HOME

TheInfoList




Thrace (; el, Θράκη, Thráki; bg, Тракия, Trakiya; tr, Trakya) or Thrake is a geographical and historical
region In geography Geography (from Ancient Greek, Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, inhabitants, and phenomena of the Earth and Solar System, planets. The ...

region
in
Southeast Europe Southeast Europe or Southeastern Europe () is a geographical subregion A subregion is a part of a larger region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to th ...

Southeast Europe
, now split among
Bulgaria Bulgaria (; bg, България, Bǎlgariya), officially the Republic of Bulgaria ( bg, Република България, links=no, Republika Bǎlgariya, ), is a country in Southeast Europe. It is bordered by Romania to the north, Serbia ...

Bulgaria
,
Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, Elláda, ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeastern Europe Southeast Europe or Southeastern Europe () is a geographical subregion A subregion is a part of a larger region In geogr ...

Greece
, and
Turkey Turkey ( tr, Türkiye ), officially the Republic of Turkey, is a country located mainly on Anatolia Anatolia,, tr, Anadolu Yarımadası), and the Anatolian plateau. also known as Asia Minor, is a large peninsula in Western Asia an ...

Turkey
, which is bounded by the
Balkan Mountains The Balkan mountain range (Bulgarian Bulgarian may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to the country of Bulgaria * Bulgarians, a South Slavic ethnic group * Bulgarian language, a Slavic language * Bulgarian alphabet * A citizen of Bulgar ...
to the north, the
Aegean Sea The Aegean Sea ; tr, Ege Denizi is an elongated Bay, embayment of the Mediterranean Sea located between Europe's Geography of Europe, Balkan peninsula and Asia's Anatolia peninsula. The sea has an area of some 215,000 square kilometres. In ...

Aegean Sea
to the south, and the
Black Sea , with the skyline of Batumi Batumi (; ka, ბათუმი ) is the second largest city of Georgia Georgia usually refers to: * Georgia (country) Georgia ( ka, საქართველო; ''Sakartvelo''; ) is a country locat ...

Black Sea
to the east. It comprises southeastern Bulgaria (
Northern Thrace Northern Thrace or North Thrace ( bg, Северна Тракия, as opposed to Western Thrace and East Thrace to the south; tr, Kuzey Trakya; el, Βόρεια Θράκη), also called Bulgarian Thrace, constitutes the northern and largest part ...
), northeastern Greece (
Western Thrace Western Thrace or West Thrace ( el, υτικήΘράκη, '' ytikíThráki'' ; tr, Batı Trakya; bg, Западна/Беломорска Тракия, ''Zapadna/Belomorska Trakiya''), also known as Greek Thrace, is a Geography, geograp ...
), and the European part of Turkey (
East Thrace East Thrace landscape in Edirne Province, Turkey East Thrace or Eastern Thrace ( tr, Doğu Trakya or simply ''Trakya''; el, Ανατολική Θράκη, ''Anatoliki Thraki''; bg, Източна Тракия, ''Iztochna Trakiya''), also kn ...
). The region's boundaries are based on that of the Roman Province of Thrace; the lands inhabited by the ancient
Thracians The Thracians (; grc, Θρᾷκες ''Thrāikes''; la, Thraci) were an Indo-European languages, Indo-European speaking people, who inhabited large parts of Eastern Europe, Eastern and Southeast Europe, Southeastern Europe in ancient history.. ...
extended in the north to modern-day
Northern Bulgaria 350px, Northern Bulgaria Northern Bulgaria ( bg, Северна България, Severna Bylgarija), also called Moesia Moesia (; Latin: ''Moesia''; el, Μοισία, Moisía) was an ancient region and later Roman province situated in the B ...
and
Romania Romania ( ; ro, România ) is a country at the crossroads of Central Central is an adjective usually referring to being in the center (disambiguation), center of some place or (mathematical) object. Central may also refer to: Directions ...

Romania
and to the west into the region of
Macedonia Macedonia most commonly refers to: * North Macedonia North Macedonia, ; sq, Maqedonia e Veriut, (Macedonia until February 2019), officially the Republic of North Macedonia,, is a country in Southeast Europe. It gained independence in ...
.


Etymology

The word ''Thrace'' was first used by the Greeks when referring to the Thracian tribes, from
ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa''), generally referred to by speakers simply as Greek (, ), refers collectively to the diale ...
Thrake (Θρᾴκη), descending from ''Thrāix'' (Θρᾷξ). It referred originally to the
Thracians The Thracians (; grc, Θρᾷκες ''Thrāikes''; la, Thraci) were an Indo-European languages, Indo-European speaking people, who inhabited large parts of Eastern Europe, Eastern and Southeast Europe, Southeastern Europe in ancient history.. ...
, an ancient people inhabiting Southeast Europe. The name ''Europe'' first referred to Thrace proper, prior to the term vastly extending to refer to its
modern concept
modern concept
. The region could have been named after the principal river there,
Hebros
Hebros
, possibly from the Indo-European ''arg'' "white river" (the opposite of
Vardar The Vardar (; mk, , ) or Axios () is the longest river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river. In some cases, a river flows into the ground and becomes dry a ...
, meaning "black river"), According to an alternative theory, Hebros means "goat" in
Thracian The Thracians (; grc, Θρᾷκες ''Thrāikes''; la, Thraci) were an Indo-European speaking people, who inhabited large parts of Eastern Eastern may refer to: Transportation *China Eastern Airlines, a current Chinese airline based in S ...
. In Turkey, it is commonly referred to as ''
Rumeli Rumelia ( ota, روم ايلى, Rum İli; tr, Rumeli; el, Ρωμυλία), etymologically "Land of the Romans Roman or Romans usually refers to: *Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder ...

Rumeli
'', ''Land of the Romans'', owing to this region being the last part of the
Eastern Roman Empire The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire, or Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire The Roman Empire ( la, Imperium Rōmānum ; grc-gre, Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, Basileía tôn ...

Eastern Roman Empire
that was conquered by the
Ottoman Empire The Ottoman Empire (; ', ; or '; )info page on bookat Martin Luther University) // CITED: p. 36 (PDF p. 38/338). was an empire that controlled much of Southeastern Europe, Western Asia, and North Africa, Northern Africa between the 14th ...
.


Mythology

In terms of ancient Greek mythology the name appears to derive from the heroine and sorceress
Thrace Thrace (; el, Θράκη, Thráki; bg, Тракия, Trakiya; tr, Trakya) or Thrake is a geographical and historical region in Southeast Europe, now split among Bulgaria, Greece, and Turkey, which is bounded by the Balkan Mountains to th ...
, who was the daughter of
Oceanus In Greek mythology Greek mythology is the body of myth Myth is a folklore genre Folklore is the expressive body of culture shared by a particular group of people; it encompasses the tradition A tradition is a belief A bel ...

Oceanus
and Parthenope, and sister of
Europa Europa may refer to: Places *Europe Europe is a continent A continent is one of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven regions are commonly regard ...
.


Geography


Borders

The historical boundaries of Thrace have varied. The
ancient Greeks Ancient Greece ( el, Ἑλλάς, Hellás) was a civilization belonging to a period of History of Greece, Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 12th–9th centuries BC to the end of Classical Antiquity, antiquity ( AD 600). This era was ...
employed the term "Thrace" to refer to all of the territory which lay north of
Thessaly Thessaly ( el, Θεσσαλία, translit=Thessalía, ; ancient Aeolic Greek#Thessalian, Thessalian: , ) is a traditional geographic regions of Greece, geographic and modern administrative regions of Greece, administrative region of Greece, co ...

Thessaly
inhabited by the
Thracians The Thracians (; grc, Θρᾷκες ''Thrāikes''; la, Thraci) were an Indo-European languages, Indo-European speaking people, who inhabited large parts of Eastern Europe, Eastern and Southeast Europe, Southeastern Europe in ancient history.. ...
, a region which "had no definite boundaries" and to which other regions (like
Macedonia Macedonia most commonly refers to: * North Macedonia North Macedonia, ; sq, Maqedonia e Veriut, (Macedonia until February 2019), officially the Republic of North Macedonia,, is a country in Southeast Europe. It gained independence in ...
and even
Scythia Scythia (, ; from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is appro ...
) were added. In one ancient Greek source, the very Earth is divided into "Asia, Libya, Europa and Thracia". As the Greeks gained knowledge of world geography, "Thrace" came to designate the area bordered by the
Danube The Danube ( ; ) is the List of rivers of Europe#Longest rivers, second-longest river in Europe, after the Volga in Russia. It flows through much of Central Europe, Central and Southeastern Europe, from the Black Forest into the Black Sea. It ...

Danube
on the north, by the Euxine Sea (Black Sea) on the east, by northern Macedonia in the south and by
Illyria In classical antiquity Classical antiquity (also the classical era, classical period or classical age) is the period of cultural history History (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Gre ...

Illyria
to the west. This largely coincided with the Thracian
Odrysian kingdom The Odrysian Kingdom (; Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa''), generally referred to by speakers simply as Gr ...

Odrysian kingdom
, whose borders varied over time. After the Macedonian conquest, this region's former border with Macedonia was shifted from the
Struma River The Struma or Strymónas ( bg, Струма ; el, Στρυμόνας ; tr, (Struma) Karasu , 'black water') is a river in Bulgaria Bulgaria (; bg, България, Bǎlgariya), officially the Republic of Bulgaria ( bg, Република ...
to the
Mesta River Nestos ( ), Mesta ( ), or formerly the Mesta Karasu in Turkish (Karasu meaning "black river"), is a river in Bulgaria Bulgaria (; bg, България, Bǎlgariya), officially the Republic of Bulgaria ( bg, Република Българ ...
. This usage lasted until the Roman conquest. Henceforth, (classical) Thrace referred only to the tract of land largely covering the same extent of space as the modern geographical region. In its early period, the Roman province of Thrace was of this extent, but after the administrative reforms of the late 3rd century, Thracia's much reduced territory became the six small provinces which constituted the
Diocese of Thrace The Diocese of Thrace Map of Ancient Thrace made by Abraham Ortelius in 1585, stating both the names Thrace and Europe. Thrace (; el, Θράκη, Thráki; bg, Тракия, Trakiya; tr, Trakya) or Thrake is a geographical and historical ...
. The medieval
Byzantine The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire, or Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople. It survi ...

Byzantine
theme of Thrace The Theme of Thrace ( el, ) was a province (''thema'' or theme (Byzantine administrative unit), theme) of the Byzantine Empire located in the south-eastern Balkans, comprising varying parts of the Thrace, eponymous geographic region during its h ...
contained only what today is
East Thrace East Thrace landscape in Edirne Province, Turkey East Thrace or Eastern Thrace ( tr, Doğu Trakya or simply ''Trakya''; el, Ανατολική Θράκη, ''Anatoliki Thraki''; bg, Източна Тракия, ''Iztochna Trakiya''), also kn ...
.


Cities

The largest cities of Thrace are:
Istanbul ) , postal_code_type = Postal code A postal code (also known locally in various English-speaking countries throughout the world as a postcode, post code, PIN or ZIP Code) is a series of letters or digits or both, sometimes ...

Istanbul
,
Plovdiv Plovdiv ( bg, Пловдив, ) is the second-largest city in Bulgaria Bulgaria (; bg, България, Bǎlgariya), officially the Republic of Bulgaria ( bg, Република България, links=no, Republika Bǎlgariya, ), is a co ...

Plovdiv
,
Çorlu Çorlu () is a northwestern Republic of Turkey, Turkish city in inland Eastern Thrace that falls under the administration of the Tekirdağ Province, Province of Tekirdağ. It is a rapidly developing industrial centre built on flatland located on ...
,
Tekirdağ Tekirdağ (; see also its #Names and etymology, other names) is a city in Turkey. It is a part of the region historically known as East Thrace, located on the Balkans, Balkan peninsula in southeastern Europe. In 2019 the city's population was 204 ...
,
Burgas Burgas ( bg, Бургас, ), sometimes transliterated as ''Bourgas'', is List of cities and towns in Bulgaria, the second largest city on the Bulgarian Black Sea Coast in the region of Northern Thrace and the fourth-largest in Bulgaria after Sof ...

Burgas
,
Edirne Edirne (, ), formerly known as Adrianople or Hadrianopolis (), is a city in Turkey Turkey ( tr, Türkiye ), officially the Republic of Turkey, is a country located mainly on Anatolia Anatolia,, tr, Anadolu Yarımadası), and the ...
,
Stara Zagora Stara Zagora ( bg, Стара Загора, ) is the fifth-largest agglomeration in Bulgaria Bulgaria (; bg, България, Bǎlgariya), officially the Republic of Bulgaria ( bg, Република България, links=no, Republika ...
,
Sliven Sliven ( bg, Сливен ) is List of cities and towns in Bulgaria, the eighth-largest city in Bulgaria and the administrative and industrial centre of Sliven Province and municipality in Northern Thrace. Sliven is famous for its heroic Hajduk, H ...
,
Yambol Yambol ( bg, Ямбол ) is List of cities and towns in Bulgaria, a town in Southeastern Bulgaria and administrative centre of Yambol Province. It lies on both banks of the Tundzha river in the historical region of Thrace. It is occasionally spe ...
,
Haskovo Haskovo ( bg, Хасково ) is a List of cities and towns in Bulgaria, city in the region of Northern Thrace in southern Bulgaria and the administrative centre of the Haskovo Province, not far from the borders with Greece and Turkey. According ...

Haskovo
,
Komotini Komotini ( el, Κομοτηνή; bg, Гюмюрджина (Gyumyurdjina); tr, Gümülcine) is a city in the region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted t ...
,
Alexandroupoli Alexandroupoli ( el, Αλεξανδρούπολη, ) or Alexandroupolis is a city in Greece and the capital of the Evros (regional unit), Evros regional unit in East Macedonia and Thrace. It has 57,812 inhabitants and is the largest (in size and p ...

Alexandroupoli
,
Xanthi Xanthi ( el, Ξάνθη, ''Xánthi'', ) is a city in the region of Western Thrace, northeastern Greece. It is the capital of the Xanthi (regional unit), Xanthi regional unit of the modern regions of Greece, region of East Macedonia and Thrace. A ...

Xanthi
, and Kırklareli.


Demographics and religion

Most of the
Bulgarian Bulgarian may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to the country of Bulgaria * Bulgarians, a South Slavic ethnic group * Bulgarian language, a Slavic language * Bulgarian alphabet * A citizen of Bulgaria, see Demographics of Bulgaria * Bulg ...

Bulgarian
and
Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as of ...

Greek
population are
Orthodox Christian Orthodox, Orthodoxy, or Orthodoxism may refer to: Religion * Orthodoxy, adherence to accepted norms, more specifically adherence to creeds, especially within Christianity and Judaism, but also less commonly in non-Abrahamic religions like Neo-pag ...
s, while most of the
Turkish Turkish may refer to: * of or about Turkey Turkey ( tr, Türkiye ), officially the Republic of Turkey, is a country straddling Southeastern Europe and Western Asia. It shares borders with Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), offi ...
inhabitants of Thrace are
Sunni Sunni Islam () is by far the largest branch Image:Tree Leaves.JPG, The branches and leaves of a tree. A branch ( or , ) or tree branch (sometimes referred to in botany as a ramus) is a woody structural member connected to but not part o ...
Muslim Muslims () are people who follow or practice Islam Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission o God Oh God may refer to: * An exclamation; similar to "oh no", "oh yes", "oh my", "aw goodness", "ah gosh", ...

Muslim
s.


Ancient Greek mythology

Ancient Greek mythology Greek mythology is the body of myth Myth is a folklore genre consisting of narratives that play a fundamental role in a society, such as foundational tales or origin myths. The main characters in myths are usually gods, demigods, or supe ...
provides the Thracians with a mythical ancestor Thrax, the son of the war-god
Ares Ares (; grc, Ἄρης, ''Árēs'' ) is the Greek god The following is a list of gods A deity or god is a supernatural The supernatural encompasses supposed phenomena or entities that are not subject to the laws of nature. This t ...

Ares
, who was said to reside in Thrace. The Thracians appear in
Homer Homer (; grc, Ὅμηρος , ''Hómēros'') was an ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa''), generally re ...

Homer
's ''
Iliad The ''Iliad'' (; grc, Ἰλιάς, Iliás, ; sometimes referred to as the ''Song of Ilion'' or ''Song of Ilium'') is an ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Moder ...

Iliad
'' as
Trojan Trojan or Trojans may refer to: * Of or from the ancient city of Troy Troy (Greek language, Greek: Τροία) or Ilium (Greek language, Greek: Ίλιον) was an ancient city located at Hisarlik in present-day Turkey, south-west of Çanakkal ...

Trojan
allies, led by
Acamas Acamas or Akamas (; Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa''), generally referred to by speakers simply as Greek (, ...
and
Peiros The Peiros ( el, Πείρος, formerly also ''Kamenitza'' and ''Achelous'') is a river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river. In some cases, a river flows into ...
. Later in the ''Iliad'', Rhesus, another Thracian king, makes an appearance.
Cisseus In Greek mythology Greek mythology is the body of myth Myth is a folklore genre Folklore is the expressive body of culture shared by a particular group of people; it encompasses the tradition A tradition is a belief A belief i ...
, father-in-law to the Trojan elder
Antenor __NOTOC__ Antenor ( grc-gre, Ἀντήνωρ, ''Antḗnōr'';  BC) was an Athenian , image_skyline = File:Athens Montage L.png, center, 275px, alt=Athens montage. Clicking on an image in the picture causes the brow ...
, is also given as a Thracian king. Homeric Thrace was vaguely defined, and stretched from the River
AxiosAxios commonly refers to: * Axios (river), a river which runs through Greece and North Macedonia * Axios (website), ''Axios'' (website), an American news and information website Axios may also refer to: Brands and enterprises * Axios, a brand of ...
in the west to the
Hellespont The Dardanelles (; tr, Çanakkale Boğazı, lit=Strait of Çanakkale, el, Δαρδανέλλια, translit=Dardanéllia), also known as Strait of Gallipoli from the Gallipoli peninsula or from Classical Antiquity as the Hellespont (; gr ...
and
Black Sea , with the skyline of Batumi Batumi (; ka, ბათუმი ) is the second largest city of Georgia Georgia usually refers to: * Georgia (country) Georgia ( ka, საქართველო; ''Sakartvelo''; ) is a country locat ...

Black Sea
in the east. The
Catalogue of Ships The Catalogue of Ships ( grc, νεῶν κατάλογος, ''neōn katálogos'') is an epic catalogue An epic catalogue is a long, detailed list of objects, places or people that is a characteristic of epic poetry. Examples *In ''The Faerie Qu ...
mentions three separate contingents from Thrace: Thracians led by Acamas and Peiros, from Aenus;
Cicones The Cicones (; ) or Ciconians were a Homeric Thracians, ThracianHerodotus, ''The Histories'' (Penguin Classics), edd. John M. Marincola and Aubery de Selincourt, 2003, p. 452 (I10): "The Thracian tribes lying along his route were the Paeti, Cico ...
led by
Euphemus In Greek mythology, Euphemus ( grc, Εὔφημος, ''Eὔphēmos'', "reputable") was counted among the Calydonian hunters and the Argonauts, and was connected with the legend of the foundation of Cyrene, Libya, Cyrene. Family Euphemus was ...
, from southern Thrace, near
Ismaros Ismarus or Ismaros ( grc, Ἴσμαρος) was a city of the Cicones, in ancient Thrace, mentioned by Homer in the ''Odyssey''. Homeric Ismarus After their departure from Troy, Odysseus and his companions stop at Ismaros. They sack the town, and at ...
; and from the city of
Sestus Sestos ( el, Σηστός, la, Sestus) was an ancient city in Thrace Thrace (; el, Θράκη, Thráki; bg, Тракия, Trakiya; tr, Trakya) or Thrake is a geographical and historical region in Southeast Europe, now split among Bulg ...
, on the Thracian (northern) side of the Hellespont, which formed part of the contingent led by Asius. Ancient Thrace was home to numerous other tribes, such as the
Edones The Edoni (also ''Edones'', ''Edonians'', ''Edonides'') ( el, Ἠδωνοί) were a Thracian The Thracians (; grc, Θρᾷκες ''Thrāikes''; la, Thraci) were an Indo-European speaking people who inhabited large parts of Eastern and Sout ...
,
BisaltaeThe Bisaltae ( el, Βισάλται) were a Thracians, Thracian people on the lower Struma (river), Strymon river, who gave their name to Bisaltia, the district between Amphipolis and Heraclea Sintica (the modern village of Rupite, Bulgaria) on the e ...
,
Cicones The Cicones (; ) or Ciconians were a Homeric Thracians, ThracianHerodotus, ''The Histories'' (Penguin Classics), edd. John M. Marincola and Aubery de Selincourt, 2003, p. 452 (I10): "The Thracian tribes lying along his route were the Paeti, Cico ...
, and
BistonesBistones ( el, "Βίστονες") is the name of a Thracian people who dwelt between Mount Rhodopé and the Aegean Sea The Aegean Sea ; tr, Ege Denizi is an elongated Bay, embayment of the Mediterranean Sea located between Europe's Geograp ...
in addition to the tribe that Homer specifically calls the "Thracians".
Greek mythology Greek mythology is the body of myth Myth is a folklore genre Folklore is the expressive body of culture shared by a particular group of people; it encompasses the tradition A tradition is a belief A belief is an Attitude (psyc ...
is replete with Thracian kings, including
Diomedes Diomedes (Jones, Daniel; Roach, Peter, James Hartman and Jane Setter, eds. ''Cambridge English Pronouncing Dictionary''. 17th edition. Cambridge UP, 2006. or ) or Diomede (; grc-gre, Διομήδης, Diomēdēs, "god-like cunning" or "advised ...
,
Tereus In Greek mythology Greek mythology is the body of myth Myth is a folklore genre Folklore is the expressive body of culture shared by a particular group of people; it encompasses the tradition A tradition is a belief A belief ...
, Lycurgus,
Phineus In Greek mythology Greek mythology is the body of myth Myth is a folklore genre Folklore is the expressive body of culture shared by a particular group of people; it encompasses the tradition A tradition is a belief A belie ...
, Tegyrius,
Eumolpus In Greek Mythology Greek mythology is the body of myths originally told by the Ancient Greece, ancient Greeks, and a genre of Ancient Greek folklore. These stories concern the Cosmogony, origin and Cosmology#Metaphysical cosmology, nature of t ...
, Polymnestor,
Poltys:''Poltys:''Poltys (spider), Poltys'' is also a genus of spiders In Greek mythology, Poltys (Ancient Greek: Πόλτυς) is a mythical king and eponym of the Thrace, Thracian city of Poltyobria (or ''Poltymbria''; also called Enez, Aenus), featured ...

Poltys
, and
OeagrusIn Greek mythology, Oeagrus ( grc-gre, Οἴαγρος, Oíagros, of the wild sorb-apple) was a king of Thrace. Biography Kingdom There are various versions as to where Oeagrus' domain was actually situated. In one version, he ruled over the ...
(father of
Orpheus Orpheus (; Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa''), generally referred to by speakers simply as Greek (, ), ...

Orpheus
). Thrace is mentioned in
Ovid Pūblius Ovidius Nāsō (; 20 March 43 BC – 17/18 AD), known in English as Ovid ( ), was a Augustan literature (ancient Rome), Roman poet who lived during the reign of Augustus. He was a contemporary of the older Virgil and Horace, with whom ...

Ovid
's ''
Metamorphoses The ''Metamorphoses'' ( la, Metamorphōsēs, from grc, μεταμορφώσεις: "Transformations") is an 8 AD Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured syste ...
'', in the episode of
Philomela Philomela () or Philomel (; grc-gre, , ''Philomēlē'') is a minor figure in Greek mythology Greek mythology is the body of s originally told by the , and a of . These stories concern the and , the lives and activities of , , and , an ...
,
Procne Procne (; grc, Πρόκνη, ''Próknē'' ) is a minor figure in Greek mythology Greek mythology is the body of myth Myth is a folklore genre Folklore is the expressive body of culture shared by a particular group of people; it ...
, and
Tereus In Greek mythology Greek mythology is the body of myth Myth is a folklore genre Folklore is the expressive body of culture shared by a particular group of people; it encompasses the tradition A tradition is a belief A belief ...
: Tereus, the King of Thrace, lusts after his sister-in-law, Philomela. He kidnaps her, holds her captive, rapes her, and cuts out her tongue. Philomela manages to get free, however. She and her sister, Procne, plot to get revenge, by killing her son
Itys upright=1.4, "The Rape of Philomela by Tereus", engraved by Virgil Solis for a 1562 edition of Ovid's ''Metamorphoses'' (Book VI, 519–562) Philomela () or Philomel (; grc-gre, , ''Philomēlē'') is a minor figure in Greek mythology who is f ...
(by Tereus) and serving him to his father for dinner. At the end of the myth, all three turn into birds – Procne into a
swallow The swallows, martins, and saw-wings, or Hirundinidae, are a family of passerine birds found around the world on all continents, including occasionally in Antarctica. Highly adapted to aerial feeding, they have a distinctive appearance. The term ...

swallow
, Philomela into a
nightingale The common nightingale, rufous nightingale or simply nightingale (''Luscinia megarhynchos''), is a small passerine A passerine is any bird of the Order (biology), order Passeriformes (, Latin ''passer'' (“sparrow”) + ''formis'' (“-shape ...
, and Tereus into a
hoopoe Hoopoes () are colourful bird Birds are a group of warm-blooded vertebrate Vertebrates () comprise all species of animal Animals (also called Metazoa) are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the Kingdom (biology), ...
. The Dicaea city in Thrace was named after, the son of
Poseidon Poseidon (; grc-gre, Ποσειδῶν, ) was one of the Twelve Olympians upright=1.8, Fragment of a relief Relief is a sculptural technique where the sculpted elements remain attached to a solid background of the same material. The ...

Poseidon
, Dicaeus.


History


Ancient and Roman history

The indigenous population of Thrace was a people called the
Thracians The Thracians (; grc, Θρᾷκες ''Thrāikes''; la, Thraci) were an Indo-European languages, Indo-European speaking people, who inhabited large parts of Eastern Europe, Eastern and Southeast Europe, Southeastern Europe in ancient history.. ...
, divided into numerous tribal groups. Of the firsts to take control of Thracia, in part or whole, were the
Achaemenian The Achaemenid Empire (; peo, wikt:𐎧𐏁𐏂𐎶, 𐎧𐏁𐏂, translit=Xšāça, translation=The Empire), also called the First Persian Empire, was an ancient Iranian peoples, Iranian empire based in Western Asia founded by Cyrus the Grea ...
Persians The Persians are an Iranian ethnic group An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people who identify with each other on the basis of shared attributes that distinguish them from other groups such as a common set of traditions, ancestr ...
late into the
6th century BC The 6th century BC started the first day of 600 BC and ended the last day of 501 BC. In Western Asia, the first half of this century was dominated by the Neo-Babylonian Empire, which had risen to power late in the previous century after succe ...
. The region was incorporated into the empire as the Satrapy of Skudra following the Scythian campaign of Darius the Great. Thracian soldiers were known to be used in the Persian armies and Thracian soldiers are depicted on the rock carvings of the
Persepolis Persepolis (; peo, 𐎱𐎠𐎼𐎿, ; ) was the ceremonial capital of the Achaemenid Empire The Achaemenid Empire (; peo, , translit=Xšāça, translation=The Empire), also called the First Persian Empire, was an ancient based in foun ...

Persepolis
and
Naqsh-e Rostam Naqsh-e Rostam ( lit. mural of Rostam use both this parameter and , birth_date to display the person's date of birth, date of death, and age at death) --> , death_place = Kabulistan Kabulistan (Pashto language, Pashto/ fa, کابل ...

Naqsh-e Rostam
as well. Persians' presence in Thracia lasted for more than a century, but by the end of the 4th century BC, had overthrown the Persians, dividing the acquired vast realm between his generals. Notably, Thracian troops are known to have accompanied Alexander when he crossed the
Hellespont The Dardanelles (; tr, Çanakkale Boğazı, lit=Strait of Çanakkale, el, Δαρδανέλλια, translit=Dardanéllia), also known as Strait of Gallipoli from the Gallipoli peninsula or from Classical Antiquity as the Hellespont (; gr ...
which abuts Thrace, during the invasion of the
Persian Empire The Achaemenid Empire (; peo, wikt:𐎧𐏁𐏂𐎶, 𐎧𐏁𐏂, translit=Xšāça, translation=The Empire), also called the First Persian Empire, was an ancient Iranian peoples, Iranian empire based in Western Asia founded by Cyrus the Grea ...

Persian Empire
itself. The Thracians did not describe themselves by name; terms such as ''Thrace'' and ''Thracians'' are simply the names given them by the Greeks. Divided into separate tribes, the Thracians did not form any lasting political organizations until the founding of the in the 4th century BC. Like
Illyrians The Illyrians ( grc, Ἰλλυριοί, ''Illyrioi''; la, Illyrii) were a group of Indo-European languages, Indo-European speaking peoples, who inhabited the western Balkan Peninsula in ancient times. They constituted one of the three main Paleo ...

Illyrians
, the locally ruled Thracian tribes of the mountainous regions maintained a warrior tradition, while the tribes based in the plains were purportedly more peaceable. Recently discovered funeral mounds in Bulgaria suggest that Thracian kings did rule regions of Thrace with distinct Thracian national identity. During this period, a subculture of
celibate Celibacy (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Rom ...
ascetics Asceticism (; from the el, ἄσκησις ''áskesis'', "exercise, training") is a lifestyle characterized by abstinence Abstinence is a self-enforced restraint from indulging in bodily activities that are widely experienced as giving plea ...
called the Ctistae lived in Thrace, where they served as philosophers, priests, and prophets. Sections of Thrace particularly in the south started to become hellenized before the
Peloponnesian War The Peloponnesian War (431–404 BC) was an ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa''), generally referred to ...

Peloponnesian War
as Athenian and Ionian colonies were set up in Thrace before the war. Spartan and other
DoricDoric may refer to: * Doric, of or relating to the Dorians of ancient Greece ** Doric Greek, the dialects of the Dorians * Doric order, a style of ancient Greek architecture * Doric mode, a synonym of Dorian mode * Doric dialect (Scotland) * Doric C ...
colonists followed them after the war. The special interest of Athens to Thrace is underlined by the numerous finds of Athenian silverware in Thracian tombs. In 168 BC, after the
Third Macedonian war The Third Macedonian War (171–168 BC) was a war fought between the Roman Republic and King Perseus of Macedon. In 179 BC, King Philip V of Macedon died and was succeeded by his ambitious son Perseus of Macedon, Perseus. He was anti-Roman and s ...
and the subjugation of Macedonia to the Romans, Thrace also lost its independence and became tributary to Rome. Towards the end of the 1st century BC Thrace lost its status as a client kingdom as the Romans began to directly appoint their kings. This situation lasted until 46 AD, when the Romans finally turned Thrace into a Roman province (Romana provincia Thracia) During the Roman domination, within the geographical borders of ancient Thrace, there were two separate Roman provinces, namely Thrace ("provincia Thracia") and Lower Moesia ("Moesia inferior"). Later, in the times of Diocletian, the two provinces were joined and formed the so-called "Dioecesis Thracia". The establishment of Roman colonies and mostly several Greek cities, as was Nicopolis, Topeiros, Traianoupolis, Plotinoupolis, and Hadrianoupolis resulted from the Roman Empire's urbanization. The Roman provincial policy in Thrace favored mainly not the Romanization but the Hellenization of the country, which had started as early as the Archaic period through the Greek colonisation and was completed by the end of Roman antiquity. As regards the competition between the Greek and Latin language, the very high rate of Greek inscriptions in Thrace extending south of Haemus Mountains proves the complete language Hellenization of this region. The boundaries between the Greek and Latin speaking Thrace are placed just above the northern foothills of Haemus Mountains. During the imperial period many Thracians – particularly members of the local aristocracy of the cities – had been granted the right of the
Roman citizen Citizenship Citizenship is a relationship between an individual and a state to which the individual owes allegiance and in turn is entitled to its protection. Each state determines the conditions under which it will recognize persons as its ...
ship (civitas Romana) with all its privileges. Epigraphic evidence show a large increase in such naturalizations in the times of Trajan and Hadrian, while in 212 AD the emperor Caracalla granted, with his well-known decree (
constitutio Antoniniana The ''Constitutio Antoniniana'' (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through th ...

constitutio Antoniniana
), the Roman citizenship to all the free inhabitants of the Roman Empire. During the same period (in the 1st-2nd century AD), a remarkable presence of Thracians is testified by the inscriptions outside the borders (extra fines) both in the Greek territory and in all the Roman provinces, especially in the provinces of Eastern Roman Empire.


Medieval history

By the mid 5th century, as the Western Roman Empire began to crumble, Thracia fell from the authority of Rome and into the hands of Germanic tribal rulers. With the fall of the Western Roman Empire, Thracia turned into a battleground territory for the better part of the next 1,000 years. The surviving eastern portion of the
Roman Empire The Roman Empire ( la, Imperium Rōmānum ; grc-gre, Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, Basileía tôn Rhōmaíōn) was the post-Republican Republican can refer to: Political ideology * An advocate of a republic, a type of governme ...

Roman Empire
in the Balkans, later known as the
Byzantine Empire The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire, or Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire The Roman Empire ( la, Imperium Rōmānum ; grc-gre, Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, Basileía tôn ...

Byzantine Empire
, retained control over Thrace until the 7th century when the northern half of the entire region was incorporated into the
First Bulgarian Empire The First Bulgarian Empire ( cu, блъгарьско цѣсарьствиѥ, blagarysko tsesarystviye) was a medieval Bulgar- Slavic and later Bulgarian Bulgarian may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to the country of Bulgaria * Bulg ...

First Bulgarian Empire
and the remainder was reorganized in the Thracian theme. The Empire regained the lost regions in the late 10th century until the Bulgarians regained control of the northern half at the end of the 12th century. Throughout the 13th century and the first half of the 14th century, the region was changing in the hands of the Bulgarian and the Byzantine Empire (excluding Constantinople). In 1265 the area suffered a Mongol raid from the
Golden Horde The Golden Horde, self-designated as Ulug Ulus, 'Great State' in Turkic, was originally a Mongol The Mongols ( mn, Монголчууд, , ''Mongolchuud'', ; russian: Монголы, ) are an ethnic group to the , and the of Russia. ...
, led by
Nogai Khan Nogai, or Noğay (; also spelled Nogay, Nogaj, Nohai, Nokhai, Noqai, Ngoche, Noche, Kara Nokhai, and Isa Nogai; died 1299/1300), was a general A general officer is an officer of high rank in the armies, and in some nations' air forces, ...
, and between 1305 and 1307 was raided by the
Catalan company The Catalan Company or the Great Catalan Company (Catalan: ''Gran Companyia Catalana'', Latin: ''Exercitus francorum'', ''Societatis exercitus catalanorum'', ''Societatis cathalanorum'', ''Magna Societas Catalanorum'') was a company of mercenarie ...
.


Ottoman period

In 1352, the
Ottoman Ottoman is the Turkish spelling of the Arabic masculine given name Uthman (name), Uthman (Arabic: عُثْمان ''‘uthmān''). It may refer to: Governments and dynasties * Ottoman Caliphate, an Islamic caliphate from 1517 to 1924 * Ottoman Empi ...
Turks conducted their first incursion into the region subduing it completely within a matter of two decades and ruled it for five centuries in general peace. In 1821, several parts of Thrace, such as
Lavara Lavara ( el, Λάβαρα) is a town located in the eastern part of Evros regional unit. In 1821, Lavara participated in the Greek War of Independence The Greek War of Independence, also known as the Greek Revolution of 1821 or Greek Revoluti ...
,
Maroneia Maroneia ( el, Μαρώνεια) is a village and a former municipality in Rhodope regional unit, East Macedonia and Thrace Eastern Macedonia and Thrace ( el, Ανατολική Μακεδονία και Θράκη, translit=Anatolikí ...
,
Sozopol Sozopol ( bg, Созопол , el, Σωζόπολη, Sozopoli) is an ancient seaside town located 35 km south of Burgas on the southern Bulgarian Black Sea Coast. Today it is one of the major seaside resorts in the country, known for the ' ...

Sozopol
is, Aenos, , and rebelled during the
Greek War of Independence The Greek War of Independence, also known as the Greek Revolution of 1821 or Greek Revolution ( el, Ελληνική Επανάσταση, ''Elliniki Epanastasi''; referred to by Greeks The Greeks or Hellenes (; el, Έλληνες, ''É ...
.


Modern history

With the
Congress of Berlin The Congress of Berlin (13 June – 13 July 1878) was a to reorganise the states in the after the , which had been won by Russia against the . Represented at the meeting were Europe's then six : Russia, Great Britain, France, Austria-Hungary, ...
in 1878, Northern Thrace was incorporated into the semi-autonomous Ottoman province of
Eastern Rumelia Eastern Rumelia ( bg, Източна Румелия, ''Iztochna Rumeliya''; ota, , ''Rumeli-i Şarkî''; el, Ανατολική Ρωμυλία, ''Anatoliki Romylia'') was an autonomous province (''oblast An oblast (; ; Cyrillic , bg, к ...
, which united with Bulgaria in 1885. The rest of Thrace was divided among Bulgaria, Greece and Turkey at the beginning of the 20th century, following the
Balkan Wars The Balkan Wars consisted of two conflicts that took place in the Balkan Peninsula in 1912 and 1913. Four Balkan states defeated the Ottoman Empire in the First Balkan War. In the Second Balkan War, Bulgaria fought against all four original comb ...

Balkan Wars
,
World War I World War I, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war A world war is "a war engaged in by all or most of the principal nations of the world". The term is usually reserved for ...

World War I
and the Greco-Turkish War. In Summer 1934, up to 10,000 Jews were maltreated, bereaved, and then forced to quit the region (see 1934 Thrace pogroms). Today, ''Thracian'' is a geographical term used in Greece, Turkey, and Bulgaria.


Notable Thracians

*
Orpheus Orpheus (; Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa''), generally referred to by speakers simply as Greek (, ), ...

Orpheus
was, in
Ancient Greek mythology Greek mythology is the body of myth Myth is a folklore genre consisting of narratives that play a fundamental role in a society, such as foundational tales or origin myths. The main characters in myths are usually gods, demigods, or supe ...
, the chief representative of the art of song and playing the
lyre The lyre () is a string instrument that dates back to 1400 BC in ancient Greece. It is known for its use in Ancient Greece, Greek classical antiquity and later periods. The instrument was created and used earlier around 2600BCE in the middle ...

lyre
. *
Protagoras Protagoras (; el, Πρωταγόρας; )Guthrie, p. 262–263. was a pre-Socratic Pre-Socratic philosophy is ancient Greek philosophy Ancient Greek philosophy arose in the 6th century BC, at a time when the inhabitants of ancient Greece wer ...
was a Greek philosopher from
Abdera, Thrace Abdera () is a municipalities and communities of Greece, municipality in the Xanthi (regional unit), Xanthi regional unit of western Thrace, Thrace, Greece. In classical antiquity, it was a major ancient Greece, Greek ''polis'' on the Thrace, Thrac ...
(c. 490–420 BC.) An expert in
rhetoric Rhetoric () is the Art (skill), art of persuasion, which along with grammar and logic (or dialectic – see Martianus Capella), is one of the Trivium, three ancient arts of discourse. Rhetoric aims to study the techniques writers or sp ...
s and subjects connected to virtue and political life, often regarded as the first
sophist A sophist ( el, σοφιστής, ''sophistes'') was a teacher in ancient Greece Ancient Greece ( el, Ἑλλάς, Hellás) was a civilization belonging to a period of History of Greece, Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 12th ...
. He is known primarily for three claims: (1) that man is the measure of all things, often interpreted as a sort of
moral relativism Moral relativism or ethical relativism (often reformulated as relativist ethics or relativist morality) is a term used to describe several philosophical Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those ...
, (2) that he could make the "worse (or weaker) argument appear the better (or stronger)" (see
Sophism A sophist ( el, σοφιστής, ''sophistes'') was a teacher in ancient Greece Ancient Greece ( el, Ἑλλάς, Hellás) was a civilization belonging to a period of History of Greece, Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 12th ...
), and (3) that one could not tell if the gods existed or not (see
Agnosticism Agnosticism is the view that the existence of God The existence of God is a subject of debate in the philosophy of religion Philosophy of religion is "the philosophical examination of the central themes and concepts involved in religio ...

Agnosticism
). *
Herodicus Herodicus ( el, Ἡρóδιĸος) was a Thracian physician, who lived in Greece (7,8). Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country l ...

Herodicus
was a Greek physician of the fifth century BC who is considered the founder of
sports medicine Sports medicine is a branch of medicine that deals with physical fitness and the treatment and prevention of injuries related to sports and exercise. Although most sports teams have employed team physicians for many years, it is only since the l ...
. He is believed to have been one of
Hippocrates Hippocrates of Kos (; grc-gre, Ἱπποκράτης ὁ Κῷος, Hippokrátēs ho Kôios; ), also known as Hippocrates II, was a Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ε ...

Hippocrates
' tutors. *
Democritus Democritus (; el, Δημόκριτος, ''Dēmókritos'', meaning "chosen of the people"; – ) was an Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , o ...

Democritus
was a Greek philosopher and mathematician from
Abdera, Thrace Abdera () is a municipalities and communities of Greece, municipality in the Xanthi (regional unit), Xanthi regional unit of western Thrace, Thrace, Greece. In classical antiquity, it was a major ancient Greece, Greek ''polis'' on the Thrace, Thrac ...
(c. 460–370 BC.) His main contribution is the
atomic theory Atomic theory is the scientific theory A scientific theory is an explanation of an aspect of the that has been and verified in accordance with the , using accepted of , measurement, and evaluation of results. Where possible, theories are ...
, the belief that all matter is made up of various imperishable indivisible elements which he called
atom An atom is the smallest unit of ordinary matter In classical physics and general chemistry, matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by having volume. All everyday objects that can be touched are ultimately composed of ato ...

atom
s. *
Spartacus Spartacus ( el, Σπάρτακος '; la, Spartacus; c. 111–71 BC) was a Thracian The Thracians (; grc, Θρᾷκες ''Thrāikes''; la, Thraci) were an Indo-European speaking people who inhabited large parts of Eastern and So ...
was a Thracian who led a large slave uprising in what is now Italy in 73–71 BC. His army of escaped
gladiator A gladiator ( la, gladiator, "swordsman", from , "sword") was an armed combatant who entertained audiences in the Roman Republic The Roman Republic ( la, Rēs pūblica Rōmāna ) was a state of the classical Roman civilization, run thr ...

gladiator
s and slaves defeated several
Roman legion The Roman legion ( la, legiō, ) was the largest military unit of the Roman army The Roman army (: ) was the armed forces deployed by the Romans throughout the duration of , from the (to c. 500 BC) to the (500–31 BC) and the (31 BC– ...

Roman legion
s in what is known as the
Third Servile War The Third Servile War, also called the Gladiator War and the War of Spartacus by Plutarch Plutarch (; grc-gre, Πλούταρχος, ''Ploútarchos''; ; AD 46 – after AD 119) was a Greek Middle Platonist Middle Platonism is the mod ...
. *A number of
Roman emperor The Roman emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire The Roman Empire ( la, Imperium Rōmānum ; grc-gre, Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, Basileía tôn Rhōmaíōn) was the post-Republican Republican can refer to: Politica ...
s of the 3rd–5th century were of
Thraco-Roman The term Thraco-Roman describes the Romanized Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken ...
backgrounds (
Maximinus Thrax Gaius Julius Verus Maximinus "Thrax" ("the Thracian";  – 238) was Roman emperor from 235 to 238. His father was an accountant in the governor's office and sprang from ancestors who were Carpi (people), Carpi (a Dacians, Dacian tribe), a ...

Maximinus Thrax
,
Licinius Licinius (; la, Valerius Licinianus Licinius ; (Ancient Greek Λίκινιος) (c. 265 – 325) was Roman emperor from 308 to 324. For most of his reign he was the colleague and rival of Constantine I, with whom he co-authored the Edict of M ...
,
Galerius Gaius Galerius Valerius Maximianus (; c. 258 – May 311) was Roman emperor from 305 to 311. During his reign he campaigned, aided by Diocletian, against the Sassanid Empire, sacking their capital Ctesiphon in 299. He also campaigned across the ...

Galerius
,
Aureolus Aureolus (died 268) was a Roman Empire, Roman Roman army, military commander and would-be usurper. He was one of the so-called Thirty Tyrants (Roman), Thirty Tyrants who populated the reign of the Emperor Gallienus. Of humble Daco-Roman origins, h ...

Aureolus
, Leo the Thracian, etc.). These emperors were elevated via a military career, from the condition of common soldiers in one of the
Roman legion The Roman legion ( la, legiō, ) was the largest military unit of the Roman army The Roman army (: ) was the armed forces deployed by the Romans throughout the duration of , from the (to c. 500 BC) to the (500–31 BC) and the (31 BC– ...

Roman legion
s to the foremost positions of
political power In social science Social science is the Branches of science, branch of science devoted to the study of society, societies and the Social relation, relationships among individuals within those societies. The term was formerly used to refe ...
.


Legacy

The Trakiya Heights in Antarctica "are named after the historical region."Trakiya Heights.
SCAR Composite Antarctic Gazetteer.


See also

*1989 expulsion of Turks from Bulgaria *Celtic settlement of Eastern Europe *Dacia *Kingdom of Dardania, Dardania *The Destruction of Thracian Bulgarians in 1913, Destruction of Thracian Bulgarians in 1913 *Hawks of Thrace *Macedon *Moesia *Moesogoths *Music of Thrace *Paionia *Thracian treasure *Turkish Republic of Thrace


Notes


References

*Hoddinott, R. F., ''The Thracians'', 1981. *Ilieva, Sonya, ''Thracology'', 2001


External links


Ethnological Museum of Thrace
comprehensive website on Thracian history and culture.

Bulgaria's most famous Thracian Treasure - The Panagyurishte Gold Treasure to return home after two years lapse
Bulgaria's Thracian Heritage.
including images of the comprehensive art collection of Thracian gold found on the territory of contemporary Bulgaria.
Information on Ancient Thrace
*The People of the God-Sun Ar and Areia (modern Thrace
Possible Orphic Lyre rock engraving discovered in Bulgaria's Eastern Rhodope Mountains
{{coord, 42, N, 26, E, source:wikidata, display=title Thrace, Ancient Greek geography Historical regions in Greece History of Thrace Thracians History of Turkey Geography of Turkey Historical regions in Bulgaria Historical regions in Turkey Divided regions