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''The New York Times'' is an American daily
newspaper A newspaper is a periodical Periodical literature (also called a periodical publication or simply a periodical) is a category of serial Serial may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media The presentation of works in sequential segments ...

newspaper
based in
New York City New York, often called New York City to distinguish it from New York State New York is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of ...

New York City
with a worldwide readership. Founded in 1851, the ''Times'' has since won 132 Pulitzer Prizes, the most of any newspaper, and has long been regarded within the industry as a national "
newspaper of record A newspaper of record is a major newspaper A newspaper is a periodical Periodical literature (also called a periodical publication or simply a periodical) is a category of Serial (publishing), serial published, publications that appear ...
". It is ranked 18th in the world by circulation and 3rd in the U.S. The paper is owned by
The New York Times Company The New York Times Company is an American mass media company that publishes ''The New York Times ''The New York Times'' (''NYT'' or ''NY Times'') is an American daily newspaper based in New York City with a worldwide readership. Founded ...
, which is
publicly traded A public company, publicly traded company, publicly held company, publicly listed company, or public limited company A public limited company (legally abbreviated to PLC or plc) is a type of public company under United Kingdom company law, som ...
. It has been governed by the Sulzberger family since 1896, through a dual-class share structure after its shares became publicly traded.
A. G. Sulzberger Arthur Gregg Sulzberger (born August 5, 1980) is an American journalist and the chairman of The New York Times Company The New York Times Company is an American mass media company that publishes ''The New York Times ''The New York Tim ...
and his father,
Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr. Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr. (born September 22, 1951) is an American journalist. Sulzberger was the chairman of the The New York Times Company The New York Times Company is an American mass media company that publishes the ''The New York Tim ...
—the paper's publisher and the company's
chairman The chairperson (also chair, chairman, or chairwoman) is the presiding officer of an organized group such as a board Board or Boards may refer to: Flat surface * Lumber, or other rigid material, milled or sawn flat ** Plank (wood) ** Cutting ...

chairman
, respectively—are the fifth and fourth generation of the family to head the paper. Since the mid-1970s, ''The New York Times'' has expanded its
layout Layout may refer to: * Page layout 300px, Consumer magazine sponsored advertisements and covers rely heavily on professional page layout skills to compete for visual attention. In graphic design Graphic design is the art, profession and ...

layout
and organization, adding special weekly sections on various topics supplementing the regular news, editorials, sports, and features. Since 2008, the ''Times'' has been organized into the following sections:
News News is information about current events. This may be provided through many different Media (communication), media: word of mouth, printing, postal systems, broadcasting, electronic communication, or through the testimony of observers and w ...

News
,
Editorial An editorial (US), leading article or leader (UK) is an article written by the senior editorial people or publisher of a newspaper A newspaper is a periodical Periodical literature (also called a periodical publication or simply a period ...

Editorial
s/
Opinions An opinion is a judgement Judgement (or US spelling judgment) is also known as ''adjudication'' which means the evaluation of evidence to make a decision. Judgement is also the ability to make considered decisions. The term has four disti ...
-
Columns A column or pillar in architecture File:Plan d'exécution du second étage de l'hôtel de Brionne (dessin) De Cotte 2503c – Gallica 2011 (adjusted).jpg, upright=1.45, alt=Plan d'exécution du second étage de l'hôtel de Brionne (dessin) ...
/
Op-Ed An op-ed, short for "opposite the editorial page" or as a backronym A backronym, or bacronym, is an acronym formed from a word that existed prior to the invention of the backronym. Unlike a typical acronym, in which a new word is constructed fro ...
, New York (metropolitan),
Business Business is the activity of making one's living or making money by producing or buying and selling products (such as goods and services). Simply put, it is "any activity or enterprise entered into for profit." Having a business name A trad ...
,
Sports Sport pertains to any form of competitive Competition arises whenever two or more parties strive for a common goal A goal is an idea of the future or desired result that a person or a group of people envision, Planning, plan and co ...
,
Arts The arts refers to the theory, human application and physical expression of creativity Creativity is a phenomenon whereby something somehow new and somehow valuable is formed. The created item may be intangible (such as an idea, a scienti ...
,
Science Science () is a systematic enterprise that Scientific method, builds and organizes knowledge in the form of Testability, testable explanations and predictions about the universe."... modern science is a discovery as well as an invention. ...
,
Styles Style is a manner of doing or presenting things and may refer to: * Architectural style, the features that make a building or structure historically identifiable * Design, the process of creating something * Fashion, a prevailing mode of clothing s ...
, Home, Travel, and other features. On Sundays, the ''Times'' is supplemented by the ''
Sunday ReviewSunday Review is the opinion section of ''The New York Times''. It contains columns by a number of regular contributors (such as David Brooks (journalist), David Brooks and Paul Krugman), and usually includes op-eds by the Editorial Board. Reference ...
'' (formerly the ''Week in Review''), ''
The New York Times Book Review ''The New York Times Book Review'' (''NYTBR'') is a weekly paper-magazine Supplement (publishing), supplement to ''The New York Times'' in which current non-fiction and fiction books are reviewed. It is one of the most influential and widely r ...
'', ''
The New York Times Magazine ''The New York Times Magazine'' is a Sunday magazine A Sunday magazine is a publication inserted into a Sunday newspaper A newspaper is a Periodical literature, periodical publication containing written News, information about current events ...
'', and '' T: The New York Times Style Magazine''.


History


Origins

''The New York Times'' was founded as the ''New-York Daily Times'' on September 18, 1851. Founded by journalist and politician
Henry Jarvis Raymond Henry Jarvis Raymond (January 24, 1820 – June 18, 1869) was an American journalist, politician, and co-founder of ''The New York Times'', which he founded with George Jones (publisher), George Jones. He was a member of the New York State Assem ...

Henry Jarvis Raymond
and former banker
George Jones George Glenn Jones (September 12, 1931 – April 26, 2013) was an American musician, singer, and songwriter. He achieved international fame for his long list of hit records, including his best-known song "He Stopped Loving Her Today", as well ...
, the ''Times'' was initially published by Raymond, Jones & Company. Early investors in the company included Edwin B. Morgan, Christopher Morgan, and Edward B. Wesley. Sold for a penny (), the inaugural edition attempted to address various speculations on its purpose and positions that preceded its release: In 1852, the newspaper started a western division, ''The Times of California'', which arrived whenever a
mail boat Mail boats or postal boats are a boat A boat is a watercraft Watercraft, also known as water vessels or waterborne vessels, are vehicles used in water, including boats, ship A ship is a large watercraft that travels the world's ocea ...
from New York docked in
California California is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper i ...

California
. However, the effort failed once local California newspapers came into prominence. On September 14, 1857, the newspaper officially shortened its name to ''The New-York Times''. The hyphen in the city name was dropped on December 1, 1896. On April 21, 1861, ''The New York Times'' began publishing a Sunday edition to offer daily coverage of the
Civil War A civil war, also known as an intrastate war in polemology, is a war between organized groups within the same Sovereign state, state (or country). The aim of one side may be to take control of the country or a region, to achieve independen ...
. The main office of ''The New York Times'' was attacked during the
New York City draft riots The New York City draft riots (July 13–16, 1863), sometimes referred to as the Manhattan draft riots and known at the time as Draft Week, were violent disturbances in Lower Manhattan, widely regarded as the culmination of working-class di ...
. The riots, sparked by the institution of a draft for the
Union Army During the American Civil War The American Civil War (also known by Names of the American Civil War, other names) was a civil war in the United States from 1861 to 1865, fought between northern U.S. state, states loyal to the Union (A ...
, began on July 13, 1863. On "
Newspaper Row A newspaper is a Periodical literature, periodical publication containing written News, information about current events and is often typed in black ink with a white or gray background. Newspapers can cover a wide variety of fields such as po ...
", across from
City Hall#REDIRECT Town hall#REDIRECT Town hall In local government, a city hall, town hall, civic centre (in the United Kingdom, UK or Australia), guildhall, or (more rarely) a municipal building, is the chief administration (government), admini ...

City Hall
, co-founder
Henry Raymond
Henry Raymond
stopped the rioters with
Gatling gun The Gatling gun is a rapid-firing multiple-barrel firearm invented in 1861 by Richard Jordan Gatling. It is an early machine gun and a forerunner of the modern electric motor-driven rotary cannon. The Gatling gun's operation centered on a cyc ...

Gatling gun
s, early machine guns, one of which he wielded himself. The mob diverted, instead attacking the headquarters of abolitionist publisher
Horace Greeley Horace Greeley (February 3, 1811 – November 29, 1872) was an American newspaper editor and publisher who was the founder and newspaper editor, editor of the ''New-York Tribune''. Long active in politics, he served briefly as a congressman ...

Horace Greeley
's ''
New York Tribune The ''New-York Tribune'' was an American newspaper, first established in 1841 by editor Horace Greeley. Between 1842 and 1866, the newspaper bore the name ''New-York Daily Tribune.'' From the 1840s through the 1860s it was the dominant Whig Party ...
'' until being forced to flee by the Brooklyn City Police, who had crossed the
East River The East River is a salt water in . The waterway, which is actually not a despite its name, connects on its south end to on its north end. It separates the borough of on from on the n mainland, and also divides from Queens and , also o ...
to help the
Manhattan Manhattan (), known regionally as ''The City'', is the most densely populated and geographically smallest of the five boroughs 5 is a number, numeral, and glyph. 5, five or number 5 may also refer to: * AD 5, the fifth year of the AD era ...

Manhattan
authorities. In 1869, Henry Raymond died, and George Jones took over as publisher. The newspaper's influence grew in 1870 and 1871, when it published a series of exposés on William Tweed, leader of the city's
Democratic PartyDemocratic Party most often refers to: *Democratic Party (United States) Democratic Party and similar terms may also refer to: Active parties Africa *Botswana Democratic Party *Democratic Party of Equatorial Guinea *Gabonese Democratic Party *Democ ...
— popularly known as "
Tammany Hall Tammany Hall, also known as the Society of St. Tammany, the Sons of St. Tammany, or the Columbian Order, was a New York City political organization founded in 1786 and incorporated on May 12, 1789, as the Tammany Society. It became the main loc ...
" (from its early-19th-century meeting headquarters) — that led to the end of the Tweed Ring's domination of New York's City Hall. Tweed had offered ''The New York Times'' five million dollars (equivalent to million dollars in ) to not publish the story. In the 1880s, ''The New York Times'' gradually transitioned from supporting
Republican Party Republican Party is a name used by many political parties A political party is an organization that coordinates candidates to compete in a country's elections. It is common for the members of a political party to have similar ideas about polit ...
candidates in its editorials to becoming more politically independent and analytical. In 1884, the paper supported
Democrat Democrat, Democrats, or Democratic may refer to: *A proponent of democracy, or democratic government; a form of government involving rule by the people. *A member of a Democratic Party: **Democratic Party (United States) (D) **Democratic Party (Cy ...
Grover Cleveland Stephen Grover Cleveland (March 18, 1837June 24, 1908) was an American lawyer and politician who served as the 22nd and 24th president of the United States from 1885 to 1889 and from 1893 to 1897. Cleveland is the only president in American ...

Grover Cleveland
(former mayor of and
governor of New York The governor of the State of New York is the head of government of the U.S. state of New York (state), New York. The governor is the head of the Executive (government), executive branch of New York's state government and the commander-in-ch ...
) in his first presidential campaign. While this move cost ''The New York Times'' a portion of its readership among its more Republican readers (revenue declined from $188,000 to $56,000 from 1883 to 1884), the paper eventually regained most of its lost ground within a few years.


Ochs era

After George Jones died in 1891, Charles Ransom Miller and other ''New York Times'' editors raised $1 million (equivalent to $ million in ) to buy the ''Times'', printing it under the New York Times Publishing Company. However, the newspaper found itself in a financial crisis by the
Panic of 1893 The Panic of 1893 was an economic depression An economic depression is a sustained, long-term downturn in economic activity in one or more economies. It is a more severe economic downturn than a economic recession, recession, which is a slowdown ...
, and by 1896, the newspaper had a circulation of less than 9,000 and was losing $1,000 a day. That year,
Adolph Ochs Adolph Simon Ochs (March 12, 1858 – April 8, 1935) was an American newspaper publisher and former owner of ''The New York Times ''The New York Times'' (''NYT'' or ''NY Times'') is an American daily newspaper based in New York City with a ...
, the publisher of the '' Chattanooga Times'', gained a controlling interest in the company for $75,000. Shortly after assuming control of the paper, Ochs coined the paper's slogan, "All The News That's Fit To Print". The slogan has appeared in the paper since September 1896, and has been printed in a box in the upper left hand corner of the front page since early 1897. The slogan was a jab at competing papers, such as
Joseph Pulitzer Joseph Pulitzer ( ; born József Pulitzer; ; April 10, 1847 – October 29, 1911) was a Hungarian-American Hungarian Americans (Hungarian language, Hungarian: ''amerikai magyarok'') are United States, Americans of Hungarian people, Hungarian ...

Joseph Pulitzer
's ''
New York World The ''New York World'' was a newspaper A newspaper is a periodical Periodical literature (also called a periodical publication or simply a periodical) is a category of Serial (publishing), serial published, publications that appear in a ...
'' and
William Randolph Hearst William Randolph Hearst Sr. (; April 29, 1863 – August 14, 1951) was an American businessman, newspaper publisher, and politician known for developing the nation's largest newspaper chain and media company, . His flamboyant methods of influen ...

William Randolph Hearst
's ''
New York Journal New is an adjective referring to something recently made, discovered, or created. New or NEW may refer to: Music * New, singer of K-pop group The Boyz Boyz or The Boyz may refer to: Music Bands *The Boyz (German band), a German boy band of th ...
'', which were known for a lurid, sensationalist and often inaccurate reporting of facts and opinions, described by the end of the century as "
yellow journalism Yellow journalism and yellow press are American terms for journalism and associated newspapers that present little or no legitimate, well-researched news while instead using eye-catching headlines for increased sales. Techniques may include ex ...
". Under Ochs' guidance, aided by
Carr Van Anda Carr Vattal Van Anda (December 2, 1864 – January 29, 1945) was the managing editor of ''The New York Times ''The New York Times'' (''NYT'' or ''NY Times'') is an American daily newspaper based in New York City with a worldwide readers ...
, ''The New York Times'' achieved international scope, circulation, and reputation; Sunday circulation went from under 9,000 in 1896 to 780,000 in 1934. Van Anda also created the newspaper's photo library, now colloquially referred to as " the morgue." In 1904, during the
Russo-Japanese War The Russo-Japanese War (russian: Ру́сско-япóнская войнá, Rússko-yapónskaya voyná; ja, 日露戦争, Nichiro sensō, Japanese-Russian War) was fought between the Empire of Japan The was a historical natio ...
, ''The New York Times'', along with ''
The Times ''The Times'' is a British Newspaper#Daily, daily Newspaper#National, national newspaper based in London. It began in 1785 under the title ''The Daily Universal Register'', adopting its current name on 1 January 1788. ''The Times'' and its s ...
'', received the first on-the-spot
wireless Wireless communication (or just wireless, when the context allows) is the transfer of information between two or more points that do not use an electrical conductor In physics Physics (from grc, φυσική (ἐπιστήμη), ph ...

wireless
telegraph Telegraphy is the long-distance transmission of messages where the sender uses symbolic codes, known to the recipient, rather than a physical exchange of an object bearing the message. Thus is a method of telegraphy, whereas is not. Ancien ...

telegraph
transmission from a naval battle: a report of the destruction of the
Russian Navy )Slow – "''Гвардейский встречный марш Военно-морского флота''" () , mascot = , equipment = 1 aircraft carrier An aircraft carrier is a warship that serve ...
's
Baltic Fleet , image = Great emblem of the Baltic fleet.svg , image_size = 150 , caption = Baltic Fleet Great ensign , dates = 18 May 1703 – present , country = , allegiance = (1703–1721) (1721–1917) (1917–1922) (1922–1991)(1991–present) , ...

Baltic Fleet
, at the
Battle of Port Arthur The of 8–9 February 1904 marked the commencement of the Russo-Japanese War. It began with a surprise night attack by a squadron of Imperial Japanese Navy, Japanese destroyers on the neutral country, neutral Imperial Russian Navy, Russian flee ...
, from the press-boat '' Haimun''. In 1910, the first air delivery of ''The New York Times'' to
Philadelphia Philadelphia (colloquially known simply as Philly) is the largest city in the Commonwealth A commonwealth is a traditional English term for a political community founded for the common good In philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is ...

Philadelphia
began. In 1919, ''The New York Times'' first trans-Atlantic delivery to
London London is the Capital city, capital and List of urban areas in the United Kingdom, largest city of England and the United Kingdom. It stands on the River Thames in south-east England at the head of a estuary down to the North Sea, and has b ...

London
occurred by dirigible balloon. In 1920, during the
1920 Republican National Convention Delegates gathered on the convention floor The 1920 National Convention of the Republican Party Republican Party is a name used by many political parties A political party is an organization that coordinates candidates to compete in a coun ...
, a "4 A.M. Airplane Edition" was sent to
Chicago (''City in a Garden''); I Will , image_map = , map_caption = Interactive map of Chicago , coordinates = , coordinates_footnotes = , subdivision_type = Country , subdivision_name ...

Chicago
by plane, so it could be in the hands of convention delegates by evening.


Post-war expansion

Ochs died in 1935 and was succeeded as publisher by his son-in-law,
Arthur Hays Sulzberger Arthur Hays Sulzberger (September 12, 1891December 11, 1968) was the publisher of ''The New York Times'' from 1935 to 1961. During that time, daily circulation rose from 465,000 to 713,000 and Sunday circulation from 745,000 to 1.4 million; the sta ...
. Under his leadership, and that of his son-in-law (and successor),
Orvil Dryfoos Orvil Eugene Dryfoos (November 8, 1912 – May 25, 1963) was the publisher of ''The New York Times'' from 1961 to his death. He entered ''The Times'' family via his marriage to Marian Sulzberger Heiskell, Marian Sulzberger, daughter of then-publish ...
, the paper extended its breadth and reach, beginning in the 1940s. The
crossword A crossword is a word puzzle A puzzle is a game with separate sliding drawer, from 1390–1353 BC, made of glazed faience, dimensions: 5.5 × 7.7 × 21 cm, in the Brooklyn Museum (New York City) '', 1560, Pieter Bruege ...
began appearing regularly in 1942, and the fashion section first appeared in 1946. ''The New York Times'' began an international edition in 1946. (The international edition stopped publishing in 1967, when ''The New York Times'' joined the owners of the ''
New York Herald Tribune The ''New York Herald Tribune'' was a newspaper published between 1924 and 1966. It was created in 1924 when Ogden Mills Reid Ogden Mills Reid (May 16, 1882 – January 3, 1947) was an American newspaper publisher who was president of the '' ...
'' and ''
The Washington Post ''The Washington Post'' (also known as the ''Post'' and, informally, ''WaPo'') is an American daily newspaper A newspaper is a Periodical literature, periodical publication containing written News, information about current events and is ...

The Washington Post
'' to publish the ''
International Herald TribuneThe ''International Herald Tribune'' (IHT) was a daily English-language newspaper published in Paris, France for international English-speaking readers. It was the first “global” newspaper. It published under the name ''International Herald Tribu ...

International Herald Tribune
'' in Paris.) After only two years as publisher, Dryfoos died in 1963 and was succeeded by his brother-in-law, Arthur Ochs "Punch" Sulzberger, who led the ''Times'' until 1992 and continued the expansion of the paper.


''New York Times v. Sullivan'' (1964)

The paper's involvement in a 1964
libel Defamation (also known as calumny, vilification, libel, slander, or traducement) is the oral or written communication of a false statement about another that unjustly harms their reputation and usually constitutes a tort A tort, in commo ...

libel
case helped bring one of the key
United States Supreme Court The Supreme Court of the United States (SCOTUS) is the highest court in the Federal judiciary of the United States, federal judiciary of the United States of America. It has ultimate and largely Procedures of the Supreme Court of the United ...

United States Supreme Court
decisions supporting
freedom of the press Freedom, generally, is having the ability to act or change without constraint. Something is "free" if it can change easily and is not constrained in its present state. In philosophy and religion, it is associated with having free will and being w ...
, ''New York Times Co. v. Sullivan''. In it, the United States Supreme Court established the "
actual malice Actual malice in United States law is a legal requirement imposed upon public officials or public figures when they file suit for libel (defamatory printed communications). Unlike other individuals who are less well-known to the general public, publ ...
" standard for press reports about public officials or
public figure A public figure is a person, such as a politician A politician is a person active in party politics A political party is an organization that coordinates candidate A candidate, or nominee, is the prospective recipient of an award or hono ...
s to be considered
defamatory Defamation (also known as calumny, vilification, libel, slander or traducement) is the oral or written communication of a false statement about another that unjustly harms their reputation and usually constitutes a tort or crime In ord ...
or
libel Defamation (also known as calumny, vilification, libel, slander, or traducement) is the oral or written communication of a false statement about another that unjustly harms their reputation and usually constitutes a tort A tort, in commo ...

libel
ous. The malice standard requires the plaintiff in a defamation or libel case to prove the publisher of the statement knew the statement was false or acted in reckless disregard of its truth or falsity. Because of the high burden of proof on the plaintiff, and difficulty proving malicious intent, such cases by public figures rarely succeed.


The ''Pentagon Papers'' (1971)

In 1971, the ''Pentagon Papers'', a secret
United States Department of Defense The United States Department of Defense (DoD, USDOD or DOD) is an executive branch department of the federal government A federation (also known as a federal state) is a political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity ...
history of the United States' political and military involvement in the
Vietnam War {{Infobox military conflict , conflict = Vietnam War , partof = the Indochina Wars The Indochina Wars ( vi, Chiến tranh Đông Dương) were a series of wars fought in Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled ...
from 1945 to 1967, were given ("leaked") to
Neil Sheehan Cornelius Mahoney Sheehan (October 27, 1936 – January 7, 2021) was an American journalist. As a reporter for ''The New York Times ''The New York Times'' (''NYT'' or ''NY Times'') is an American daily newspaper based in New York City wit ...
of ''The New York Times'' by former
State Department The United States Department of State (DOS), or State Department, is an executive department The United States federal executive departments are the principal units of the Federal government of the United States, executive branch of the fede ...
official
Daniel Ellsberg Daniel Ellsberg (born April 7, 1931) is an American economist, political activist, and former United States military The United States Armed Forces are the military forces of the United States of America The United States of America ...

Daniel Ellsberg
, with his friend Anthony Russo assisting in copying them. ''The New York Times'' began publishing excerpts as a series of articles on June 13. Controversy and lawsuits followed. The papers revealed, among other things, that the government had deliberately expanded its role in the war by conducting airstrikes over
Laos , national_anthem = "Pheng Xat Lao") , image_map = , map_caption = , capital = Vientiane , coordinates = , largest_city = capital , official_languages = Lao language, Lao , recognised_languages = , languages_type = Spoken langua ...

Laos
, raids along the coast of
North Vietnam North Vietnam, officially the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (DRV) ( vi, Việt Nam Dân Chủ Cộng Hòa) was a state in Southeast Asia from 1945 to 1954 and a country from 1954 to 1976. During the August Revolution following World War I ...

North Vietnam
, and offensive actions were taken by the U.S. Marines well before the public was told about the actions, all while President
Lyndon B. Johnson Lyndon Baines Johnson (; August 27, 1908January 22, 1973), often referred to by his initials LBJ, was the 36th president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of the ...

Lyndon B. Johnson
had been promising not to expand the war. The document increased the credibility gap for the
U.S. government The federal government of the United States (U.S. federal government or U.S. government) is the national government of the United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or U ...
, and hurt efforts by the
Nixon administration The presidency of Richard Nixon began at noon EST on January 20, 1969, when Richard Nixon Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913April 22, 1994) was the 37th president of the United States, serving from 1969 to 1974. A member of the ...
to fight the ongoing war. When ''The New York Times'' began publishing its series, President
Richard Nixon Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913April 22, 1994) was the 37th president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the and of the . The president directs the of the and is the of the . The power o ...

Richard Nixon
became incensed. His words to
National Security National security or national defence is the security and Defence (military), defence of a sovereign state, nation state, including its Citizenship, citizens, economy, and institutions, which is regarded as a duty of government. Originally c ...
Advisor
Henry Kissinger Henry Alfred Kissinger (; ; born Heinz Alfred Kissinger; May 27, 1923) is a German-born American politician, diplomat, and Geopolitics, geopolitical consultant who served as United States Secretary of State and National Security Advisor (Unite ...

Henry Kissinger
included "People have gotta be put to the torch for this sort of thing" and "Let's get the son-of-a-bitch in jail." After failing to get ''The New York Times'' to stop publishing,
Attorney General In most common law In law, common law (also known as judicial precedent or judge-made law, or case law) is the body of law created by judges and similar quasi-judicial tribunals by virtue of being stated in written opinions. ''Black's Law Dictionar ...
and President Nixon obtained a federal court injunction that ''The New York Times'' cease publication of excerpts. The newspaper appealed and the case began working through the court system. On June 18, 1971, ''The Washington Post'' began publishing its own series.
Ben Bagdikian Ben-hur Haig Bagdikian (January 30, 1920 – March 11, 2016) was an Armenian-American journalist, news media critic and commentator, and university professor. An Armenian Genocide survivor, Bagdikian moved to the United States as an infant and b ...
, a ''Post'' editor, had obtained portions of the papers from Ellsberg. That day the ''Post'' received a call from
William Rehnquist William Hubbs Rehnquist ( ; October 1, 1924 – September 3, 2005) was an American lawyer and jurist who served on the Supreme Court of the United States The Supreme Court of the United States (SCOTUS) is the Supreme court, highest court ...

William Rehnquist
, an assistant U.S. Attorney General for the
Office of Legal Counsel The Office of Legal Counsel (OLC) is an office in the United States Department of Justice The United States Department of Justice (DOJ), also known as the Justice Department, is a United States federal executive departments, federal executive dep ...
, asking them to stop publishing. When the ''Post'' refused, the U.S. Justice Department sought another injunction. The
U.S. District court The United States district courts are the general trial court A trial court or court of first instance is a court A court is any person or institution, often as a government institution, with the authority to Adjudication, adjudicate leg ...
judge refused, and the government appealed. On June 26, 1971, the U.S. Supreme Court agreed to take both cases, merging them into '' New York Times Co. v. United States''. On June 30, 1971, the Supreme Court held in a 6–3 decision that the injunctions were unconstitutional prior restraints and that the government had not met the burden of proof required. The justices wrote nine separate opinions, disagreeing on significant substantive issues. While it was generally seen as a victory for those who claim the
First Amendment First or 1st is the ordinal form of the number one (#1). First or 1st may also refer to: *World record A world record is usually the best global and most important performance that is ever recorded and officially verified in a specific skill, ...
enshrines an absolute
right to free speech in London, 1974 Freedom of speech is a principle that supports the freedom Freedom, generally, is having the ability to act or change without constraint. Something is "free" if it can change easily and is not constrained in its present stat ...

right to free speech
, many felt it a lukewarm victory, offering little protection for future publishers when claims of
national security National security or national defence is the security and Defence (military), defence of a sovereign state, nation state, including its Citizenship, citizens, economy, and institutions, which is regarded as a duty of government. Originally c ...
were at stake.


Late 1970s–1990s

In the 1970s, the paper introduced a number of new lifestyle sections, including Weekend and Home, with the aim of attracting more advertisers and readers. Many criticized the move for betraying the paper's mission. On September 7, 1976, the paper switched from an eight-column format to a six-column format. The overall page width stayed the same, with each column becoming wider. On September 14, 1987, the ''Times'' printed the heaviest-ever newspaper, at over and 1,612 pages. In 1992, "Punch" Sulzberger stepped down as publisher; his son,
Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr. Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr. (born September 22, 1951) is an American journalist. Sulzberger was the chairman of the The New York Times Company The New York Times Company is an American mass media company that publishes the ''The New York Tim ...
, succeeded him, first as publisher and then as chairman of the board in 1997. The ''Times'' was one of the last newspapers to adopt
color photography in 1855, taken in 1861 by Thomas Sutton (photographer), Thomas Sutton. The subject is a colored ribbon, usually described as a tartan ribbon. photograph of William Willoughby Cole Verner, Col. Willoughby Verner by Sarah Acland (photographer) ...
, with the first color photograph on the front page appearing on October 16, 1997.


Digital era


Early digital content

''The New York Times'' switched to a digital production process sometime before 1980, but only began preserving the resulting digital text that year. In 1983, the ''Times'' sold the electronic rights to its articles to
LexisNexis LexisNexis is a corporation that sells data mining Data mining is a process of extracting and discovering patterns in large data sets involving methods at the intersection of machine learning, statistics, and database systems. Data mining is an ...

LexisNexis
. As the online distribution of news increased in the 1990s, the ''Times'' decided not to renew the deal and in 1994 the newspaper regained electronic rights to its articles. On January 22, 1996, NYTimes.com began publishing.


2000s

In August 2007, the paper reduced the physical size of its print edition, cutting the page width from to a . This followed similar moves by a roster of other newspapers in the previous ten years, including ''
USA Today ''USA Today'' (stylized in all uppercase) is an American daily middle-market newspaper A middle-market newspaper is a newspaper that caters to readers who like entertainment as well as the coverage of important news events. Middle-market sta ...
'', ''
The Wall Street Journal ''The Wall Street Journal'', also known as ''The Journal'', is an American business-focused, English-language international daily newspaper A newspaper is a periodical Periodical literature (also called a periodical publication or sim ...

The Wall Street Journal
'', and ''
The Washington Post ''The Washington Post'' (also known as the ''Post'' and, informally, ''WaPo'') is an American daily newspaper A newspaper is a Periodical literature, periodical publication containing written News, information about current events and is ...

The Washington Post
''. The move resulted in a 5% reduction in news space, but (in an era of dwindling circulation and significant advertising revenue losses) also saved about $12 million a year. In September 2008, ''The New York Times'' announced that it would be combining certain sections effective October 6, 2008, in editions printed in the
New York metropolitan area The New York metropolitan area, also commonly referred to as the Tri-State area, is the largest metropolitan area A metropolitan area or metro is a region consisting of a densely populated urban core Urban means "related to a city". In ...
. The changes folded the Metro Section into the main International / National news section and combined Sports and Business (except Saturday through Monday, while Sports continues to be printed as a standalone section). This change also included having the Metro section called New York outside of the Tri-State Area. The presses used by ''The New York Times'' can allow four sections to be printed simultaneously; as the paper includes more than four sections on all days except for Saturday, the sections were required to be printed separately in an early press run and collated together. The changes allowed ''The New York Times'' to print in four sections Monday through Wednesday, in addition to Saturday. ''The New York Times'' announcement stated that the number of news pages and employee positions would remain unchanged, with the paper realizing cost savings by cutting overtime expenses. Because of its declining sales largely attributed to the rise of online news sources, favored especially by younger readers, and the decline of advertising revenue, the newspaper had been going through a downsizing for several years, offering buyouts to workers and cutting expenses, in common with a general trend among print news media. Following industry trends, its weekday circulation had fallen in 2009 to fewer than one million. In 2009, the newspaper began production of local inserts in regions outside of the New York area. Beginning October 16, 2009, a two-page "Bay Area" insert was added to copies of the
Northern California Northern California (colloquially known as NorCal) is a geographic and cultural region that generally comprises the northern portion of the U.S. state of California. Spanning the state's northernmost 48 counties, its main population centers incl ...

Northern California
edition on Fridays and Sundays. The newspaper commenced production of a similar Friday and Sunday insert to the Chicago edition on November 20, 2009. The inserts consist of local news, policy, sports, and culture pieces, usually supported by local advertisements.


2010s

In December 2012, the ''Times'' published "", a six-part article about the 2012 Tunnel Creek avalanche which integrated videos, photos, and interactive graphics and was hailed as a watershed moment for online journalism. In 2016, reporters for the newspaper were reportedly the target of
cybersecurity Computer security, cybersecurity, or information technology security (IT security) is the protection of computer system A computer is a machine that can be programmed to carry out Sequence, sequences of arithmetic or logical operations a ...

cybersecurity
breaches. The
Federal Bureau of Investigation The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) is the domestic intelligence Intelligence has been defined in many ways: the capacity for abstraction Abstraction in its main sense is a conceptual process where general rules and concept Conce ...

Federal Bureau of Investigation
was reportedly investigating the attacks. The cybersecurity breaches have been described as possibly being related to
cyberattack In computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. Modern computers can perform generic sets of operations known as Computer program, programs. These progra ...
s that targeted other institutions, such as the
Democratic National Committee The Democratic National Committee (DNC) is the governing body of the United States Democratic Party. The committee coordinates strategy to support Democratic Party candidates throughout the country for local, state, and national office, as well a ...
. During the 2016 presidential election, the ''Times'' played an important role in elevating the Hillary Clinton emails controversy into the most important subject of media coverage in the election which Clinton would lose narrowly to Donald Trump. The controversy received more media coverage than any other topic during the presidential campaign. Clinton and other observers argue that coverage of the emails controversy contributed to her loss in the election. According to a Columbia Journalism Review analysis, "''in just six days,'' The New York Times ''ran as many cover stories about Hillary Clinton's emails as they did about all policy issues combined in the 69 days leading up to the election'' (and that does not include the three additional articles on October 18, and November 6 and 7, or the two articles on the emails taken from John Podesta)." In October 2018, the ''Times'' published a 14,218-word investigation into
Donald Trump Donald John Trump (born June 14, 1946) is an American politician A politician is a person active in party politics A political party is an organization that coordinates candidate A candidate, or nominee, is the prospective reci ...

Donald Trump
's "self-made" fortune and
tax avoidance Tax avoidance is the legal usage of the tax A tax is a compulsory financial charge or some other type of levy imposed on a taxpayer (an individual or legal entity In law, a legal person is any person A person (plural people or persons ...
, an 18-month project based on examination of 100,000 pages of documents. The extensive article ran as an eight-page feature in the print edition and also was adapted into a shortened 2,500 word
listicle In journalism and blogging, a listicle is a short-form of writing that uses a list as its thematic structure, but is fleshed out with sufficient copy to be published as an article. A typical listicle will prominently feature a cardinal number in ...
featuring its key takeaways. After the midweek front-page story, the ''Times'' also republished the piece as a 12-page "special report" section in the Sunday paper. During the lengthy investigation,
Showtime Showtime or Show Time may refer to: Film * Showtime (film), ''Showtime'' (film), a 2002 American action/comedy film * Showtime (video), ''Showtime'' (video), a 1995 live concert video by Blur Television Networks and channels * Showtime Networks, ...
cameras followed the ''Times'' three investigative reporters for a half-hour documentary called ''The Family Business: Trump and Taxes'', which aired the following Sunday. The report won a
Pulitzer Prize for Explanatory Reporting The Pulitzer Prize for Explanatory Reporting has been presented since 1998, for a distinguished example of explanatory reporting that illuminates a significant and complex subject, demonstrating mastery of the subject, lucid writing and clear pr ...
. In May 2019, ''The New York Times'' announced that it would present a television news program based on news from its individual reporters stationed around the world and that it would premiere on FX and
Hulu Hulu () (stylized in all lowercase) is an American subscription video on demand service fully controlled and majority-owned by The Walt Disney Company, with Comcast's NBCUniversal as an Equity (finance), equity stakeholder. The service was init ...

Hulu
.


Headquarters building

The newspaper's first building was located at 113 Nassau Street in New York City. In 1854, it moved to 138 Nassau Street, and in 1858 to
41 Park Row The New York Times Building, also known as 41 Park Row and 147 Nassau Street, is an office building in the Financial District of Manhattan Manhattan (), known regionally as the City and the urban core of the New York metropolitan area, i ...
, making it the first newspaper in New York City housed in a building built specifically for its use. The newspaper moved its headquarters to the Times Tower, located at 1475
Broadway Broadway may refer to: Theatre * Broadway Theatre (disambiguation) * Broadway theatre, theatrical productions in professional theatres near Broadway, Manhattan, New York City, U.S. ** Broadway (Manhattan), the street **Broadway Theatre (53rd Str ...
in 1904, in an area then called Longacre Square, that was later renamed
Times Square Times Square is a major commercial intersection, tourist destination, entertainment center, and in the section of , at the junction of and . Brightly lit by numerous billboards and advertisements, it stretches from West to West Streets, an ...

Times Square
in the newspaper's honor. The top of the building now known as
One Times Square One Times Square, also known as 1475 Broadway, the New York Times Building, the New York Times Tower, or simply as the Times Tower, is a 25-story, skyscraper, designed by Cyrus L. W. Eidlitz, located at 42nd Street and Broadway in New York ...

One Times Square
is the site of the
New Year's Eve In the Gregorian calendar The Gregorian calendar is the used in most of the world. It was introduced in October 1582 by as a modification of the , reducing the average year from 365.25 days to 365.2425 days, and adjusting for the drif ...
tradition of lowering a , which was begun by the paper. The building is also known for its electronic
news ticker A news ticker (sometimes called a "crawler", "crawl" or "slide") is a primarily horizontal, text-based display either in the form of a graphic that typically resides in the lower third of the screen space on a television station or network (usual ...
popularly known as "The Zipper" where headlines crawl around the outside of the building. It is still in use, but has been operated by
Dow Jones & Company Dow Jones & Company, Inc. is an American publishing firm owned by News Corp and led by CEO Almar Latour. The company publishes ''The Wall Street Journal'', ''Barron's (newspaper), Barron's'', ''MarketWatch'', ''Mansion Global'', ''Financial New ...
since 1995. After nine years in its Times Square tower, the newspaper had an annex built at 229 West 43rd Street. After several expansions, the 43rd Street building became the newspaper's main headquarters in 1960 and the Times Tower on Broadway was sold the following year. It served as the newspaper's main printing plant until 1997, when the newspaper opened a state-of-the-art printing plant in the College Point section of the borough of
Queens Queens is a borough of New York City, coextensive with Queens County, in the U.S. state of New York. It is the largest borough of New York City New York City (NYC), often simply called New York, is the List of United States cities by po ...

Queens
. A decade later, ''The New York Times'' moved its newsroom and businesses headquarters from West 43rd Street to a new tower at 620 Eighth Avenue between West 40th and 41st Streets, in
Manhattan Manhattan (), known regionally as ''The City'', is the most densely populated and geographically smallest of the five boroughs 5 is a number, numeral, and glyph. 5, five or number 5 may also refer to: * AD 5, the fifth year of the AD era ...

Manhattan
directly across Eighth Avenue from the
Port Authority Bus Terminal The Port Authority Bus Terminal (colloquially known as Port Authority and by its acronym PABT) is a serving interstate buses traveling into , . The terminal is the largest in the and the busiest in the world by volume of traffic, serving about ...
. The new headquarters for the newspaper, known officially as
The New York Times Building The New York Times Building is a skyscraper at 620 Eighth Avenue, on the west side of Midtown Manhattan, New York City. Its chief tenant is The New York Times Company, publisher of ''The New York Times'' as well as the ''International New York T ...

The New York Times Building
but unofficially called the new "Times Tower" by many New Yorkers, is a
skyscraper A skyscraper is a tall continuously habitable building having multiple floors. Modern sources currently define skyscrapers as being at least 100 metres or 150 metres in height, though there is no universally accepted definition. Skyscrapers ar ...

skyscraper
designed by
Renzo Piano Renzo Piano (; born 14 September 1937) is an Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, an ethnic group or simply a citizen of the Italian Republic ** Italian language, a Roma ...

Renzo Piano
.


Gender discrimination in employment

Discriminatory practices used by the paper long restricted women in appointments to editorial positions. The newspaper's first general female reporter was
Jane Grant Jane Grant (May 29, 1892 – March 16, 1972) was a New York City journalist who co-founded ''The New Yorker'' with her first husband, Harold Ross. Life and career Jane Grant was born Jeanette Cole Grant in Joplin, Missouri, and grew up and wen ...

Jane Grant
, who described her experience afterward: "In the beginning I was charged not to reveal the fact that a female had been hired". Other reporters nicknamed her Fluff and she was subjected to considerable
hazing Hazing (American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English language native to the United States. Currently, American English is t ...
. Because of her
gender Gender is the range of characteristics pertaining to, and differentiating between femininity Femininity (also called womanliness or girlishness) is a set of attributes, behaviors, and roles generally associated with women A woman is a ...
, any promotion was out of the question, according to the then-managing editor. She remained on the staff for fifteen years, interrupted by World War I. In 1935, Anne McCormick wrote to
Arthur Hays Sulzberger Arthur Hays Sulzberger (September 12, 1891December 11, 1968) was the publisher of ''The New York Times'' from 1935 to 1961. During that time, daily circulation rose from 465,000 to 713,000 and Sunday circulation from 745,000 to 1.4 million; the sta ...
: "I hope you won't expect me to revert to 'woman's-point-of-view' stuff." Later, she interviewed major political leaders and appears to have had easier access than her colleagues. Even witnesses of her actions were unable to explain how she gained the interviews she did.
Clifton Daniel Elbert Clifton Daniel, Jr. (September 19, 1912 – February 21, 2000) was the managing editor of ''The New York Times ''The New York Times'' (''NYT'' or ''NY Times'') is an American daily newspaper based in New York City with a worldwi ...
said, " fter World War II,I'm sure
Adenauer Konrad Hermann Joseph Adenauer (; 5 January 1876 – 19 April 1967) was a German statesman who served as the first Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px , capital = Berli ...

Adenauer
called her up and invited her to lunch. She never had to grovel for an appointment." Covering world leaders' speeches after
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
at the
National Press Club A press club is an organization for journalist A journalist is an individual trained to collect/gather information in form of text, audio or pictures, processes them to a news-worth form and disseminates it to the public. The act or process mainl ...
was limited to men by a club rule. When women were eventually allowed to hear the speeches directly, they were still not allowed to ask the speakers questions. However, men were allowed and did ask, even though some of the women had won Pulitzer Prizes for prior work. ''Times'' reporter Maggie Hunter refused to return to the club after covering one speech on assignment. Nan Robertson's article on the
Union Stock Yards The Union Stock Yard & Transit Co., or The Yards, was the meatpacking district in Chicago for more than a century, starting in 1865. The district was operated by a group of railroad companies that acquired marshland and turned it into a central ...
,
Chicago (''City in a Garden''); I Will , image_map = , map_caption = Interactive map of Chicago , coordinates = , coordinates_footnotes = , subdivision_type = Country , subdivision_name ...

Chicago
, was read aloud as anonymous by a professor, who then said: "'It will come as a surprise to you, perhaps, that the reporter is a ''girl,'' he began... sps; amazement in the ranks. 'She had used all her senses, not just her eyes, to convey the smell and feel of the stockyards. She chose a difficult subject, an offensive subject. Her imagery was strong enough to revolt you.'" ''The New York Times'' hired Kathleen McLaughlin after ten years at the ''
Chicago Tribune The ''Chicago Tribune'' is a daily newspaper based in Chicago (''City in a Garden''); I Will , image_map = , map_caption = Interactive maps of Chicago , coordinates = , coordinates_footnote ...

Chicago Tribune
'', where " e did a series on maids, going out herself to apply for housekeeping jobs."


Slogan

''The New York Times'' has had one slogan. Since 1896, the newspaper's slogan has been "All the News That's Fit to Print." In 1896,
Adolph Ochs Adolph Simon Ochs (March 12, 1858 – April 8, 1935) was an American newspaper publisher and former owner of ''The New York Times ''The New York Times'' (''NYT'' or ''NY Times'') is an American daily newspaper based in New York City with a ...
held a competition to attempt to find a replacement slogan, offering a $100 prize for the best one. Though he later announced that the original would not be changed, the prize would still be awarded. Entries included "News, Not Nausea"; "In One Word: Adequate"; "News Without Noise"; "Out Heralds '''', Informs '' The World'', and Extinguishes '' The Sun''"; "The Public Press is a Public Trust"; and the winner of the competition, "All the world's news, but not a school for scandal." On May 10, 1960,
Wright Patman John William Wright Patman (August 6, 1893 – March 7, 1976) was an American politician. First elected in 1928, Patman served 24 consecutive terms in the United States House of Representatives for Texas's 1st congressional district from 1929 to 19 ...
asked the to investigate whether ''The New York Times's'' slogan was misleading or
false advertising False advertising is described as the crime or misconduct of publishing, transmitting, or otherwise publicly circulating an advertisement containing a false, misleading, or deceptive statement, made intentionally or recklessly to promote the sale ...
. Within 10 days, the FTC responded that it was not. Again in 1996, a competition was held to find a new slogan, this time for NYTimes.com. Over 8,000 entries were submitted. Again however, "All the News That's Fit to Print," was found to be the best.


Organization

Meredith Kopit Levien Meredith Kopit Levien (born 1971) is an American media executive who serves as chief executive officer of The New York Times Company. Early life and education Levien was born Meredith Kopit and raised in metropolitan Richmond, Virginia, the daugh ...
has been president and chief executive officer since September 2020.


News staff

In addition to its New York City headquarters, the paper has newsrooms in
London London is the Capital city, capital and List of urban areas in the United Kingdom, largest city of England and the United Kingdom. It stands on the River Thames in south-east England at the head of a estuary down to the North Sea, and has b ...

London
and
Hong Kong Hong Kong (; , ), officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China (HKSAR), is a List of cities in China, city and Special administrative regions of China, special administrative region of China on the ...

Hong Kong
. Its Paris newsroom, which had been the headquarters of the paper's international edition, was closed in 2016, although the city remains home to a news bureau and an advertising office. The paper also has an editing and wire service center in Gainesville,
Florida Florida is a U.S. state, state located in the Southeastern United States, Southeastern region of the United States. Florida is bordered to the west by the Gulf of Mexico, to the northwest by Alabama, to the north by Georgia (U.S. state), Geor ...

Florida
. , the newspaper had six news bureaus in the New York region, 14 elsewhere in the United States, and 24 in other countries. In 2009, Russ Stanton, editor of the ''
Los Angeles Times The ''Los Angeles Times'' (abbreviated as ''LA Times'') is a Newspaper#Daily, daily newspaper based in El Segundo, California, which has been published in Los Angeles, California, since 1881. It has the List of newspapers in the United States, ...

Los Angeles Times
'', a competitor, stated that the
newsroom A newsroom is the central place where journalist A journalist is an individual trained to collect/gather information in form of text, audio or pictures, processes them to a news-worth form and disseminates it to the public. The act or process ...

newsroom
of ''The New York Times'' was twice the size of the ''Los Angeles Times'', which had a newsroom of 600 at the time. To facilitate their reporting and to hasten an otherwise lengthy process of reviewing many documents during preparation for publication, their interactive news team has adapted
optical character recognition Optical character recognition or optical character reader (OCR) is the electronic Electronic may refer to: *Electronics Electronics comprises the physics, engineering, technology and applications that deal with the emission, flow and control ...
technology into a proprietary tool known as ''Document Helper''. It enables the team to accelerate the processing of documents that need to be reviewed. During March 2019, they documented that this tool enabled them to process 900 documents in less than ten minutes in preparation for reporters to review the contents. The newspaper's editorial staff, including over 3,000 reporters and media staff, are unionized with
NewsGuild The NewsGuild-CWA is a trade union, labor union founded by newspaper journalists in 1933. In addition to improving wages and working conditions, its constitution says its purpose is to fight for honesty in journalism and the news industry's busines ...
. In 2021, the ''Times'' digital technology staff formed a union with NewsGuild, which the company declined to
voluntarily recognize The National Labor Relations Board The National Labor Relations Board (NLRB) is an independent agency of the federal government of the United States with responsibilities for enforcing U.S. labor law in relation to collective bargaining and u ...
.


Ochs-Sulzberger family

In 1896, Adolph Ochs bought ''The New York Times'', a money-losing newspaper, and formed the New York Times Company. The Ochs-Sulzberger family, one of the United States' newspaper dynasties, has owned ''The New York Times'' ever since. The publisher
went public An initial public offering (IPO) or stock market launch is a public offering A public offering is the offering of securities of a company or a similar corporation to the public. Generally, the securities are to be listed on a stock exchange. In m ...
on January 14, 1969, trading at $42 a share on the
American Stock Exchange NYSE American, formerly known as the American Stock Exchange (AMEX), and more recently as NYSE MKT, is an American stock exchange A stock exchange, securities exchange, or bourse is an Exchange (organized market), exchange where stockbrokers ...
. After this, the family continued to exert control through its ownership of the vast majority of Class B
voting shares Common stock is a form of corporate equity (finance), equity ownership, a type of security (finance), security. The terms voting share and ordinary share are also used frequently outside of the United States. They are known as equity shares or or ...
. Class A shareholders are permitted restrictive voting rights, while Class B shareholders are allowed open voting rights. The Ochs-Sulzberger family trust controls roughly 88 percent of the company's class B shares. Any alteration to the dual-class structure must be ratified by six of eight directors who sit on the board of the Ochs-Sulzberger family trust. The trust board members are Daniel H. Cohen, James M. Cohen, Lynn G. Dolnick, Susan W. Dryfoos, Michael Golden, Eric M. A. Lax, Arthur O. Sulzberger Jr., and Cathy J. Sulzberger. Turner Catledge, the top editor at ''The New York Times'' from 1952 to 1968, wanted to hide the ownership influence. Arthur Sulzberger routinely wrote memos to his editor, each containing suggestions, instructions, complaints, and orders. When Catledge would receive these memos, he would erase the publisher's identity before passing them to his subordinates. Catledge thought that if he removed the publisher's name from the memos, it would protect reporters from feeling pressured by the owner.


Public editors

The position of public editor was established in 2003 to "investigate matters of journalistic integrity"; each public editor was to serve a two-year term. The post "was established to receive reader complaints and question ''Times'' journalists on how they make decisions."Daniel Victor
New York Times Will Offer Employee Buyouts and Eliminate Public Editor Role
''The New York Times'' (May 31, 2017).
The impetus for the creation of the public editor position was the
Jayson Blair Jayson Thomas Blair (born March 23, 1976) is a former American journalist who worked for ''The New York Times ''The New York Times'' (''NYT'' or ''NY Times'') is an American daily newspaper based in New York City with a worldwide readersh ...
affair. Public editors were:
Daniel Okrent Daniel Okrent (born April 2, 1948) is an American writer and editor "Quarters of the news editor", one of a group of four photos in the 1900 The Seattle Daily Times—Editorial Department".">The Seattle Times">The Seattle Daily Times—Edito ...
(2003–2005), Byron Calame (2005–2007), Clark Hoyt (2007–2010) (served an extra year), Arthur S. Brisbane (2010–2012), Margaret Sullivan (2012–2016) (served a four-year term), and Elizabeth Spayd (2016–2017). In 2017, the ''Times'' eliminated the position of public editor.


Content


Editorial stance

The of ''The New York Times'' are typically
liberal Liberal or liberalism may refer to: Politics *a supporter of liberalism, a political and moral philosophy **Liberalism by country *an adherent of a Liberal Party Arts, entertainment and media *''El Liberal'', a Spanish newspaper published betw ...
in their position. In mid-2004, the newspaper's then public editor (
ombudsman An ombudsman (, also , ), ombudsperson, ombud, ombuds, or public advocate is an official who is usually appointed by the government or by parliament but with a significant degree of independence. In some countries, an inspector general, citize ...
),
Daniel Okrent Daniel Okrent (born April 2, 1948) is an American writer and editor "Quarters of the news editor", one of a group of four photos in the 1900 The Seattle Daily Times—Editorial Department".">The Seattle Times">The Seattle Daily Times—Edito ...
, wrote that "the Op-Ed page editors do an evenhanded job of representing a range of views in the essays from outsiders they publish – but you need an awfully heavy counterweight to balance a page that also bears the work of seven opinionated columnists, only two of whom could be classified as conservative (and, even then, of the conservative subspecies that supports legalization of gay unions and, in the case of
William Safire William Lewis Safire (; Safir; December 17, 1929 – September 27, 2009Safire, William (1986). ''Take My Word for It: More on Language.'' Times Books. . p. 185.) was an American author, columnist, journalist, and presidential speechwriter A spee ...
, opposes some central provisions of the
Patriot Act The USA PATRIOT Act (commonly known as the Patriot Act) was a landmark Act of Congress, Act of the United States Congress, signed into law by President of the United States, President George W. Bush. The formal name of the statute is the Unitin ...
)." ''The New York Times'' has not endorsed a Republican Party member for president since
Dwight D. Eisenhower Dwight David "Ike" Eisenhower (; October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969) was an American military officer An officer is a member of an armed forces or uniformed service who holds a position of authority. In its broadest sense, the term " ...
in 1956; since 1960, it has endorsed the Democratic Party nominee in every presidential election (see New York Times presidential endorsements). However, ''The New York Times'' did endorse incumbent
moderate Republican The Rockefeller Republicans, also called Moderate or Liberal Republicans, were members of the Republican Party (GOP) in the 1930s–1970s who held moderate to liberal views on domestic issues, similar to those of Nelson Rockefeller Nelson ...
mayors of New York City
Rudy Giuliani Rudolph William Louis Giuliani (, ; born May 28, 1944) is an American attorney and politician who served as the 107th Mayor of New York City The mayor of New York City, officially Mayor of the City of New York, is head of the executive bran ...

Rudy Giuliani
in 1997, and
Michael Bloomberg Michael Rubens Bloomberg (born February 14, 1942) is an American businessman, politician, philanthropist, and author. He is the majority owner and co-founder of Bloomberg L.P. He was the mayor of New York City from 2002 to 2013, and was a ca ...
in 2005 and 2009. The ''Times'' also endorsed Republican
New York state New York is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper in Colu ...
governor
George Pataki George Elmer Pataki (; born June 24, 1945) is an American attorney and politician who served as the 53rd governor of New York (1995–2006). An attorney by profession, Pataki was elected mayor of his hometown of Peekskill, New York, and went ...

George Pataki
for re-election in 2002.


Style

Unlike most U.S. daily newspapers, the ''Times'' relies on its own in-house stylebook rather than
The Associated Press Stylebook The ''AP Stylebook'', also known by its full name ''The Associated Press Stylebook and Briefing on Media Law'', is an American-English grammar style and usage guide created by American journalists working for or connected with the Associated Pre ...
. When referring to people, ''The New York Times'' generally uses
honorific An honorific is a title that conveys esteem, courtesy, or respect for position or rank when used in addressing or referring to a person. Sometimes, the term "honorific" is used in a more specific sense to refer to an honorary academic title. It ...
s rather than unadorned last names (except in the sports pages, pop culture coverage, Book Review and Magazine). ''The New York Times'' printed a display advertisement on its first page on January 6, 2009, breaking tradition at the paper. The advertisement, for
CBS CBS is an American American(s) may refer to: * American, something of, from, or related to the United States of America, commonly known as the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S ...

CBS
, was in color and ran the entire width of the page. The newspaper promised it would place first-page advertisements on only the lower half of the page. In August 2014, the ''Times'' decided to use the word "
torture Torture is the deliberate infliction of severe pain or suffering Suffering, or pain in a broad sense, may be an experience of unpleasantness and aversion associated with the perception of harm or threat of harm in an individual. Suffering i ...

torture
" to describe incidents in which interrogators "inflicted pain on a prisoner in an effort to get information." This was a shift from the paper's previous practice of describing such practices as "harsh" or "brutal" interrogations. The paper maintains a strict profanity policy. A 2007 review of a concert by the punk band
Fucked Up Fucked Up is a Canadian hardcore punk band from Toronto Toronto is the capital city of the Provinces and territories of Canada, Canadian province of Ontario. With a recorded population of 2,731,571 in 2016, it is the List of the 100 lar ...
, for example, completely avoided mention of the group's name. However, the ''Times'' has on occasion published unfiltered video content that includes
profanity Profanity is a socially offensive use of language, which may also be called cursing, swearing, or expletives. Accordingly, profanity is language use that is sometimes deemed impolite, rude, or culturally Culture () is an umbrella term wh ...

profanity
and slurs where it has determined that such video has news value. During the 2016 U.S. presidential election campaign, the ''Times'' did print the words "fuck" and "
pussy ''Pussy'' is a used as a noun, an adjective, and—in rare instances—a verb in the English language. It has several meanings, as slang Slang is vocabulary A vocabulary, also known as a wordstock or word-stock, is a set of familiar wor ...

pussy
," among others, when reporting on the vulgar statements made by
Donald Trump Donald John Trump (born June 14, 1946) is an American politician A politician is a person active in party politics A political party is an organization that coordinates candidate A candidate, or nominee, is the prospective reci ...

Donald Trump
in a 2005 recording. Then-''Times'' politics editor Carolyn Ryan said: "It's a rare thing for us to use this language in our stories, even in quotes, and we discussed it at length." Ryan said the paper ultimately decided to publish it because of its news value and because " leave it out or simply describe it seemed awkward and less than forthright to us, especially given that we would be running a video that showed our readers exactly what was said."


Products


Print newspaper

In the absence of a major headline, the day's most important story generally appears in the top-right column, on the main page. The
typeface A typeface is the design of lettering Lettering is an umbrella term In linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the methods for studying ...

typeface
s used for the headlines are custom variations of
Cheltenham Cheltenham () is a large spa town and borough on the edge of the Cotswolds in the county of Gloucestershire, England. Cheltenham became known as a health and holiday spa town resort following the discovery of mineral springs in 1716, and claims ...
. The running text is set at 8.7
point Point or points may refer to: Places * Point, LewisImage:Point Western Isles NASA World Wind.png, Satellite image of Point Point ( gd, An Rubha), also known as the Eye Peninsula, is a peninsula some 11 km long in the Outer Hebrides (or Western I ...
Imperial Imperial is that which relates to an empire, emperor, or imperialism. Imperial or The Imperial may also refer to: Places United States * Imperial, California * Imperial, Missouri * Imperial, Nebraska * Imperial, Pennsylvania * Imperial, Texas * ...
. The newspaper is organized into three sections, including the magazine: # News: Includes International, National,
Washington Washington commonly refers to: * Washington (state), United States * Washington, D.C., the capital of the United States ** Federal government of the United States (metonym) ** Washington metropolitan area, the metropolitan area centered on Washingt ...
, Business, Technology, Science, Health, Sports, The
Metro Metro, short for metropolitan, may refer to: Geography * Metro (city), a city in Indonesia * A metropolitan area A metropolitan area or metro is a region consisting of a densely populated core city, urban core and its less-populated surro ...
Section, Education, Weather, and Obituaries. # Opinion: Includes
Editorial An editorial (US), leading article or leader (UK) is an article written by the senior editorial people or publisher of a newspaper A newspaper is a periodical Periodical literature (also called a periodical publication or simply a period ...

Editorial
s,
Op-ed An op-ed, short for "opposite the editorial page" or as a backronym A backronym, or bacronym, is an acronym formed from a word that existed prior to the invention of the backronym. Unlike a typical acronym, in which a new word is constructed fro ...
s and
Letters to the Editor Letter, letters, or literature may refer to: Characters typeface * Letter (alphabet), a written element of an alphabet * Letterform, a typographic term for alphabetical letter shapes * Rehearsal letter in an orchestral score Communication * Le ...
. # Features: Includes Arts, Movies, Theater, Travel, NYC Guide, Food, Home & Garden, Fashion & Style,
Crossword A crossword is a word puzzle A puzzle is a game with separate sliding drawer, from 1390–1353 BC, made of glazed faience, dimensions: 5.5 × 7.7 × 21 cm, in the Brooklyn Museum (New York City) '', 1560, Pieter Bruege ...
, ''The New York Times Book Review'','' T: The New York Times Style Magazine'', ''The New York Times Magazine'', and Sunday Review. Some sections, such as Metro, are only found in the editions of the paper distributed in the New York–New Jersey–Connecticut Tri-state area and not in the national or Washington, D.C., editions. Aside from a weekly roundup of reprints of
editorial cartoon A political cartoon, a type of editorial cartoon, is a cartoon A cartoon is a type of illustration, sometimes animated, typically in a non- realistic or semi-realistic style. The specific meaning has evolved over time, but the modern usage ...
s from other newspapers, ''The New York Times'' does not have its own staff
editorial cartoonist An editorial cartoonist, also known as a political cartoonist, is an artist who draws editorial cartoon A political cartoon, a type of editorial cartoon, is a cartoon A cartoon is a type of illustration, sometimes animated, typically i ...
, nor does it feature a
comics page The comics page of a daily newspaper A newspaper is a periodical Periodical literature (also called a periodical publication or simply a periodical) is a category of Serial (publishing), serial published, publications that appear in a new e ...
or Sunday
comics a medium Medium may refer to: Science and technology Aviation *Medium bomber, a class of war plane *Tecma Medium, a French hang glider design Communication * Media (communication), tools used to store and deliver information or d ...

comics
section. From 1851 to 2017, ''The New York Times'' published around 60,000 print issues containing about 3.5million pages and 15million articles. Like most other
American newspapers American(s) may refer to: * American, something of, from, or related to the United States of America, commonly known as the United States ** Americans, citizens and nationals of the United States of America ** American ancestry, people who self-id ...
, ''The New York Times'' has experienced a decline in
circulation Circulation may refer to: Science and technology * Atmospheric circulation, the large-scale movement of air * Circulation (physics), the path integral of the fluid velocity around a closed curve in a fluid flow field * Circulatory system, a biolo ...
. Its printed weekday circulation dropped by percent to 540,000 copies from 2005 to 2017.


''International Edition''

''
The New York Times International Edition 225px, The front page of an issue of the ''International Herald Tribune'' before it was renamed the ''International New York Times'' ''The New York Times International Edition'' is an English-language daily newspaper A newspaper is a Pe ...
'' is a print version of the paper tailored for readers outside the United States. Formerly a joint venture with ''
The Washington Post ''The Washington Post'' (also known as the ''Post'' and, informally, ''WaPo'') is an American daily newspaper A newspaper is a Periodical literature, periodical publication containing written News, information about current events and is ...

The Washington Post
'' named The International Herald Tribune, ''The New York Times'' took full ownership of the paper in 2002 and has gradually integrated it more closely into its domestic operations.


Website

''The New York Times'' began publishing daily on the
World Wide Web The World Wide Web (WWW), commonly known as the Web, is an information system An information system (IS) is a formal, sociotechnical Sociotechnical systems (STS) in organizational development is an approach to complex organizational ...
on January 22, 1996, "offering readers around the world immediate access to most of the daily newspaper's contents." The website had 555million pageviews in March 2005. The domain nytimes.com attracted at least 146million visitors annually by 2008 according to a
Compete.com Compete.com was a web traffic Web traffic is the amount of data sent and received by visitors to a website A website (also written as web site) is a collection of web pages and related content that is identified by a common domain name an ...
study. In March 2009, ''The New York Times'' website ranked 59th by number of unique visitors, with over 20million unique visitors, making it the most visited newspaper site with more than twice the number of unique visitors as the next most popular site. , nytimes.com produced 22 of the 50 most popular newspaper blogs. As of August 2020, the company had 6.5 million paid subscribers, out of which 5.7 million were subscribed to its digital content. In the period April–June 2020, it added 669,000 new digital subscribers.


Food section

The food section is supplemented on the web by properties for home cooks and for out-of-home dining. ''The New York Times'' Cooking (cooking.nytimes.com; also available via iOS app) provides access to more than 17,000 recipes on file , and availability of saving recipes from other sites around the web. The newspaper's restaurant search (nytimes.com/reviews/dining) allows online readers to search NYC area restaurants by cuisine, neighborhood, price, and reviewer rating. ''The New York Times'' has also published several cookbooks, including ''The Essential New York Times Cookbook: Classic Recipes for a New Century'', published in late 2010.


''TimesSelect''

In September 2005, the paper decided to begin subscription-based service for daily columns in a program known as ''TimesSelect'', which encompassed many previously free columns. Until being discontinued two years later, ''TimesSelect'' cost $7.95 per month or $49.95 per year, though it was free for print copy subscribers and university students and faculty. To avoid this charge, bloggers often reposted TimesSelect material, and at least one site once compiled links of reprinted material. On September 17, 2007, ''The New York Times'' announced that it would stop charging for access to parts of its Web site, effective at midnight the following day, reflecting a growing view in the industry that subscription fees cannot outweigh the potential ad revenue from increased traffic on a free site. ''Times'' columnists including
Nicholas Kristof Nicholas Donabet Kristof (born April 27, 1959) is an American journalist and political commentator. A winner of two Pulitzer Prize The Pulitzer Prize () is an award for achievements in newspaper, magazine and online journalism, literature and ...
and
Thomas Friedman Thomas Loren Friedman (; born July 20, 1953) is an American political commentator and author. He is a three-time Pulitzer Prize The Pulitzer Prize () is an award for achievements in newspaper, magazine and online journalism, literature and mus ...
had criticized ''TimesSelect'', with Friedman going so far as to say "I hate it. It pains me enormously because it's cut me off from a lot, a lot of people, especially because I have a lot of people reading me overseas, like in India ... I feel totally cut off from my audience."


Paywall and digital subscriptions

In 2007, in addition to opening almost the entire site to all readers, ''The New York Times'' news archives from 1987 to the present were made available at no charge to non-subscribers, as well as those from 1851 to 1922, which are in the public domain. Falling print advertising revenue and projections of continued decline resulted in a "metered
paywall A paywall is a method of restricting access to content (media), content, with a purchase or a subscription business model, paid subscription, especially news. Beginning in the mid-2010s, newspapers started implementing paywalls on their websites ...
" being instituted in March 2011, limiting non-subscribers to a monthly allotment of 20 free on-line articles per month. This measure was regarded as modestly successful after garnering several hundred thousand subscriptions and about $100 million in revenue . Beginning in April 2012, the number of free-access articles was halved from 20 to 10 articles per month. Any reader who wanted to access more would have to pay for a digital subscription. This plan allowed free access for occasional readers. Digital subscription rates for four weeks ranged from $15 to $35 depending on the package selected, with periodic new subscriber promotions offering four-week all-digital access for as low as 99¢. Subscribers to the paper's print edition got full access without any additional fee. Some content, such as the front page and section fronts remained free, as well as the Top News page on mobile apps. In January 2013, ''The New York Times'' Public Editor Margaret M. Sullivan announced that for the first time in many decades, the paper generated more revenue through subscriptions than through advertising. In December 2017, the number of free articles per month was reduced from 10 to 5, the first change to the metered paywall since April 2012. An executive of The New York Times Company stated that the decision was motivated by "an all-time high" in the demand for journalism. A digital subscription to The New York Times cost $16 a month in 2017. , ''The New York Times'' had a total of 3.5 million paid subscriptions in both print and digital versions, and about 130 million monthly readers, more than double its audience two years previously. In February 2018, The New York Times Company reported increased revenue from the digital-only subscriptions, adding 157,000 new subscribers to a total of 2.6 million digital-only subscribers. Digital advertising also saw growth during this period. At the same time, advertising for the print version of the journal fell.


Mobile presence


Apps

In 2008, ''The New York Times'' was made available as an app for the
iPhone {{Infobox information appliance , name = iPhone , logo = , image = , caption = The front face of an iPhone 13 Pro The iPhone 13 Pro and iPhone 13 Pro Max are smartphones designed and marketed by Apple Inc. They are the flagship smart ...

iPhone
and
iPod Touch The iPod Touch is a line of iOS iOS (formerly iPhone OS) is a mobile operating system created and developed by Apple Inc. exclusively for its hardware. It is the operating system that powers many of the company's mobile devices, includ ...

iPod Touch
; as well as publishing an iPad app in 2010. The app allowed users to download articles to their mobile device enabling them to read the paper even when they were unable to receive a signal. , ''The New York Times'' iPad app is
ad-supported Online advertising, also known as online marketing, Internet advertising, digital advertising or web advertising, is a form of marketing and advertising which uses the Internet to deliver promotion (marketing), promotional marketing messages to ...
and available for free without a paid subscription, but translated into a subscription-based model in 2011. In 2010, ''The New York Times'' editors collaborated with students and faculty from
New York University New York University (NYU) is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, British singer Dusty Springfield, after an absence of ne ...
's Studio 20 Journalism Masters program to launch and produce "The Local East Village", a
hyperlocal Hyperlocal is information oriented around a well-defined community with its primary focus directed toward the concerns of the population in that community. The term can be used as a noun in isolation or as a modifier of some other term (e.g. news) ...
blog designed to offer news "by, for and about the residents of the East Village". That same year,
reCAPTCHA reCAPTCHA is a CAPTCHA system that enables web hosts to distinguish between human and automated access to websites. The original version asked users to decipher hard to read text or match images. Version 2 also asked users to decipher text or m ...
helped to digitize old editions of ''The New York Times''. In 2010, the newspaper also launched an app for
Android Android may refer to: Science and technology * Android (robot), a humanoid robot or synthetic organism designed to imitate a human * Android (operating system), Google's mobile operating system ** Android (operating system)#Mascot, Unnamed Androi ...

Android
smartphones, followed later by an app for
Windows Phone Windows Phone (WP) is a discontinued family of mobile operating system A mobile operating system is an operating system for mobile phones, tablet computer, tablets, smartwatches, 2-in-1 PCs, Smart speaker, smart speakers, or other Mobile device, ...

Windows Phone
s. Moreover, the ''Times'' was the first newspaper to offer a
video game#REDIRECT Video game A video game is an electronic game that involves interaction with a user interface or input device such as a joystick, game controller, controller, computer keyboard, keyboard, or motion sensing device to generate visual f ...
as part of its editorial content, ''Food Import Folly'' by
Persuasive Games Persuasive Games is a video game developer founded by Ian Bogost and Gerard LaFond in 2003. The company focuses on making advergames with strong opinions. Their first game, ''Howard Dean for Iowa'' is about trying to get Howard Dean to win the Iowa ...
.


The ''Times Reader''

The ''Times Reader'' is a digital version of ''The New York Times'', created via a collaboration between the newspaper and
Microsoft Microsoft Corporation is an American multinational corporation, multinational technology company, technology corporation which produces Software, computer software, consumer electronics, personal computers, and related services. Its best-know ...

Microsoft
. ''Times Reader'' takes the principles of print journalism and applies them to the technique of online reporting, using a series of technologies developed by Microsoft and their
Windows Presentation Foundation Windows Presentation Foundation (WPF) is a free and open-source graphical subsystem (similar to WinForms) originally developed by Microsoft for rendering user interfaces in Windows-based applications. WPF, previously known as "Avalon", was initial ...
team. It was announced in
Seattle Seattle ( ) is a port, seaport city on the West Coast of the United States. It is the county seat, seat of King County, Washington, King County, Washington (state), Washington. With a 2020 population of 737,015, it is the largest city in bo ...

Seattle
in April 2006, by
Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr. Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr. (born September 22, 1951) is an American journalist. Sulzberger was the chairman of the The New York Times Company The New York Times Company is an American mass media company that publishes the ''The New York Tim ...
,
Bill Gates William Henry Gates III (born October 28, 1955) is an American business magnate A business magnate is someone who has achieved great success and enormous wealth through the ownership of multiple lines of enterprise. The term characterist ...
, and Tom Bodkin. In 2009, the ''Times Reader'' 2.0 was rewritten in
Adobe AIR Adobe AIR (also known as Adobe Integrated Runtime and is codenamed Apollo) is a cross-platform runtime system currently developed by Harman International for building desktop applications and mobile applications, programmed using Adobe Anim ...
. In December 2013, the newspaper announced that the ''Times Reader'' app would be discontinued as of January 6, 2014, urging readers of the app to instead begin using the subscription-only ''Today's Paper'' app.


Podcasts

''The New York Times'' began producing
podcast A podcast is an episodic series of digital audio Digital audio is a representation of sound recorded in, or converted into, Digital signal (signal processing), digital form. In digital audio, the sound wave of the audio signal is typical ...

podcast
s in 2006. Among the early podcasts were ''Inside The Times'' and ''Inside The New York Times Book Review''. However, several of the ''Times''' podcasts were cancelled in 2012. The ''Times'' returned to launching new podcasts in 2016, including ''Modern Love'' with
WBUR WBUR-FM (90.9 FM) is a public radio Public broadcasting involves radio Radio is the technology of signaling and telecommunication, communicating using radio waves. Radio waves are electromagnetic waves of frequency between 30 hertz (H ...
. On January 30, 2017, ''The New York Times'' launched a news podcast, '' The Daily''. In October 2018, NYT debuted ''The Argument'' with opinion columnists
Ross Douthat Ross Gregory Douthat () (born 1979) is an American conservative Conservatism is a Political philosophy, political and social philosophy promoting traditional social institutions. The central tenets of conservatism may vary in relation to th ...
,
Michelle Goldberg Michelle Goldberg (born 1975)"Michelle Goldberg". Contemporary Authors Online. Detroit: Gale, 2016. Retrieved via Biography in Context database, 2017-01-28. is an American journalist A journalist is an individual trained to collect/gather inform ...
and
David Leonhardt David Leonhardt (born January 1, 1973) is an American journalist and columnist. Beginning April 30, 2020, he writes the daily "The Morning" newsletter for ''The New York Times ''The New York Times'' (''NYT'' or ''NY Times'') is an America ...
. It is a weekly discussion about a single issue explained from the left, center, and right of the
political spectrum A political spectrum is a system to characterize and classify different in relation to one another. These positions sit upon one or more that represent independent political dimensions. The expressions political compass and political map are ...

political spectrum
.


Non-English versions


''The New York Times en Español'' (Spanish-language)

Between February 2016 and September 2019, ''The New York Times'' launched a standalone
Spanish-language Spanish () or Castilian (, ) is a Romance language The Romance languages (less commonly Latin languages, or Neo-Latin languages) are the modern languages that evolved from Vulgar Latin between the third and eighth centuries. They are a sub ...

Spanish-language
edition, ''The New York Times en Español''. The Spanish-language version featured increased coverage of news and events in
Latin America * ht, Amerik Latin, link=no * pt, América Latina, link=no , image = Latin America (orthographic projection).svg , area = , population = ( est.) , density = , ethnic_groups = , ethnic_groups_year = 2018 , ethnic ...

Latin America
and
Spain , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = , national_anthem = , image_map = , map_caption = , image_map2 ...

Spain
. The expansion into Spanish language news content allowed the newspaper to expand its audience into the Spanish speaking world and increase its revenue. The Spanish-language version was seen as a way to compete with the established
El País ''El País'' (; ) is a Spanish-language Newspaper, daily newspaper in Spain. ''El País'' is based in the capital city of Madrid and it is owned by the Spanish media conglomerate PRISA. According to the Office of Justification of Dissemination ...
newspaper of
Spain , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = , national_anthem = , image_map = , map_caption = , image_map2 ...

Spain
, which bills itself the "global newspaper in Spanish." Its Spanish version has a team of journalists in
Mexico City Mexico City ( es, link=no, Ciudad de México, ; abbreviated as CDMX; nah, Āltepētl Mēxihco) is the capital city, capital and largest city of Mexico, as well as the List of North American cities by population, most populous city in North Americ ...

Mexico City
as well as correspondents in
Venezuela Venezuela (; ), officially the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela ( es, link=no, República Bolivariana de Venezuela), is a country on the northern coast of South America, consisting of a continent A continent is any of several large l ...

Venezuela
,
Brazil Brazil ( pt, Brasil; ), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (Portuguese: ), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America. At 8.5 million square kilometers (3.2 million square miles) and with over 211 mill ...

Brazil
,
Argentina Argentina (), officially the Argentine Republic ( es, link=no, República Argentina), is a country located mostly in the southern half of South America South America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasse ...

Argentina
,
Miami Miami (), officially the City of Miami, is a coast, coastal metropolis located in Miami-Dade County, Florida, Miami-Dade County in southeastern Florida, United States. With a population of 467,963 as of the 2020 United States census, 2020 censu ...

Miami
, and
Madrid, Spain Madrid (, ) is the capital and most-populous city of Spain. The city has almost 3.4 million inhabitants and a Madrid metropolitan area, metropolitan area population of approximately 6.7 million. It is the Largest cities of the Europea ...
. It was discontinued in September 2019, citing lack of financial success as the reason.


Chinese-language

In June 2012, ''The New York Times'' introduced its first official foreign-language variant, cn.nytimes.com, a Chinese-language news site viewable in both
traditional A tradition is a belief A belief is an Attitude (psychology), attitude that something is the case, or that some proposition about the world is truth, true. In epistemology, philosophers use the term "belief" to refer to attitudes about the wo ...
and
simplified Chinese characters Simplified Chinese characters are standardized Chinese characters Chinese characters, also called ''hanzi'' (), are logogram In a written language A written language is the representation of a spoken or gestural language by ...
. The project was led by Craig S. Smith on the business side and Philip P. Pan on the editorial side, with content created by staff based in
Shanghai Shanghai (, , Standard Chinese, Standard Mandarin pronunciation: ) is one of the four Direct-administered municipalities of China, direct-administered municipalities of the China, People's Republic of China. The city is located on the sou ...

Shanghai
,
Beijing Beijing ( ), as Peking ( ), is the of the . It is the world's , with over 21 million residents within an of 16,410.5 km2 (6336 sq. mi.). It is located in , and is governed as a under the direct administration of the with .Figures ...

Beijing
, and
Hong Kong Hong Kong (; , ), officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China (HKSAR), is a List of cities in China, city and Special administrative regions of China, special administrative region of China on the ...

Hong Kong
, though the server was placed outside of China to avoid censorship issues. The site's initial success was interrupted in October that year following the publication of an investigative article by David Barboza about the finances of Chinese Premier
Wen Jiabao Wen Jiabao (born 15 September 1942), also spelled as Wen Chia-pao, is a retired Chinese politician who served as the sixth Premier Premier is a title for the head of government in central governments, state governments and local govern ...

Wen Jiabao
's family. In retaliation for the article, the Chinese government blocked access to both ''nytimes.com'' and ''cn.nytimes''.com inside the
People's Republic of China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere ...

People's Republic of China
(PRC). Despite Chinese government interference, the Chinese-language operations have continued to develop, adding a second site, cn.nytstyle.com,
iOS iOS (formerly iPhone OS) is a mobile operating system created and developed by Apple Inc. exclusively for its hardware. It is the operating system that powers many of the company's mobile devices, including the iPhone and iPod Touch; the t ...

iOS
and
Android Android may refer to: Science and technology * Android (robot), a humanoid robot or synthetic organism designed to imitate a human * Android (operating system), Google's mobile operating system ** Android (operating system)#Mascot, Unnamed Androi ...

Android
apps, and newsletters, all of which are accessible inside the PRC. The China operations also produce three print publications in Chinese. Traffic to ''cn.nytimes.com'', meanwhile, has risen due to the widespread use of
VPN A virtual private network (VPN) extends a private network In Internet networking, a private network is a computer network A computer network is a set of s sharing resources located on or provided by . The computers use common s over ...
technology in the PRC and to a growing Chinese audience outside mainland China. ''The New York Times'' articles are also available to users in China via the use of
mirror website Mirror sites or mirrors are replicas of other websites or any network node. The concept of mirroring applies to network services accessible through any protocol, such as HTTP or FTP. Such sites have different URLs than the original site, but ho ...
s, apps, domestic newspapers, and
social media Social media are interactive technologies that facilitate the creation Creation may refer to: Religion * Creation ''ex nihilo'', the concept that matter was created by God out of nothing * Creation myth A creation myth (or cosmogonic myth) ...

social media
. The Chinese platforms now represent one of ''The New York Times'' top five digital markets globally. The editor-in-chief of the Chinese platforms is Ching-Ching Ni. In March 2013, ''The New York Times'' and
National Film Board of Canada The National Film Board of Canada (NFB; french: Office national du film du Canada (ONF) is Canada's public film and digital media producer and distributor. An agency of the Government of Canada, the NFB produces and distributes documentary films ...
announced a partnership titled ''A Short History of the Highrise'', which will create four short documentaries for the Internet about life in high rise buildings as part of the NFB's ''
Highrise '' high-rise building in Kalasatama, Helsinki Helsinki ( or ; ; sv, Helsingfors, ; la, Helsingia) is the Capital city, capital, primate city, primate and List of cities and towns in Finland, most populous city of Finland. Located on t ...
'' project, utilizing images from the newspaper's photo archives for the first three films, and user-submitted images for the final film. The third project in the ''Short History of the Highrise'' series won a
Peabody Award The George Foster Peabody Awards (or simply Peabody Awards or the Peabodys) program, named for the American businessman and philanthropist George Foster Peabody, George Peabody, honor the most powerful, enlightening, and invigorating stories in ...
in 2013.


TimesMachine

The TimesMachine is a web-based archive of scanned issues of ''The New York Times'' from 1851 through 2002. Unlike ''The New York Times'' online archive, the TimesMachine presents scanned images of the actual newspaper. All non-advertising content can be displayed on a per-story basis in a separate
PDF Portable Document Format (PDF), standardized as ISO 32000, is a file format ogg-file: 154 kilobytes. A file format is a standard Standard may refer to: Flags * Colours, standards and guidons * Standard (flag), a type of flag used for pe ...
display page and saved for future reference. The archive is available to ''The New York Times'' subscribers, whether via home delivery or digital access.


Interruptions

Because of holidays, no editions were printed on November 23, 1851; January 2, 1852; July 4, 1852; January 2, 1853; and January 1, 1854. Because of strikes, the regular edition of ''The New York Times'' was not printed during the following periods: * September 19, 1923, to September 26, 1923. An unauthorized local union strike prevented the publication of several New York papers, among them ''The New York Times''. During this period "The Combined New York Morning Newspapers," were published with summaries of the news. * December 12, 1962, to March 31, 1963. Only a western edition was printed because of the 1962–63 New York City newspaper strike. * September 17, 1965, to October 10, 1965. An international edition was printed, and a weekend edition replaced the Saturday and Sunday papers. * August 10, 1978, to November 5, 1978. A multi-union strike shut down the three major New York City newspapers. No editions of ''The New York Times'' were printed. Two months into the strike, a parody of ''The New York Times'' called '' Not The New York Times'' was distributed in the city, with contributors such as
Carl Bernstein Carl Bernstein ( ; born in February 14, 1944) is an American investigative journalist Investigative journalism is a form of journalism in which reporters deeply investigate a single topic of interest, such as serious crimes, political corrupt ...
, Christopher Cerf,
Tony Hendra Anthony Christopher "Tony" Hendra (10 July 1941 – 4 March 2021) was an English satirist This is an incomplete list of writers, cartoonists and others known for involvement in satire Satire is a genre Genre () is any form or type ...
and
George Plimpton George Ames Plimpton (March 18, 1927 – September 25, 2003) was an American journalist, writer, literary editorA literary editor is an editing, editor in a newspaper, magazine or similar publication who deals with aspects concerning literatur ...
. The newspaper's website was hacked on August 29, 2013, by the
Syrian Electronic Army The Syrian Electronic Army (SEA; ar, الجيش السوري الإلكتروني) is a group of computer hackers which first surfaced online in 2011 to support the government of Syria Syria ( ar, سُورِيَا, ''Sūriyā''), offi ...
, a hacking group that supports the government of Syrian President . The SEA managed to penetrate the paper's
domain name registrar A domain name registrar is a company that manages the reservation of Internet The Internet (Capitalization of Internet, or internet) is the global system of interconnected computer networks that uses the Internet protocol suite (TCP/I ...
,
Melbourne IT Webcentral Group, formerly known as 'Melbourne IT Group'', is an Australian digital services provider. It is a publicly traded company that was listed on the Australian Securities Exchange () in December 1999. It provides internet domain registr ...
, and alter
DNS The Domain Name System (DNS) is the hierarchical and decentralized Decentralization or decentralisation is the process by which the activities of an organization, particularly those regarding planning and decision making, are distributed or ...

DNS
records for ''The New York Times'', putting some of its websites out of service for hours.


Controversies


Walter Duranty's Holodomor coverage and Pulitzer

Walter Duranty Walter Duranty (25 May 1884 – 3 October 1957) was a Liverpool Liverpool is a City status in the United Kingdom, city and metropolitan borough in Merseyside, England. Its population in 2019 was approximately , making it the List of ...
, who served as its Moscow bureau chief from 1922 through 1936, has been criticized for a series of stories in 1931 on the
Soviet Union The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR),. was a that spanned during its existence from 1922 to 1991. It was nominally a of multiple national ; in practice and were highly until its final years. The ...
and won a Pulitzer Prize for his work at that time; however, he has been criticized for his denial of widespread famine, most particularly
Holodomor The Holodomor ( uk, Голодомо́р, Holodomór, ; derived from uk, морити голодом, lit=to kill by starvation, translit=moryty holodom, label=none), also known as the Terror-Famine or the Great Famine, was a famine in Ukr ...

Holodomor
, a famine in Soviet Ukraine in the 1930s in which he summarized Russian propaganda, and the ''Times'' published, as fact: "Conditions are bad, but there is no famine".Conquest, R. Reflections on a Ravaged Century. W.W. Norton & Company. New York. 2000. pp 123,156 In 2003, after the Pulitzer Board began a renewed inquiry, the ''Times'' hired
Mark von Hagen Mark Louis von Hagen (July 21, 1954 – September 15, 2019) was an American military historian Military history is a humanities discipline within the scope of general historical recording of armed conflict in the history of humanity, and its ...
, professor of Russian history at
Columbia University Columbia University (also known as Columbia, and officially as Columbia University in the City of New York) is a Private university, private Ivy League research university in New York City. Established in 1754 as King's College on the grounds of ...

Columbia University
, to review Duranty's work. Von Hagen found Duranty's reports to be unbalanced and uncritical, and that they far too often gave voice to
Stalinist Stalinism is the means of governing and policies which were implemented in the Soviet Union The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR),. was a Federalism, federal socialist state in Northern Eurasia tha ...
propaganda Propaganda is communication that is primarily used to Social influence, influence an audience and further an Political agenda, agenda, which may not be Objectivity (journalism), objective and may be selectively presenting facts to encourage a pa ...
. In comments to the press he stated, "For the sake of The New York Times' honor, they should take the prize away." ''
The Ukrainian Weekly ''The Ukrainian Weekly'' is the oldest English-language newspaper of the Ukrainian diaspora in the United States, and North America. Founded by the Ukrainian National Association, and published continuously since October 6, 1933, archived copies o ...
'' covered the efforts to rescind Duranty's prize. The ''Times'' has since made a public statement and the Pulitzer committee has declined to rescind the award twice stating, "...Mr. Duranty's 1931 work, measured by today's standards for foreign reporting, falls seriously short. In that regard, the Board's view is similar to that of ''The New York Times'' itself...".


World War II

Jerold Auerbach, a
Guggenheim Fellow Guggenheim Fellowships are grants that have been awarded annually since 1925 by the John Simon Guggenheim Memorial Foundation to those "who have demonstrated exceptional capacity for productive scholarship or exceptional creative ability in the ...
and , wrote in ''Print to Fit, The New York Times, Zionism and Israel, 1896-2016'' that it was of utmost importance to
Adolph Ochs Adolph Simon Ochs (March 12, 1858 – April 8, 1935) was an American newspaper publisher and former owner of ''The New York Times ''The New York Times'' (''NYT'' or ''NY Times'') is an American daily newspaper based in New York City with a ...
, the first Jewish owner of the paper, that in spite of the persecution of Jews in Germany, ''The Times'', through its reporting, should never be classified as a "Jewish newspaper". After Ochs' death in 1935, his son-in-law Arthur Hays Sulzberger became the publisher of ''The New York Times'' and maintained the understanding that no reporting should reflect on ''The Times'' as a Jewish newspaper. Sulzburger shared Ochs' concerns about the way Jews were perceived in American society. His apprehensions about judgement were manifested positively by his strong fidelity to the United States. At the same time, within the pages of ''The New York Times,'' Sulzburger refused to bring attention to Jews, including the refusal to identify Jews as major victims of Nazi genocide. Instead, many reports of Nazi-ordered slaughter identified Jewish victims as "persons." ''The Times'' even opposed the rescue of Jewish refugees. On November 14, 2001, in ''The New York Times'' 150th-anniversary issue, in an article entitled "Turning Away From the Holocaust," former executive editor
Max Frankel Max Frankel (born April 3, 1930) is an American journalist. Life and career Frankel was born in Gera Gera is, with around 93,000 inhabitants, the third-largest city of Thuringia after Erfurt and Jena as well as the easternmost city of the ''Thü ...
wrote:
And then there was failure: none greater than the staggering, staining failure of ''The New York Times'' to depict Hitler's methodical extermination of the Jews of Europe as a horror beyond all other horrors in World War II – a Nazi war within the war crying out for illumination.
According to Frankel, harsh judges of ''The New York Times'' "have blamed 'self-hating
Jews Jews ( he, יְהוּדִים ISO 259-2 ISO The International Organization for Standardization (ISO ) is an international standard An international standard is a technical standard A technical standard is an established norm (social), ...

Jews
' and ' anti-Zionists' among the paper's owners and staff." Frankel responded to this criticism by describing the fragile sensibilities of the Jewish owners of ''The New York Times'':
Then, too, papers owned by Jewish families, like ''The Times'', were plainly afraid to have a society that was still widely anti-Semitic misread their passionate opposition to Hitler as a merely parochial cause. Even some leading Jewish groups hedged their appeals for rescue lest they be accused of wanting to divert wartime energies. At ''The Times'', the reluctance to highlight the systematic slaughter of Jews was undoubtedly influenced by the views of the publisher,
Arthur Hays Sulzberger Arthur Hays Sulzberger (September 12, 1891December 11, 1968) was the publisher of ''The New York Times'' from 1935 to 1961. During that time, daily circulation rose from 465,000 to 713,000 and Sunday circulation from 745,000 to 1.4 million; the sta ...
. He believed strongly and publicly that Judaism was a religion, not a race or nationality – that Jews should be separate only in the way they worshiped. He thought they needed no state or political and social institutions of their own. He went to great lengths to avoid having ''The Times'' branded a ''Jewish newspaper.'' He resented other publications for emphasizing the Jewishness of people in the news.
In the same article, Frankel quotes Laurel Leff, associate professor of journalism at
Northeastern University Northeastern University (NU or NEU) is a private university, private research university in Boston, Massachusetts. Established in 1898, the university offers undergraduate and graduate programs on its main campus in Boston as well as regional ca ...

Northeastern University
, who in 2000 had described how the newspaper downplayed
Nazi Germany Nazi Germany, (lit. "National Socialist State"), ' (lit. "Nazi State") for short; also ' (lit. "National Socialist Germany") officially known as the German Reich from 1933 until 1943, and the Greater German Reich from 1943 to 1945, was ...

Nazi Germany
's targeting of
Jew Jews ( he, יְהוּדִים ISO 259-2ISO The International Organization for Standardization (ISO; ) is an international standard are technical standards developed by international organizations (intergovernmental organizations), suc ...

Jew
s for
genocide Genocide is the attempted destruction of a people, usually defined as an ethnic An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people who identity (social science), identify with each other on the basis of shared attributes that distinguish t ...

genocide
.
November 1942 was a critical month for American Jews. After several months of delay, the U.S. State Department had confirmed already published information that Germany was engaged in the systematic extermination of European Jews. Newspaper reports put the death toll at one million and described the "most ruthless methods," including mass gassings at special camps.
Yet at the beginning of November 1942, Sulzberger lobbied U.S. government officials against the founding of a homeland for Jews to escape to. The Times was silent on the matter of an increase in U.S. immigration quotas to permit more Jews to enter, and "actively supported the British Government's restriction on legal immigration to Palestine even as the persecution of Jews intensified". Sulzberger described Jews as being of no more concern to Nazi Germany than Roman Catholic priests or Christian ministers, and that Jews certainly were not singled out for extermination. Leff's 2005 book '' Buried by the Times'' documents the paper's tendency before, during, and after
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
to place deep inside its daily editions the news stories about the ongoing persecution and extermination of Jews, while obscuring in those stories the special impact of the Nazis' crimes on Jews in particular. Leff attributes this dearth in part to the complex personal and political views of Sulzberger, concerning Jewishness,
antisemitism Antisemitism (also spelled anti-semitism or anti-Semitism) is hostility to, prejudice, or discrimination against Jews. A person who holds such positions is called an antisemite. Antisemitism is generally considered to be a form of racism. A ...
, and
Zionism Zionism ( he, צִיּוֹנוּת ''Tsiyyonut'' after ''Zion Zion ( he, צִיּוֹן ''Ṣīyyōn'', , also variously ''Sion'', ''Tzion'', ''Tsion'', ''Tsiyyon'') is a placename in the used as a synonym for as well as for the as ...
.


Accusations of liberal bias

In mid-2004, the newspaper's then-public editor
Daniel Okrent Daniel Okrent (born April 2, 1948) is an American writer and editor "Quarters of the news editor", one of a group of four photos in the 1900 The Seattle Daily Times—Editorial Department".">The Seattle Times">The Seattle Daily Times—Edito ...
, wrote an
opinion pieceAn opinion piece is an article, usually published in a newspaper A newspaper is a Periodical literature, periodical publication containing written News, information about current events and is often typed in black ink with a white or gray backg ...
in which he said that ''The New York Times'' did have a liberal bias in news coverage of certain social issues such as abortion and
same-sex marriage Same-sex marriage, also known as gay marriage, is the marriage in Stockholm Marriage, also called matrimony or wedlock is a culturally and often legally recognized union between people called spouses. It establishes rights and obli ...
. He stated that this bias reflected the paper's
cosmopolitanism Cosmopolitanism is the idea that all human being Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most populous and widespread species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic rank of an orga ...
, which arose naturally from its roots as a hometown paper of New York City, writing that the coverage of the ''Times''s Arts & Leisure; Culture; and the Sunday ''Times Magazine'' trend to the left.
If you're examining the paper's coverage of these subjects from a perspective that is neither urban nor Northeastern nor culturally seen-it-all; if you are among the groups The Times treats as strange objects to be examined on a laboratory slide (devout Catholics, gun owners, Orthodox Jews, Texans); if your value system wouldn't wear well on a composite New York Times journalist, then a walk through this paper can make you feel you're traveling in a strange and forbidding world.
''Times'' public editor
Arthur Brisbane Arthur Brisbane (December 12, 1864 – December 25, 1936) was one of the best known American newspaper editors of the 20th century as well as a real estate investor. He was also a speech writer, orator, and public relations professional who coached ...

Arthur Brisbane
wrote in 2012:
When The Times covers a national presidential campaign, I have found that the lead editors and reporters are disciplined about enforcing fairness and balance, and usually succeed in doing so. Across the paper's many departments, though, so many share a kind of political and cultural progressivism — for lack of a better term — that this worldview virtually bleeds through the fabric of The Times.
''The New York Times'' public editor (
ombudsman An ombudsman (, also , ), ombudsperson, ombud, ombuds, or public advocate is an official who is usually appointed by the government or by parliament but with a significant degree of independence. In some countries, an inspector general, citize ...
) Elizabeth Spayd wrote in 2016 that "Conservatives and even many moderates, see in The Times a blue-state worldview" and accuse it of harboring a liberal bias. Spayd did not analyze the substance of the claim but did opine that the ''Times'' is "part of a fracturing media environment that reflects a fractured country. That in turn leads liberals and conservatives toward separate news sources." ''Times'' executive editor
Dean Baquet Dean P. Baquet (; born September 21, 1956) is an American American(s) may refer to: * American, something of, from, or related to the United States of America, commonly known as the United States The United States of America (USA), comm ...
stated that he does not believe coverage has a liberal bias, however:
We have to be really careful that people feel like they can see themselves in ''The New York Times''. I want us to be perceived as fair and honest to the world, not just a segment of it. It's a really difficult goal. Do we pull it off all the time? No.


Jayson Blair plagiarism (2003)

In May 2003, ''The New York Times'' reporter
Jayson Blair Jayson Thomas Blair (born March 23, 1976) is a former American journalist who worked for ''The New York Times ''The New York Times'' (''NYT'' or ''NY Times'') is an American daily newspaper based in New York City with a worldwide readersh ...
was forced to resign from the newspaper after he was caught and fabricating elements of his stories. Some critics contended that
African-American African Americans (also referred to as Black Americans or Afro-Americans) are an ethnic group An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people A people is any plurality of person A person (plural people or persons) is a being t ...
Blair's race was a major factor in his hiring and in ''The New York Times'' initial reluctance to fire him.


Iraq War (2003–06)

The ''Times'' supported the
2003 invasion of Iraq The 2003 invasion of Iraq was the first stage of the Iraq War. The invasion phase began on 19 March 2003 (air) and 20 March 2003 (ground) and lasted just over one month, including 26 days of major combat operations, in which a combined force ...
. On May 26, 2004, more than a year after the war started, the newspaper asserted that some of its articles had not been as rigorous as they should have been, and were insufficiently qualified, frequently overly dependent upon information from Iraqi exiles desiring regime change. ''The New York Times'' was involved in a significant controversy regarding the allegations surrounding
Iraq and weapons of mass destruction Iraq actively researched and later employed weapons of mass destruction (WMD) from 1962 to 1991, when it destroyed its chemical weapons stockpile and halted its biological and nuclear weapon programs as required by the United Nations Security Cou ...
in September 2002. A front-page story was authored by
Judith Miller Judith Miller (born January 2, 1948) is an American journalist and commentator known for her coverage of Iraq's Weapons of Mass Destruction A weapon of mass destruction (WMD) is a nuclear, radiological File:Radioactive.svg, upThe inte ...
which claimed that the Iraqi government was in the process of developing
nuclear weapons A nuclear weapon (also known as an atom bomb, atomic bomb, nuclear bomb or nuclear warhead, and colloquially as an A-bomb or nuke) is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from nuclear reaction In nuclear physics and nucl ...

nuclear weapons
was published.Michael R. Gordon and Judith Miller (September 8, 2002)
"U.S. Says Hussein Intensifies Quest for A-Bomb Parts
''The New York Times''
Miller's story was cited by officials such as
Condoleezza Rice Condoleezza "Condi" Rice ( ; born November 14, 1954) is an American diplomat, political scientist Political science is the scientific study of politics. It is a social science dealing with systems of governance Governance comprises all of ...

Condoleezza Rice
,
Colin Powell Colin Luther Powell ( ; April 5, 1937 – October 18, 2021) was an American politician, statesman, diplomat, and United States Army The United States Army (USA) is the land military branch, service branch of the United States Armed Force ...

Colin Powell
, and
Donald Rumsfeld Donald Henry Rumsfeld (July 9, 1932 – June 29, 2021) was an American politician, government official and businessman who served as from 1975 to 1977 under president , and again from 2001 to 2006 under President . He was both the younge ...

Donald Rumsfeld
as part of a campaign to commission the
Iraq War The Iraq WarThe conflict is also known as the Second Gulf War or the Third Gulf War by those who consider the Iran–Iraq War the first Gulf War. The war was also called the Second Iraq War referring to the Gulf War as the first Iraq war. The p ...
.Michael Massing (February 26, 2004)
"Now They Tell Us: The American Press and Iraq"
''
New York Review of Books New is an adjective referring to something recently made, discovered, or created. New or NEW may refer to: Music * New, singer of K-pop group The Boyz Boyz or The Boyz may refer to: Music Bands *The Boyz (German band), a German boy band of t ...
''
One of Miller's prime sources was
Ahmed Chalabi Ahmed Abdel Hadi Chalabi ( ar, أحمد عبد الهادي الجلبي; 30 October 1944 – 3 November 2015) was an Iraqi politician, a founder of the Iraqi National Congress (INC) and the President of the Governing Council of Iraq ( 37 ...
, an Iraqi
expatriate An expatriate (often shortened to expat) is a person residing in a country other than their native country. In common usage, the term often refers to professionals, skilled workers, or artists taking positions outside their home country, eit ...
who returned to Iraq after the U.S. invasion and held a number of governmental positions culminating in acting oil minister and deputy prime minister from May 2005 until May 2006. In 2005, negotiating a private
severance packageA severance package is pay and benefits that employees may be entitled to receive when they termination of employment, leave employment at a company unwillfully. In addition to their remaining regular pay, it may include some of the following: * Any ...
with Sulzberger, Miller retired after criticisms that her reporting of the lead-up to the
Iraq War The Iraq WarThe conflict is also known as the Second Gulf War or the Third Gulf War by those who consider the Iran–Iraq War the first Gulf War. The war was also called the Second Iraq War referring to the Gulf War as the first Iraq war. The p ...
was factually inaccurate and overly favorable to the position of the Bush administration, for which ''The New York Times'' later apologized.


Israeli–Palestinian conflict

A 2003 study in the '' Harvard International Journal of Press/Politics'' concluded that ''The New York Times'' reporting was more favorable to Israelis than to Palestinians. A 2002 study published in the journal ''
Journalism Journalism is the production and distribution of report Image:Hurt Report cover page.png, 220px, Example of a front page of a report A report is a document that presents information in an organized format for a specific audience and purpose. ...
'' examined Middle East coverage of the
Second Intifada The Second Intifada ( ar, الانتفاضة الثانية ''Al-Intifada al-Thaniya''; he, האינתיפאדה השנייה ''Ha-Intifāda ha-Shniya''), also known as the Al-Aqsa Intifada ( ar, انتفاضة الأقصى '), was a Pales ...
over a one-month period in the ''Times'', ''Washington Post'' and ''Chicago Tribune''. The study authors said that the ''Times'' was "the most slanted in a pro-Israeli direction" with a bias "reflected...in its use of headlines, photographs, graphics, sourcing practices, and lead paragraphs." For its coverage of the
Israeli–Palestinian conflict The Israeli–Palestinian conflict is one of the world's most enduring conflicts, with the Israeli occupation of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip reaching years of conflict. Various attempts have been made to resolve the conflict as part of th ...
, some (such as
Ed Koch Edward Irving Koch ( ; December 12, 1924February 1, 2013) was an American politician, lawyer, political commentator, film critic, and television personality. He served in the United States House of Representatives The United States Ho ...
) have claimed that the paper is pro-Palestinian, while others (such as As'ad AbuKhalil) have insisted that it is pro-Israel. ''
The Israel Lobby and U.S. Foreign Policy ''The Israel Lobby and U.S. Foreign Policy'' is a book by John Mearsheimer John Joseph Mearsheimer (; born December 14, 1947) is an American political scientist and international relations scholar, who belongs to the realist school of thought. ...
'', by
political science Political science is the scientific study of politics Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with making decisions In psychology, decision-making (also spelled decision making and decisionmaking) is regarded as ...
professors
John Mearsheimer John Joseph Mearsheimer (; born December 14, 1947) is an American political scientist Political science is the scientific study of politics Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with making decisions in gro ...

John Mearsheimer
and
Stephen Walt Stephen Martin Walt (born July 2, 1955) is an American professor of international relations, international affairs at Harvard University's John F. Kennedy School of Government. He belongs to the realism (international relations), realist school of i ...
, alleges that ''The New York Times'' sometimes criticizes Israeli policies but is not even-handed and is generally pro-Israel. On the other hand, in 2009, the
Simon Wiesenthal Center The Simon Wiesenthal Center (SWC) is a Jewish, pro-Israel, human rights organization established in 1977 by Rabbi Marvin Hier. The Center is known for Holocaust The Holocaust, also known as the Shoah, was the genocide of European Jews ...

Simon Wiesenthal Center
has criticized ''The New York Times'' for printing cartoons regarding the Israeli-Palestinian conflict that were described as "hideously
anti-Semitic Antisemitism (also spelled anti-semitism or anti-Semitism) is hostility to, prejudice, or discrimination against Jews Jews ( he, יְהוּדִים ISO 259-2 , Israeli pronunciation ) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and ...
".
Israeli Prime Minister The prime minister of Israel ( he, רֹאשׁ הַמֶּמְשָׁלָה, ''Rosh HaMemshala'', ''lit.'' Head of the Government, Hebrew acronym: he2, רה״מ; ar, رئيس الحكومة, ''Ra'īs al-Ḥukūma'') is the head of government ...
Benjamin Netanyahu Benjamin Netanyahu (; ; born 21 October 1949) is an Israeli politician serving as the since 2009, previously serving that role from 1996 to 1999. Netanyahu is also the . He is the Israeli prime minister in history and the first to be after ...

Benjamin Netanyahu
rejected a proposal to write an article for the paper on grounds of lack of objectivity. A piece in which Thomas Friedman commented that praise given to Netanyahu during a speech at the U.S. Congress was "paid for by the Israel lobby" elicited an apology and clarification from its author. ''The New York Times'' public editor Clark Hoyt concluded in his January 10, 2009, column:
Though the most vociferous supporters of Israel and the Palestinians do not agree, I think ''The New York Times'', largely barred from the battlefield and reporting amid the chaos of war, has tried its best to do a fair, balanced and complete job—and has largely succeeded.


Reputation

The ''Times'' has developed a national and international "reputation for thoroughness" over time. Among journalists, the paper is held in high regard; a 1999 survey of newspaper editors conducted by the ''
Columbia Journalism Review The ''Columbia Journalism Review'' (''CJR'') is a magazine for professional journalist A journalist is an individual trained to collect/gather information in form of text, audio or pictures, processes them to a news-worth form and disseminates ...
'' found that the ''Times'' was the "best" American paper, ahead of ''
The Washington Post ''The Washington Post'' (also known as the ''Post'' and, informally, ''WaPo'') is an American daily newspaper A newspaper is a Periodical literature, periodical publication containing written News, information about current events and is ...

The Washington Post
'', ''
The Wall Street Journal ''The Wall Street Journal'', also known as ''The Journal'', is an American business-focused, English-language international daily newspaper A newspaper is a periodical Periodical literature (also called a periodical publication or sim ...

The Wall Street Journal
'', and ''
Los Angeles Times The ''Los Angeles Times'' (abbreviated as ''LA Times'') is a Newspaper#Daily, daily newspaper based in El Segundo, California, which has been published in Los Angeles, California, since 1881. It has the List of newspapers in the United States, ...

Los Angeles Times
''. The ''Times'' also was ranked in a 2011 "quality" ranking of U.S. newspapers by Daniel de Vise of ''The Washington Post''; the objective ranking took into account the number of recent
Pulitzer Prize#REDIRECT Pulitzer Prize The Pulitzer Prize () is an award for achievements in newspaper, magazine and online journalism, literature and musical composition within the United States. It was established in 1917 by provisions in the will of Joseph ...
s won, circulation, and perceived Web site quality. A 2012 report in
WNYC WNYC is the trademark, and a set of Call sign, call letters shared by a pair of Nonprofit organization, nonprofit, Non-commercial activity, noncommercial, public broadcasting, public radio stations located in New York City and owned by New York P ...
called the ''Times'' "the most respected newspaper in the world." Nevertheless, like many other U.S. media sources, the ''Times'' has suffered from a decline in public perceptions of credibility in the U.S. in the early 21st century. A
Pew Research Center The Pew Research Center is a nonpartisan Nonpartisanism is a lack of affiliation with, and a lack of bias toward, a political party A political party is an organization that coordinates candidates to compete in a particular country's el ...

Pew Research Center
survey in 2012 asked respondents about their views on credibility of various news organizations. Among respondents who gave a rating, 49% said that they believed "all or most" of the ''Times''s reporting, while 50% disagreed. A large percentage (19%) of respondents were unable to rate believability. The ''Times''s score was comparable to that of ''
USA Today ''USA Today'' (stylized in all uppercase) is an American daily middle-market newspaper A middle-market newspaper is a newspaper that caters to readers who like entertainment as well as the coverage of important news events. Middle-market sta ...
''. Media analyst of WNYC's ''
On the Media ''On the Media'' (''OTM'') is an hour-long weekly radio program, hosted by Bob Garfield and Brooke Gladstone, covering journalism, technology, and First Amendment to the United States Constitution, First Amendment issues. It is produced by WNYC i ...
'', writing for ''The New York Times'', says that the decline in U.S. public trust of the mass media can be explained (1) by the rise of the polarized Internet-driven news; (2) by a decline in trust in U.S. institutions more generally; and (3) by the fact that "Americans say they want accuracy and impartiality, but the polls suggest that, actually, most of us are seeking affirmation."


Awards

''The New York Times'' has won 132
Pulitzer Prizes#REDIRECT Pulitzer Prize The Pulitzer Prize () is an award for achievements in newspaper, magazine and online journalism, literature and musical composition within the United States. It was established in 1917 by provisions in the will of Joseph ...
, more than any other newspaper. The prize is awarded for excellence in journalism in a range of categories. It has also, , won three
Peabody Awards The George Foster Peabody Awards (or simply Peabody Awards or the Peabodys) program, named for the American businessman and philanthropist George Foster Peabody, George Peabody, honor the most powerful, enlightening, and invigorating stories in ...
and jointly received two. Peabody Awards are given for accomplishments in television, radio, and online media.


See also

*
List of controversies involving The New York Times ''The New York Times'' has been involved in many controversies since its foundation in 1851. It is one of the largest newspapers List of newspapers in the United States by circulation, in the United States and List of newspapers by circulation, ...
*
List of New York City newspapers and magazinesThis is a list of New York City newspapers and magazines. Largest newspapers by circulation Total circulation, as of March, 2013: # ''The Wall Street Journal ''The Wall Street Journal'' (also known as ''The Journal'') is an American business-fo ...
* List of ''The New York Times'' employees * ''The New York Times'' Best Seller list *
The New York Times Building The New York Times Building is a skyscraper at 620 Eighth Avenue, on the west side of Midtown Manhattan, New York City. Its chief tenant is The New York Times Company, publisher of ''The New York Times'' as well as the ''International New York T ...

The New York Times Building
* The New York Times Guide to Essential Knowledge * ''
New York Times Index The ''New York Times Index'' is a printed reference work published since 1913 by ''The New York Times ''The New York Times'' (''NYT'' or ''NY Times'') is an American daily newspaper based in New York City with a worldwide readership. Fou ...
'' * *


References


Notes


Citations


Further reading

* * * *


External links

*
Curated collection of most pre-1923 issues
at
Online Books Page The Online Books Page is an index of e-text e-text (from "''electronic Electronic may refer to: *Electronics Electronics comprises the physics, engineering, technology and applications that deal with the emission, flow and control of electro ...
* (archives) * * * {{DEFAULTSORT:New York Times, The 1851 establishments in New York (state) Daily newspapers published in New York City Gerald Loeb Award winners for Deadline and Beat Reporting Missouri Lifestyle Journalism Award winners National newspapers published in the United States Peabody Award winners Podcasting companies Newspapers established in 1851 Pulitzer Prize for Explanatory Journalism winners Pulitzer Prize for International Reporting winners Pulitzer Prize for National Reporting winners Pulitzer Prize-winning newspapers Tor onion services Websites utilizing paywalls