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''The Chicago Manual of Style'' (abbreviated in writing as ''CMOS'' or ''CMS'', or sometimes as ''Chicago'') is a
style guide A style guide or manual of style is a set of standards for the writing, formatting, and design of documents A document is a writing, written, drawing, drawn, presented, or memorialized representation of thought, often the manifestation of ...
for
American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of variety (linguistics), varieties of the English language native to the United States. Currently, American English is the m ...
published since 1906 by the
University of Chicago Press The University of Chicago Press is the largest and one of the oldest university press A university press is an academic publishing Publishing is the activity of making information, literature, music, software and other content available to t ...
. Its 17 editions have prescribed writing and
citation A citation is a reference Reference is a relationship between objects in which one object designates, or acts as a means by which to connect to or link to, another object. The first object in this relation is said to ''refer to'' the second o ...

citation
styles widely used in publishing. It is "one of the most widely used and respected style guides in the United States". The guide specifically focuses on American English and deals with aspects of editorial practice, including grammar and usage, as well as document preparation and formatting. It is available in print as a hardcover book, and by subscription as a searchable website as ''The Chicago Manual of Style Online.'' The online version provides some free resources, primarily aimed at teachers, students, and libraries.


Availability and uses

''The Chicago Manual of Style'' is published in hardcover and online. The online edition includes the searchable text of both the 16th and 17th—its most recent—editions with features such as tools for editors, a citation guide summary, and searchable access to a Q&A, where University of Chicago Press editors answer readers' style questions. ''The Chicago Manual of Style'' also discusses the parts of a book and the editing process. An annual subscription is required for access to the online content of the ''Manual''. (Access to the Q&A, however, is free, as are various editing tools.) Many publishers throughout the world adopt "Chicago" as their style. It is used in some social science publications, most North American historical journals, and remains the basis for the ''Style Guide of the
American Anthropological Association The American Anthropological Association (AAA) is an organization of scholars and practitioners in the field of anthropology Anthropology is the of ity, concerned with , , , and , in both the present and past, including . studies patterns ...
'', the ''Style Sheet'' for the
Organization of American Historians alt=OAH logo, The logo for the Organization of American Historians. The Organization of American Historians (OAH), formerly known as the Mississippi Valley Historical Association, is the largest professional society dedicated to the teaching and s ...
, and corporate style guides, including the ''Apple Style Guide''. ''The Chicago Manual of Style'' includes chapters relevant to publishers of books and journals. It is used widely by academic and some trade publishers, as well as editors and authors who are required by those publishers to follow it. Kate L. Turabian's ''
A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations ''A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations'' is a style guide A style guide or manual of style is a set of standards for the writing, formatting and design of documents. It is often called a style sheet, although th ...
'' also reflects Chicago style. ''Chicago'' style offers writers a choice of several different formats. It allows the mixing of formats, provided that the result is clear and consistent. For instance, the 15th edition of ''The Chicago Manual of Style'' permits the use of both in-text citation systems and/or footnotes or endnotes, including use of "content notes"; it gives information about in-text citation by page number (such as
MLA style ''MLA Handbook'' (9th ed., 2021), formerly ''MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers'' (1977–2009), establishes a system for documenting sources in scholarly writing. It is published by the Modern Language Association The Modern Language ...
) or by year of publication (like
APA style APA style is a writing style and format for academic documents such as scholarly journal An academic or scholarly journal is a periodical publication in which scholarship relating to a particular academic discipline is published. Academic j ...
); it even provides for variations in styles of footnotes and endnotes, depending on whether the paper includes a full bibliography at the end.


Table of contents (17th ed.)

* List of Tables * List of Figures * Preface * Acknowledgements * Part I: The Publishing Process ** 1. Books and Manuals ** 2. Manuscript Preparation, Manuscript Editing, and Proofreading ** 3. Illustrations and Tables ** 4. Rights, Permissions, and Copyright Administration ''by William S. Strong'' * Part II: Style and Usage ** 5. Grammar and Usage ''by Bryan A. Garner'' ** 6. Punctuation ** 7. Spelling, Distinctive Treatment of Words, and Compounds ** 8. Names, Terms, and Titles of Works ** 9. Numbers ** 10. Abbreviations ** 11. Languages Other than English ** 12. Mathematics in Type ** 13. Quotations and Dialogue * Part III: Source Citations and Indexes ** 14. Notes and Bibliography ** 15. Author-Date References ** 16. Indexes * Glossary * Bibliography * Index


Citation styles

Two types of citation styles are provided. In both cases, two parts are needed: first, notation in the text, which indicates that the information immediately preceding was from another source; and second, the full citation, which is placed at another location.


Author-date style

Using author-date style, the sourced text is indicated parenthetically with the last name(s) of the author(s) and the year of publication with no intervening punctuation. Research has found that students do not always cite their work properly (Smith 2016). When page numbers are used, they are placed along with the author's last name and date of publication ''after'' an interposed comma. Research has found that students do not always cite their work properly (Smith 2016, 24). If the author's name is used in the text, only the date of publication need be cited parenthetically (with or without the page number). Research done by Smith found that students do not always cite their work properly (2016). In-text citations are usually placed just inside a mark of punctuation. An exception to this rule is for
block quotation A block quotation (also known as a long quotation or extract) is a quotation A quotation is the repetition of a sentence, phrase, or passage from speech or text that someone has said or written. In oral speech, it is the representation of an utt ...
s, where the citation is placed outside the punctuation. The full citation for the source is then included in a references section at the end of the material. As publication dates are prominent in this style, the reference entry places the publication date ''following'' the author(s) name. Heilman, James M., and Andrew G. West. 2015. "Wikipedia and Medicine: Quantifying Readership, Editors, and the Significance of Natural Language." ''Journal of Medical Internet Research'' 17 (3): e62.
doi #REDIRECT DOI DOI or Doi may refer to: Science and technology * Digital object identifier, an international standard for document identification * Distinctness of image, a quantification of vision used in optics * 2,5-Dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine, a ...
:10.2196/jmir.4069.


Notes and bibliography style

Using notes and bibliography style, the sourced text is indicated by a
superscript A subscript or superscript is a character (such as a number or letter) that is set slightly below or above the normal line of type, respectively. It is usually smaller than the rest of the text. Subscripts appear at or below the baseline, whil ...

superscript
ed note number that corresponds to a full citation either at the bottom of the page (as a footnote) or at the end of a main body of text (as an endnote). In both instances, the citation is also placed in a bibliography entry at the end of the material, listed in alphabetical order of the author's last name. The two formats differ: notes use commas where bibliography entries use periods. The following is an example of a journal article citation provided as a note and its bibliography entry. The third example of the bibliography entry is marked up with color to identify its parts. 1. James M. Heilman and Andrew G. West, "Wikipedia and Medicine: Quantifying Readership, Editors, and the Significance of Natural Language," ''Journal of Medical Internet Research'' 17, no. 3 (2015): e62,
doi #REDIRECT DOI DOI or Doi may refer to: Science and technology * Digital object identifier, an international standard for document identification * Distinctness of image, a quantification of vision used in optics * 2,5-Dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine, a ...
:10.2196/jmir.4069. Heilman, James M., and Andrew G. West. "Wikipedia and Medicine: Quantifying Readership, Editors, and the Significance of Natural Language." ''Journal of Medical Internet Research'' 17, no. 3 (2015): e62.
doi #REDIRECT DOI DOI or Doi may refer to: Science and technology * Digital object identifier, an international standard for document identification * Distinctness of image, a quantification of vision used in optics * 2,5-Dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine, a ...
:10.2196/jmir.4069. Heilman, James M., and Andrew G. West "Wikipedia and Medicine: Quantifying Readership, Editors, and the Significance of Natural Language." ''Journal of Medical Internet Research'' 17 no. 3 (2015) e62 doi:10.2196/jmir.4069 * Author(s) first listed author's name inverted in the bibliography entry * Article title inside
quotation mark Quotation marks, also known as quotes, quote marks, speech marks, inverted commas, or talking marks, are punctuation Punctuation (or sometimes interpunction) is the use of spacing, conventional signs (called punctuation marks), and cer ...
s * Journal title in
italic type In typography, italic type is a cursive font based on a stylised form of calligraphic handwriting. Owing to the influence from calligraphy, italics normally slant slightly to the right. Italics are a way to emphasise key points in a printed tex ...
*
Volume Volume is a scalar quantity expressing the amount Quantity or amount is a property that can exist as a multitude Multitude is a term for a group of people who cannot be classed under any other distinct category, except for their shared fact ...
*
Issue Issue or issues may refer to: * Issue (genealogy), a legal term for a person's descendants * Issue (periodicals), a number to indicate a particular periodical * Social issue, a matter that influences individuals within a society * Environmental iss ...
* Year along with month, if specified * Page numbers specific page number in a note; page range in a bibliography entry *
Digital object identifier#REDIRECT Digital object identifier {{Redirect category shell, 1= {{R from other capitalisation ...


History

What now is known as ''The Chicago Manual of Style'' was first published in 1906 under the title ''Manual of Style: Being a compilation of the typographical rules in force at the University of Chicago Press, to which are appended specimens of type in use''. From its first 203-page edition, the ''CMOS'' evolved into a comprehensive reference style guide of 1,146 pages in its 17th edition. It was one of the first editorial style guides published in the United States, and it is largely responsible for research methodology standardization, notably
citation style A citation is a reference Reference is a relationship between objects in which one object designates, or acts as a means by which to connect to or link to, another object. The first object in this relation is said to ''refer to'' the second o ...
. The most significant revision to the manual was made for the 12th edition, published in 1969. Its first printing of 20,000 copies sold out before it was printed. In 1982, with the publication of the 13th edition, it was officially retitled ''The Chicago Manual of Style'', adopting the informal name already in widespread use. More recently, the publishers have released a new edition about every seven to ten years. The 15th edition (2003) was revised to reflect the emergence of computer technology and the internet in publishing, offering guidance for citing electronic works. Other changes include a chapter on American English grammar and use, and a revised treatment of mathematical copy. In August 2010, the 16th edition was published simultaneously in the hardcover and online editions for the first time in the ''Manual''s history. In a departure from the earlier red-orange cover, the 16th edition features a robin's-egg blue dust jacket (a nod to older editions with blue jackets, such as the 11th and 12th). The 16th edition featured "music, foreign languages, and computer topics (such as
Unicode Unicode, formally the Unicode Standard, is an information technology Technical standard, standard for the consistent character encoding, encoding, representation, and handling of Character (computing), text expressed in most of the world's wri ...

Unicode
characters and
URL A Uniform Resource Locator (URL), colloquially termed a web address, is a reference to a web resource that specifies its location on a computer network A computer network is a group of computers that use a set of common communication prot ...

URL
s)". It also expands recommendations for producing electronic publications, including web-based content and
e-book An ebook (short for electronic book), also known as an e-book or eBook, is a book A book is a medium for recording information Information is processed, organised and structured data Data (; ) are individual facts, statistics, ...

e-book
s. An updated appendix on production and digital technology demystified the process of electronic
workflow A workflow consists of an orchestrated and repeatable pattern of activity, enabled by the systematic organization of resources into processes that transform materials, provide services, or process information. It can be depicted as a sequence of ...

workflow
and offered a primer on the use of
XML Extensible Markup Language (XML) is a markup language #REDIRECT Markup language In computer text processing, a markup language is a system for annotation, annotating a document in a way that is Syntax (logic), syntactically distinguishable fro ...

XML
markup. It also includes a revised glossary, including a host of terms associated with
electronic Electronic may refer to: *Electronics Electronics comprises the physics, engineering, technology and applications that deal with the emission, flow and control of electrons in vacuum and matter. It uses active devices to control electron flow b ...
and print publishing. The ''Chicago'' system of documentation is streamlined to achieve greater consistency between the author-date and notes-bibliography systems of citation, making both systems easier to use. In addition, updated and expanded examples address the many questions that arise when documenting online and digital sources, from the use of DOIs to citing
social networking site A social networking service (also social networking site or social media) is an online platform which people use to build social networks or social relation In social science, a social relation or social interaction is any relationship betwe ...
s. Figures and tables are updated throughout the book, including a return to the ''Manual''s popular hyphenation table and new, selective listings of Unicode numbers for special characters. In 2013, an adapted Spanish version was published by the
University of Deusto The University of Deusto ( es, Universidad de Deusto; eu, Deustuko Unibertsitatea) is a Spanish private university Private universities (and private colleges) are usually not operated by governments, although many receive tax breaks, public s ...
in
Bilbao ) , motto = , image_map = , mapsize = 275 px , map_caption = Interactive map outlining Bilbao , pushpin_map = Spain Basque Country#Spain#Europe , pushpin_map_caption ...

Bilbao
, Spain. In April 2016, the publisher released ''The Chicago Guide to Grammar, Usage, and Punctuation'',
Bryan A. Garner Bryan Andrew Garner (born 1958) is an American lawyer, lexicographer, and teacher who has written more than two dozen books about English usage and style guide, style such as ''Garner's Modern English Usage'' for a general audience, and others for ...
's expansion of his ''Chicago Manual of Style'' chapter on the topic, and coinciding with the release of the new edition of ''Garner's Modern American Usage''. The 17th edition was published in September 2017. It offers new and expanded style guidelines in response to advancing technology and social change. It also includes new and revised content reflecting the latest publishing practices and electronic workflows and self-publishing. Citation recommendations, the glossary of problematic words and phrases, and the bibliography have all been updated and expanded. In the 17th edition, email lost its hyphen, internet became lowercase, the singular "they" and "their" are now acceptable in certain circumstances, a major new section on syntax has been added, and the long-standing recommendation to use "ibid" has changed due to electronic publishing.


History of editions


First Edition, 1906

Second Edition, 1910

Third Edition, 1911

Fourth Edition, 1914

Fifth Edition, 1917
* Sixth Edition, 1919
Seventh Edition, 1920
* Eighth Edition, 1925 * Ninth Edition, 1927 * 10th Edition, 1937
11th Edition, 1949

12th Edition, 1969

13th Edition, 1982

14th Edition, 1993

15th Edition, 2003

complete text online free to borrow



Recent printed editions

File:The Chicago Manual of Style 15th edition.png, 15th File:The Chicago Manual of Style 16th edition.gif, 16th File:The Chicago Manual of Style 17th edition cover.gif, 17th * * *


See also

*
Linguistic prescription Linguistic prescription, or prescriptive grammar, is the establishment of rules defining preferred usage The usage of a language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestur ...
* ''
A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations ''A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations'' is a style guide A style guide or manual of style is a set of standards for the writing, formatting and design of documents. It is often called a style sheet, although th ...
'' * ''
Oxford Standard for Citation of Legal Authorities The ''Oxford University Standard for Citation of Legal Authorities'' (''OSCOLA'') is a style guide A style guide or manual of style is a set of standards for the writing, formatting and design of documents. It is often called a style sheet, alt ...
''


Notes


References


External links

*
''Chicago Manual of Style'' 17th Edition
at Purdue Online Writing Lab (OWL) {{DEFAULTSORT:Chicago Manual of Style Chicago Manual of Style, The Academic style guides Chicago Manual of Style, The Chicago Manual of Style, The