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''The Federalist Papers'' is a collection of 85 articles and essays written by
Alexander Hamilton Alexander Hamilton (January 11, 1755 or 1757July 12, 1804) was an American statesman, politician, legal scholar, military commander, lawyer, banker, and economist. He was one of the Founding Fathers of the United States The Founding Fa ...

Alexander Hamilton
,
James Madison James Madison Jr. (March 16, 1751June 28, 1836) was an American statesman, diplomat, expansionist, philosopher, and Founding Father The following list of national founding figures is a record, by country, of people who were credited wi ...

James Madison
, and
John Jay John Jay (December 12, 1745 – May 17, 1829) was an American statesman, patriot, diplomat A diplomat (from grc, δίπλωμα; romanized Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of ...

John Jay
under the
collective pseudonym A pseudonym () or alias () (originally: ψευδώνυμος in Greek) is a fictitious name that a person or group assumes for a particular purpose, which differs from their original or true name (orthonym). This also differs from a new name that ...
"Publius" to promote the
ratification Ratification is a principal Principal may refer to: Title or rank * Principal (academia) The principal is the chief executive and the chief academic officer of a university A university ( la, universitas, 'a whole') is an educational inst ...
of the
United States Constitution The Constitution of the United States is the supreme law A constitution is an aggregate of fundamental principles or established precedents that constitute the legal basis of a polity, organisation An organization, or orga ...

United States Constitution
. The collection was commonly known as ''The Federalist'' until the name ''The Federalist Papers'' emerged in the 20th century. The first 77 of these essays were published serially in the '' Independent Journal'', the ''New York Packet'', and ''The Daily Advertiser'' between October 1787 and April 1788. A compilation of these 77 essays and eight others were published in two volumes as ''The Federalist: A Collection of Essays, Written in Favour of the New Constitution, as Agreed upon by the Federal Convention, September 17, 1787'' by publishing firm J. & A. McLean in March and May 1788. The last eight papers (Nos. 78–85) were republished in the New York newspapers between June 14 and August 16, 1788. The authors of ''The Federalist'' intended to influence the voters to ratify the Constitution. In Federalist No. 1, they explicitly set that debate in broad political terms:
It has been frequently remarked, that it seems to have been reserved to the people of this country, by their conduct and example, to decide the important question, whether societies of men are really capable or not, of establishing good government from reflection and choice, or whether they are forever destined to depend, for their political constitutions, on accident and force.
In Federalist No. 10, Madison discusses the means of preventing rule by majority faction and advocates a large, commercial
republic A republic () is a form of government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a month ...

republic
. This is complemented by Federalist No. 14, in which Madison takes the measure of the United States, declares it appropriate for an extended republic, and concludes with a memorable defense of the constitutional and political creativity of the Federal Convention. In Federalist No. 84, Hamilton makes the case that there is no need to amend the Constitution by adding a
Bill of Rights A bill of rights, sometimes called a declaration of rights or a charter of rights, is a list of the most important rights to the citizens of a country. The purpose is to protect those rights against Civil and political rights, infringement fr ...

Bill of Rights
, insisting that the various provisions in the proposed Constitution protecting liberty amount to a "bill of rights." Federalist No. 78, also written by Hamilton, lays the groundwork for the doctrine of
judicial review Judicial review is a process under which executive Executive may refer to: Role, title, or function * Executive (government), branch of government that has authority and responsibility for the administration of state bureaucracy * Executive, ...
by federal courts of federal legislation or executive acts. Federalist No. 70 presents Hamilton's case for a one-man chief executive. In Federalist No. 39, Madison presents the clearest exposition of what has come to be called "
Federalism Federalism is a mixed or compound mode of government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Maga ...
". In Federalist No. 51, Madison distills arguments for checks and balances in an essay often quoted for its justification of government as "the greatest of all reflections on human nature." According to historian
Richard B. Morris Richard Brandon Morris (July 24, 1904 – March 3, 1989) was an American historian best known for his pioneering work in colonial American legal history and the early history of American labor. In later years, he shifted his research interests t ...
, the essays that make up ''The Federalist Papers'' are an "incomparable exposition of the Constitution, a classic in political science unsurpassed in both breadth and depth by the product of any later American writer." On June 21, 1788, the proposed Constitution was ratified by the minimum of nine states required under Article VII. Towards the end of July 1788, with eleven states having ratified the new Constitution, the process of organizing the new government began.


History


Origins

The
Federal Convention The Constitutional Convention (contemporarily known as the Federal Convention, the Philadelphia Convention, or the Grand Convention at Philadelphia) took place from May 25 to September 17, 1787, in the old Pennsylvania State House (now known as ...
(Constitutional Convention) sent the proposed Constitution to the Confederation Congress, which in turn submitted it to the states for ratification at the end of September 1787. On September 27, 1787, "Cato" first appeared in the New York press criticizing the proposition; "Brutus" followed on October 18, 1787. These and other articles and public letters critical of the new Constitution would eventually become known as the "
Anti-Federalist Papers Anti-Federalist Papers is the collective name given to the works written by the Founding Fathers of the United States, Founding Fathers who were opposed to or concerned with the merits of the United States Constitution of 1787. Starting on 25Sept ...
". In response, Alexander Hamilton decided to launch a measured defense and extensive explanation of the proposed Constitution to the people of the state of New York. He wrote in Federalist No. 1 that the series would "endeavor to give a satisfactory answer to all the objections which shall have made their appearance, that may seem to have any claim to your attention." Hamilton recruited collaborators for the project. He enlisted John Jay, who after four strong essays ( Federalist Nos. 2, 3, 4, and 5), fell ill and contributed only one more essay, Federalist No. 64, to the series. Jay also distilled his case into a pamphlet in the spring of 1788, ''An Address to the People of the State of New-York''; Hamilton cited it approvingly in Federalist No. 85. James Madison, present in New York as a Virginia delegate to the Confederation Congress, was recruited by Hamilton and Jay and became Hamilton's primary collaborator.
Gouverneur Morris Gouverneur Morris ( ; January 31, 1752 – November 6, 1816) was an American American(s) may refer to: * American, something of, from, or related to the United States of America, commonly known as the United States The United States ...

Gouverneur Morris
and William Duer were also considered. However, Morris turned down the invitation, and Hamilton rejected three essays written by Duer. Duer later wrote in support of the three Federalist authors under the name "Philo-Publius", meaning either "Friend of the People" or "Friend of Hamilton" based on Hamilton's pen name ''Publius''. Alexander Hamilton chose the pseudonymous name "Publius". While many other pieces representing both sides of the constitutional debate were written under Roman names, historian Albert Furtwangler contends that Publius' was a cut above '
Caesar Gaius Julius Caesar (; 12 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC) was a Roman people, Roman general and statesman. A member of the First Triumvirate, Caesar led the Roman armies in the Gallic Wars before defeating his political rival Pompey Caesar's C ...

Caesar
' or '
Brutus Marcus Junius Brutus (; 85 BC – 23 October 42 BC), often referred to simply as Brutus, was a Roman politician, orator, and the most famous of the assassins of Julius Caesar Gaius Julius Caesar (; 12 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC) was a ...
' or even '
Cato Cato typically refers to either Cato the Elder or Cato the Younger, both of the Porcii Catones family of Rome. It may also refer to any of the following: People Romans, in the family Porcii Catones * Cato the Elder (Cato Maior) or "the Censor" ...
'. helped found the ancient republic of Rome. His more famous name, Publicola, meant 'friend of the people'."Furtwangler, p. 51 Hamilton had applied this pseudonym to three letters in 1778, in which he attacked fellow Federalist
Samuel Chase Samuel Chase (April 17, 1741 – June 19, 1811) was a Founding Father of the United States The Founding Fathers of the United States, or simply the Founding Fathers or Founders, were a group of American revolutionary Patriots (also kn ...

Samuel Chase
and revealed that Chase had taken advantage of knowledge gained in Congress to try to dominate the flour market.


Authorship

At the time of publication, the authors of ''The Federalist Papers'' attempted to hide their identities due to Hamilton and Madison having attended the convention. Astute observers, however, correctly discerned the identities of Hamilton, Madison, and Jay. Establishing authorial authenticity of the essays that constitute ''The Federalist Papers'' has not always been clear. After Alexander Hamilton died in 1804, a list emerged, claiming that he alone had written two-thirds of ''The Federalist'' essays. Some believe that several of these essays were written by James Madison (Nos. 49–58 and 62–63). The scholarly detective work of
Douglass Adair Douglass Greybill Adair (March 5, 1912 – May 2, 1968) was an American historian who specialized in intellectual history. He is best known for his work in researching the authorship of disputed numbers of ''The Federalist Papers'', and his influen ...
in 1944 postulated the following assignments of authorship, corroborated in 1964 by a computer analysis of the text: * Alexander Hamilton (51 articles: Nos. 1, 6–9, 11–13, 15–17, 21–36, 59–61, and 65–85) * James Madison (29 articles: Nos. 10, 14, 18–20, 37–58 and 62–63) * John Jay (5 articles: Nos. 2–5 and 64). In six months, a total of 85 articles were written by the three men. Hamilton, who had been a leading advocate of national constitutional reform throughout the 1780s and was one of the three representatives for
New York New York most commonly refers to: * New York City, the most populous city in the United States, located in the state of New York * New York (state), a state in the northeastern United States New York may also refer to: Film and television * New ...
at the Constitutional Convention, in 1789 became the first
Secretary of the Treasury The United States secretary of the treasury is the head of the United States Department of the Treasury The Department of the Treasury (USDT) is the national treasury A treasury is either *A government department related to finance and t ...
, a post he held until his resignation in 1795. Madison, who is now acknowledged as the father of the Constitution—despite his repeated rejection of this honor during his lifetime,Banning, Lance
''James Madison: Federalist''
note 1. .
became a leading member of the U.S. House of Representatives from Virginia (1789–1797), Secretary of State (1801–1809), and ultimately the fourth
President of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona A persona (plural personae or personas), depending on the context, can refer to either the public image of ...

President of the United States
(1809–1817). John Jay, who had been secretary for foreign affairs under the
Articles of Confederation The Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union was an agreement among the 13 original states of the United States of America The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America ...
from 1784 through their expiration in 1789, became the first
Chief Justice of the United States The chief justice of the United States is the chief judge A chief judge (also known as chief justice The chief justice is the Chief judge, presiding member of a supreme court in any of many countries with a justice system based on English comm ...
in 1789, stepping down in 1795 to accept election as governor of New York, a post he held for two terms, retiring in 1801.


Publication

''The Federalist'' articles appeared in three New York newspapers: ''
The Independent Journal ''The Independent Journal'', occasionally known as ''The General Advertiser'', was a semi-weekly New York City New York, often called New York City to distinguish it from New York State New York is a state State may refer to: Arts, e ...
'', the ''New-York Packet'', and the ''Daily Advertiser'', beginning on October 27, 1787. Although written and published with haste, ''The Federalist'' articles were widely read and greatly influenced the shape of American political institutions. Hamilton, Madison and Jay published the essays at a rapid pace. At times, three to four new essays by Publius appeared in the papers in a single week. Garry Wills observes that this fast pace of production "overwhelmed" any possible response: "Who, given ample time could have answered such a battery of arguments? And no time was given." Hamilton also encouraged the reprinting of the essays in newspapers outside New York state, and indeed they were published in several other states where the ratification debate was taking place. However, they were only irregularly published outside New York, and in other parts of the country they were often overshadowed by local writers. Because the essays were initially published in New York, most of them begin with the same
salutation A salutation is a greeting Greeting is an act of communication in which human beings intentionally make their presence known to each other, to show attention to, and to suggest a type of relationship (usually cordial) or social status (forma ...

salutation
: "To the People of the State of New York". The high demand for the essays led to their publication in a more permanent form. On January 1, 1788, the New York publishing firm J. & A. McLean announced that they would publish the first 36 essays as a bound volume; that volume was released on March 22, 1788, and was titled ''The Federalist'' Volume 1. New essays continued to appear in the newspapers; Federalist No. 77 was the last number to appear first in that form, on April 2. A second bound volume was released on May 28, containing Federalist Nos. 37–77 and the previously unpublished Nos. 78–85. The last eight papers (Nos. 78–85) were republished in the New York newspapers between June 14 and August 16, 1788. A 1792 French edition ended the collective anonymity of Publius, announcing that the work had been written by "Mm. Hamilton, Maddisson e Gay, citoyens de l'État de New York". In 1802, George Hopkins published an American edition that similarly named the authors. Hopkins wished as well that "the name of the writer should be prefixed to each number," but at this point Hamilton insisted that this was not to be, and the division of the essays among the three authors remained a secret. The first publication to divide the papers in such a way was an 1810 edition that used a list left by Hamilton to associate the authors with their numbers; this edition appeared as two volumes of the compiled "Works of Hamilton". In 1818, Jacob Gideon published a new edition with a new listing of authors, based on a list provided by Madison. The difference between Hamilton's list and Madison's formed the basis for a dispute over the authorship of a dozen of the essays. Both Hopkins's and Gideon's editions incorporated significant edits to the text of the papers themselves, generally with the approval of the authors. In 1863, Henry Dawson published an edition containing the original text of the papers, arguing that they should be preserved as they were written in that particular historical moment, not as edited by the authors years later. Modern scholars generally use the text prepared by Jacob E. Cooke for his 1961 edition of ''The Federalist''; this edition used the newspaper texts for essay numbers 1–76 and the McLean edition for essay numbers 77–85.


Disputed essays

While the authorship of 73 of ''The Federalist'' essays is fairly certain, the identities of those who wrote the twelve remaining essays are disputed by some scholars. The modern consensus is that Madison wrote essays Nos. 49–58, with Nos. 18–20 being products of a collaboration between him and Hamilton; No. 64 was by John Jay. The first open designation of which essay belonged to whom was provided by Hamilton who, in the days before his ultimately fatal gun duel with
Aaron Burr Aaron Burr Jr. (February 6, 1756 – September 14, 1836) was an American politician and lawyer. He served as the third vice president of the United States The vice president of the United States (VPOTUS) is the second-highest officer in ...

Aaron Burr
, provided his lawyer with a list detailing the author of each number. This list credited Hamilton with a full 63 of the essays (three of those being jointly written with Madison), almost three-quarters of the whole, and was used as the basis for an 1810 printing that was the first to make specific attribution for the essays. Madison did not immediately dispute Hamilton's list, but provided his own list for the 1818 Gideon edition of ''The Federalist''. Madison claimed 29 essays for himself, and he suggested that the difference between the two lists was "owing doubtless to the hurry in which amilton'smemorandum was made out." A known error in Hamilton's list — Hamilton incorrectly ascribed No. 54 to John Jay, when in fact, Jay wrote No. 64 — provided some evidence for Madison's suggestion.
Statistical analysis Statistical inference is the process of using data analysis to infer properties of an underlying probability distribution, distribution of probability.Upton, G., Cook, I. (2008) ''Oxford Dictionary of Statistics'', OUP. . Inferential statistical ...
has been undertaken on several occasions in attempts to accurately identify the author of each individual essay. After examining word choice and writing style, studies generally agree that the disputed essays were written by James Madison. However, there are notable exceptions maintaining that some of the essays which are now widely attributed to Madison were, in fact, collaborative efforts.


Influence on the ratification debates

''The Federalist Papers'' were written to support the ratification of the Constitution, specifically in
New York New York most commonly refers to: * New York City, the most populous city in the United States, located in the state of New York * New York (state), a state in the northeastern United States New York may also refer to: Film and television * New ...
. Whether they succeeded in this mission is questionable. Separate ratification proceedings took place in each state, and the essays were not reliably reprinted outside of New York; furthermore, by the time the series was well underway, a number of important states had already ratified it, for instance Pennsylvania on December 12. New York held out until July 26; certainly ''The Federalist'' was more important there than anywhere else, but Furtwangler argues that it "could hardly rival other major forces in the ratification contests" — specifically, these forces included the personal influence of well-known Federalists, for instance Hamilton and Jay, and Anti-Federalists, including Governor George Clinton.Furtwangler, p. 21 Further, by the time New York came to a vote, ten states had already ratified the Constitution and it had thus already passed — only nine states had to ratify it for the new government to be established among them; the ratification by Virginia, the tenth state, placed pressure on New York to ratify. In light of that, Furtwangler observes, "New York's refusal would make that state an odd outsider." Only 19 Federalists were elected to New York's ratification convention, compared to the Anti-Federalists' 46 delegates. While New York did indeed ratify the Constitution on July 26, the lack of public support for pro-Constitution Federalists has led historian John Kaminski to suggest that the impact of ''The Federalist'' on New York citizens was "negligible". As for Virginia, which ratified the Constitution only at its
convention Convention may refer to: * Convention (norm) A convention is a set of agreed, stipulated, or generally accepted standards, norms, social norms, or criteria, often taking the form of a custom. In a social context, a convention may retain the ch ...
on June 25, Hamilton writes in a letter to Madison that the collected edition of ''The Federalist'' had been sent to Virginia; Furtwangler presumes that it was to act as a "debater's handbook for the convention there", though he claims that this indirect influence would be a "dubious distinction". Probably of greater importance to the Virginia debate, in any case, were George Washington's support for the proposed Constitution and the presence of Madison and
Edmund Randolph Edmund Jennings Randolph (August 10, 1753 September 12, 1813) was an American attorney Attorney may refer to: Roles * Attorney at law, an official title of lawyers in some jurisdictions * Attorney general, the principal legal officer of (or advi ...
, the governor, at the convention arguing for ratification.


Structure and content

In Federalist No. 1, Hamilton listed six topics to be covered in the subsequent articles: # "The utility of the UNION to your political prosperity" — covered in No. 2 through No. 14 # "The insufficiency of the present Confederation to preserve that Union" — covered in No. 15 through No. 22 # "The necessity of a government at least equally energetic with the one proposed to the attainment of this object" — covered in No. 23 through No. 36 # "The conformity of the proposed constitution to the true principles of republican government" — covered in No. 37 through No. 84 # "Its analogy to your own state constitution" — covered in No. 85 # "The additional security which its adoption will afford to the preservation of that species of government, to liberty and to prosperity" — covered in No. 85. Furtwangler notes that as the series grew, this plan was somewhat changed. The fourth topic expanded into detailed coverage of the individual articles of the Constitution and the institutions it mandated, while the two last topics were merely touched on in the last essay. The papers can be broken down by author as well as by topic. At the start of the series, all three authors were contributing; the first 20 papers are broken down as 11 by Hamilton, five by Madison and four by Jay. The rest of the series, however, is dominated by three long segments by a single writer: Nos. 21–36 by Hamilton, Nos. 37–58 by Madison, written while Hamilton was in Albany, and No. 65 through the end by Hamilton, published after Madison had left for Virginia.


Opposition to the Bill of Rights

''The Federalist Papers'' (specifically Federalist No. 84) are notable for their opposition to what later became the
United States Bill of Rights The United States Bill of Rights comprises the first ten amendments A constitutional amendment is a modification of the constitution A constitution is an aggregate of fundamental principles or established precedents that constitut ...

United States Bill of Rights
. The idea of adding a Bill of Rights to the Constitution was originally controversial because the Constitution, as written, did not specifically enumerate or protect the rights of the people, rather it listed the powers of the government and left all that remained to the states and the people.
Alexander Hamilton Alexander Hamilton (January 11, 1755 or 1757July 12, 1804) was an American statesman, politician, legal scholar, military commander, lawyer, banker, and economist. He was one of the Founding Fathers of the United States The Founding Fa ...

Alexander Hamilton
, the author of Federalist No. 84, feared that such an enumeration, once written down explicitly, would later be interpreted as a list of the ''only'' rights that people had. However, Hamilton's opposition to a Bill of Rights was far from universal. Robert Yates, writing under the pseudonym "Brutus", articulated this view point in the so-called Anti-Federalist No. 84, asserting that a government unrestrained by such a bill could easily devolve into tyranny. References in ''The Federalist'' and in the ratification debates warn of demagogues of the variety who through divisive appeals would aim at tyranny. ''The Federalist'' begins and ends with this issue. In the final paper Hamilton offers "a lesson of moderation to all sincere lovers of the Union, and ought to put them on their guard against hazarding anarchy, civil war, a perpetual alienation of the States from each other, and perhaps the military despotism of a successful demagogue". The matter was further clarified by the Ninth Amendment.


Judicial use

Federal judges, when interpreting the Constitution, frequently use ''The Federalist Papers'' as a contemporary account of the intentions of the framers and ratifiers. They have been applied on issues ranging from the power of the federal government in
foreign affairs ''Foreign Affairs'' is an American magazine of international relations International relations (IR), international affairs (IA) or international studies (IS) is the scientific study of interactions between sovereign states. In a broader ...

foreign affairs
(in '' Hines v. Davidowitz'') to the validity of ex post facto laws (in the 1798 decision '' Calder v. Bull'', apparently the first decision to mention ''The Federalist''). , ''The Federalist'' had been quoted 291 times in Supreme Court decisions. The amount of deference that should be given to ''The Federalist Papers'' in constitutional interpretation has always been somewhat controversial. As early as 1819, Chief Justice
John Marshall John Marshall (September 24, 1755July 6, 1835) was an American politician and lawyer who served as the fourth chief justice of the United States The chief justice of the United States is the chief judge A chief judge (also known as chief ...

John Marshall
noted in the famous case '' McCulloch v. Maryland'', that "the opinions expressed by the authors of that work have been justly supposed to be entitled to great respect in expounding the Constitution. No tribute can be paid to them which exceeds their merit; but in applying their opinions to the cases which may arise in the progress of our government, a right to judge of their correctness must be retained." In a letter to Thomas Ritchie in 1821, James Madison stated of the Constitution that "the legitimate meaning of the Instrument must be derived from the text itself; or if a key is to be sought elsewhere, it must be not in the opinions or intentions of the Body which planned & proposed the Constitution, but in the sense attached to it by the people in their respective State Conventions where it recd. all the authority which it possesses."


Complete list

The colors used to highlight the rows correspond to the author of the paper.


In popular culture

The purposes and authorship of ''The Federalist Papers'' were prominently highlighted in the lyrics of "Non-Stop", the
finale Finale may refer to: Pieces of music * Finale (music), the last movement of a piece * Finale (album), ''Finale'' (album), a 1977 album by Loggins and Messina * "Finale B", a 1996 song from the rock opera ''Rent'' * "Finale", a song by Anthrax fro ...
of Act One in the 2015 Broadway musical ''Hamilton'', written by
Lin-Manuel Miranda Lin-Manuel Miranda (; born January 16, 1980) is an American actor, songwriter, singer, playwright, producer, and film director. He is best known for creating and starring in the Broadway Broadway may refer to: Theatre * Broadway Theatre (d ...

Lin-Manuel Miranda
.


See also

*
American philosophy American philosophy is the activity, corpus, and tradition of philosophers affiliated with the United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Co ...
* '' The Anti-Federalist Papers'' * ''
The Complete Anti-Federalist ''The Complete Anti-Federalist'' is a 1981 seven-volume collection of the scattered Anti-Federalist Papers compiled by Herbert Storing and his former student Murray Dry of the University of Chicago, who oversaw the completion of the project after ...
'' *
List of pseudonyms used in the American Constitutional debates During the debates over the design and ratification of the United States Constitution The Constitution of the United States is the supreme law A constitution is an aggregate of fundamental principles or established precedents that c ...


Notes


References

* * Updated 2nd ed., originally published as * * Wills, Gary. ''Explaining America: The Federalist''. Garden City, NJ: 1981.


Further reading

* * * * * * * Dietze, Gottfried. ''The Federalist: A Classic on Federalism and Free Government''. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins Press, 1960. * Epstein, David F. ''The Political Theory of the Federalist''. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1984. * Gray, Leslie, and Wynell Burroughs. "Teaching With Documents: Ratification of the Constitution". ''Social Education'', 51 (1987): 322–24. * Heriot, Gail.
Are Modern Bloggers Following in the Footsteps of Publius (and Other Musings on Blogging By Legal Scholars)
, 84 ''Wash. U. L. Rev.'' 1113 (2006). * Kesler, Charles R. ''Saving the Revolution: The Federalist Papers and the American Founding''. New York: 1987. * Patrick, John J., and Clair W. Keller. ''Lessons on the Federalist Papers: Supplements to High School Courses in American History, Government and Civics''. Bloomington, IN: Organization of American Historians in association with ERIC/ChESS, 1987. ED 280 764. * Schechter, Stephen L. ''Teaching about American Federal Democracy''. Philadelphia: Center for the Study of Federalism at Temple University, 1984. ED 248 161. * Scott, Kyle. ''The Federalist Papers: A Reader's Guide'' (New York: Bloomsbury Press, 2013). * Sunstein, Cass R.
The Enlarged Republic – Then and Now
', New York Review of Books (March 26, 2009): Volume LVI, Number 5, 45. * Webster, Mary E. ''The Federalist Papers: In Modern Language Indexed for Today's Political Issues.'' Bellevue, WA: Merril Press, 1999. * White, Morton. ''Philosophy, The Federalist, and the Constitution''. New York: 1987. * Zebra Edition. ''The Federalist Papers: (Or, How Government Is Supposed to Work)'', ''Edited for Readability''. Oakesdale, WA: Lucky Zebra Press, 2007.


External links

*
"The federalist: a collection of essays"

"Full Text of The Federalist Papers"

''The Federalist Papers'', original 1788 printing

National Archives on ''The Federalist''





''Booknotes'' interview with Robert Scigliano on Scigliano's Modern Library edition of ''The Federalist Papers'', January 21, 2001.

Collection of ''The Federalist Papers''

EDSITEment on ''The Federalist'' and Anti-Federalist debates on diversity and the extended republic
* * {{DEFAULTSORT:Federalist Papers 1787 in law 1788 in law 1787 in the United States 1788 in the United States 1787 works 1788 works 1788 books 18th-century essays American political philosophy literature Democracy Essay collections United States documents Works published under a pseudonym Works published anonymously