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Thomas Hobbes ( ; sometimes known as Thomas Hobbes of Malmesbury; 5 April 1588 – 4 December 1679) was an
English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has eventually become the World language, leading lan ...
philosopher A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about Metaphysics, existence, reason, Epistemology, knowledge, Ethics, values, Philosophy of mind, mi ...

philosopher
, considered to be one of the founders of modern
political philosophy Political philosophy or political theory is the philosophical Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about existence Existence is the ability of an entity to interact with physical or menta ...

political philosophy
. Hobbes is best known for his 1651 book ''
Leviathan Leviathan (; , ) is a sea serpent A sea serpent or sea dragon is a type of dragon A dragon is a large, snake, serpentine, legendary creature that appears in the folklore of many cultures worldwide. Beliefs about dragons vary consid ...
'', in which he expounds an influential formulation of
social contract In moral A moral (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power ...
theory. In addition to political philosophy, Hobbes contributed to a diverse array of other fields, including
history History (from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approxima ...

history
,
jurisprudence Jurisprudence, or legal theory, is the theoretical study of the propriety of law Law is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules to form a unified whol ...
,
geometry Geometry (from the grc, γεωμετρία; ' "earth", ' "measurement") is, with , one of the oldest branches of . It is concerned with properties of space that are related with distance, shape, size, and relative position of figures. A mat ...

geometry
, the
physics Physics is the natural science that studies matter, its Elementary particle, fundamental constituents, its Motion (physics), motion and behavior through Spacetime, space and time, and the related entities of energy and force. "Physical scie ...

physics
of
gas Gas is one of the four fundamental states of matter In physics Physics is the natural science that studies matter, its Elementary particle, fundamental constituents, its Motion (physics), motion and behavior through Spacetime, space ...

gas
es,
theology Theology is the systematic study of the nature of the divine Divinity or the divine are things that are either related to, devoted to, or proceeding from a deity A deity or god is a supernatural The supernatural encompasses supposed ...
, and
ethics Ethics or moral philosophy is a branch of philosophy that "involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong action (philosophy), behavior".''Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy'"Ethics"/ref> The field of ethics, al ...

ethics
, as well as
philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about Metaphysics, existence, reason, Epistemology, knowledge, Ethics, values, Philosophy of mind, mind, and Philosophy of language, language. Such questio ...

philosophy
in general.


Biography


Early life

Thomas Hobbes was born on 5 April 1588, in
Westport Westport is the name of several communities around the world. Canada *Westport, Nova Scotia *Westport, Ontario **Westport Rideaus, local junior "B" ice hockey team **Westport/Rideau Lakes Airport *Westport, Newfoundland and Labrador Ireland *Wes ...
, now part of
Malmesbury Malmesbury () is a town and civil parish in Wiltshire, England. As a market town it became prominent in the Middle Ages as a centre for learning focused on and around Malmesbury Abbey, the bulk of which forms a rare survival of the dissolution ...
in
Wiltshire Wiltshire (; abbreviated Wilts) is a Ceremonial counties of England, county in South West England with an area of . It is landlocked and borders the counties of Dorset, Somerset, Hampshire, Gloucestershire, Oxfordshire and Berkshire. The count ...
, England. Having been born prematurely when his mother heard of the coming
invasion of the Spanish Armada
invasion of the Spanish Armada
, Hobbes later reported that "my mother gave birth to twins: myself and fear." Hobbes had a brother, Edmund, about two years older, as well as a sister named Anne. Although Thomas Hobbes's childhood is unknown to a large extent, as is his mother's name, it is known that Hobbes's father, Thomas Sr., was the
vicar A vicar (; Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Repu ...
of both Charlton and Westport. Hobbes's father was uneducated, according to
John Aubrey John Aubrey (12 March 1626 – 7 June 1697) was an English antiquary 's cabinet of curiosities, from ''Museum Wormianum,'' 1655 An antiquarian or antiquary (from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic ...

John Aubrey
, Hobbes's biographer, and he "disesteemed learning." Thomas Sr. was involved in a fight with the local
clergy Clergy are formal leaders within established s. Their roles and functions vary in different religious traditions, but usually involve presiding over specific rituals and teaching their religion's s and practices. Some of the terms used for ind ...
outside his church, forcing him to leave
London London is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and smaller lowerc ...

London
. As a result, the family was left in the care of Thomas Sr.'s older brother, Francis, a wealthy
glove A glove is a garment A kanga, worn throughout the African Great Lakes region Clothing (also known as clothes, apparel and attire) are items worn on the body. Clothing is typically made of fabrics or textile A textile is a flexi ...

glove
manufacturer with no family of his own.


Education

Hobbes Jr. was educated at Westport church from age four, passed to the
Malmesbury school Malmesbury School in Malmesbury, Wiltshire, England, was founded in 1971 with the merger of Malmesbury Grammar School at Filands with Bremhilam Secondary Modern at Corn Gastons. Until 2002, the school operated on two sites, with the lower school ...
, and then to a
private school Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for British British may refer to: Peoples, culture, and language * British people, nationals or natives of the United ...
kept by a young man named Robert Latimer, a graduate of the
University of Oxford The University of Oxford is a collegiate university, collegiate research university in Oxford, England. There is evidence of teaching as early as 1096, making it the oldest university in the English-speaking world and the List of oldest universit ...
. Hobbes was a good pupil, and between 1601 and 1602 he went up to
Magdalen Hall ''As the hart panteth after the water brooks'' , university = Oxford Oxford () is a city in England. It is the county town and only city of Oxfordshire. In 2017, its population was estimated at 152,450. It is northwest of London ...
, the predecessor to
Hertford College, Oxford ''As the hart panteth after the water brooks'' , university = Oxford Oxford () is a city in England. It is the county town and only city of Oxfordshire. In 2017, its population was estimated at 152,450. It is northwest of London ...

Hertford College, Oxford
, where he was taught
scholastic logicIn philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about reason, Metaphysics, existence, Epistemology, knowledge, Ethics, values, Philosophy of mind, mind, and Philosophy of language, langua ...
and
physics Physics is the natural science that studies matter, its Elementary particle, fundamental constituents, its Motion (physics), motion and behavior through Spacetime, space and time, and the related entities of energy and force. "Physical scie ...

physics
. The principal, John Wilkinson, was a
Puritan The Puritans were English Protestants Protestantism is a form of Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic Monotheism, monotheistic religion based on the Life of Jesus in the New Testament, life and Teachings of J ...

Puritan
and had some influence on Hobbes. Before going up to Oxford, Hobbes translated
Euripides Euripides (; grc, Εὐριπίδης ''Eurīpídēs'', ; ) was a tragedian Tragedy (from the grc-gre, τραγῳδία, ''tragōidia'', ''tragōidia'') is a form of drama based on human suffering and, mainly, the terrible or sorrowfu ...

Euripides
' ''
Medea In Greek mythology, Medea (; grc, Μήδεια, ''Mēdeia'' perhaps implying "planner / schemer") is the daughter of Aeëtes, King Aeëtes of Colchis, a niece of Circe and the granddaughter of the sun god Helios. Medea figures in the myth of Ja ...
'' from
Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as of ...
into
Latin verse The history of Latin poetry can be understood as the adaptation of Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast ...
. At university, Thomas Hobbes appears to have followed his own curriculum as he was little attracted by the scholastic learning. Leaving Oxford, Hobbes completed his
B.A. degree Bachelor of Arts (BA or AB; from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to ...
by incorporation at
St John's College, Cambridge St John's College is a constituent college A collegiate university is a university A university ( la, universitas, 'a whole') is an educational institution, institution of higher education, higher (or Tertiary education, tertiary) educatio ...

St John's College, Cambridge
in 1608. He was recommended by Sir James Hussey, his master at Magdalen, as tutor to
William William is a male Male (symbol: ♂) is the sex of an organism that produces the gamete (sex cell) known as sperm, which fuses with the larger female gamete, or ovum, in the process of fertilization. A male organism cannot sexual reproducti ...
, the son of William Cavendish,
Baron Baron is a rank of nobility Nobility is a social class normally ranked immediately below Royal family, royalty and found in some societies that have a formal aristocracy (class), aristocracy. Nobility has often been an Estates of th ...

Baron
of Hardwick (and later
Earl of Devonshire The Hereditary title, title of Earl of Devonshire has been created twice in the Peerage of England, firstly in 1603 for the Baron Mountjoy, Blount family and then recreated in 1618 for the Cavendish family, in whose possession the earldom remains. ...
), and began a lifelong connection with that family. William Cavendish was elevated to the peerage on his father's death in 1626, holding it for two years before his death in 1628. His son, also William, likewise became the 3rd Earl of Devonshire. Hobbes served as a tutor and secretary to both men. The 1st Earl's younger brother, Charles Cavendish, had two sons who were patrons of Hobbes. The elder son, , later 1st
Duke of Newcastle Duke of Newcastle upon Tyne was a title that was created three times, once in the Peerage of England and twice in the Peerage of Great Britain. The first grant of the title was made in 1665 to William Cavendish, 1st Marquess of Newcastle upon ...
, was a leading supporter of Charles I during the
civil war A civil war, also known as an intrastate war in polemology, is a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine publis ...
personally financing an army for the king, having been governor to the
Prince of Wales Prince of Wales ( cy, Tywysog Cymru, ) is a title traditionally and ceremonially granted to the heir apparent An heir apparent is a person who is first in an order of succession An order of succession or right of succession is the line o ...

Prince of Wales
, Charles James, Duke of Cornwall. It was to this William Cavendish that Hobbes dedicated his ''Elements of Law''. Hobbes became a companion to the younger William Cavendish and they both took part in a
grand tour The Grand Tour was the principally 17th- mid-19th-century custom of a traditional trip through Europe Europe is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rath ...

grand tour
of Europe between 1610 and 1615. Hobbes was exposed to European scientific and critical methods during the tour, in contrast to the
scholastic philosophy Scholasticism was a medieval school of philosophy that employed a critical method of philosophical analysis predicated upon a Latin Catholic theistic curriculum which dominated teaching in the medieval universities A medieval university ...
that he had learned in Oxford. In Venice, Hobbes made the acquaintance of Fulgenzio Micanzio, an associate of
Paolo Sarpi Paolo Sarpi, Calcografia Bettoni, Milan, 1824 Paolo Sarpi (14 August 1552 – 15 January 1623) was a Italian people, Venetian historian, prelate, scientist, canon lawyer, and statesman active on behalf of the Venetian Republic during the period o ...

Paolo Sarpi
, a Venetian scholar and statesman. His scholarly efforts at the time were aimed at a careful study of classic Greek and Latin authors, the outcome of which was, in 1628, his great translation of
Thucydides Thucydides (; grc-gre, Θουκυδίδης ; BC) was an Athenian , image_skyline = File:Athens Montage L.png, center, 275px, alt=Athens montage. Clicking on an image in the picture causes the browser to load the app ...
' ''
History of the Peloponnesian War The ''History of the Peloponnesian War'' is a historical account of the Peloponnesian War (431–404 BC), which was fought between the Peloponnesian League (led by Sparta) and the Delian League (led by Classical Athens, Athens). It was written by ...
'', the first translation of that work into English from a Greek manuscript. It has been argued that three of the discourses in the 1620 publication known as ''Horae Subsecivae: Observations and Discourses'' also represent the work of Hobbes from this period. Although he did associate with literary figures like
Ben Jonson Benjamin Jonson (c. 11 June 1572 – c. 16 August 1637) was an English playwright and poet. Jonson's artistry exerted a lasting influence upon English poetry and stage comedy. He popularised the comedy of humours The comedy of humours is a ge ...
and briefly worked as
Francis Bacon Francis Bacon, 1st Viscount St Alban, (; 22 January 1561 – 9 April 1626), also known as Lord Verulam, was an English philosopher and statesman who served as Attorney General for England and Wales, Attorney General and as Lord Chancellor of K ...
's
amanuensis An amanuensis () is a person employed to write or type what another dictates or to copy what has been written by another, and also refers to a person who signs a document on behalf of another under the latter's authority. The term is often used ...
, translating several of his ''
Essays An essay is, generally, a piece of writing that gives the author's own argument In logic Logic is an interdisciplinary field which studies truth and reasoning Reason is the capacity of consciously making sense of things, applying l ...
'' into Latin, he did not extend his efforts into philosophy until after 1629. In June 1628, his employer Cavendish, then the Earl of Devonshire, died of the plague, and his widow, the countess
Christian Christians () are people who follow or adhere to Christianity, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus in Christianity, Jesus Christ. The words ''Christ (title), Christ'' and ''Christian'' derive from the Koi ...
, dismissed Hobbes.


In Paris (1630–1637)

Hobbes soon found work as a tutor to Gervase Clifton, the son of
Sir Gervase Clifton, 1st Baronet Sir Gervase Clifton, 1st Baronet, Knight of the Bath, K.B. (25 November 1587 – 28 June 1666) was an English politician who sat in the House of Commons of England, House of Commons at various times between 1614 and 1666. He supported the Cavalie ...
, mostly spent in Paris until 1631. Thereafter, he again found work with the Cavendish family, tutoring
William Cavendish, 3rd Earl of Devonshire William Cavendish, 3rd Earl of Devonshire KB FRS (c. 10 October 161723 November 1684) was an English nobleman and politician, known as a royalist supporter. Life The eldest son of William Cavendish, 2nd Earl of Devonshire and his wife Christia ...
, the eldest son of his previous pupil. Over the next seven years, as well as tutoring, he expanded his own knowledge of philosophy, awakening in him curiosity over key philosophic debates. He visited
Galileo Galilei Galileo di Vincenzo Bonaiuti de' Galilei ( , ; 15 February 1564 – 8 January 1642), commonly referred to as Galileo, was an astronomer An astronomer is a scientist in the field of astronomy who focuses their studies on a specific q ...

Galileo Galilei
in
Florence Florence ( ; it, Firenze ) is a city in Central-Northern Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of Italian Peninsula, a peninsula delimited by the Al ...

Florence
while he was under house arrest upon condemnation, in 1636, and was later a regular debater in philosophic groups in Paris, held together by
Marin Mersenne Marin Mersenne (also known as Marinus Mersennus or ''le Père'' Mersenne; ; 8 September 1588 – 1 September 1648) was a French polymath A polymath ( el, πολυμαθής, , "having learned much"; la, homo universalis, "universal human") ...

Marin Mersenne
. Hobbes's first area of study was an interest in the physical doctrine of motion and physical momentum. Despite his interest in this phenomenon, he disdained experimental work as in
physics Physics is the natural science that studies matter, its Elementary particle, fundamental constituents, its Motion (physics), motion and behavior through Spacetime, space and time, and the related entities of energy and force. "Physical scie ...

physics
. He went on to conceive the system of thought to the elaboration of which he would devote his life. His scheme was first to work out, in a separate treatise, a systematic doctrine of body, showing how physical phenomena were universally explicable in terms of motion, at least as motion or mechanical action was then understood. He then singled out Man from the realm of Nature and plants. Then, in another treatise, he showed what specific bodily motions were involved in the production of the peculiar phenomena of sensation, knowledge, affections and passions whereby Man came into relation with Man. Finally, he considered, in his crowning treatise, how Men were moved to enter into society, and argued how this must be regulated if people were not to fall back into "brutishness and misery". Thus he proposed to unite the separate phenomena of Body, Man, and the State.


In England (1637–1641)

Hobbes came back home, in 1637, to a country riven with discontent, which disrupted him from the orderly execution of his philosophic plan. However, by the end of the
Short Parliament The Short Parliament was a Parliament of England The Parliament of England was the legislature of the Kingdom of England from the mid 13th to 17th century. The first English Parliament was convened in 1215, with the creation and signing o ...
in 1640, he had written a short treatise called ''The Elements of Law, Natural and Politic''. It was not published and only circulated as a manuscript among his acquaintances. A pirated version, however, was published about ten years later. Although it seems that much of ''The Elements of Law'' was composed before the sitting of the Short Parliament, there are polemical pieces of the work that clearly mark the influences of the rising political crisis. Nevertheless, many (though not all) elements of Hobbes's political thought were unchanged between ''The Elements of Law'' and ''Leviathan'', which demonstrates that the events of the
English Civil War The English Civil War (1642–1651) was a series of civil wars A civil war, also known as an intrastate war in polemology, is a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, ...
had little effect on his contractarian methodology. However, the arguments in ''Leviathan'' were modified from ''The Elements of Law'' when it came to the necessity of consent in creating political obligation: Hobbes wrote in ''The Elements of Law'' that Patrimonial kingdoms were not necessarily formed by the
consent of the governed Consent occurs when one person voluntarily agrees to the proposal or desires of another. It is a term of common speech, with specific definitions as used in such fields as the law, medicine, research, and sexual relationships. Consent as understo ...
, while in ''Leviathan'' he argued that they were. This was perhaps a reflection either of Hobbes's thoughts about the
engagement controversy{{for, the engagement of Scottish Covenanters with Charles I of 1647, Engagers The Engagement Controversy was a debate in England from 1649–1652 regarding loyalty to the English Interregnum, new regime after Pride's Purge and the execution of Char ...
or of his reaction to treatises published by Patriarchalists, such as , between 1640 and 1651. When in November 1640 the
Long Parliament The Long Parliament was an English Parliament The Parliament of England was the legislature of the Kingdom of England from the mid 13th to 17th century. The first English Parliament was convened in 1215, with the creation and signing of ...
succeeded the Short, Hobbes felt that he was in disfavour due to the circulation of his treatise and fled to Paris. He did not return for 11 years. In Paris, he rejoined the coterie around Mersenne and wrote a critique of the ''
Meditations on First Philosophy#REDIRECT Meditations on First Philosophy ''Meditations on First Philosophy, in which the existence of God and the immortality of the soul are demonstrated'' ( la, Meditationes de Prima Philosophia, in qua Dei existentia et animæ immortalitas de ...
'' of , which was printed as third among the sets of "Objections" appended, with "Replies" from Descartes, in 1641. A different set of remarks on other works by Descartes succeeded only in ending all correspondence between the two. Hobbes also extended his own works in a way, working on the third section, ''
De Cive#Redirect DE
{{Redirect category shell, 1= {{Redirect from other capitalisation {{Redirect from ambiguous term ...
'', which was finished in November 1641. Although it was initially only circulated privately, it was well received, and included lines of argumentation that were repeated a decade later in ''Leviathan''. He then returned to hard work on the first two sections of his work and published little except a short treatise on optics (''Tractatus opticus''), included in the collection of scientific tracts published by Mersenne as ''Cogitata physico-mathematica'' in 1644. He built a good reputation in philosophic circles and in 1645 was chosen with Descartes,
Gilles de Roberval Gilles Personne de Roberval (August 10, 1602 – October 27, 1675), French mathematician A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such topics ...
and others to referee the controversy between
John Pell John Pell (1 March 1611 – 12 December 1685) was an English mathematician and political agent abroad. Early life He was born at Southwick in Sussex. His father, also named John Pell, was from Southwick, and his mother was Mary Holland, from Ha ...

John Pell
and Longomontanus over the problem of
squaring the circle Squaring the circle is a problem proposed by ancient Ancient history is the aggregate of past events
.


Civil War Period (1642–1651)

The
English Civil War The English Civil War (1642–1651) was a series of civil wars A civil war, also known as an intrastate war in polemology, is a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, ...
began in 1642, and when the
royalist A royalist supports a particular monarch A monarch is a head of stateWebster's II New College DictionarMonarch Houghton Mifflin. Boston. 2001. p. 707. Life tenure, for life or until abdication, and therefore the head of state of a monarchy. ...

royalist
cause began to decline in mid-1644, many royalists came to Paris and were known to Hobbes. This revitalised Hobbes's political interests, and the ''
De Cive#Redirect DE
{{Redirect category shell, 1= {{Redirect from other capitalisation {{Redirect from ambiguous term ...
'' was republished and more widely distributed. The printing began in 1646 by Samuel de Sorbiere through the Elsevier press in
Amsterdam Amsterdam (, , ) is the Capital of the Netherlands, capital and Municipalities of the Netherlands, most populous city of the Netherlands with a population of 872,680 within the city proper, 1,558,755 in the City Region of Amsterdam, urban ar ...

Amsterdam
with a new preface and some new notes in reply to objections. In 1647, Hobbes took up a position as mathematical instructor to the young
Charles, Prince of Wales Charles, Prince of Wales (Charles Philip Arthur George; born 14 November 1948) is the heir apparent An heir apparent is a person who is first in an order of succession An order of succession or right of succession is the line of ind ...

Charles, Prince of Wales
, who had come to Paris from
Jersey Jersey ( , ; nrf, label=Jèrriais, Jèrri ), officially the Bailiwick of Jersey (french: Bailliage de Jersey, links=no; Jèrriais: ''Bailliage dé Jèrri''), is an island and self-governing Crown dependencies, Crown Dependency near the coa ...

Jersey
around July. This engagement lasted until 1648 when Charles went to Holland. The company of the exiled royalists led Hobbes to produce ''
Leviathan Leviathan (; , ) is a sea serpent A sea serpent or sea dragon is a type of dragon A dragon is a large, snake, serpentine, legendary creature that appears in the folklore of many cultures worldwide. Beliefs about dragons vary consid ...
'', which set forth his theory of civil government in relation to the political crisis resulting from the war. Hobbes compared the State to a monster (
leviathan Leviathan (; , ) is a sea serpent A sea serpent or sea dragon is a type of dragon A dragon is a large, snake, serpentine, legendary creature that appears in the folklore of many cultures worldwide. Beliefs about dragons vary consid ...

leviathan
) composed of men, created under pressure of human needs and dissolved by civil strife due to human passions. The work closed with a general "Review and Conclusion", in response to the war, which answered the question: Does a subject have the right to change allegiance when a former sovereign's power to protect is irrevocably lost? During the years of composing ''Leviathan'', Hobbes remained in or near Paris. In 1647, he suffered a near-fatal illness that disabled him for six months. On recovering, he resumed his literary task and completed it by 1650. Meanwhile, a translation of ''De Cive'' was being produced; scholars disagree about whether it was Hobbes who translated it. In 1650, a pirated edition of ''The Elements of Law, Natural and Politic'' was published. It was divided into two small volumes: ''Human Nature, or the Fundamental Elements of Policie''; and ''De corpore politico, or the Elements of Law, Moral and Politick''. In 1651, the translation of ''De Cive'' was published under the title ''Philosophical Rudiments concerning Government and Society''. Also, the printing of the greater work proceeded, and finally appeared in mid-1651, titled '' Leviathan, or the Matter, Forme, and Power of a Common Wealth, Ecclesiastical and Civil''. It had a famous title-page engraving depicting a crowned giant above the waist towering above hills overlooking a landscape, holding a sword and a
crozier A crosier (also known as a crozier, paterissa, pastoral staff, or bishop's staff) is a stylized staff that is a symbol of the governing office of a bishop A bishop is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Clergy#Christianit ...

crozier
and made up of tiny human figures. The work had immediate impact. Soon, Hobbes was more lauded and decried than any other thinker of his time. The first effect of its publication was to sever his link with the exiled royalists, who might well have killed him. The secularist spirit of his book greatly angered both
Anglican Anglicanism is a Western Christianity, Western Christian tradition that has developed from the practices, liturgy, and identity of the Church of England following the English Reformation. Adherents of Anglicanism are called ''Anglicans''; t ...

Anglican
s and French Catholics. Hobbes appealed to the revolutionary English government for protection and fled back to London in winter 1651. After his submission to the
Council of State A Council of State is a governmental body in a country, or a subdivision of a country, with a function that varies by jurisdiction. It may be the formal name for the cabinet Cabinet or The Cabinet may refer to: Furniture * Cabinetry, a box-sha ...
, he was allowed to subside into private life in
Fetter Lane Fetter Lane is a street in the ward of Farringdon Without in the City of London. It forms part of the A4 roadThis is a list of roads designated A4. A4 is the name of several roads: * A004 road (Argentina), a road connecting Buenos Aires-La Pl ...
.


Later life

In 1658, Hobbes published the final section of his philosophical system, completing the scheme he had planned more than 20 years before. ''De Homine'' consisted for the most part of an elaborate theory of vision. The remainder of the treatise dealt cursorily with some of the topics more fully treated in the ''Human Nature'' and the ''Leviathan''. In addition to publishing some controversial writings on mathematics and physics, Hobbes also continued to produce philosophical works. From the time of
the Restoration Restoration is the act of restoring something to its original state and may refer to: * Conservation and restoration of cultural heritage * Restoration style Film and television * ''The Restoration'' (1909 film), a film by D.W. Griffith starr ...
, he acquired a new prominence; "Hobbism" became a byword for all that respectable society ought to denounce. The young king, Hobbes's former pupil, now Charles II, remembered Hobbes and called him to the court to grant him a pension of £100. The king was important in protecting Hobbes when, in 1666, the
House of Commons The House of Commons is the name for the elected lower house A lower house is one of two chambers Chambers may refer to: Places Canada: *Chambers Township, Ontario United States: *Chambers County, Alabama *Chambers, Arizona, an unincorpor ...
introduced a bill against atheism and profaneness. That same year, on 17 October 1666, it was ordered that the committee to which the bill was referred "should be empowered to receive information touching such books as tend to atheism, blasphemy and profaneness... in particular... the book of Mr. Hobbes called the ''Leviathan''." Hobbes was terrified at the prospect of being labelled a heretic, and proceeded to burn some of his compromising papers. At the same time, he examined the actual state of the law of
heresy Heresy is any belief or theory that is strongly at variance with established beliefs or customs, in particular the accepted beliefs of a church or religious organization. The term is usually used in reference to violations of important religi ...
. The results of his investigation were first announced in three short Dialogues added as an ''Appendix'' to his ''Latin translation of Leviathan'', published in Amsterdam in 1668. In this appendix, Hobbes aimed to show that, since the
High Court of Commission The Court of High Commission was the supreme ecclesiastical court, ecclesiastic court in England. One of its powers was to license plays for publication. It was instituted by the crown in 1559 to enforce the Acts of Uniformity and Supremacy. John W ...
had been put down, there remained no court of heresy at all to which he was amenable, and that nothing could be heresy except opposing the
Nicene Creed The original Nicene Creed (; grc-gre, Σύμβολον τῆς Νικαίας; la, Symbolum Nicaenum) was first adopted at the First Council of Nicaea, which opened on 19 June 325.''Readings in the History of Christian Theology'' by William Ca ...
, which, he maintained, ''Leviathan'' did not do. The only consequence that came of the bill was that Hobbes could never thereafter publish anything in England on subjects relating to human conduct. The 1668 edition of his works was printed in Amsterdam because he could not obtain the censor's licence for its publication in England. Other writings were not made public until after his death, including ''Behemoth: the History of the Causes of the Civil Wars of England and of the Counsels and Artifices by which they were carried on from the year 1640 to the year 1662''. For some time, Hobbes was not even allowed to respond, whatever his enemies tried. Despite this, his reputation abroad was formidable. Hobbes spent the last four or five years of his life with his patron,
William Cavendish, 1st Duke of Devonshire William Cavendish, 1st Duke of Devonshire, (25 January 164018 August 1707) was an English soldier, nobleman, and Whig Whig or Whigs may refer to: Parties and factions In the British Isles * A pejorative nickname for the Kirk Party The K ...

William Cavendish, 1st Duke of Devonshire
, at the family's
Chatsworth House Chatsworth House is a stately home in the Derbyshire Dales, north-east of Bakewell and west of Chesterfield, Derbyshire, Chesterfield, England. The seat of the Duke of Devonshire, it has belonged to the House of Cavendish, Cavendish family sin ...

Chatsworth House
estate. He had been a friend of the family since 1608 when he first tutored an earlier William Cavendish. After Hobbes's death, many of his manuscripts would be found at Chatsworth House. His final works were an autobiography in Latin verse in 1672, and a translation of four books of the ''
Odyssey The ''Odyssey'' (; grc, Ὀδύσσεια, Odýsseia, ) is one of two major ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí ...
'' into "rugged" English rhymes that in 1673 led to a complete translation of both ''
Iliad The ''Iliad'' (; grc, Ἰλιάς, Iliás, ; sometimes referred to as the ''Song of Ilion'' or ''Song of Ilium'') is an ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Moder ...

Iliad
'' and ''Odyssey'' in 1675.


Death

In October 1679 Hobbes suffered a bladder disorder, and then a
paralytic stroke A stroke is a disease, medical condition in which poor cerebral circulation, blood flow to the brain causes cell death. There are two main types of stroke: brain ischemia, ischemic, due to lack of blood flow, and intracranial hemorrhage, hemorrh ...
, from which he died on 4 December 1679, aged 91, at
Hardwick Hall pavilions with Bess of Hardwick's initials "ES" (Elizabeth Shrewsbury) in openwork. Hardwick Hall in Derbyshire Derbyshire () is a county in the East Midlands of England. Much of the Peak District, Peak District National Park lies within ...

Hardwick Hall
, owned by the Cavendish family. His last words were said to have been "A great leap in the dark", uttered in his final conscious moments. His body was interred in
St John the Baptist's Church, Ault Hucknall St John the Baptist's Church, Ault Hucknall is a Grade I listed parish church in the Church of England in Ault Hucknall, Derbyshire. History The church dates from the 11th century with 14th- and 15th-century features. It was restored between 1885 ...

St John the Baptist's Church, Ault Hucknall
, in Derbyshire.


Political theory

Hobbes, influenced by contemporary scientific ideas, had intended for his political theory to be a quasi-geometrical system, in which the conclusions followed inevitably from the premises. The main practical conclusion of Hobbes's political theory is that state or society cannot be secure unless at the disposal of an absolute sovereign. From this follows the view that no individual can hold rights of property against the sovereign, and that the sovereign may therefore take the goods of its subjects without their consent. This particular view owes its significance to it being first developed in the 1630s when Charles I of England, Charles I had sought to raise revenues without the consent of Parliament, and therefore of his subjects. Hobbes rejected one of the most famous Thesis, theses of Aristotle's politics, namely that human beings are naturally suited to life in a polis and do not fully realize their natures until they exercise the role of Citizenship, citizen.


''Leviathan''

In ''Leviathan'', Hobbes set out his doctrine of the foundation of State (polity), states and legitimate governments and creating an objective science of morality. Much of the book is occupied with demonstrating the necessity of a strong central authority to avoid the evil of discord and civil war. Beginning from a Mechanism (philosophy), mechanistic understanding of human beings and their passions, Hobbes postulates what life would be like without government, a condition which he calls the state of nature. In that state, each person would have a right, or license, to everything in the world. This, Hobbes argues, would lead to a "war of all against all" (''bellum omnium contra omnes''). The description contains what has been called one of the best-known passages in English philosophy, which describes the natural state humankind would be in, were it not for political community: In such states, people fear death and lack both the things necessary to wikt:commodious, commodious living, and the hope of being able to obtain them. So, in order to avoid it, people accede to a social contract theory, social contract and establish a civil society. According to Hobbes, society is a population and a wikt:sovereign, sovereign authority, to whom all individuals in that society cede some right for the sake of protection. Power exercised by this authority cannot be resisted, because the protector's sovereign power derives from individuals' surrendering their own sovereign power for protection. The individuals are thereby the authors of all decisions made by the sovereign, "he that complaineth of injury from his sovereign complaineth that whereof he himself is the author, and therefore ought not to accuse any man but himself, no nor himself of injury because to do injury to one's self is impossible". There is no doctrine of separation of powers in Hobbes's discussion. According to Hobbes, the sovereign must control civil, military, judicial and Cuius regio, eius religio, ecclesiastical powers, even the words.


Opposition


John Bramhall

In 1654 a small treatise, ''Of Liberty and Necessity'', directed at Hobbes, was published by Bishop John Bramhall. Bramhall, a strong Arminianism, Arminian, had met and debated with Hobbes and afterwards wrote down his views and sent them privately to be answered in this form by Hobbes. Hobbes duly replied, but not for publication. However, a French acquaintance took a copy of the reply and published it with "an extravagantly laudatory epistle". Bramhall countered in 1655, when he printed everything that had passed between them (under the title of ''A Defence of the True Liberty of Human Actions from Antecedent or Extrinsic Necessity''). In 1656, Hobbes was ready with ''The Questions concerning Liberty, Necessity and Chance'', in which he replied "with astonishing force" to the bishop. As perhaps the first clear exposition of the psychological doctrine of determinism, Hobbes's own two pieces were important in the history of the Free will, free-will controversy. The bishop returned to the charge in 1658 with ''Castigations of Mr Hobbes's Animadversions'', and also included a bulky appendix entitled ''The Catching of Leviathan the Great Whale''.


John Wallis

Hobbes opposed the existing academic arrangements, and assailed the system of the original universities in ''Leviathan''. He went on to publish ''De Corpore'', which contained not only tendentious views on mathematics but also an erroneous proof of the squaring of the circle. This all led mathematicians to target him for polemics and sparked John Wallis to become one of his most persistent opponents. From 1655, the publishing date of ''De Corpore'', Hobbes and Wallis continued name-calling and bickering for nearly a quarter century, with Hobbes failing to admit his error to the end of his life. After years of debate, the spat over proving the squaring of the circle gained such notoriety that it has become one of the most infamous feuds in mathematical history.


Religious views

Hobbes was accused of atheism by several contemporaries; Bramhall accused him of teachings that could lead to atheism. This was an important accusation, and Hobbes himself wrote, in his answer to Bramhall's ''The Catching of Leviathan'', that "atheism, impiety, and the like are words of the greatest defamation possible". Hobbes always defended himself from such accusations. In more recent times also, much has been made of his religious views by scholars such as Richard Tuck and J. G. A. Pocock, but there is still widespread disagreement about the exact significance of Hobbes's unusual views on religion. As Martinich has pointed out, in Hobbes's time the term "atheist" was often applied to people who believed in God but not in divine providence, or to people who believed in God but also maintained other beliefs that were considered to be inconsistent with such belief. He says that this "sort of discrepancy has led to many errors in determining who was an atheist in the early modern period". In this extended early modern sense of atheism, Hobbes did take positions that strongly disagreed with church teachings of his time. For example, he argued repeatedly that there are no incorporeal substances, and that all things, including human thoughts, and even God, heaven, and hell are corporeal, matter in motion. He argued that "though Scripture acknowledge spirits, yet doth it nowhere say, that they are incorporeal, meaning thereby without dimensions and quantity". (In this view, Hobbes claimed to be following Tertullian.) Like John Locke, he also stated that true revelation can never disagree with human reason and experience, although he also argued that people should accept revelation and its interpretations for the reason that they should accept the commands of their sovereign, in order to avoid war. While in Venice on tour, Hobbes made the acquaintance of Fulgenzio Micanzio, a close associate of Paolo Sarpi, who had written against the pretensions of the papacy to temporal power in response to the Venetian Interdict, Interdict of Pope Paul V against Republic of Venice, Venice, which refused to recognise papal prerogatives. James I had invited both men to England in 1612. Micanzio and Sarpi had argued that God willed human nature, and that human nature indicated the autonomy of the state in temporal affairs. When he returned to England in 1615, William Cavendish maintained correspondence with Micanzio and Sarpi, and Hobbes translated the latter's letters from Italian, which were circulated among the Duke's circle.


Works

* 1602. Latin translation of Euripides' ''
Medea In Greek mythology, Medea (; grc, Μήδεια, ''Mēdeia'' perhaps implying "planner / schemer") is the daughter of Aeëtes, King Aeëtes of Colchis, a niece of Circe and the granddaughter of the sun god Helios. Medea figures in the myth of Ja ...
'' (lost). * 1620. "A Discourse of Tacitus", "A Discourse of Rome", and "A Discourse of Laws." In ''The Horae Subsecivae: Observation and Discourses''. * 1626. "De Mirabilis Pecci, Being the Wonders of the Peak in Darby-shire" (publ. 1636) — a poem on the Seven Wonders of the Peak * 1629. ''Eight Books of the Peloponnesian Warre'', translation with an Introduction of
Thucydides Thucydides (; grc-gre, Θουκυδίδης ; BC) was an Athenian , image_skyline = File:Athens Montage L.png, center, 275px, alt=Athens montage. Clicking on an image in the picture causes the browser to load the app ...
, ''
History of the Peloponnesian War The ''History of the Peloponnesian War'' is a historical account of the Peloponnesian War (431–404 BC), which was fought between the Peloponnesian League (led by Sparta) and the Delian League (led by Classical Athens, Athens). It was written by ...
'' * 1630. ''A Short Tract on First Principles''. ** Authorship doubtful, as this work is attributed by important critics to Robert Payne (natural philosopher), Robert Payne. * 1637. ''A Briefe of the Art of Rhetorique'' ** Molesworth edition title: ''The Whole Art of Rhetoric''. ** Authorship probable: While Schuhmann (1998) firmly rejects the attribution of this work to Hobbes, a preponderance of scholarship disagrees with Schuhmann's idiosyncratic assessment. Schuhmann disagrees with historian Quentin Skinner, who would come to agree with Schuhmann. * 1639. ''Tractatus opticus II'' (also known as ''Latin Optical Manuscript'') * 1640. ''Elements of Law, Natural and Politic'' ** Initially circulated only in handwritten copies; without Hobbes's permission, the first printed edition would be in 1650. * 1641. ''Objectiones ad Cartesii Meditationes de Prima Philosophia'' — 3rd series of Objections * 1642. ''De Cive, Elementorum Philosophiae Sectio Tertia de Cive'' (Latin, 1st limited ed.). * 1643. ''De Motu, Loco et Tempore'' ** First edition (1973) with the title: ''Thomas White's De Mundo Examined'' * 1644. Part of the "Praefatio to Mersenni Ballistica." In ''F. Marini Mersenni minimi Cogitata physico-mathematica. In quibus tam naturae quàm artis effectus admirandi certissimis demonstrationibus explicantur''. * 1644. "Opticae, liber septimus" (also known as ''Tractatus opticus I'' written in 1640). In ''Universae geometriae mixtaeque mathematicae synopsis'', edited by
Marin Mersenne Marin Mersenne (also known as Marinus Mersennus or ''le Père'' Mersenne; ; 8 September 1588 – 1 September 1648) was a French polymath A polymath ( el, πολυμαθής, , "having learned much"; la, homo universalis, "universal human") ...

Marin Mersenne
. ** Molesworth edition (OL V, pp. 215–48) title: "Tractatus Opticus" * 1646. ''A Minute or First Draught of the Optiques'' ** Molesworth published only the dedication to Cavendish and the conclusion in EW VII, pp. 467–71. * 1646. ''Of Liberty and Necessity'' (publ. 1654) ** Published without the permission of Hobbes * 1647. ''Elementa Philosophica de Cive'' ** Second expanded edition with a new ''Preface to the Reader'' * 1650. ''Answer to Sir William Davenant's Preface before Gondibert'' * 1650. ''Human Nature: or The fundamental Elements of Policie'' ** Includes first thirteen chapters of ''The Elements of Law, Natural and Politic'' ** Published without Hobbes's authorisation * 1650. ''The Elements of Law, Natural and Politic'' (pirated ed.) ** Repackaged to include two parts: *** "Human Nature, or the Fundamental Elements of Policie," ch. 14–19 of ''Elements'', Part One (1640) *** "De Corpore Politico", ''Elements'', Part Two (1640) * 1651. ''Philosophicall Rudiments concerning Government and Society'' — English translation of ''De Cive''Modern scholars are divided as to whether or not this translation was done by Hobbes. For a pro-Hobbes account see H. Warrender's introduction to ''De Cive: The English Edition'' in ''The Clarendon Edition of the Works of Thomas Hobbes'' (Oxford, 1984). For the contra-Hobbes account see Noel Malcolm, "Charles Cotton, Translator of Hobbes's De Cive" in ''Aspects of Hobbes'' (Oxford, 2002) * 1651. ''Leviathan (Hobbes book), Leviathan, or the Matter, Forme, and Power of a Commonwealth, Ecclesiasticall and Civil'' * 1654. ''Of Libertie and Necessitie, a Treatise'' * 1655. ''De Corpore'' (in Latin) * 1656. ''Elements of Philosophy, The First Section, Concerning Body'' — anonymous English translation of ''De Corpore'' * 1656. ''Six Lessons to the Professor of Mathematics'' * 1656. ''The Questions concerning Liberty, Necessity and Chance'' — reprint of ''Of Libertie and Necessitie, a Treatise'', with the addition of Bramhall's reply and Hobbes's reply to Bramahall's reply. * 1657. ''Stigmai, or Marks of the Absurd Geometry, Rural Language, Scottish Church Politics, and Barbarisms of John Wallis'' * 1658. ''Elementorum Philosophiae Sectio Secunda De Homine'' * 1660. ''Examinatio et emendatio mathematicae hodiernae qualis explicatur in libris Johannis Wallisii'' * 1661. ''Dialogus physicus, sive De natura aeris'' * 1662. ''Problematica Physica'' ** English translation titled: ''Seven Philosophical Problems'' (1682) * 1662. ''Seven Philosophical Problems, and Two Propositions of Geometry'' — published posthumously * 1662. ''Mr. Hobbes Considered in his Loyalty, Religion, Reputation, and Manners. By way of Letter to Dr. Wallis'' — English autobiography * 1666. ''De Principis & Ratiocinatione Geometrarum'' * 1666. ''A Dialogue between a Philosopher and a Student of the Common Laws of England'' (publ. 1681) * 1668. ''
Leviathan Leviathan (; , ) is a sea serpent A sea serpent or sea dragon is a type of dragon A dragon is a large, snake, serpentine, legendary creature that appears in the folklore of many cultures worldwide. Beliefs about dragons vary consid ...
'' — Latin translation * 1668. ''An answer to a book published by Dr. Bramhall, late bishop of Derry; called the Catching of the leviathan. Together with an historical narration concerning heresie, and the punishment thereof'' (publ. 1682) * 1671. ''Three Papers Presented to the Royal Society Against Dr. Wallis. Together with Considerations on Dr. Wallis his Answer to them'' * 1671. ''Rosetum Geometricum, sive Propositiones Aliquot Frustra antehac tentatae. Cum Censura brevi Doctrinae Wallisianae de Motu'' * 1672. ''Lux Mathematica. Excussa Collisionibus Johannis Wallisii'' * 1673. English translation of Homer's ''
Iliad The ''Iliad'' (; grc, Ἰλιάς, Iliás, ; sometimes referred to as the ''Song of Ilion'' or ''Song of Ilium'') is an ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Moder ...

Iliad
'' and ''
Odyssey The ''Odyssey'' (; grc, Ὀδύσσεια, Odýsseia, ) is one of two major ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí ...
'' * 1674. ''Principia et Problemata Aliquot Geometrica Antè Desperata, Nunc breviter Explicata & Demonstrata'' * 1678. ''Decameron Physiologicum: Or, Ten Dialogues of Natural Philosophy'' * 1679. ''Thomae Hobbessii Malmesburiensis Vita. Authore seipso'' — Latin autobiography ** Translated into English in 1680


Posthumous works

* 1680. ''An Historical Narration concerning Heresie, And the Punishment thereof'' * 1681. ''Behemoth (Hobbes book), Behemoth, or The Long Parliament'' ** Written in 1668, it was unpublished at the request of the King ** First pirated edition: 1679 * 1682. ''Seven Philosophical Problems'' (English translation of ''Problematica Physica'', 1662) * 1682. ''A Garden of Geometrical Roses'' (English translation of ''Rosetum Geometricum'', 1671) * 1682. ''Some Principles and Problems in Geometry'' (English translation of ''Principia et Problemata'', 1674) * 1688. ''Historia Ecclesiastica Carmine Elegiaco Concinnata''


Complete editions


Molesworth editions

Editions compiled by William Molesworth.


Posthumous works not included in the Molesworth editions


Translations in modern English

* ''De Corpore, Part I. Computatio Sive Logica''. Edited with an Introductory Essay by L C. Hungerland and G. R. Vick. Translation and Commentary by A. Martinich. New York: Abaris Books, 1981. * ''Thomas White's De mundo Examined'', translation by H. W. Jones, Bradford: Bradford University Press, 1976 (the appendixes of the Latin edition (1973) are not enclosed).


New critical editions of Hobbes's works

* ''Clarendon Edition of the Works of Thomas Hobbes'', Oxford: Clarendon Press (10 volumes published of 27 planned). * ''Traduction des œuvres latines de Hobbes'', under the direction of Yves Charles Zarka, Paris: Vrin (5 volumes published of 17 planned).


See also

* * * Hobbesian trap * * Joseph Butler * Hobbes's moral and political philosophy * ''Leviathan and the Air-Pump''


References


Citations


Sources

* Attribution: *


Further reading


General resources

* MacDonald, Hugh & Hargreaves, Mary. ''Thomas Hobbes, a Bibliography'', London: The Bibliographical Society, 1952. * Hinnant, Charles H. (1980). ''Thomas Hobbes: A Reference Guide'', Boston: G. K. Hall & Co. * Garcia, Alfred (1986). ''Thomas Hobbes: bibliographie internationale de 1620 à 1986'', Caen: Centre de Philosophie politique et juridique Université de Caen.


Critical studies

* Brandt, Frithiof (1928). ''Thomas Hobbes' Mechanical Conception of Nature'', Copenhagen: Levin & Munksgaard. * Jesseph, Douglas M. (1999). ''Squaring the Circle. The War Between Hobbes and Wallis'', Chicago: University of Chicago Press. * Leijenhorst, Cees (2002). ''The Mechanisation of Aristotelianism. The Late Aristotelian Setting of Thomas Hobbes' Natural Philosophy'', Leiden: Brill. * Lemetti, Juhana (2011). ''Historical Dictionary of Hobbes's Philosophy'', Lanham: Scarecrow Press. * C. B. Macpherson, Macpherson, C. B. (1962). ''The Political Theory of Possessive Individualism: Hobbes to Locke'', Oxford: Oxford University Press. * Noel Malcolm, Malcolm, Noel (2002). ''Aspects of Hobbes'', New York: Oxford University Press. * MacKay-Pritchard, Noah (2019). "Origins of the State of Nature", London * Malcolm, Noel (2007). ''Reason of State, Propaganda, and the Thirty Years' War: An Unknown Translation by Thomas Hobbes'', New York: Oxford University Press. * Pierre Manent, Manent, Pierre (1996). ''An Intellectual History of Liberalism'', Princeton: Princeton University Press. * A.P. Martinich, Martinich, A. P. (2003) "Thomas Hobbes" in ''The Dictionary of Literary Biography, Volume 281: British Rhetoricians and Logicians, 1500–1660, Second Series'', Detroit: Gale (publisher), Gale, pp. 130–44. * Martinich, A. P. (1995). ''A Hobbes Dictionary'', Cambridge: Blackwell. * Martinich, A. P. (1997). ''Thomas Hobbes'', New York: St. Martin's Press. * Martinich, A. P. (1992). ''The Two Gods of Leviathan: Thomas Hobbes on Religion and Politics'', Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. * Martinich, A. P. (1999). ''Hobbes: A Biography'', Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. * * Michael Oakeshott, Oakeshott, Michael (1975)
''Hobbes on Civil Association''
Oxford: Basil Blackwell. * Parkin, Jon, (2007), ''Taming the Leviathan: The Reception of the Political and Religious Ideas of Thomas Hobbes in England 1640–1700'', [Cambridge: Cambridge University Press] * Pettit, Philip (2008). ''Made with Words. Hobbes on Language, Mind, and Politics'', Princeton: Princeton University Press. * Robinson, Dave and Groves, Judy (2003). ''Introducing Political Philosophy'', Icon Books. . * Ross, George MacDonald (2009). ''Starting with Hobbes'', London: Continuum. * Steven Shapin, Shapin, Steven and Simon Schaffer, Schaffer, Simon (1995). ''Leviathan and the Air-Pump.'' Princeton: Princeton University Press. * Quentin Skinner, Skinner, Quentin (1996). ''Reason and Rhetoric in the Philosophy of Hobbes'', Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. * Skinner, Quentin (2002). ''Visions of Politics. Vol. III: Hobbes and Civil Science'', Cambridge: Cambridge University Press *Skinner, Quentin (2008). ''Hobbes and Republican Liberty'', Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. * Stomp, Gabriella (ed.) (2008). ''Thomas Hobbes'', Aldershot: Ashgate. * Leo Strauss, Strauss, Leo (1936). ''The Political Philosophy of Hobbes; Its Basis and Its Genesis'', Oxford: Clarendon Press. * Strauss, Leo (1959). "On the Basis of Hobbes's Political Philosophy" in ''What Is Political Philosophy?'', Glencoe, IL: Free Press (publisher), Free Press, chap. 7. * Ferdinand Tönnies, Tönnies, Ferdinand (1925). ''Hobbes. Leben und Lehre'', Stuttgart: :de:Frommann-Holzboog Verlag, Frommann, 3rd ed. * Tuck, Richard (1993). ''Philosophy and Government, 1572–1651'', Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. * Vélez, Fabio (2014). ''La palabra y la espada: a vueltas con Hobbes'', Madrid: Maia. * Vieira, Monica Brito (2009). ''The Elements of Representation in Hobbes'', Leiden: Brill Publishers. * Perez Zagorin, Zagorin, Perez (2009). ''Hobbes and the Law of Nature'', Princeton NJ: Princeton University Press.


External links

* * * * * *
Hobbes Texts
English translations by George Mac Donald Ross
Contains Leviathan, lightly edited for easier reading

Thomas Hobbes, A minute or first Draught of the Optiques
at Digitised Manuscripts
Clarendon Edition of the Works of Thomas Hobbes

Richard A. Talaska (ed.), ''The Hardwick Library and Hobbes's Early Intellectual Development''

Hobbes studies
Online edition
Bulletin Hobbes
in the Journal Archives de Philosophie
Thomas Hobbes
at the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy
Hobbes's Moral and Political Philosophy
at the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy
Hobbes: Methodology
at the Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy
Hobbes: Moral and Political Philosophy
at the Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy
A Brief Life of Thomas Hobbes, 1588–1679
by John Aubrey



at The Philosophy pages *
Thomas Hobbes
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