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The Three Kingdoms of Korea () refers to the three kingdoms of
Goguryeo Goguryeo (; , 37 BC–668 AD), also called Goryeo (; ), was a Korean kingdom located in the northern and central parts of the Korean Peninsula and the southern and central parts of Manchuria. At its peak of power, Goguryeo controlled most of t ...
(고구려, 高句麗),
Baekje Baekje (; (also Paekche); 18 BC"Korea, 1–500 A.D.". In Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000–. http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/ht/?period=05®ion=eak (October 2000) – 660 AD) was a kingdom ...
(백제, 百濟), and
Silla Silla or Shilla (57 BC57 BC according to the ''Samguk Sagi''; however Seth 2010 notes that "these dates are dutifully given in many textbooks and published materials in Korea today, but their basis is in myth; only Goguryeo may be traced back ...
(신라, 新羅).
Goguryeo Goguryeo (; , 37 BC–668 AD), also called Goryeo (; ), was a Korean kingdom located in the northern and central parts of the Korean Peninsula and the southern and central parts of Manchuria. At its peak of power, Goguryeo controlled most of t ...
was later known as
Goryeo Goryeo (; ) was a Korean kingdom founded in 918, during a time of national division called the Later Three Kingdoms period, that unified and ruled the Korean Peninsula until 1392. Goryeo achieved what has been called a "true national unificatio ...
(고려, 高麗), from which the modern name ''
Korea Korea (officially the "Korean Peninsula") is a region in East Asia. Since 1945 it has been divided into the two parts which soon became the two sovereign states: North Korea (officially the "Democratic People's Republic of Korea") and South Ko ...
'' is derived. The Three Kingdoms period is defined as being from 57 BC to 668 AD (but there existed about 78 tribal states in the southern region of the
Korean Peninsula Korea (officially the "Korean Peninsula") is a region in East Asia. Since 1945 it has been divided into the two parts which soon became the two sovereign states: North Korea (officially the "Democratic People's Republic of Korea") and South Ko ...

Korean Peninsula
and relatively big states like
Okjeo Okjeo () was an ancient Korean tribal state which arose in the northern Korean peninsula from perhaps the 2nd century BCE to the 5th century CE. Dong-okjeo (Eastern Okjeo) occupied roughly the area of the Hamgyŏng provinces of North Korea, and ...
,
Buyeo Buyeo, Puyŏ or Fuyu/Fuyo (Chinese: 夫餘; pinyin: Fūyú; Japanese: 扶余 ''Fuyo'' Korean: 부여; Hanja: 夫餘 Korean pronunciation: u.jʌ, was an ancient kingdom centred around the middle of Manchuria of current day north-east China. Acc ...
, and Dongye in its northern part and
Manchuria Manchuria is an exonym for several large overlapping historical and geographic regions of Russia and China in Northeast Asia (mostly in Northeast China today). Depending on the context, it may refer to: * (most often) Northeast China, the thre ...

Manchuria
of modern
China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the world's most populous country, with a population of around 1.4 billion. Covering approximately 9.6 million square kilometers (3.7 million m ...
). The three kingdoms occupied the entire peninsula of Korea and roughly half of Manchuria, located in present-day
China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the world's most populous country, with a population of around 1.4 billion. Covering approximately 9.6 million square kilometers (3.7 million m ...
(mostly) (and
Russia Russia (russian: link=no, Россия, , ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe and Northern Asia. It is the largest country in the world, covering and encompassing more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited l ...
). The kingdoms of Baekje and Silla dominated the southern half of the Korean Peninsula and
Tamna The state of Tamna or Tamna-guk was a kingdom that ruled Jeju Island from ancient times until it was conquered and officially annexed by the Korean Joseon dynasty in 1404. This kingdom is also sometimes known as Tangna (탕나), Seomna (섬나), ...
(
Jeju Island Jeju Island (; ) is the largest island in South Korea, located in the Jeju Province (Jeju Special Self-Governing Province.). The island covers an area of 1833.2 km², which is 1.83 percent of the total area of South Korea. In 2020, the resident ...

Jeju Island
), whereas Goguryeo controlled the
Liaodong Peninsula The Liaodong Peninsula (also Liaotung Peninsula, ) is a peninsula in southern Liaoning province in Northeast China, and makes up the southwestern coastal half of the Liaodong region. It is located between the mouths of the Daliao River (the hi ...
, Manchuria and the northern half of the Korean Peninsula. Baekje and Goguryeo shared founding myths which likely originated from Buyeo.
Buddhism Buddhism (, ) is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists. Buddhism encompasses a variety of traditions, beliefs and spiritual practices largely based on origi ...
, which arrived in Korea in 3rd century CE from India via
Tibet Tibet (; ; ) is a region in East Asia covering much of the Tibetan Plateau spanning about . It is the traditional homeland of the Tibetan people as well as some other ethnic groups such as Monpa, Tamang, Qiang, Sherpa, and Lhoba peoples and ...
and China, became the state religion of all 3 constituents of the Three Kingdoms, starting with Gaya in 372 CE. In the 7th century, allied with China under the
Tang dynasty The Tang dynasty (, ; ), or Tang Empire, was an imperial dynasty of China that ruled from 618 to 907, with an interregnum between 690 and 705. It was preceded by the Sui dynasty and followed by the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period. His ...
, Silla unified the Korean Peninsula for the first time in Korean history, allowing for the first united Korean national identity. After the fall of Baekje and Goguryeo, the Tang dynasty established a short-lived
military government {{Systems of government Military dictatorships A military government is generally any government that is administered by military forces, whether or not this government is legal under the laws of the jurisdiction at issue, and whether this ...
to administer parts of the Korean peninsula. However, as a result of the
Silla–Tang War The Silla–Tang War (668–676) occurred between the Korean Silla kingdom with the remnant forces from Goguryeo and Baekje (commonly referred to as Unified Silla), and the Chinese Tang empire. It began in the geopolitical context immediately follow ...
(≈670–676 AD), Silla forces expelled the Protectorate armies from the peninsula in 676 AD. The following period is known as the Unified Silla or
Later Silla Later Silla or Unified Silla (, ) is the name often applied to the Korean kingdom of Silla, one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea, after it conquered Baekje and Goguryeo in the 7th century, unifying the central and southern regions of the Korean pe ...
(668–935 AD). Subsequently,
Go of Balhae Dae Joyeong (; or ; died 719), also known as King Go (; ), established the state of Balhae, reigning from 699 to 719. Life Early life Dae Joyeong was the first son of general Dae Jung-sang, who was also known as Sari Geolgeol Jungsang (Ha ...
, a former Goguryeo general or chief of
Sumo Mohe The Mohe, Malgal, or Mogher, maybe a mispronunciation of the word Mojie, were an East Asian Tungusic people who lived primarily in the modern geographical region of Northeast Asia. The two most powerful Mohe groups were known as the Heishui Mohe, l ...
, founded
Balhae Balhae ( ko, 발해) or Bohai ( zh, c=渤海, p=Bóhǎi, russian: Бохай, ) (698–926) was a multi-ethnic kingdom in Manchuria, the Korean Peninsula and the Russian Far East. The history of the founding of the state, its ethnic composition, ...

Balhae
in the former territory of Goguryeo after defeating the Tang dynasty at the
Battle of Tianmenling The Battle of Tianmenling (), or the Battle of Cheonmun-ryeong in Korean (), was a battle fought between Dae Jo-yeong, later founder of Balhae, and Li Kaigu (), a Khitan commander of the Chinese Tang dynasty and Wu Zhou dynasty. After the fall of ...
. The predecessor period, before the development of the full-fledged kingdoms, is sometimes called
Proto–Three Kingdoms period The Proto–Three Kingdoms period (or ''Samhan'' period) refers to the proto-historical period in the Korean Peninsula, after the fall of Gojoseon and before the maturation of Goguryeo, Baekje, and Silla into full-fledged kingdoms. It is a subd ...
. Main primary sources for this period include ''
Samguk sagi#REDIRECT Samguk sagi {{R from move ...
'' and ''
Samguk yusa ''Samguk yusa'' () or ''Memorabilia of the Three Kingdoms'' is a collection of legends, folktales and historical accounts relating to the Three Kingdoms of Korea (Goguryeo, Baekje and Silla), as well as to other periods and states before, during an ...
'' in Korea, and the "Eastern Barbarians" section (東夷傳) from the ''Book of Wei'' (魏書) of the ''
Records of the Three Kingdoms The ''Records of the Three Kingdoms'' is a Chinese historical text which covers the history of the late Eastern Han dynasty (c. 184–220 CE) and the Three Kingdoms period (220–280 CE). It is widely regarded as the official and authoritative s ...
'' in China.


Nomenclature

Beginning in the 7th century, the name "
Samhan Samhan, or Three Han, is the collective name of the Byeonhan, Jinhan, and Mahan confederacies that emerged in the first century BC during the Proto–Three Kingdoms of Korea, or Samhan, period. Located in the central and southern regions of the K ...

Samhan
" became synonymous with the Three Kingdoms of Korea. The "Han" in the names of the
Korean Empire The Korean Empire (transcribed as Daehan Jeguk'','' , ) was an independent unified Korean state proclaimed in October 1897 by Emperor Gojong of the Joseon Dynasty. The empire stood until Japan's annexation of Korea in August 1910. During t ...
, ''Daehan Jeguk'', and the
Republic of Korea South Korea (Korean: /, RR: ''Hanguk''; literally /, RR: ''Namhan'', or /, MR: ''Namchosŏn'' in North Korean usage), officially the Republic of Korea (ROK; Korean: /, RR: ''Daehan Minguk''), is a country in East Asia, constituting the ...
(South Korea), ''Daehan Minguk'' or ''Hanguk'', are named in reference to the Three Kingdoms of Korea, not the ancient confederacies in the southern Korean Peninsula. According to the ''
Samguk sagi#REDIRECT Samguk sagi {{R from move ...
'' and ''
Samguk yusa ''Samguk yusa'' () or ''Memorabilia of the Three Kingdoms'' is a collection of legends, folktales and historical accounts relating to the Three Kingdoms of Korea (Goguryeo, Baekje and Silla), as well as to other periods and states before, during an ...
'',
Silla Silla or Shilla (57 BC57 BC according to the ''Samguk Sagi''; however Seth 2010 notes that "these dates are dutifully given in many textbooks and published materials in Korea today, but their basis is in myth; only Goguryeo may be traced back ...
implemented a national policy, "Samhan Unification" (), to integrate
Baekje Baekje (; (also Paekche); 18 BC"Korea, 1–500 A.D.". In Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000–. http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/ht/?period=05®ion=eak (October 2000) – 660 AD) was a kingdom ...
and
Goguryeo Goguryeo (; , 37 BC–668 AD), also called Goryeo (; ), was a Korean kingdom located in the northern and central parts of the Korean Peninsula and the southern and central parts of Manchuria. At its peak of power, Goguryeo controlled most of t ...
refugees. In 1982, a memorial stone dating back to 686 was discovered in
Cheongju Cheongju () is the capital and largest city of North Chungcheong Province in South Korea. History Cheongju has been an important provincial town since ancient times. During Hideyoshi's Invasions of Korea, Cheongju was the site of the Battle of ...
with an inscription: "The Three Han were unified and the domain was expanded." During the
Later Silla Later Silla or Unified Silla (, ) is the name often applied to the Korean kingdom of Silla, one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea, after it conquered Baekje and Goguryeo in the 7th century, unifying the central and southern regions of the Korean pe ...
period, the concepts of Samhan as the ancient confederacies and the Three Kingdoms of Korea were merged. In a letter to an imperial tutor of the Tang dynasty,
Choe Chiwon Choe Chiwon (; 857–10th century) was a noted Korean Confucian official, philosopher, and poet of the late Unified Silla period (668-935). He studied for many years in Tang China, passed the Tang imperial examination, and rose to high office t ...
equated Byeonhan to Baekje, Jinhan to Silla, and Mahan to Goguryeo. By the
Goryeo Goryeo (; ) was a Korean kingdom founded in 918, during a time of national division called the Later Three Kingdoms period, that unified and ruled the Korean Peninsula until 1392. Goryeo achieved what has been called a "true national unificatio ...
period, Samhan became a common name to refer to all of Korea. In his Ten Mandates to his descendants,
Wang Geon Taejo of Goryeo (31 January 877 – 4 July 943), also known as Taejo Wang Geon (Wang Kǒn, 왕건), was the founder of the Goryeo dynasty, which ruled Korea from the 10th to the 14th century. Taejo ruled from 918 to 943, achieving unification of t ...
declared that he had unified the Three Han (Samhan), referring to the Three Kingdoms of Korea. Samhan continued to be a common name for Korea during the
Joseon The Joseon dynasty (also transcribed as Chosŏn or Chosun, ko, 대조선국; 大朝鮮國, ) was a Korean dynastic kingdom that lasted for approximately five centuries. It was the last dynasty of Korea and its longest-ruling Confucian dynasty, f ...
period and was widely referenced in the
Annals of the Joseon Dynasty The ''Veritable Records of the Joseon Dynasty'' (also known as the ''Annals of the Joseon Dynasty'' or ''The True Record of the Joseon Dynasty''; ko, 조선왕조실록 ''or'' ) are the annual records of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea, which were ...
. In China, the Three Kingdoms of Korea were collectively called Samhan since the beginning of the 7th century. The use of the name Samhan to indicate the Three Kingdoms of Korea was widespread in the
Tang dynasty The Tang dynasty (, ; ), or Tang Empire, was an imperial dynasty of China that ruled from 618 to 907, with an interregnum between 690 and 705. It was preceded by the Sui dynasty and followed by the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period. His ...
. Goguryeo was alternately called Mahan by the Tang dynasty, as evidenced by a Tang document that called Goguryeo generals "Mahan leaders" () in 645. In 651,
Emperor Gaozong of Tang Emperor Gaozong of Tang (21 July 628 – 27 December 683), personal name Li Zhi, was the third emperor of the Tang dynasty in China, ruling from 649 to 683; after January 665, he gave his wife great power over the empire, and imperial powers we ...
sent a message to the king of Baekje referring to the Three Kingdoms of Korea as Samhan. Epitaphs of the Tang dynasty, including those belonging to Baekje, Goguryeo, and Silla refugees and migrants, called the Three Kingdoms of Korea "Samhan", especially Goguryeo. For example, the epitaph of Go Hyeon (), a Tang dynasty general of Goguryeo origin who died in 690, calls him a "Liaodong Samhan man" (). The
History of Liao The ''History of Liao'', or ''Liao Shi'' (''Liáo Shǐ''), is a Chinese historical book compiled officially by the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty (1271–1368), under the direction of the historian Toqto'a (Tuotuo), and finalized in 1344.Xu Elina-Qian, p. ...
equates Byeonhan to Silla, Jinhan to Buyeo, and Mahan to Goguryeo. The name "Three Kingdoms" was used in the titles of the Korean histories ''
Samguk sagi#REDIRECT Samguk sagi {{R from move ...
'' (12th century) and ''
Samguk yusa ''Samguk yusa'' () or ''Memorabilia of the Three Kingdoms'' is a collection of legends, folktales and historical accounts relating to the Three Kingdoms of Korea (Goguryeo, Baekje and Silla), as well as to other periods and states before, during an ...
'' (13th century), and should not be confused with the
Three Kingdoms The Three Kingdoms () from 220 to 280 AD was the tripartite division of China among the states of Wei, Shu, and Wu. The Three Kingdoms period started with the end of the Han dynasty and was followed by the Jin dynasty. The short-lived Yan kin ...
of China.


Foundation of Three Kingdoms

The Three Kingdoms were founded after the fall of
Wiman Joseon Wiman Joseon (194–108 BC) was part of the Gojoseon period of ancient Korean history. It began with Wiman's seizure of the throne from Gojoseon's King Jun and ended with the death of King Ugeo who was a grandson of Wiman. Apart from archaeologic ...
, and gradually conquered and absorbed various other small states and confederacies. After the fall of Gojoseon, the
Han dynasty The Han dynasty () was the second imperial dynasty of China (202 BC – 220 AD), established by the rebel leader Liu Bang and ruled by the House of Liu. Preceded by the short-lived Qin dynasty (221–206 BC) and a warring interregnum known a ...
established four commanderies in the
Korean Peninsula Korea (officially the "Korean Peninsula") is a region in East Asia. Since 1945 it has been divided into the two parts which soon became the two sovereign states: North Korea (officially the "Democratic People's Republic of Korea") and South Ko ...

Korean Peninsula
and present
Liaoning Liaoning (), is a coastal province in Northeast China that is the smallest, southernmost, and most populous province in the region. With its capital at Shenyang, it is located on the northern shore of the Yellow Sea, and is the northernmost c ...
. Three fell quickly to the
Samhan Samhan, or Three Han, is the collective name of the Byeonhan, Jinhan, and Mahan confederacies that emerged in the first century BC during the Proto–Three Kingdoms of Korea, or Samhan, period. Located in the central and southern regions of the K ...

Samhan
, and the last was destroyed by Goguryeo in 313. The nascent precursors of
Baekje Baekje (; (also Paekche); 18 BC"Korea, 1–500 A.D.". In Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000–. http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/ht/?period=05®ion=eak (October 2000) – 660 AD) was a kingdom ...
and
Silla Silla or Shilla (57 BC57 BC according to the ''Samguk Sagi''; however Seth 2010 notes that "these dates are dutifully given in many textbooks and published materials in Korea today, but their basis is in myth; only Goguryeo may be traced back ...
expanded within the web of statelets during the Proto Three Kingdoms Period, and
Goguryeo Goguryeo (; , 37 BC–668 AD), also called Goryeo (; ), was a Korean kingdom located in the northern and central parts of the Korean Peninsula and the southern and central parts of Manchuria. At its peak of power, Goguryeo controlled most of t ...
conquered neighboring state like
Buyeo Buyeo, Puyŏ or Fuyu/Fuyo (Chinese: 夫餘; pinyin: Fūyú; Japanese: 扶余 ''Fuyo'' Korean: 부여; Hanja: 夫餘 Korean pronunciation: u.jʌ, was an ancient kingdom centred around the middle of Manchuria of current day north-east China. Acc ...
in
Manchuria Manchuria is an exonym for several large overlapping historical and geographic regions of Russia and China in Northeast Asia (mostly in Northeast China today). Depending on the context, it may refer to: * (most often) Northeast China, the thre ...

Manchuria
and chiefdoms in
Okjeo Okjeo () was an ancient Korean tribal state which arose in the northern Korean peninsula from perhaps the 2nd century BCE to the 5th century CE. Dong-okjeo (Eastern Okjeo) occupied roughly the area of the Hamgyŏng provinces of North Korea, and ...
, Dongye which occupied the northeastern Korean peninsula. The three polities made the transition from walled-town state to full-fledged state-level societies between 1st – 3rd century AD. All three kingdoms shared a similar culture and language. Their original religions appear to have been
shamanistic Shamanism is a religious practice that involves a practitioner who is believed to interact with a spirit world through altered states of consciousness, such as trance. The goal of this is usually to direct these spirits or spiritual energies int ...
, but they were increasingly influenced by Chinese culture, particularly
Confucianism , Shanxi Confucianism, also known as Ruism, is a system of thought and behavior originating in ancient China. Variously described as tradition, a philosophy, a religion, a humanistic or rationalistic religion, a way of governing, or simply a w ...
and
Taoism Taoism (), or Daoism (), is a philosophical tradition of Chinese origin which emphasizes living in harmony with the ''Tao'' (, or ''Dao''). In Taosim the ''Tao'' is the source, pattern and substance of everything that exists. Taoism teaches ab ...
. In the 4th century,
Buddhism Buddhism (, ) is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists. Buddhism encompasses a variety of traditions, beliefs and spiritual practices largely based on origi ...
was introduced to the peninsula and spread rapidly, briefly becoming the official religion of all three kingdoms.


Three constituents of the Three Kingdoms


Goguryeo

Goguryeo Goguryeo (; , 37 BC–668 AD), also called Goryeo (; ), was a Korean kingdom located in the northern and central parts of the Korean Peninsula and the southern and central parts of Manchuria. At its peak of power, Goguryeo controlled most of t ...
emerged on the north and south banks of the Yalu (Amrok) River, in the wake of
Gojoseon Gojoseon (), originally named Joseon (), was an ancient Korean state on the Manchuria and Korean Peninsula. The addition of ''Go'' (, ), meaning "ancient", is used to distinguish it from the later Joseon dynasty (1392–1897). According to the ...
's fall. The first mention of Goguryeo in Chinese records dates from 75 BC in reference to a commandery established by the Chinese
Han dynasty The Han dynasty () was the second imperial dynasty of China (202 BC – 220 AD), established by the rebel leader Liu Bang and ruled by the House of Liu. Preceded by the short-lived Qin dynasty (221–206 BC) and a warring interregnum known a ...
, although even earlier mentions of "Guri" (구리) may be of the same state. Evidence indicates Goguryeo was the most advanced, and likely the first established, of the three kingdoms. Goguryeo, eventually the largest of the three kingdoms, had several capitals in alternation: two capitals in the upper Yalu area, and later Nangrang (''
Lelang Lelang Commandery was a commandery of the Han Dynasty established after conquering Wiman Joseon in 108 BC and lasted until Goguryeo conquered it in 313. The Lelang Commandery extend the rule of the Four Commanderies of Han as far south as the Ha ...
'' in Chinese) which is now part of
Pyongyang Pyongyang (, , ) is the capital and largest city of North Korea. Pyongyang is located on the Taedong River about upstream from its mouth on the Yellow Sea. According to the 2008 population census, it has a population of 3,255,288. Pyongyang is ...
. At the beginning, the state was located on the border with
China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the world's most populous country, with a population of around 1.4 billion. Covering approximately 9.6 million square kilometers (3.7 million m ...
; it gradually expanded into Manchuria and destroyed the Chinese
Lelang commandery Lelang Commandery was a commandery of the Han Dynasty established after conquering Wiman Joseon in 108 BC and lasted until Goguryeo conquered it in 313. The Lelang Commandery extend the rule of the Four Commanderies of Han as far south as the Ha ...
in 313. The cultural influence of the Chinese continued as Buddhism was adopted as the official religion in 372. Goguryeo was a highly militaristic state; it was a powerful empire and one of the great powers in
East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia, which is defined in both geographical and ethno-cultural terms. The modern states of East Asia include China, Japan, Mongolia, North Korea, South Korea, and Taiwan. The East Asian states of China, North ...
. The state was at its zenith in the fifth century, during the rule of King Gwanggaeto the Great and his son King Jangsu, and particularly during their campaign in Manchuria. For the next century or so, Goguryeo was the dominant nation in Manchuria and the Northern Korean peninsula.Korea's Three Kingdoms
. Ancientworlds.net (2005-06-19). Retrieved on 2015-11-15.
Goguryeo eventually occupied the Liaodong Plains in Manchuria and today's
Seoul Seoul (, like ''soul''; ko, 서울 ; ), officially the Seoul Special City, is the capital and largest metropolis of South Korea.Before 1972, Seoul was the "de jure" capital of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea) as stated ...
area. Gwanggaeto achieved a loose unification of the Three Kingdoms of Korea. Goguryeo controlled not only Koreans but also Chinese and Tungusic tribes in Manchuria. After the establishment of the
Sui Dynasty The Sui dynasty (, ) was a short-lived imperial dynasty of China of pivotal significance. The Sui unified the Northern and Southern dynasties and reinstalled the rule of ethnic Han in the entirety of China proper, along with sinicization of for ...

Sui Dynasty
and later the
Tang Dynasty The Tang dynasty (, ; ), or Tang Empire, was an imperial dynasty of China that ruled from 618 to 907, with an interregnum between 690 and 705. It was preceded by the Sui dynasty and followed by the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period. His ...
in China, the kingdom continued to take aggressive actions against China, Silla, and Baekje attacks until it was conquered by allied Silla–Tang forces in 668. Most of its territory was absorbed by Tang Dynasty of China and the territory of Baekje was absorbed by Silla.


Baekje

Baekje Baekje (; (also Paekche); 18 BC"Korea, 1–500 A.D.". In Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000–. http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/ht/?period=05®ion=eak (October 2000) – 660 AD) was a kingdom ...
was founded as a member of the
Mahan confederacy Mahan () was a loose confederacy of statelets that existed from around the 1st century BC to 5th century AD in the southern Korean peninsula in the Chungcheong and Jeolla provinces. Gina Lee Barnes, 《State Formation in Korea: Historical and Arc ...
. Two sons of the founder of Goguryeo are recorded to have fled a succession conflict, to establish Baekje around the present
Seoul Seoul (, like ''soul''; ko, 서울 ; ), officially the Seoul Special City, is the capital and largest metropolis of South Korea.Before 1972, Seoul was the "de jure" capital of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea) as stated ...
area. Baekje absorbed or conquered other Mahan chiefdoms and, at its peak in the 4th century, controlled most of the western Korean peninsula. Buddhism was introduced to Baekje in 384 from Goguryeo, which Baekje welcomed. Baekje was a great maritime power; its nautical skill, which made it the
Phoenicia Phoenicia (; from grc, Φοινίκη, ') was an ancient Semitic-speaking thalassocratic civilization that originated in the Levant region of the eastern Mediterranean, primarily modern Syria and Lebanon. It was concentrated along the coast of ...
of East Asia, was instrumental in the dissemination of Buddhism throughout East Asia and continental culture to Japan. Baekje played a fundamental role in transmitting cultural and material developments to
ancient Japan The first human habitation in the Japanese archipelago has been traced to prehistoric times around 30,000 BCE. The Jōmon period, named after its cord-marked pottery, was followed by the Yayoi people in the first millennium BCE when new invent ...
, including Chinese written characters,
Chinese Chinese can refer to: * Something related to China * Chinese people, people of Chinese nationality, citizenship, or ethnicity **''Zhonghua minzu'', the supra-ethnic Chinese nationality ** Han Chinese, the majority ethnic group in Mainland China, ...
and
Korean literature Korean literature is the body of literature produced by Koreans, mostly in the Korean language and sometimes in Classical Chinese. For much of Korea's 1,500 years of literary history, it was written in Hanja. It is commonly divided into classical ...
, technologies such as
ferrous metallurgy Ferrous metallurgy is the metallurgy of iron and alloys. It began far back in prehistory. The earliest surviving iron artifacts, from the 4th millennium BC in Egypt, were made from meteoritic iron-nickel. It is not known when or where the smelting o ...
and
ceramics A ceramic is any of the various hard, brittle, heat-resistant and corrosion-resistant materials made by shaping and then firing a nonmetallic mineral, such as clay, at a high temperature. Common examples are earthenware, porcelain, and brick. ...
,
architectural styles An architectural style is a set of characteristics and features that make a building or other structure notable or historically identifiable. It is a sub-class of style in the visual arts generally, and most styles in architecture relate closely t ...
,
sericulture 200px, Silkworm and cocoon Sericulture, or silk farming, is the cultivation of silkworms to produce silk. Although there are several commercial species of silkworms, ''Bombyx mori'' (the caterpillar of the domestic silkmoth) is the most widely use ...
and
Buddhism Buddhism (, ) is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists. Buddhism encompasses a variety of traditions, beliefs and spiritual practices largely based on origi ...
. Baekje exerted its political influence on
Tamna The state of Tamna or Tamna-guk was a kingdom that ruled Jeju Island from ancient times until it was conquered and officially annexed by the Korean Joseon dynasty in 1404. This kingdom is also sometimes known as Tangna (탕나), Seomna (섬나), ...
, a kingdom that ruled
Jejudo Jeju Island (; ) is the largest island in South Korea, located in the Jeju Province (Jeju Special Self-Governing Province.). The island covers an area of 1833.2 km², which is 1.83 percent of the total area of South Korea. In 2020, the resident ...
. Baekje maintained a close relationship with and extracted tribute from Tamna. Baekje's religious and artistic culture influenced
Goguryeo Goguryeo (; , 37 BC–668 AD), also called Goryeo (; ), was a Korean kingdom located in the northern and central parts of the Korean Peninsula and the southern and central parts of Manchuria. At its peak of power, Goguryeo controlled most of t ...
and
Silla Silla or Shilla (57 BC57 BC according to the ''Samguk Sagi''; however Seth 2010 notes that "these dates are dutifully given in many textbooks and published materials in Korea today, but their basis is in myth; only Goguryeo may be traced back ...
. Baekje was once a great military power on the Korean Peninsula, especially during the time of Geunchogo, but was critically defeated by Gwanggaeto and declined. In the late 5th century, under attack from Goguryeo, the capital of Baekje was moved south to Ungjin (present-day
Gongju Gongju ([]; Gongju-si) is a city in South Chungcheong province, South Korea. History Gongju was formerly named Ungjin and was the capital of Baekje from AD 475 to 538. In this period, Baekje was under threat from Goguryeo. Goguryeo had overr ...
) and later further south to Sabi (present-day
Buyeo Buyeo, Puyŏ or Fuyu/Fuyo (Chinese: 夫餘; pinyin: Fūyú; Japanese: 扶余 ''Fuyo'' Korean: 부여; Hanja: 夫餘 Korean pronunciation: u.jʌ, was an ancient kingdom centred around the middle of Manchuria of current day north-east China. Acc ...
). Baekje was conquered by Silla-Tang alliance in 660, submitting the
Unified Silla Later Silla or Unified Silla (, ) is the name often applied to the Korean kingdom of Silla, one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea, after it conquered Baekje and Goguryeo in the 7th century, unifying the central and southern regions of the Korean pe ...
.


Silla

According to Korean records, in 57 BC, Seorabeol (or Saro, later
Silla Silla or Shilla (57 BC57 BC according to the ''Samguk Sagi''; however Seth 2010 notes that "these dates are dutifully given in many textbooks and published materials in Korea today, but their basis is in myth; only Goguryeo may be traced back ...
) in the southeast of the peninsula unified and expanded the confederation of city-states known as
Jinhan Jinhan () was a loose confederacy of chiefdoms that existed from around the 1st century BC to the 4th century AD in the southern Korean Peninsula, to the east of the Nakdong River valley, Gyeongsang Province. Jinhan was one of the Samhan (or "T ...
. Although ''
Samguk Sagi#REDIRECT Samguk sagi {{R from move ...
'' records that Silla was the earliest-founded of the three kingdoms, other written and archaeological records indicate that Silla was likely the last of the three to establish a centralized government. Silla was the smallest and weakest of the Three Kingdoms of Korea, but it used cunning diplomatic means to make opportunistic pacts and alliances with the more powerful Korean kingdoms, and eventually Tang China, to its great advantage. Renamed from Saro to Silla in 503, the kingdom annexed the
Gaya confederacy Gaya (, ) was a Korean confederacy of territorial polities in the Nakdong River basin of southern Korea, growing out of the Byeonhan confederacy of the Samhan period. The traditional period used by historians for Gaya chronology is 42–532 CE. ...
(which in turn had absorbed
Byeonhan Byeonhan (, ), also known as Byeonjin, (, ) was a loose confederacy of chiefdoms that existed from around the beginning of the Common Era to the 4th century in the southern Korean peninsula. Byeonhan was one of the Samhan (or "Three Hans"), along w ...
earlier) in the first half of the 6th century. Goguryeo and Baekje responded by forming an alliance. To cope with invasions from Goguryeo and Baekje, Silla deepened its relations with the Tang Dynasty, with her newly gained access to the Yellow Sea making direct contact with the Tang possible. After the conquest of Goguryeo and Baekje with her Tang allies, the Silla kingdom drove the Tang forces out of the peninsula and occupied the lands south of Pyongyang. The capital of Silla was Seorabeol (now
Gyeongju Gyeongju ( ko, 경주, ), historically known as ''Seorabeol'' ( ko, 서라벌, ), is a coastal city in the far southeastern corner of North Gyeongsang Province in South Korea. It is the second largest city by area in the province after Andong, cov ...
; "Seorabeol", "서라벌", is hypothesized to have been the ancient Korean term for "capital").
Buddhism Buddhism (, ) is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists. Buddhism encompasses a variety of traditions, beliefs and spiritual practices largely based on origi ...
became the official religion in 528. The remaining material culture from the kingdom of Silla including unique gold metalwork shows influence from the northern nomadic steppes, differentiating it from the culture of Goguryeo and Baekje where Chinese influence was more pronounced.


Other states

Other smaller states or regions existed in Korea before and during this period: *
Gaya confederacy Gaya (, ) was a Korean confederacy of territorial polities in the Nakdong River basin of southern Korea, growing out of the Byeonhan confederacy of the Samhan period. The traditional period used by historians for Gaya chronology is 42–532 CE. ...
, until annexed by Silla and Baekje * Dongye,
Okjeo Okjeo () was an ancient Korean tribal state which arose in the northern Korean peninsula from perhaps the 2nd century BCE to the 5th century CE. Dong-okjeo (Eastern Okjeo) occupied roughly the area of the Hamgyŏng provinces of North Korea, and ...
, and
Buyeo Buyeo, Puyŏ or Fuyu/Fuyo (Chinese: 夫餘; pinyin: Fūyú; Japanese: 扶余 ''Fuyo'' Korean: 부여; Hanja: 夫餘 Korean pronunciation: u.jʌ, was an ancient kingdom centred around the middle of Manchuria of current day north-east China. Acc ...
, all three conquered by Goguryeo *
Usan 280px, "Samguk Sagi" Book 04. Silla's Records. In 512, Usan-guk(于山國) was Ulleungdo(鬱陵島) Usan-guk, or the State of Usan, occupied Ulleung-do and the adjacent islands during the Korean Three Kingdoms period. According to the '' ...
(
Ulleung-do Ulleungdo (also spelled Ulreungdo; )(Hangul: ) is a South Korean island 120 km (75 mi) east of the Korean Peninsula, formerly known as the Dagelet Island or Argonaut Island in Europe; also known as Yuling-dao (trad. , simp. ) in Chinese ...
) tributary of Silla *
Tamna The state of Tamna or Tamna-guk was a kingdom that ruled Jeju Island from ancient times until it was conquered and officially annexed by the Korean Joseon dynasty in 1404. This kingdom is also sometimes known as Tangna (탕나), Seomna (섬나), ...
(
Jeju-do Jeju Island (; ) is the largest island in South Korea, located in the Jeju Province (Jeju Special Self-Governing Province.). The island covers an area of 1833.2 km², which is 1.83 percent of the total area of South Korea. In 2020, the resident ...
) tributary of Baekje


Religion

Centuries after Buddhism originated in India, the
Mahayana Mahāyāna (; "Great Vehicle") is a term for a broad group of Buddhist traditions, texts, philosophies, and practices. Mahāyāna is considered one of the two main existing branches of Buddhism (the other being Theravada). Mahāyāna Buddhism de ...
Buddhism through the Silk Route in 1st century CE via
Tibet Tibet (; ; ) is a region in East Asia covering much of the Tibetan Plateau spanning about . It is the traditional homeland of the Tibetan people as well as some other ethnic groups such as Monpa, Tamang, Qiang, Sherpa, and Lhoba peoples and ...
, then to
Korean peninsula Korea (officially the "Korean Peninsula") is a region in East Asia. Since 1945 it has been divided into the two parts which soon became the two sovereign states: North Korea (officially the "Democratic People's Republic of Korea") and South Ko ...

Korean peninsula
in 3rd century during the Three Kingdoms Period from where it transmitted to Japan. In Korea, it was adopted by the state religion by 3 constituent polities of the Three Kingdoms Period, first by the Goguryeo ruling tribe of
Geumgwan Gaya Geumgwan Gaya (43 - 532), also known as Bon-Gaya (본가야, 本伽倻, "original Gaya") or Garakguk (가락국, "Garak State"), was the ruling city-state of the Gaya confederacy during the Three Kingdoms Period in Korea. It is believed to have bee ...
in 372 CE, by the Silla in 528 CE, and by the Baekje in 552 CE.Lee Injae, Owen Miller, Park Jinhoon, Yi Hyun-Hae, 2014, Korean History in Maps, Cambridge University Press, pp. 44-49, 52-60.


Decline

Allied with
China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the world's most populous country, with a population of around 1.4 billion. Covering approximately 9.6 million square kilometers (3.7 million m ...
under the
Tang dynasty The Tang dynasty (, ; ), or Tang Empire, was an imperial dynasty of China that ruled from 618 to 907, with an interregnum between 690 and 705. It was preceded by the Sui dynasty and followed by the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period. His ...
, Silla conquered Goguryeo in 668, after having already conquered Gaya in 562 and Baekje in 660, thus ushering in the North-South states period with
Later Silla Later Silla or Unified Silla (, ) is the name often applied to the Korean kingdom of Silla, one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea, after it conquered Baekje and Goguryeo in the 7th century, unifying the central and southern regions of the Korean pe ...
to the south and
Balhae Balhae ( ko, 발해) or Bohai ( zh, c=渤海, p=Bóhǎi, russian: Бохай, ) (698–926) was a multi-ethnic kingdom in Manchuria, the Korean Peninsula and the Russian Far East. The history of the founding of the state, its ethnic composition, ...

Balhae
to the north, when Dae Jo-young, a former Goguryeo military officer, revolted against Tang Chinese rule and began reconquering former Goguryeo territories.


Archaeological evidence

Archaeologists use
theoretical A theory is a rational type of abstract thinking about a phenomenon, or the results of such thinking. The process of contemplative and rational thinking is often associated with such processes as observational study or research. Theories may either ...
guidelines derived from
anthropology Anthropology is the scientific study of humanity, concerned with human behavior, human biology, cultures, and societies, in both the present and past, including past human species. Social anthropology studies patterns of behaviour, while cultur ...
,
ethnology Ethnology (from the grc-gre, ἔθνος, meaning 'nation') is an academic field that compares and analyzes the characteristics of different peoples and the relationships between them (compare cultural, social, or sociocultural anthropology). ...
, analogy, and
ethnohistory Ethnohistory is the study of cultures and indigenous peoples customs by examining historical records as well as other sources of information on their lives and history. It is also the study of the history of various ethnic groups that may or may no ...
to the concept of what defines a state-level society. This is different from the concept of state (''guk'' or Sino ko: 國, walled-town state, etc.) in the discipline of Korean History. In anthropological
archaeology Archaeology or archeology is the study of human activity through the recovery and analysis of material culture. Archaeology is often considered a branch of socio-cultural anthropology, but archaeologists also draw from biological, geological, ...
the presence of urban centres (especially capitals), monumental architecture, craft specialization and standardization of production, ostentatious burials, writing or recording systems,
bureaucracy The term bureaucracy () may refer both to a body of non-elected governing officials and to an administrative policy-making group. Historically, a bureaucracy was a government administration managed by departments staffed with non-elected offic ...
, demonstrated political control of geographical areas that are usually larger in area than a single river valley, etc. make up some of these correlates that define states. Among the archaeology sites dating to the Three Kingdoms of Korea, hundreds of cemeteries with thousands of
burial Burial, also known as interment or inhumation, is a method of final disposition wherein a dead person or non-human animal is placed into the ground, sometimes with objects. This is usually accomplished by excavating a pit or trench, placing the ...

burial
s have been excavated. The vast majority of archaeological evidence of the Three Kingdoms Period of Korea consists of burials, but since the 1990s there has been a great increase in the archaeological excavations of ancient industrial production sites, roads, palace grounds and
elite In political and sociological theory, the elite (French ''élite'', from Latin ''eligere'', to select or to sort out) are a small group of powerful people who hold a disproportionate amount of wealth, privilege, political power, or skill in a soc ...
precincts, ceremonial sites, commoner households, and fortresses due to the boom in
salvage archaeology Salvage may refer to: * Marine salvage, the process of rescuing a ship, its cargo and sometimes the crew from peril * Water salvage, rescuing people from floods. * Salvage tug, a type of tugboat used to rescue or salvage ships which are in distre ...
in South Korea. Rhee and Choi hypothesize that a mix of internal developments and external factors lead to the emergence of state-level societies in Korea. A number of archaeologists including Kang demonstrate the role of frequent
war War is an intense armed conflict between states, governments, societies, or paramilitary groups such as mercenaries, insurgents, and militias. It is generally characterized by extreme violence, aggression, destruction, and mortality, using ...
fare in the development of peninsular states.Kang, Bong-won. (1995). ''The role of warfare in the formation of state in Korea: Historical and archaeological approaches''. PhD dissertation. University of Oregon, Eugene. Ann Arbor: University Microfilms.


Foundation (c. 0 – 300/400 AD)

Some individual correlates of complex societies are found in the chiefdoms of Korea that date back to c. 700 BC (e.g. see Igeum-dong, Songguk-ri). However, the best evidence from the archaeological record in Korea indicates that states formed between 300 BC and 300/400 AD.Lee, Sung-joo. (1998). ''Silla–Gaya Sahwoe-eui Giwon-gwa Seongjang'' he Rise and Growth of Society in Silla and Gaya Seoul: Hakyeon Munhwasa. However, archaeologists are not prepared to suggest that this means there were states in the BC era. The correlates of state-level societies did not develop as a package, but rather in spurts and starts and at various points in time. It was some time between 100–400 AD that individual correlates of state societies had developed to a sufficient number and scale that state-level societies can be confidently identified using archaeological data.


Burials

Lee Sung-joo analyzed variability in many of the
elite In political and sociological theory, the elite (French ''élite'', from Latin ''eligere'', to select or to sort out) are a small group of powerful people who hold a disproportionate amount of wealth, privilege, political power, or skill in a soc ...
cemeteries of the territories of Silla and Gaya polities and found that as late as the 2nd century there was intra-cemetery variation in the distribution of prestige
grave goods The gilded throne of Pharaoh Tutankhamun">Pharaoh.html" style="text-decoration: none;"class="mw-redirect" title="throne of Pharaoh">throne of Pharaoh Tutankhamun is but one of the treasures found within his tomb. Grave goods, in archaeol ...
, but there was an absence of hierarchical differences on a regional scale between cemeteries. Near the end of the 2nd century AD, interior space in elite burials increased in size, and wooden chamber burial construction techniques were increasingly used by elites. In the 3rd century, a pattern developed in which single elite cemeteries that were the highest in status compared to all the other cemeteries were built. Such cemeteries were established at high elevations along ridgelines and on hilltops. Furthermore, the uppermost elite were buried in large-scale tombs established at the highest point of a given cemetery. Cemeteries with 'uppermost elite' mounded burials such as Okseong-ri, Yangdong-ri, Daeseong-dong, and Bokcheon-dong display this pattern.


Factory-scale production of pottery and roof-tiles

Lee Sung-joo proposed that, in addition to the development of regional political hierarchies as seen through analysis of burials, variation in types of pottery production gradually disappeared and full-time specialization was the only recognizable kind of pottery production from the end of the 4th century A.D. At the same time the production centers for pottery became highly centralized and vessels became
standardized Standardization or standardisation is the process of implementing and developing technical standards based on the consensus of different parties that include firms, users, interest groups, standards organizations and governments. Standardization c ...
.
Centralisation Centralisation or centralization (see spelling differences) is the process by which the activities of an organisation, particularly those regarding planning and decision-making, framing strategy and policies become concentrated within a particul ...
and elite control of production is demonstrated by the results of the archaeological excavations at Songok-dong and Mulcheon-ni in
Gyeongju Gyeongju ( ko, 경주, ), historically known as ''Seorabeol'' ( ko, 서라벌, ), is a coastal city in the far southeastern corner of North Gyeongsang Province in South Korea. It is the second largest city by area in the province after Andong, cov ...
. These sites are part of what was an interconnected and sprawling ancient industrial complex on the northeast outskirts of the Silla capital. Songok-dong and Mulcheon-ri are an example of the large-scale of specialized
factory A factory, manufacturing plant or a production plant is an industrial site, often a complex consisting of several buildings filled with machinery, where workers manufacture items or operate machines which process each item into another. They are ...

factory
-style production in the Three Kingdoms and Unified Silla Periods. The site was excavated in the late 1990s, and archaeologists found the remains of many production features such as
pottery Pottery is the process and the products of forming vessels and other objects with clay and other ceramic materials, which are fired at high temperatures to give them a hard, durable form. Major types include earthenware, stoneware and porcelai ...
kiln , Wrecclesham, Surrey with the preserved bottle kiln on the right of photo kiln under construction Image:CarKiln5951.JPG, 250px, An empty, intermittent kiln. This specific example is a "car kiln"; the base is on wheels and has been rolled out ...
s, roof-tile kilns,
charcoal Charcoal is a lightweight black carbon residue produced by strongly heating wood (or other animal and plant materials) in minimal oxygen to remove all water and volatile constituents. In the traditional version of this pyrolysis process, call ...

charcoal
kilns, as well as the remains of buildings and
workshop 250px, A railway workshop. Beginning with the Industrial Revolution era, a workshop may be a room, rooms or building which provides both the area and tools (or machinery) that may be required for the manufacture or repair of manufactured goods. Wo ...
s associated with production.


Capital cities, elite precincts, and monumental architecture

Since the establishment of Goguryeo, its early history is well attested archaeologically: The first and second
capital cities A capital or capital city is the municipality holding primary status in a department, country, state, province, or other administrative region, usually as its seat of the government. A capital is typically a city that physically encompasses the ...
,
Jolbon Jolbon was the capital of the Korean state Goguryeo, which arose in the north of the Korean peninsula. Jolbon is thought to have been in modern Wunü Mountain, Liaoning. In 37 BCE, Jumong had fled from Dongbuyeo to avoid death at the hands of Dong ...
and
Gungnae Gungnae (Korean) or Guonei (Mandarin) City was the second capital of the ancient Korean kingdom of Goguryeo, which was located in Manchuria and the Korean Peninsula. The perimeter of its outer fortress measures 2,686m. It is located in present day ...
city, are located in and around today's
Ji'an, Jilin Ji'an (; formerly ) is a county-level city in the southwestern part of Jilin province, People's Republic of China. It is administered by the prefecture-level city of Tonghua and is the southernmost county-level division in the province. Ji'an has an ...
. In 2004, the site was designated as a
World Heritage Site A World Heritage Site is a landmark or area with legal protection by an international convention administered by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). World Heritage Sites are designated by UNESCO for ha ...
by
UNESCO The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO french: Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialised agency of the United Nations (UN) aimed at promoting world peace an ...

UNESCO
. Since 1976, continuing archaeological excavations concentrated in the southeastern part of modern
Gyeongju Gyeongju ( ko, 경주, ), historically known as ''Seorabeol'' ( ko, 서라벌, ), is a coastal city in the far southeastern corner of North Gyeongsang Province in South Korea. It is the second largest city by area in the province after Andong, cov ...
have revealed parts of the so-called ''Silla Wanggyeong'' (Silla royal capital). A number of excavations over the years have revealed
temples A temple (from the Latin word ) is a building reserved for religious or spiritual rituals and activities such as prayer and sacrifice. The term typically used for such buildings belonging to all faiths where a more specific term such as church, ...
such as
Hwangnyongsa Hwangnyongsa, or Hwangnyong Temple (also spelled Hwangryongsa) was a Buddhist temple in the city of Gyeongju, South Korea. Completed in the 7th century, the enormous 9-story structure was built entirely with wood with interlocking design with no ...
, Bunhwangsa, Heungryunsa, and 30 other sites. Signs of Baekje's capitals have also been excavated at the Mongchon Fortress and the Pungnap Fortress in
Seoul Seoul (, like ''soul''; ko, 서울 ; ), officially the Seoul Special City, is the capital and largest metropolis of South Korea.Before 1972, Seoul was the "de jure" capital of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea) as stated ...
.


See also

* Heavenly Horse Tomb *List of Korean monarchs *''Samguk Yusa''


References


Further reading

* * * * *


External links


Three Kingdoms Period - Ancient History Encyclopedia

Korea's Three Kingdoms
{{DEFAULTSORT:Three Kingdoms Of Korea Three Kingdoms of Korea, 50s BC establishments 57 BC 668 disestablishments Cultural lists, 3 Three Kingdoms of Korea Early Korean history,