters in the late 1660s and 1670s discredited Charles II's governments, and powerful political interests (including some who had been identified with the Parliamentary side in the
Civil War A civil war, also known as an intrastate war in polemology, is a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine publis ...
) began to agitate for a greater role of Parliament in government, coupled with more tolerance for
Protestant Protestantism is a form of that originated with the 16th-century , a movement against what its followers perceived to be in the . Protestants originating in the Reformation reject the Roman Catholic doctrine of , but disagree among themselves ...
dissenters. These interests would soon coalesce as the Whigs. As direct attacks on the King were politically impossible and could lead to execution for treason, opponents of the power of the Court framed their challenges as exposés of subversive and sinister Catholic plots. Although the matter of these plots was fictitious, they reflected two uncomfortable political realities: first, that Charles II had (somewhat insincerely) undertaken measures to convert the kingdom to Catholicism (in a 1670
treaty A treaty is a formal, legally binding written agreement between actors in international law International law, also known as public international law and law of nations, is the set of rules, norms, and standards generally accepted in relat ...
with
Louis XIV of France Louis XIV (Louis Dieudonné; 5 September 16381 September 1715), also known as Louis the Great () or the Sun King (), was from 14 May 1643 until his death in 1715. His reign of 72 years and 110 days is the of any monarch of a sovereign country in ...

Louis XIV of France
); second, that his younger brother and
heir presumptive An heir presumptive is the person entitled to inherit a throne, peerage, or other hereditary honour, but whose position can be displaced by the birth of an heir apparent An heir apparent is a person who is first in an order of succession An ...
,
James, Duke of York James II and VII (14 October 1633 O.S.16 September 1701An assertion found in many sources that James died 6 September 1701 (17 September 1701 New Style Old Style (O.S.) and New Style (N.S.) indicate a dating system from before and after a c ...

James, Duke of York
, had in fact converted to Catholicism, an act that many Protestant Englishmen in the 1670s saw as only one step below high treason. The Whigs tried to link the
Lord Lieutenant of Ireland Lord Lieutenant of Ireland (), or more formally Lieutenant General and General Governor of Ireland, was the title of the chief governor of Ireland The chief governor was the senior official in the Dublin Castle administration, which maintained E ...
, the
Duke of Ormonde A duke (male) can either be a monarch ranked below the emperor, king, and grand duke ruling over a duchy or a member of Royal family, royalty or nobility, historically of highest rank, below princes of nobility and grand dukes. The title comes ...
, with the foremost Irish Tory,
Redmond O'Hanlon Redmond O'Hanlon, FRGS, FRSL (born 5 June 1947) is an English writer and scholar. Life O'Hanlon was born in 1947 in Dorset, England. He was educated at Marlborough College and then Oxford University. After taking his M.Phil. in nineteenth-cen ...
, in a supposed plot to murder
Titus Oates Titus Oates (15 September 1649 – 12/13 July 1705) was an English priest who fabricated the " Popish Plot", a supposed Catholic The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with 1.3&n ...

Titus Oates
. The Whig
Bishop of Meath The Bishop of Meath is an episcopal title which takes its name after the ancient Kingdom of Meath. In the Roman Catholic Church The Catholic Church, often referred to as the Roman Catholic Church, is the List of Christian denominations b ...
, Henry Jones, offered O'Hanlon a pardon and a bribe if he would testify to Parliament that Ormonde was plotting a French invasion. In December 1680, the government seized these letters and the plan collapsed. In January 1681 the Whigs first began calling the supposed Irish plotters Tories, and on 15 February 1681 is recorded the first complaint from an English Royalist about the epithet Tory by the anti-Exclusion newspaper ''Heraclitus Ridens'': " ey call me scurvy names, Jesuit, Papish, Tory; and flap me over the mouth with their being the only True Protestants". Within a few months anti-Exclusionists were calling themselves Tories and a northern Dissenter called Oliver Heywood recorded in October: "Ms. H. of Chesterfield told me a gentleman was at their house and had a red Ribband in his hat, she askt him what it meant, he said it signifyed that he was a Tory, whats that sd she, he ans. an Irish Rebel, — oh dreadful that any in England dare espouse that interest. I hear further since that this is the distinction they make instead of Cavalier and Roundhead, now they are called Torys and Wiggs".


Glorious Revolution

In a more general sense, the Tories represented the more conservative royalist supporters of Charles II, who endorsed a strong monarchy as a counterbalance to the power of Parliament, and who saw in the Whig opponents of the Court a quasi-Republican tendency (similar to that seen in the
Long Parliament The Long Parliament was an English Parliament The Parliament of England was the legislature of the Kingdom of England from the mid 13th to 17th century. The first English Parliament was convened in 1215, with the creation and signing of ...
) to strip the monarchy of its essential
prerogative In law Law is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules to form a unified whole. A system, surrounded and influenced by its environment, is described by its boun ...
powers and leave the Crown as a puppet entirely dependent upon Parliament. That the Exclusion Bill was the central question upon which parties diverged, did not hinge upon an assessment of the personal character of the Duke of York (though his conversion to Catholicism was the key factor that made the Bill possible), but rather upon the power of Parliament to elect a monarch of its own choosing, contrary to the established laws of succession. That the Parliament, with the consent of the King, had such power was not at issue; rather, it was the wisdom of a policy of creating a King whose sole title to the Crown was the will of Parliament and who was essentially a Parliamentary appointee. On this original question, the Tories were in the short run entirely successful as the Parliaments that brought in the Exclusion Bill were dissolved, Charles II was enabled to manage the administration autocratically and upon his death the Duke of York succeeded without difficulty. The
rebellion Rebellion, uprising, or insurrection is a refusal of obedience or order. It refers to the open resistance against the orders of an established authority In the fields of sociology Sociology is the study of society, human social behavio ...
of
Monmouth Monmouth ( , ; cy, Trefynwy meaning "town on the Monnow") is a town and community A community is a social unit (a group of living things) with commonality such as Norm (social), norms, religion, values, Convention (norm), customs, or Identi ...
, the candidate of the radical Whigs to succeed Charles II, was easily crushed and Monmouth himself executed. However, in the long run Tory principles were to be severely compromised. Besides the support of a strong monarchy, the Tories also stood for the Church of England, as established in Acts of Parliament following the
restoration Restoration is the act of restoring something to its original state and may refer to: * Conservation and restoration of cultural heritage * Restoration style Film and television * ''The Restoration'' (1909 film), a film by D.W. Griffith starr ...
of Charles II, both as a body governed by bishops, using the
Book of Common Prayer A book is a medium for recording information Information is processed, organised and structured data Data (; ) are individual facts, statistics, or items of information, often numeric. In a more technical sense, data are a set of v ...

Book of Common Prayer
whilst subscribing to a specific
doctrine Doctrine (from la, Wikt:doctrina, doctrina, meaning "teaching, instruction") is a codification (law), codification of beliefs or a body of teacher, teachings or instructions, taught Value (personal and cultural), principles or positions, as the e ...
and also as an exclusive body established by law, from which both Roman Catholics and
Nonconformists Nonconformity or nonconformism may refer to: Culture and society * Insubordination, the act of willfully disobeying an order of one's superior *Dissent, a sentiment or philosophy of non-agreement or opposition to a prevailing idea or entity ** O ...
were excluded. During his reign, James II fought for a broadly tolerant religious settlement under which his co-religionists could prosper—a position anathema to conservative Anglicans. James' attempts to use the government-controlled
church Church may refer to: Religion * Church (building) A church building, church house, or simply church, is a building used for Christian worship services and other Christian religious activities. The term is usually used to refer to the p ...
to promote policies that undermined the church's own unique status in the state led some Tories to support the
Glorious Revolution The Glorious Revolution of November 1688 ( ga, An Réabhlóid Ghlórmhar; gd, Rèabhlaid Ghlòrmhor; cy, Chwyldro Gogoneddus), the invasion also known as the ''Glorieuze Overtocht'' or Glorious Crossing by the Dutch, was the deposition of ...
of 1688. The result was a King established solely by parliamentary title and subject to legal controls established by Parliament, the principles that the Tories had originally abhorred. The Tories' sole consolation was that the monarchs chosen were close to the main line of succession as was James II's nephew and William's wife
Mary Mary may refer to: People * Mary (name) Mary is a feminine Femininity (also called womanliness or girlishness) is a set of attributes, behaviors, and roles generally associated with women and girls. Although femininity is socially constru ...

Mary
was James's elder daughter. The
Act of Toleration 1689 The Toleration Act 1688 (1 Will & Mary c 18), also referred to as the Act of Toleration, was an Act of the Parliament of England The Parliament of England was the legislature A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority ...
also gave rights to Protestant dissenters that were hitherto unknown, while the elimination of a large number of bishops who refused to swear allegiance to the new monarchs allowed the government to pack the episcopate with bishops with decidedly Whiggish leanings. In both these respects the Tory platform had failed, but the institutions of monarchy and of a state Church survived.


Balanced ministries and opposition

Despite the failure of their founding principles, the Tories remained a powerful political party during the reigns of the next two monarchs, particularly that of
Queen Anne Queen Anne often refers to: * Anne, Queen of Great Britain (1665–1714), queen of England, Scotland and Ireland (1702–1707) and of Great Britain (1707–1714) **Queen Anne style architecture, an architectural style from her reign, and its revival ...

Queen Anne
. During this time, the Tories fiercely competed with the Whigs for power, and there were frequent Parliamentary elections in which the two parties measured their strength. William III saw that the Tories were generally more friendly to royal authority than the Whigs, and he employed both groups in his government. His early ministry was largely Tory, but the government gradually came to be dominated by the so-called Junto Whigs. This tight-knit political grouping was opposed by the Country Whigs led by Robert Harley, who gradually merged with the Tory opposition in the later 1690s. Although William's successor Anne had considerable Tory sympathies and excluded the Junto Whigs from power, after a brief and unsuccessful experiment with an exclusively Tory government she generally continued William's policy of balancing the parties, supported by her moderate Tory ministers, the
Duke of Marlborough General (United Kingdom), General John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough, 1st Prince of Mindelheim, 1st Count of Nellenburg, Prince of the Holy Roman Empire, (26 May 1650 – 16 June 1722 Old Style and New Style dates, O.S.) was an Englis ...

Duke of Marlborough
and Lord Godolphin. The stresses of the
War of the Spanish Succession The War of the Spanish Succession (1701–1714) was an early-18th-century European war, triggered by the death in November 1700 of the childless Charles II of Spain. It established the principle that dynastic rights were secondary to maintaini ...
which begun in 1701 led most of the Tories to withdraw into opposition by 1708, so that Marlborough and Godolphin were heading an administration dominated by the Junto Whigs. Anne herself grew increasingly uncomfortable with this dependence on the Whigs, especially as her personal relationship with the deteriorated. This situation also became increasingly uncomfortable to many of the non-Junto Whigs, led by the
Duke of Somerset Duke of Somerset, from the county of Somerset Somerset (; Archaism, archaically Somersetshire) is a Ceremonial counties of England, county in South West England which borders Gloucestershire and Bristol to the north, Wiltshire to the east, D ...

Duke of Somerset
and the Duke of Shrewsbury, who began to intrigue with Robert Harley's Tories. In early 1710, the prosecution by the Whig government of the ultra-Tory preacher
Henry Sacheverell Henry Sacheverell (; 8 February 1674 – 5 June 1724) was an English high church Anglican clergyman who achieved nationwide fame in 1709 after preaching an incendiary 5 November sermon. He was subsequently impeached by the House of Commons and ...
for sermons delivered the previous year, led to the
Sacheverell riots The Sacheverell riots were a series of outbreaks of public disorder, which spread across England during the spring, summer and autumn of 1710 in which supporters of the Tories (British political party), Tories attacked the homes and meeting-houses ...

Sacheverell riots
and brought the ministry into popular discredit. In the spring of 1710, Anne dismissed Godolphin and the Junto ministers, replacing them with Tories. The new Tory ministry was dominated by
HarleyHarley may refer to: People * Harley (given name) * Harley (surname) Fictional characters * Harley Quinn, a character in DC Comics' ''Batman'' franchise * Harley Hartwell, a character in the anime and manga ''Case Closed'' * Harley Warren, a chara ...
, Chancellor of the Exchequer (later Lord Treasurer) and
Viscount Bolingbroke Viscount Bolingbroke is a current title in the Peerage of Great Britain created in 1712 for Henry St John, 1st Viscount Bolingbroke, Henry St John. He was simultaneously made Baron St John, of Lydiard Tregoze in the Wiltshire, County of Wilts. Sinc ...

Viscount Bolingbroke
, Secretary of State. They were backed by a strong majority in the Parliament elected in 1710, rallying under the banner of "
Church in Danger 'Church in Danger' was a political slogan The following is a list of notable 18th, 19th, 20th and 21st-century political slogan A slogan is a memorable motto or phrase used in a clan, political slogan, political, Advertising slogan, commercial ...
". This Tory government negotiated the
Treaty of Utrecht The Peace of Utrecht was a series of peace treaties A peace treaty is an agreement between two or more hostile parties, usually countries or government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized commun ...
in 1713, which pulled Great Britain out of the War of the Spanish Succession (to the dismay of Britain's allies, including Anne's eventual successor, George, Elector of Hanover); the peace was enacted despite a Whig majority in the
House of Lords The House of Lords, formally The Right Honourable the Lords Spiritual and Temporal of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland in Parliament assembled, is the of the . Membership is by , or . Like the , it meets in the . ar ...

House of Lords
, which Anne defeated by creating new Tory peers. Following a long disagreement between the ministers, Anne dismissed Harley in 1714. The arch-Tory Bolingbroke became in effect Anne's chief minister and Tory power seemed to be at its zenith. However, Anne was extremely ill and died within a few days. Bolingbroke had not been able to formulate any coherent plans for dealing with the succession, for if he thought of proclaiming the son of James II (the Pretender) king, he made no moves to do so. The Elector George succeeded to the throne entirely peacefully, supported by the
Hanoverian Tory Hanoverian Tories were Tories (British political party), Tory supporters of the Hanoverian Succession of 1714. At the time many Tories favoured the exiled Jacobitism, Jacobite James Francis Edward Stuart to take the British and Irish thrones, while ...
grouping.


Proscription and the Whig supremacy

In accordance with
Succession to the Crown Act 1707 The Succession to the Crown Act 1707 (6 Ann c 41) is an Act of Parliament Acts of parliament, sometimes referred to as primary legislation, are texts of law passed by the Legislature, legislative body of a jurisdiction (often a parliament or counc ...
, the Queen's government was replaced by a Council of Regency until the new King should arrive from Hanover. Bolingbroke offered his services to the King but was coldly rejected; George I brought in a government composed entirely of Whigs, and the new Parliament, elected from January to May 1715, had a large Whig majority. In December 1714 Lord Carnarvon wrote that "hardly one Tory is left in any place, though never so mean a one". The historian
Eveline Cruickshanks Eveline Cruickshanks (born 1926) is an historian of seventeenth- and eighteenth-century British political history, specialising in Jacobitism Jacobitism (; gd, Seumasachas, ; ga, Seacaibíteachas, ) was a largely 17th- and 18th-century mov ...
stated that " at took place in 1715 was not a change to an all-Whig ministry, it was a whole social revolution". For the first time, Tory gentlemen could no longer employ their sons, as they traditionally had done, in public offices such as the Army, Navy, civil service and the Church. Tory officers in the Army had their commissions taken away, Tory lawyers could not now become judges or K.C.s. The predominantly Tory lower Anglican clergy could no longer become bishops and Tory merchants were refused government contracts or directorships in any major company. This proscription lasted for forty-five years. George Lyttelton wrote in his ''Letter to the Tories'' (1747):
We are kept out of all public employments of power and profit, and live like aliens and pilgrims in the land of our nativity; ..no quality, no fortune, no eloquence, no learning, no wisdom, no probity is of any use to any man of our unfortunate denomination, ecclesiastic or layman, lawyer or soldier, peer or commoner, for obtaining the most deserved advancement in his profession, or any favour of the Crown; whilst, to our additional and insupportable vexation, the bare merit of hating us, and everything we love and hold sacred, daily advances dunces in the law and church, cowards in our fleets and armies, republicans in the King's house, and idiots everywhere!Cruickshanks, p. 5.
The Whig government, backed by royal favour and controlling the levers of power, was able to maintain a series of majorities through the infrequent elections of the next several decades (only 7 in the 46 years of the first two Georges, as opposed to 11 in the 26 years from the Revolution to the death of Queen Anne). For much of the period, the Tories commanded a broad base of support in rural England, but the relatively undemocratic nature of the franchise and the maldistribution of the borough seats ensured that this popular appeal was never translated into a Tory majority in Parliament. The Tories would have won every general election between 1715 and 1747 had the number of seats obtained corresponded to the number of votes cast. The Tories were, therefore, an effectively null factor in practical politics, a permanent minority in Parliament and entirely excluded from government. The latter exclusion, and the rigid party politics played by the Whigs, played a significant role in the cohesion of the Tories; the Whigs offered few opportunities for Tories who switched sides, and as a party the Tories found no possibilities for compromise with the Whigs. The proscription of the Tories alienated them from the Hanoverian regime and converted many of them to Jacobitism.Cruickshanks, p. 6. Bolingbroke later wrote: "If milder measures had been pursued, certain it is that the Tories had never universally embraced Jacobitism. The violence of the Whigs forced them into the arms of the Pretender".Sedgwick, p. 62. In October 1714, the French ambassador Charles-François d'Iberville noted that the number of Jacobites in the Tory party was increasing and in early 1715 he wrote that the Tories seemed to be "heading for civil war which they regard as their only resort". The former Tory chief minister, Lord Oxford, was impeached and sent to the Tower, with Bolingbroke and the Tory peer the
Duke of Ormonde A duke (male) can either be a monarch ranked below the emperor, king, and grand duke ruling over a duchy or a member of Royal family, royalty or nobility, historically of highest rank, below princes of nobility and grand dukes. The title comes ...
fleeing to France to join the Pretender. A series of riots against the coronation of George I and the new Hanoverian-Whig regime (in which the mob voiced their support for Jacobitism and local Tory parliamentary candidates) led to the Whig government strengthening their power by passing the
Riot Act The Riot Act 1714 (1 Geo.1 St.2 c.5) was an act of the which authorised local authorities to declare any group of 12 or more people to be unlawfully assembled and to disperse or face punitive action. The act's long title was "An Act for prevent ...
, suspending ''habeas corpus'' and increasing the army (including by importing 6,000 Dutch troops). Louis XIV had promised them arms but no troops, as France was exhausted by war, despite Bolingbroke's claim that just one-tenth of the number of troops William of Orange brought with him in 1688 would have sufficed. However, this promise of arms disappeared when Louis died in September 1715. The conspirators intended to abandon the rising they had planned for the West Country, but the Scots forced their hand by unilaterally raising the Pretender's standard. One of Ormonde's agents betrayed the plans for an English rising and subsequently the government arrested many Tory MPs, ex MPs and peers. The subsequent Jacobite rebellion of 1715–16 resulted in failure. However,
Charles XII of Sweden Charles XII, sometimes Carl XII ( sv, Karl XII) or Carolus Rex (17 June 1682 – 30 November 1718 Adoption of the Gregorian calendar, O.S.), was the King of Sweden from 1697 to 1718. He belonged to the House of Palatinate-Zweibrücken, a branc ...
was willing to aid the English Tories by sending troops to put the Pretender on the throne, in conjunction with an English rising. Lord Oxford, who had already in 1716 offered the Pretender his services, directed the Swedish Plot from the Tower. In January 1717, the government discovered this plot and won a vote of credit for defence measures against the projected invasion in the Commons against Tory opposition. Charles' death in 1718 ended hopes from that quarter and Ormonde's planned Spanish invasion was destroyed by a storm at sea. During the
Whig Split {{short description, Event in British politics from 1717-20 The Whig Split occurred between 1717 and 1720, when the British Whigs (British political party), Whig Party divided into two factions. One in government, led by James Stanhope, 1st Earl S ...
of 1717, the Tories refused to back either side and adopted the same stance to Lord Sunderland's overtures in 1720. Nonetheless their combined efforts helped the opposition win some victories, such as the defeat of the
Peerage Bill {{short description, Proposed British law of 1719 The Peerage Bill was a 1719 measure proposed by the British Whig government led by James Stanhope, 1st Earl Stanhope and Charles Spencer, 3rd Earl of Sunderland Charles Spencer, 3rd Earl of Sund ...
in 1719. In 1722, Sunderland advised the King to admit leading Tories into government, thereby dividing them and ending their hopes for revenge by looking for support from abroad. He also advised the King in Cabinet that elections to Parliament should be free from government bribery, an idea Sir
Robert Walpole Robert Walpole, 1st Earl of Orford, (26 August 1676 – 18 March 1745; known between 1725 and 1742 as Sir Robert Walpole) was a British British may refer to: Peoples, culture, and language * British people, nationals or natives of the Unit ...

Robert Walpole
opposed due to the possibility of the election of a Tory Parliament. The King was also opposed: "King George stared the Earl of Sunderland in the face at the name of a Tory Parliament, for it seems nothing is so hideous and frightful to him as a Tory".Sedgwick, p. 64. The public outcry over the
South Sea Bubble South is one of the cardinal direction The four cardinal directions, or cardinal points, are the directions north, east, south, and west, commonly denoted by their initials N, E, S, and W. East and west are perpendicular (at right angles) to ...

South Sea Bubble
led the Tories to believe that it would not be worthwhile raising funds for the
general election A general election is a political voting election where generally all or most members of a given political body are chosen. These are usually held for a nation, state, or territory's primary legislative body, and are different from by-election ...
, as they considered a Jacobite rising would be successful considering the state of public opinion. Sunderland joined the Tories in the
Atterbury Plot The Atterbury Plot was a conspiracy led by Francis Atterbury, Bishop of Rochester and Dean of Westminster, aimed at the restoration of the House of Stuart The House of Stuart, originally Stewart, was a dynasty, royal house of Kingdom of ...
, in which the Pretender was to be put on the throne. A rising was planned for each county, assisted by Irish and Spanish troops. However, Sunderland's death in April 1722 led to the government discovering the plot and it subsequently collapsed. When the Commons voted on the bill of pains and penalties against Atterbury, nearly ninety per cent of Tory MPs voted against it. Although the Whig Prime Minister
Robert Walpole Robert Walpole, 1st Earl of Orford, (26 August 1676 – 18 March 1745; known between 1725 and 1742 as Sir Robert Walpole) was a British British may refer to: Peoples, culture, and language * British people, nationals or natives of the Unit ...

Robert Walpole
decided not to prosecute those Tories that he knew were involved in the plot, the Tories were demoralised and largely absented themselves from Parliament for a time. Upon the accession of
George IIGeorge II or 2 may refer to: People * George II of Antioch (seventh century AD) * George II of Armenia (late ninth century) * George II of Abkhazia (916–960) * Patriarch George II of Alexandria (1021–1051) * George II of Georgia (1072–1089) * ...
in 1727 and the ensuing
general election A general election is a political voting election where generally all or most members of a given political body are chosen. These are usually held for a nation, state, or territory's primary legislative body, and are different from by-election ...
, the Tories were reduced to 128 MPs, their lowest total up to this point.Sedgwick, p. 67. The Tories were divided over whether to cooperate with the opposition Whigs against Walpole, with those in favour consisting of the Hanoverian faction led by Sir William Wyndham and with those opposed making up the Jacobite faction headed by
William Shippen William Shippen Sr. (October 1, 1712November 4, 1801) was an United States, American physician from Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. He was also a civic and educational leader who represented Pennsylvania in the Continental Congress. Biography William ...
. Most Tories opposed voting with the opposition Whigs, only reversing this stance when the Pretender sent a letter to the Tories in 1730, ordering them to "unite in the measures against the Government and even with those who oppose it for different views than theirs". For the next decade, the Tories cooperated with the opposition Whigs against Walpole.Sedgwick, p. 68. Public admission of Jacobitism was treason, so the Tories challenged the Hanoverian-Whig regime without specifically addressing it by developing a rhetoric borrowed from the Whigs of the Exclusion Crisis; they denounced government corruption and the high taxation needed to spend on foreign entanglements, opposed the growth of the Army and denounced "tyranny" and "arbitrary power". In a speech on the Army estimates, Walpole claimed that "No man of common prudence will profess himself openly a Jacobite; by so doing he not only may injure his private fortune, but he must render himself less able to do any effectual service to the cause he has embraced...Your right Jacobite, Sir, disguises his true sentiments, he roars out for revolution principles; he pretends to be a great friend to liberty". He further claimed that a large Army was needed to defeat any possible Jacobite invasion. In 1737,
Frederick, Prince of Wales Frederick, Prince of Wales, (Frederick Louis, ; 31 January 170731 March 1751), was heir apparent An heir apparent is a person who is first in an order of succession An order of succession or right of succession is the line of individuals ...

Frederick, Prince of Wales
applied to Parliament for an increased allowance. This split the Tories, with 45 abstaining, leading to the motion being defeated by 30 votes. Bolingbroke, who wanted to dissociate the Tories from Jacobitism, denounced this as "the absurd behaviour of the Tories, which no experience can cure". In 1738 Frederick's attempts to reconcile with the Tories broke down on Wyndham's insistence that he join the Tories in favouring a reduced Army. With the outbreak of war against Spain in 1739, there was renewed plotting amongst Tories for a Jacobite rising. Wyndham's death in 1740 led to the breakdown of the coalition between the Tories and opposition Whigs. An opposition Whig motion for Walpole's dismissal was defeated by 290 to 106, with many Tories abstaining. At the general election of 1741, there were 136 Tories elected. The Tories resumed their cooperation with the opposition Whigs after receiving another letter from the Pretender in September 1741, ordering them to "pursue vigorous and unanimous measures in the next session of Parliament. ..They will probably have many occasions of greatly distressing the present Government and ministry and perhaps find some who will concur with them in that, though not out of goodwill to my cause. ..In such cases I hope my friends will make no scruples in joining heartily with them for whatever their particular motives may be anything that tends to the disadvantage of the present Government and to the bringing it into confusion cannot be but of advantage to my cause".Sedgwick, p. 71. As a result, 127 Tories joined the opposition Whigs in successfully voting against Walpole's nominated chairman of the elections committee in December 1741. The Tories continued to vote against Walpole with the opposition Whigs in subsequent divisions until Walpole was forced to resign in February 1742. The Pretender wrote to the Tories afterwards, declaring: "I cannot delay any longer expressing to you my satisfaction at the late behaviour of my friends in Parliament, and I take it as a great mark of their singular regard for what I wrote to you some months ago". In 1743, war broke out between Britain and France, as part of the larger
War of the Austrian Succession The War of the Austrian Succession () was the last Great Power conflict with the House of Bourbon, Bourbon-Habsburg Monarchy, Habsburg dynastic conflict at its heart. It occurred from 1740 to 1748 and marked the rise of Kingdom of Prussia, Prus ...
. Later that year
Francis Sempill Francis Sempill (1616? – March 1682) was a Scottish poet, the son of Robert Sempill the younger. No details of his education are known. His fidelity to the House of Stuart, Stuarts involved him in money difficulties, to meet which he alienate ...
, the Pretender's representative at the French court, carried a message from English Tories to the French
Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs The secretary of state for foreign, Commonwealth and development affairs, also referred to as the foreign secretary, is a secretary of state in the Government of the United Kingdom The Government of the United Kingdom, domestically refe ...
(
Jean-Jacques Amelot de ChaillouJean-Jacques Amelot de Chaillou (30 April 1689 – 7 May 1749, Paris Paris () is the Capital city, capital and List of communes in France with over 20,000 inhabitants, most populous city of France, with an estimated population of 2,175,601 res ...

Jean-Jacques Amelot de Chaillou
) requesting French help for a Stuart restoration (including 10,000 French soldiers). It was signed by the Henry Scudamore, 3rd Duke of Beaufort, Duke of Beaufort (one of the four richest people in Britain), James Barry, 4th Earl of Barrymore, Lord Barrymore, John Boyle, 5th Earl of Cork, Lord Orrery, Sir Watkin Williams-Wynn, 3rd Baronet, Sir Watkin Williams Wynn, Sir John Hynde Cotton, 3rd Baronet, Sir John Hynde Cotton and Sir Robert Abdy, 3rd Baronet, Sir Robert Abdy. Amelot replied that the French government would need considerable proof of English support for Jacobitism before it could act. James Butler, Louis XV of France, Louis XV's Master of Horse, toured England ostensibly for purchasing bloodstock but in reality to gauge the health of Jacobitism in England, visiting leading Tories. Before he left for England. the French king briefed him personally to assure Tory leaders that all of their demands would be met. In November 1743 Amelot told Sempill officially that Louis XV was resolved to restore the House of Stuart and that he was planning a French invasion headed by the Pretender's son, Charles Edward Stuart. The "Declaration of King James" (written by Tory leaders) was signed by the Pretender on 23 December. This was to be published in the event of a successful French landing. However, the Whig government was informed by a spy of the intended French invasion and King George told Parliament on 15 February 1744 that a French invasion was planned, assisted by "disaffected persons from this country". The House of Commons passed a loyal address by 287 to 123. The Tories' insistence for the House to divide on this occasion seemed to the government a design by the Tories "to show the French what numbers in the House they might depend on".Sedgwick, p. 73. The Tories also opposed increasing the armed forces, it being noted "that none of the leaders amongst the Tories, either on this occasion or that of the King's first message, showed the least sign of zeal or affection to the Government". On 24 February, a storm scattered the French invasion fleet and suspected Jacobites were arrested, leading to the French government cancelling their planned invasion. Charles Stuart, who was still in France and determined to start a Jacobite rising, looked to Scotland. However, the English Tories would only support a rising in Scotland if accompanied by a French invasion near London to aid the English Tories in their own rising. The English Tories repeatedly told the Jacobite court that only regular soldiers invading at the same time as their rising could achieve a Stuart restoration. In December 1744, the Broad Bottom Ministry, Broadbottom Administration was formed, which included a handful of Tories in minor offices. Some other Tories were offered places, but that serving for Jacobite counties "could not hazard a new election and therefore decline[d] the acceptance of them".Cruickshanks, p. 72. One of the Tories who accepted office, Sir John Cotton, did not swear the oath of loyalty to King George and informed the French King that he still favoured a Jacobite French invasion; he added that the Tories in office would try to ensure that more British soldiers were sent to Flanders from England in order to help a French invasion. After John Leveson-Gower, 1st Earl Gower, Lord Gower took office in this government, the Tories no longer looked to him as their leader as Lyttleton wrote that "when it was discovered that Gower was really a friend to the Hanover succession, the Tories discarded him for being their leader, and adopted a determined Jacobite the Duke of Beaufort in his stead". In June 1745, the Tory leaders in the Commons, Wynn and Cotton (together with Beaufort), informed the Jacobite court that "if the Prince [Charles] lands in present circumstances with ten battalions or even smaller body of troops there will be no opposition".Cruickshanks, p. 77. Tory leaders sent Robert MacCarty, Viscount Muskerry, Robert MacCarty to France with a request for 10,000 troops and 30,000 arms to be landed in England, where they would join them upon arrival. Charles travelled to Scotland in July without consulting the Tories or the French and without a sizeable body of troops. After his landing, Sempill wrote: "The City of London, Sir John Hynde Cotton, Lord Barrymore, the Duke of Beaufort, and all the English cry loudly and vehemently for a body of troops to be landed near London, as the most effectual means to support the Prince". They could not rise for the Prince without "a body of troops to support them", but they "would join the Prince if His Highness could force his way to them". Throughout the Jacobite rising of 1745, Charles could not establish contact with the English Tories. Captain Nagle, who had visited a peer in London, reported in December that they were all being monitored by the government, but that they would declare for Charles if he made his way to London or if the French invaded. However, Charles retreated from England and the French never landed, so the English Tories did not feel safe in coming out for the Pretender. After the collapse of the rising, Charles' captured secretary, John Murray of Broughton, informed the government of the Tories' conspiracy with the Pretender. The government decided not to prosecute them.Sedgwick, p. 75. The trial of the Scottish rebel lords in London was boycotted by most Tory peers. After the Prince William, Duke of Cumberland, Duke of Cumberland's brutal suppression of the Scots, English Tories adopted the Belted plaid, plaid as their symbol. Eveline Cruickshanks in her study of the 1715-1754 Tory party for ''The History of Parliament'', claimed that "the available evidence leaves no doubt that up to 1745 the Tories were a predominantly Jacobite party, engaged in attempts to restore the Stuarts by a rising with foreign assistance". Sir Lewis Namier noticed that for the reigns of George I and George II, Tory family papers are non-existent. As papers from before 1715 and after 1760 survive, Cruickshanks contends that these families were hiding their Jacobite leanings by destroying incriminating papers. A nineteenth-century historian who had examined many collections such as these, claimed that it was "the custom in Jacobite days to destroy all letters with any hint of political or religious feeling in them". However, some historians (such as Linda Colley) have questioned the Tories' commitment to Jacobitism. In 2016, Frank O'Gorman noted that given the nature of the evidence, it is unlikely that the question will ever be answered, but added that "judged by the acid test of how they behaved in the '15 and '45 most Tories showed themselves to be Hanoverian and not Jacobite". In 1747, Prince Frederick invited the Tories "to unite and coalesce with him" and declared his intention that when he became King, he would "abolish...all distinction of the party" and put an end to the proscription of the Tories. A meeting of leading Tories (including Beaufort, Wynn and Cotton) accepted the Prince's offer and replied assuring him of their support for his "wise and salutary purposes". However, they refused to pledge themselves to a coalition with Whigs. The 1747 British general election, 1747 general election resulted in only 115 Tory MPs being elected, their lowest figure up until this point. After Jacobite riots in Oxford in 1748, the government wanted to give the King the power to nominate the Chancellor of the University of Oxford, which was considered a hotbed of Jacobitism and Toryism. Thomas Carte wrote to the Pretender that "the attempt against the university of Oxford brought them all up at once to town, which nothing else would, and in their zeal on that account, they entered into a sort of coalition with Prince Frederick's party to stand by the university of Oxford, to join in opposing all unconstitutional points, but to be under no obligation to visit Prince Frederick's court, nor unite in other points".Sedgwick, p. 76. After Wynn's death in 1749, a Jacobite agent reported to the Pretender that the Tory party was "without a head", dispirited and frightened. In 1751 Frederick died, followed in 1752 by Cotton. This effectively ended opposition in Parliament for the rest of the session. Horace Walpole, in his memoirs for 1764, wrote of the decline of the Tory party:
Hitherto it might be said that the two parties of Whig and Tory still subsisted; though Jacobitism, the concealed mother of the latter, was extinct...The subsequent contests were rather a struggle for power than the settled animosity of two parties, though the body of Opposition still called itself Whig, an appellation rather dropped than disclaimed by the Court; and though the real Tories still adhered to their own distinctions while they secretly favoured, sometimes opposed, the Court, and fluctuated accordingly as they esteemed particular chiefs not of their connection or had the more agreeable opportunity of distressing those who supported the cause of freedom. As their whole conduct was comprised in silent votes, and never was considerable enough to turn a single scale in the political changes, I shall seldom mention them anymore.


Friends of Mr Pitt

Dickinson reports the following:
All historians are agreed that the Tory party declined sharply in the late 1740s and 1750s and that it ceased to be an organized party by 1760. The research of Sir Lewis Namier and his disciples ..has convinced all historians that there were no organized political parties in Parliament between the late 1750s and the early 1780s. Even the Whigs ceased to be an identifiable party, and Parliament was dominated by competing political connections, which all proclaimed Whiggish political views, or by independent backbenchers unattached to any particular group.
Upon the accession of George III of the United Kingdom, George III, the old political distinctions dissolved. The Whig factions became in effect distinct parties (such as the George Grenville, Grenvillites and the John Russell, 4th Duke of Bedford, Bedfordites), all of whom claimed the Whig mantle, while the material distinction in politics was between the "King's Friends" who supported the newly activist role of George III in government, and those who opposed the king. The proscription on the employment of Tories in government offices ended, which resulted in the Tories dividing into several factions and ceasing to function as a coherent political party. Sentimental Toryism remained, as in the writings of Samuel Johnson, but in politics "Tory" was little more than an unfriendly epithet for politicians closely identified with George III. The label "Tory" was in this sense applied to the Prime Ministers John Stuart, 3rd Earl of Bute, Lord Bute (1762–1763) and Frederick North, Lord North, Lord North (1770–1782), but these politicians considered themselves Whigs. In his study of the debates in Parliament for 1768–1774, P. D. G. Thomas, PDG Thomas discovered that not a single politician labelled themselves a Tory. JCD Clark similarly argues: "The history of the Tory party in parliament between the early 1760s and the late 1820s may be simply written: it did not exist". Applied by their opponents to parliamentary supporters of the younger William Pitt the Younger, William Pitt (1783–1801, 1804–1806), the term ''Tories'' came to represent the political current opposed to the ''Old Whigs'' and the radicalism unleashed by the American and French Revolutions. This was reinforced by the breakup of the Whig party in 1794 when the conservative group led by the Duke of Portland joined Pitt's ministry, leaving an opposition rump led by Charles James Fox. The historian JCD Clark has written of the 1790s: "It cannot be too clearly stressed that no public figure at that date accepted the title 'Tory', and that they had the best reasons for denying its appropriateness". Pitt rejected the Tory label, preferring to refer to himself as an independent Whig, for he believed in the current constitutional arrangement as being well balanced, without particular favour towards the royal prerogative, unlike the Tories of the first half of the 18th century. The group surrounding Pitt the Younger came to be the dominant force in British politics from 1783 until 1830 and, after Pitt's death (1806), the ministers in the William Cavendish-Bentinck, 3rd Duke of Portland, Portland ministry (1807–1809) called themselves the "Friends of Mr Pitt" rather than Tories. Portland's successor, Spencer Perceval (Prime Minister, 1809–1812), never adopted the label of Tory and, after Assassination of Spencer Perceval, his assassination in 1812, the members of the government of Robert Jenkinson, 2nd Earl of Liverpool, Lord Liverpool (1812–1827) firmly rejected it in a ministerial memorandum to the Prince Regent:
It is almost unnecessary to observe that the British Government had for more than a century been and could only be a Whig Government; and that the present administration is, as every administration in this country must necessarily be, a Whig administration. For a Whig Government means now, as it has all along meant, nothing else than a Government established by laws equally binding upon the King and the subject.I. R. Christie, ''Wars and Revolutions. Britain 1760-1815'' (London: Edward Arnold, 1982), p. 283.
Generally, the Tories were associated with lesser gentry, the
Church of England The Church of England (C of E) is a Christian church Christian Church is a Protestant Protestantism is a form of Christianity that originated with the 16th-century Reformation, a movement against what its followers perceived to be Critic ...
and the Scottish Episcopal Church, Episcopal Church in Scotland while Whigs were more associated with trade, money, larger land holders or land magnates and the Nonconformist (Protestantism), Nonconformist Protestant churches. Both were still committed to the political system in place at that time. The new Tory party was distinct both in composition and ideological orientation from the old. It consisted largely of former Whigs, alienated from the party that now bore that name. While it maintained a sentimental and conservative respect for the symbolic institutions of the British monarchy, in practice Tory ministries allowed the King no more freedom than Whig ones. The incompetence of George III's personal interventions in policy had been sufficiently shown in the American War (1775–1783), henceforward his active role was limited to negations of government policies such as the
Catholic emancipation Catholic emancipation or Catholic relief was a process in the kingdoms of Great Britain Great Britain is an island in the North Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe. With an area of , it is the largest of the Brit ...
. In foreign policy, the differences were even more marked as the old Tory party had been pacific and isolationist whereas the new one was bellicose and imperialistic.


Conservative Party

The Tories became associated with repression of popular discontent after 1815, but the Tories later underwent a fundamental transformation under the influence of
Robert Peel Sir Robert Peel, 2nd Baronet, (5 February 1788 – 2 July 1850) was a British statesman who served twice as (1834–1835 and 1841–1846) simultaneously serving as (1834-1835) and twice as (1822–1827 and 1828–1830). He is regarded as ...

Robert Peel
, who was an industrialist rather than a landowner. Peel in his 1834
Tamworth ManifestoThe Tamworth Manifesto was a political manifesto issued by Sir Robert Peel in 1834 in Tamworth, which is widely credited by historians as having laid down the principles upon which the modern British Conservative Party (UK), Conservative Party is ba ...
outlined a new conservative philosophy of reforming ills while conserving the good. The subsequent Peel administrations have been labelled Conservative rather than Tory, but the older term remains in use. When the Conservative Party split in 1846 on the issue of free trade, the protectionist wing of the party rejected the Conservative label. They preferred to be known as Protectionists or even to revive the older Tory as an official name. By 1859 the Peelites (Peel's Conservative supporters) joined the Whigs and Radicals to form the Liberal Party (UK), Liberal Party. The remaining Tories, under the leadership of the Edward Smith-Stanley, 14th Earl of Derby, Earl of Derby (a former Whig) and Benjamin Disraeli, 1st Earl of Beaconsfield, Disraeli (once a Radical candidate for Parliament), adopted the Conservative label as the official name of their party.


Electoral performance


Great Britain and England

* Note that the results for 1661–1708 are England only.


References and notes


Further reading

* Black, Jeremy (1984). ''Britain in the Age of Walpole''. * Bulmer-Thomas, Ivor (1967). ''The Growth of the British Party System: 1640-1923''. Vol. 1. John Baker. * Colley, Linda (1985). ''In Defiance of Oligarchy: The Tory Party 1714-60''. (Cambridge University Press. * Feiling, Keith (1938). ''The Second Tory Party, 1714-1832''. London: Macmillan. * Feiling, Keith (1950). ''A History of the Tory Party, 1640-1714''. Clarendon Press. * O'Gorman, Frank (1989). ''Voters, Patrons, and Parties: The Unreformed Electoral System of Hanoverian England 1734-1832''. (Oxford: Clarendon Press.


External links

* * {{authority control 1678 establishments in England 1678 in politics 1834 disestablishments in England Defunct political parties in the United Kingdom Jacobitism Political history of Great Britain Political parties established in 1678 Political parties disestablished in 1834 Tory MPs (pre-1834), *