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A test or examination (exam or evaluation) is an
educational assessment Educational assessment or educational evaluation is the systematic process of documenting and using empirical data on the knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity or awareness, of someone or something, such as facts A fact is an occurrence i ...
intended to measure a test-taker's
knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity or awareness, of someone or something, such as facts A fact is something that is truth, true. The usual test for a statement of fact is verifiability—that is whether it can be demonstrated to correspond to e ...
,
skill A skill is the learned ability to perform an action with determined results with good execution often within a given amount of time, energy, or both. Skills can often be divided into Departmentalization, domain-general and domain-specific skills. ...
,
aptitude An aptitude is a component of a competence to do a certain kind of Labour (economics), work at a certain level. Outstanding aptitude can be considered "talent." An aptitude may be Physical fitness, physical or mind, mental. Aptitude is inborn po ...

aptitude
,
physical fitness Physical fitness is a state of health Health, according to the World Health Organization, is "a state of complete physical, Mental health, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease and infirmity".World Health Organiza ...
, or classification in many other topics (e.g.,
belief A belief is an attitude Attitude may refer to: Philosophy and psychology * Attitude (psychology) In psychology Psychology is the science of mind and behavior. Psychology includes the study of consciousness, conscious and Unconsci ...

belief
s). A test may be administered verbally, on paper, on a
computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to Execution (computing), carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. Modern computers can perform generic sets of operations known as Computer program, programs. These ...
, or in a predetermined area that requires a test taker to demonstrate or perform a set of skills. Tests vary in style, rigor and requirements. There is no general consensus or invariable standard for test formats and difficulty. Often, the format and difficulty of the test is dependent upon the educational philosophy of the instructor, subject matter, class size, policy of the educational institution, and requirements of accreditation or governing bodies. A test may be administered formally or informally. An example of an informal test is a reading test administered by a parent to a child. A formal test might be a
final examination A final examination, annual, exam, final interview, or simply final, is a test (assessment), test given to students at the end of a course of study or training. Although the term can be used in the context of physical training, it most often ...
administered by a teacher in a classroom or an
IQ test An intelligence quotient (IQ) is a total score derived from a set of standardized test A standardized test is a test Test(s), testing, or TEST may refer to: * Test (assessment), an educational assessment intended to measure the respondent ...
administered by a psychologist in a clinic. Formal testing often results in a
grade Grade or grading may refer to: Arts and entertainment * Grade (band) Grade is a melodic hardcore band from Canada, often credited as pioneers in blending metallic hardcore with the hon and melody of emo, and - most notably - the alternating scr ...
or a
test scoreA test score is a piece of information, usually a number, that conveys the performance of an examinee on a test Test(s), testing, or TEST may refer to: * Test (assessment), an educational assessment intended to measure the respondents' knowledge ...
. A test score may be interpreted with regards to a
norm Norm, the Norm or NORM may refer to: In academic disciplines * Norm (geology), an estimate of the idealised mineral content of a rock * Norm (philosophy) Norms are concepts ( sentences) of practical import, oriented to effecting an action, rat ...
or
criterion Criterion, or its plural form criteria, may refer to: General * Criterion, Oregon Criterion is an historic unincorporated community File:Entering Heinola, Minnesota.jpg, Sign at Heinola, Minnesota, Heinola, an unincorporated community in Otter ...
, or occasionally both. The norm may be established independently, or by
statistical Statistics is the discipline that concerns the collection, organization, analysis, interpretation, and presentation of data Data are units of information Information can be thought of as the resolution of uncertainty; it answers th ...

statistical
analysis of a large number of participants. A test may be developed and administered by an instructor, a clinician, a governing body, or a test provider. In some instances, the developer of the test may not be directly responsible for its administration. For example,
Educational Testing Service Educational Testing Service (ETS), founded in 1947, is the world's largest private nonprofit educational testing and assessment organization. It is headquartered in Lawrence Township, New Jersey New Jersey is a in the and regions ...
(ETS), a nonprofit educational testing and assessment organization, develops standardized tests such as the SAT but may not directly be involved in the administration or proctoring of these tests.


History


Oral and informal examinations

Informal, unofficial, and non-standardized tests and testing systems have existed throughout history. For example, tests of skill such as
archery contest Archery Archery is the art, sport, practice, or skill of using a bow to shoot arrows.Paterson ''Encyclopaedia of Archery'' p. 17 The word comes from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic langua ...
s have existed in
China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere ...

China
since the
Zhou dynasty The Zhou dynasty ( ; Old Chinese Old Chinese, also called Archaic Chinese in older works, is the oldest attested stage of Chinese Chinese can refer to: * Something related to China China, officially the People's Republic of China ( ...
(or, more mythologically,
Yao Yao or YAO may refer to: * Yao (surname), the transliteration of Chinese family names 姚, 銚, and 么 * Yao (ruler), a mythical Chinese ruler and emperor * Yao Ming, Chinese Basketball All-Star that played for the Houston Rockets * Euphrasie Kouas ...
). Oral exams were administered in various parts of the world including ancient China and Europe. A precursor to the later Chinese
imperial examination The Chinese imperial examinations, or ''keju'' (lit. "subject recommendation"), was a civil service examination system in History of China#Imperial era, Imperial China for selecting candidates for the state Civil service#China, bureaucracy. T ...
s was in place since the
Han dynasty#REDIRECT Han dynasty The Han dynasty () was the second Dynasties in Chinese history, imperial dynasty of China (202 BC – 220 AD), established by the rebel leader Liu Bang and ruled by the House of Liu. Preceded by the short-lived Qin dynas ...

Han dynasty
, during which the
Confucian , Shanxi Shanxi (; ; Chinese postal romanization, formerly romanised as Shansi) is a landlocked Provinces of China, province of the China, People's Republic of China and is part of the North China region. The capital and largest city of th ...

Confucian
characteristic of the examinations was determined. However these examinations did not offer an official avenue to government appointment, the majority of which were filled through recommendations based on qualities such as social status, morals, and ability.


China

Standardized written examinations were first implemented in China. They were commonly known as the
imperial examination The Chinese imperial examinations, or ''keju'' (lit. "subject recommendation"), was a civil service examination system in History of China#Imperial era, Imperial China for selecting candidates for the state Civil service#China, bureaucracy. T ...
s (''keju''). The bureaucratic imperial examinations as a concept has its origins in the year 605 during the short lived
Sui dynasty The Sui dynasty (, ) was a short-lived Dynasties in Chinese history, imperial dynasty of China of pivotal significance. The Sui unified the Northern and Southern dynasties and reinstalled the rule of ethnic Han Chinese, Han in the entirety of ...

Sui dynasty
. Its successor, the
Tang dynasty The Tang dynasty (, ; ), or Tang Empire, was an imperial dynasty of China that ruled from 618 to 907, with an interregnum An interregnum (plural interregna or interregnums) is a period of discontinuity or "gap" in a government, organiza ...
, implemented imperial examinations on a relatively small scale until the examination system was extensively expanded during the reign of
Wu Zetian Wu Zhao, commonly known as Wu Zetian (17 February 624 – 26 November 705), alternatively Wu Hou, and during the later Tang dynasty The Tang dynasty (, ; ), or Tang Empire, was an imperial dynasty of China that ruled from 618 to 907, ...
. Included in the expanded examination system was a military exam that tested physical ability, but the military exam never had a significant impact on the Chinese officer corps and military degrees were seen as inferior to their civil counterpart. The exact nature of Wu's influence on the examination system is still a matter of scholarly debate. During the
Song dynasty The Song dynasty (; ; 960–1279) was an imperial dynasty of China that began in 960 and lasted until 1279. The dynasty was founded by Emperor Taizu of Song Emperor Taizu of Song (21 March 927 – 14 November 976), personal name Zhao Kua ...
the emperors expanded both examinations and the government school system, in part to counter the influence of hereditary nobility, increasing the number of degree holders to more than four to five times that of the Tang. From the Song dynasty onward, the examinations played the primary role in selecting scholar-officials, who formed the literati elite of society. However the examinations co-existed with other forms of recruitment such as direct appointments for the ruling family, nominations, quotas, clerical promotions, sale of official titles, and special procedures for
eunuchs A eunuch ( ) is a man A man is an adult male Male (♂) is the sex of an organism that produces the gamete known as sperm. A male gamete can fuse with a larger female gamete, or ovum, in the process of fertilization. A male cannot se ...
. The regular higher level degree examination cycle was decreed in 1067 to be 3 years but this triennial cycle only existed in nominal terms. In practice both before and after this, the examinations were irregularly implemented for significant periods of time: thus, the calculated statistical averages for the number of degrees conferred annually should be understood in this context. The ''jinshi'' exams were not a yearly event and should not be considered so; the annual average figures are a necessary artifact of quantitative analysis. The operations of the examination system were part of the imperial record keeping system, and the date of receiving the ''jinshi'' degree is often a key biographical datum: sometimes the date of achieving ''jinshi'' is the only firm date known for even some of the most historically prominent persons in Chinese history. A brief interruption to the examinations occurred at the beginning of the Mongol
Yuan dynasty The Yuan dynasty (), officially the Great Yuan (; xng, , , literally "Great Yuan State"), was a successor state Successor is someone who, or something which succeeds or comes after (see success and succession) Film and TV * ''The Succ ...
in the 13th century, but was later brought back with regional quotas which favored the Mongols and disadvantaged Southern Chinese. During the
Ming The Ming dynasty (), officially the Great Ming, was the ruling dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644 following the collapse of the Mongol The Mongols ( mn, Монголчууд, , ''Mongolchuud'', ; russian: Монголы, ) are an eth ...

Ming
and
Qing The Qing dynasty, officially the Great Qing (), was the last imperial dynasty A dynasty (, ) is a sequence of rulers from the same family,''Oxford English Dictionary'', "dynasty, ''n.''" Oxford University Press Oxford Univers ...
dynasties, the system contributed to the narrow and focused nature of intellectual life and enhanced the autocratic power of the emperor. The system continued with some modifications until its abolition in 1905 during the last years of the Qing dynasty. The modern examination system for selecting civil servants also indirectly evolved from the imperial one.


Spread


Japan

Japan Japan ( ja, 日本, or , and formally ) is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an in ...

Japan
implemented the examination system for 200 years during the
Heian period The is the last division of classical Japanese history The first human habitation in the Japanese archipelago has been traced to prehistoric times around 30,000 BCE. The Jōmon period The is the time in Japanese prehistory, traditi ...
(794-1185). Like the Chinese examinations, the curriculum revolved around the Confucian canon. However, unlike in China, it was only ever applied to the minor nobility and so gradually faded away under the hereditary system during the
Samurai were the hereditary military nobility and officer caste of History of Japan#Medieval Japan (1185–1573/1600), medieval and Edo period, early-modern Japan from the late 12th century to their abolition in 1876. They were the well-paid retainer ...

Samurai
era.


Korea

The
examination system A standardized test is a test Test(s), testing, or TEST may refer to: * Test (assessment), an educational assessment intended to measure the respondents' knowledge or other abilities Arts and entertainment * Test (2013 film), ''Test'' (2013 fi ...
was established in
Korea Korea is a region In geography, regions are areas that are broadly divided by physical characteristics (physical geography), human impact characteristics (human geography), and the interaction of humanity and the environment (environmental ...

Korea
in 958 under the reign of
Gwangjong of Goryeo Gwangjong of Goryeo (925 – 4 July 975), personal name Wang So, was the fourth king of Goryeo. Biography Birth and early life Gwangjong was born in 925 as Wang So, fourth son of King Taejo of Goryeo, Taejo, who had founded Goryeo in 918. His mot ...
. Any free man (not
Nobi ''Nobi'' were members of the slave class during the Korean dynasties of Goryeo and Joseon. Legally, they held the lowest rank in medieval Korean society. Like the slaves, serfs Serfdom was the status of many peasants under feudalism, ...
) was able to take the examinations. By the
Joseon Joseon (also transcribed as Chosŏn, ko, 대조선국; 大朝鮮國, ) was a Korean dynastic kingdom that lasted for approximately five centuries. It was the last dynastic kingdom of Korea. It was founded by Yi Seong-gye Taejo of Joseon ...
period, high offices were closed to aristocrats who had not passed the exams. The examination system continued until 1894 when it was abolished by the Gabo Reform. As in China, the content of the examinations focused on the Confucian canon and ensured a loyal scholar bureaucrat class which upheld the throne.


Vietnam

The
Confucian examination system in Vietnam Invigilators seated on high chairs at a provincial exam in 1888 in northern Vietnam The Confucian court examination system in Vietnam (, Vietnamese language, Vietnamese : ''Chế-độ khoa-cử Việt-nam'' ) was a system for entry into the civil ...
was established in 1075 under the Lý dynasty Emperor
Lý Nhân Tông Lý Nhân Tông (22 February 1066 – 15 January 1128), Vietnamese name, personal name Lý Càn Đức, temple name Nhân Tông was the List of emperors of the Lý Dynasty, fourth monarch of the Lý dynasty, ruled the kingdom of Đại Việt fr ...
and lasted until the
Nguyễn dynasty Nguyễn is the most common Vietnamese surname / family name. Outside of Vietnam, the surname is commonly rendered without diacritic A diacritic (also diacritical mark, diacritical point, diacritical sign, or accent) is a glyph The term gl ...
Emperor Khải Định (1919). There were only three levels of examinations in Vietnam: interprovincial, pre-court, and court.


West

The imperial examination system was known to
Europeans Europeans are the focus of European ethnology, the field of anthropology related to the various indigenous groups that reside in the List of sovereign states and dependent territories in Europe, nations of Europe. Groups may be defined by commo ...

Europeans
as early as 1570. It received great attention from the
Jesuit , image = Ihs-logo.svg , caption = Christogram A Christogram (Latin ') is a monogram or combination of letters that forms an abbreviation for the name of Jesus Christ, traditionally used as a Christian symbolism ...
Matteo Ricci Matteo Ricci (; la, Mattheus Riccius; 6 October 1552 – 11 May 1610), was an Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, an ethnic group or simply a citizen of the Italian ...
(1552–1610), who viewed it and its Confucian appeal to rationalism favorably in comparison to religious reliance on "apocalypse." Knowledge of Confucianism and the examination system was disseminated broadly in
Europe Europe is a continent A continent is any of several large landmass A landmass, or land mass, is a large region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of scienc ...

Europe
following the
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became ...

Latin
translation of Ricci's journal in 1614. During the 18th century, the imperial examinations were often discussed in conjunction with Confucianism, which attracted great attention from contemporary European thinkers such as
Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Gottfried Wilhelm (von) Leibniz ; see inscription of the engraving depicted in the " 1666–1676" section. ( – 14 November 1716) was a German polymath A polymath ( el, πολυμαθής, ', "having learned much"; Latin Latin (, or , ...

Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz
,
Voltaire François-Marie Arouet (; 21 November 169430 May 1778), known by his ''nom de plume A pen name, also called a ''nom de plume'' () or a literary double, is a pseudonym A pseudonym () or alias () (originally: ψευδώνυμος in Greek) is a ...

Voltaire
,
Montesquieu Charles-Louis de Secondat, Baron de La Brède et de Montesquieu Charles-Louis de Secondat, Baron de La Brède et de Montesquieu, Lot-et-Garonne, Montesquieu (; ; 18 January 168910 February 1755), generally referred to as simply Montesqui ...

Montesquieu
,
Baron d'Holbach (Rhineland-Palatinate Rhineland-Palatinate (german: Rheinland-Pfalz, ) is a western states of Germany, state of Germany. It covers and has about 4.05 million residents. It is the ninth largest and sixth most populous of the sixteen states. Mai ...
,
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (28 August 1749 – 22 March 1832) was a German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citizens of G ...

Johann Wolfgang von Goethe
, and
Friedrich Schiller Johann Christoph Friedrich von Schiller (, short: ; 10 November 17599 May 1805) was a Germans, German playwright, poet, and philosopher. During the last seventeen years of his life (1788–1805), Schiller developed a productive, if complicated, ...

Friedrich Schiller
. In
France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a transcontinental country This is a list of countries located on more than one continent A continent is one of several large landmasses ...

France
and
Britain Britain usually refers to: * United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United ...

Britain
, Confucian ideology was used in attacking the privilege of the elite. Figures such as Voltaire claimed that the Chinese had "perfected moral science" and
François Quesnay François Quesnay (; 4 June 1694 – 16 December 1774) was a French economist An economist is a practitioner in the social sciences, social science discipline of economics. The individual may also study, develop, and apply theories and conce ...

François Quesnay
advocated an economic and political system modeled after that of the Chinese. According to
Ferdinand Brunetière
Ferdinand Brunetière
(1849-1906), followers of
Physiocracy , a physician who is considered the founding father of physiocracy, published the "Tableau économique" (Economic Table) in 1758 Image:Pierre Samuel du Pont de Nemours (1739-1817).png, Pierre Samuel du Pont de Nemours, a prominent physiocrat. In ...
such as François Quesnay, whose theory of free trade was based on Chinese classical theory, were sinophiles bent on introducing "l'esprit chinois" to France. He also admits that French education was really based on Chinese literary examinations which were popularized in France by philosophers, especially Voltaire. Western perception of China in the 18th century admired the Chinese bureaucratic system as favourable over European governments for its seeming meritocracy. However those who admired China such as were sometimes persecuted. In 1721 he gave a lecture at the
University of Halle Martin Luther University of Halle-Wittenberg (german: Martin-Luther-Universität Halle-Wittenberg), also referred to as MLU, is a public, research Research is "creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge" ...
praising Confucianism, for which he was accused of atheism and forced to give up his position at the university. The earliest evidence of examinations in Europe date to 1215 or 1219 in
Bologna Bologna (, , ; egl, label=Bolognese Bologna (, , ; egl, label=Bolognese dialect, Bolognese, Bulåggna ; lat, Bonōnia) is the capital and largest city of the Emilia-Romagna region in Northern Italy. It is the seventh most populous ...

Bologna
. These were chiefly oral in the form of a question or answer, disputation, determination, defense, or public lecture. The candidate gave a public lecture of two prepared passages assigned to him from the civil or canon law, and then doctors asked him questions, or expressed objections to answers. Evidence of written examinations do not appear until 1702 at
Trinity College, Cambridge Trinity College is a constituent college A collegiate university is a university A university ( la, universitas, 'a whole') is an educational institution, institution of higher education, higher (or Tertiary education, tertiary) education ...
. According to Sir Michael Sadler, Europe may have had written examinations since 1518 but he admits the "evidence is not very clear." In
Prussia Prussia, , Old Prussian Distribution of the Baltic tribes, circa 1200 CE (boundaries are approximate). Old Prussian was a Western Baltic language belonging to the Balto-Slavic branch of the Indo-European languages The Indo-Europ ...

Prussia
, medication examinations began in 1725. The
Mathematical Tripos The Mathematical Tripos is the mathematics course that is taught in the Faculty of Mathematics at the University of Cambridge. It is the oldest Tripos examined at the University. Origin In its classical nineteenth-century form, the tripos was a ...
, founded in 1747, is commonly believed to be the first honor examination, but
James Bass Mullinger James Bass Mullinger (1834 or 1843 – 22 November 1917), sometimes known by his pen name Theodorus, was a British author, historian, lecturer and scholar. A longtime university librarian and lecturer at St. John's College, Cambridge, Mullinger w ...
considered "the candidates not having really undergone any examination whatsoever" because the qualification for a degree was merely four years of residence. France adopted the examination system in 1791 as a result of the
French Revolution The French Revolution ( ) was a period of radical political and societal change in France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a spanning and in the and the , and s. Its ...

French Revolution
but it collapsed after only ten years.
Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px , capital = Berlin Berlin (; ) is the Capital city, capital and List of cities in Germany by population, largest city of Germany by both area and population. Its 3,769,495 inh ...

Germany
implemented the examination system around 1800. Englishmen in the 18th century such as
Eustace Budgell Eustace Budgell (19 August 1686 – 4 May 1737) was an English writer and politician. Life and Death Born in St Thomas near Exeter Exeter () is a city in Devon, England, on the River Exe northeast of Plymouth and southwest of Bristol. It ...
recommended imitating the Chinese examination system but the first English person to recommend competitive examinations to qualify for employment was
Adam Smith Adam Smith ( 1723 – 17 July 1790) was a Scottish economist, philosopher as well as a moral philosopher Ethics or moral philosophy is a branch of philosophy that "involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and ...

Adam Smith
in 1776. In 1838, the
Congregational church Congregational churches (also Congregationalist churches; Congregationalism) are Protestantism, Protestant churches in the Reformed tradition practising Congregationalist polity, congregationalist church governance, in which each Wiktionary:con ...

Congregational church
missionary
Walter Henry Medhurst Walter Henry Medhurst (29 April 179624 January 1857), was an English Congregationalist missionary to China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by ...
considered the Chinese exams to be "worthy of imitating." In 1806, the British established a Civil Service College near London for training of the East India Company's administrators in India. This was based on the recommendations of British East India Company officials serving in China and had seen the Imperial examinations. In 1829, the company introduced civil service examinations in India on a limited basis. This established the principle of qualification process for civil servants in England.Bodde, Derk, ''Chinese Ideas in the West'' Committee on Asiatic Studies in American Educatio

/ref> In 1847 and 1856, Thomas Taylor Meadows strongly recommended the adoption of the Chinese principle of competitive examinations in
Great Britain Great Britain is an island An island (or isle) is an isolated piece of habitat that is surrounded by a dramatically different habitat, such as water. Very small islands such as emergent land features on atoll An atoll (), ...

Great Britain
in his ''Desultory Notes on the Government and People of China''. According to Meadows, "the long duration of the Chinese empire is solely and altogether owing to the good government which consists in the advancement of men of talent and merit only." Both
Thomas Babington Macaulay Thomas Babington Macaulay, 1st Baron Macaulay, FRS FRSE PC (25 October 180028 December 1859) was a British historian and Whig politician. He wrote extensively as an essayist, on contemporary and historical sociopolitical subjects, and as a ...

Thomas Babington Macaulay
, who was instrumental in passing the
Saint Helena Act 1833 The Saint Helena Act 1833 or the Charter Act of 1833 (3 & 4 Will 4 c 85) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom The Parliament of the United Kingdom is the Parliamentary sovereignty in the United Kingdom, supreme Legislature, legi ...
, and
Stafford Northcote, 1st Earl of Iddesleigh Stafford Henry Northcote, 1st Earl of Iddesleigh (27 October 1818 – 12 January 1887), known as Sir Stafford Northcote, Bt from 1851 to 1885, was a British Conservative Conservatism is a Political philosophy, political and social philos ...

Stafford Northcote, 1st Earl of Iddesleigh
, who prepared the
Northcote–Trevelyan Report The Northcote-Trevelyan Report was a document prepared by Stafford H. Northcote (later to be Chancellor of the Exchequer The Chancellor of the Exchequer, often abbreviated to the Chancellor, is a high ranking Minister of the Crown within the Go ...
that catalyzed the
British civil service Her Majesty's Home Civil Service, also known as Her Majesty's Civil Service or the Home Civil Service, is the permanent bureaucracy The term bureaucracy () may refer both to a body of non-elected governing officials and to an administrative ...
, were familiar with Chinese history and institutions. The Northcote–Trevelyan Report of 1854 made four principal recommendations: that recruitment should be on the basis of merit determined through standardized written examination, that candidates should have a solid general education to enable inter-departmental transfers, that recruits should be graded into a hierarchy, and that promotion should be through achievement, rather than 'preferment, patronage, or purchase'.Kazin, Edwards, and Rothman (2010), 142. When the report was brought up in parliament in 1853, Lord Monteagle argued against the implementation of open examinations because it was a Chinese system and China was not an "enlightened country." Lord Stanley called the examinations the "Chinese Principle." The Earl of Granville did not deny this but argued in favor of the examination system, considering that the minority Manchus had been able to rule China with it for over 200 years. In 1854,
Edwin Chadwick Sir Edwin Chadwick KCB (24 January 18006 July 1890) was an English social reformer who is noted for his leadership in reforming the Poor Law In English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic l ...

Edwin Chadwick
reported that some noblemen did not agree with the measures introduced because they were Chinese. The examination system was finally implemented in the British Indian Civil Service in 1855, prior to which admission into the civil service was purely a matter of patronage, and in
England England is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to its west and Scotland to its north. The Irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea to the southwest. E ...

England
in 1870. Even as late as ten years after the competitive examination plan was passed, people still attacked it as an "adopted Chinese culture."
Alexander Baillie-Cochrane, 1st Baron Lamington Alexander Dundas Ross Cochrane-Wishart-Baillie, 1st Baron Lamington (24 November 1816 – 15 February 1890), better known as Alexander Baillie-Cochrane, was a British Conservative Conservatism is a Political philosophy, political and social ...
insisted that the English "did not know that it was necessary for them to take lessons from the Celestial Empire." In 1875,
Archibald Sayce The Rev. Archibald Henry Sayce (25 September 18454 February 1933), was a pioneer British Assyriologist and linguist Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, ...

Archibald Sayce
voiced concern over the prevalence of competitive examinations, which he described as "the invasion of this new Chinese culture."Ssu-yu Teng, "Chinese Influence on the Western Examination System", ''Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies'' 7 (1942–1943): 267–312. After Great Britain's successful implementation of systematic, open, and competitive examinations in India in the 19th century, similar systems were instituted in the
United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Some prefer to use Britain as shorth ...
itself, and in other Western nations. Like the British, the development of the French and American civil service was influenced by the Chinese system. When Thomas Jenckes made a ''Report from the Joint Select Committee on Retrenchment'' in 1868, it contained a chapter on the civil service in China. In 1870, William Spear wrote a book called ''The Oldest and the Newest Empire-China and the United States'', in which he urged the United States government to adopt the Chinese examination system. Like in Britain, many of the American elites scorned the plan to implement competitive examinations, which they considered foreign, Chinese, and "un-American." As a result, the civil services reform introduced into the
House of Representatives House of Representatives is the name of legislative bodies A legislature is a deliberative assembly A deliberative assembly is a gathering of members (of any kind of collective) who use parliamentary procedure Parliamentary procedure is ...
in 1868 was not passed until 1883. The Civil Service Commission tried to combat such sentiments in its report:


Modern development

Standardized test A standardized test is a test Test(s), testing, or TEST may refer to: * Test (assessment), an educational assessment intended to measure the respondents' knowledge or other abilities Arts and entertainment * Test (2013 film), ''Test'' (2013 f ...
ing began to influence the method of examination in British universities from the 1850s, where
oral exam The oral exam (also oral test or '; ' in German-speaking nations) is a practice in many schools and disciplines in which an examiner poses questions to the student in spoken form. The student has to answer the question in such a way as to demonstr ...
s had been the norm since the
Middle Ages In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the study, organization and presentation and the interpretation of past events and affairs of the people of Europe since the beginning of ...
. In the US, the transition happened under the influence of the educational reformer
Horace Mann Horace Mann (May 4, 1796August 2, 1859) was an American educational reformer and Whig Whig or Whigs may refer to: Parties and factions In the British Isles * A pejorative nickname for the Kirk Party The Kirk Party were a radical Presby ...

Horace Mann
. The shift helped standardize an expansion of the curricula into the sciences and
humanities Humanities are academic disciplines An academic discipline or academic field is a subdivision of knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity or awareness, of someone or something, such as facts A fact is an occurrence in the real world. ...

humanities
, creating a rationalized method for the evaluation of teachers and institutions and creating a basis for the streaming of students according to ability. Both World War I and World War II demonstrated the necessity of
standardized test A standardized test is a test Test(s), testing, or TEST may refer to: * Test (assessment), an educational assessment intended to measure the respondents' knowledge or other abilities Arts and entertainment * Test (2013 film), ''Test'' (2013 f ...
ing and the benefits associated with these tests. Tests were used to determine the mental aptitude of recruits to the military. The US Army used the Stanford–Binet Intelligence Scale to test the IQ of the soldiers. After the War, industry began using tests to evaluate applicants for various jobs based on performance. In 1952, the first Advanced Placement (AP) test was administered to begin closing the gap between high schools and colleges.


Contemporary tests


Education

Tests are used throughout most educational systems. Tests may range from brief, informal questions chosen by the teacher to major tests that students and teachers spend months preparing for. Some countries such as the United Kingdom and France require all their secondary school students to take a standardized test on individual subjects such as the General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE) (in England) and
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respectively as a requirement for graduation. These tests are used primarily to assess a student's proficiency in specific subjects such as mathematics, science, or literature. In contrast, high school students in other countries such as the United States may not be required to take a standardized test to graduate. Moreover, students in these countries usually take standardized tests only to apply for a position in a university program and are typically given the option of taking different standardized tests such as the ACT or , which are used primarily to measure a student's reasoning skill.Name changed in 1996. High school students in the United States may also take
Advanced Placement Advanced Placement (AP) is a program in the United States and Canada created by the College Board The College Board is an American nonprofit organization that was formed in December 1899 as the College Entrance Examination Board (CEEB) to e ...
tests on specific subjects to fulfill university-level credit. Depending on the policies of the test maker or country, administration of standardized tests may be done in a large hall, classroom, or testing center. A proctor or invigilator may also be present during the testing period to provide instructions, to answer questions, or to prevent cheating. Grades or test scores from standardized test may also be used by universities to determine whether a student applicant should be admitted into one of its academic or professional programs. For example, universities in the United Kingdom admit applicants into their undergraduate programs based primarily or solely on an applicant's grades on pre-university qualifications such as the GCE A-levels or
Cambridge Pre-UThe Cambridge Pre-U is a school leaving qualification from Cambridge Assessment International Education that is an alternative to the current Advanced Level (UK), A Level qualification. It is principally aimed at students aged 16–19, and has recogn ...
. In contrast, universities in the United States use an applicant's test score on the SAT or ACT as just one of their many admission criteria to determine whether an applicant should be admitted into one of its undergraduate programs. The other criteria in this case may include the applicant's grades from high school, extracurricular activities, personal statement, and letters of recommendations. Once admitted, undergraduate students in the United Kingdom or United States may be required by their respective programs to take a
comprehensive examination In higher education, a comprehensive examination (or comprehensive exam or exams), often abbreviated as "comps", is a specific type of examination Examination may refer to: * Physical examination, a medical procedure * Questioning and more specifi ...
as a requirement for passing their courses or for graduating from their respective programs. Standardized tests are sometimes used by certain countries to manage the quality of their educational institutions. For example, the
No Child Left Behind Act The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB) was a U.S. Act of Congress An Act of Congress is a statute enacted by United States Congress, Congress. Acts can affect only individual entities (called private laws), or the general public (p ...

No Child Left Behind Act
in the United States requires individual states to develop assessments for students in certain grades. In practice, these assessments typically appear in the form of standardized tests. Test scores of students in specific grades of an educational institution are then used to determine the status of that educational institution, i.e., whether it should be allowed to continue to operate in the same way or to receive funding. Finally, standardized tests are sometimes used to compare proficiencies of students from different institutions or countries. For example, the uses Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) to evaluate certain skills and knowledge of students from different participating countries.


Licensing and certification

Standardized tests are sometimes used by certain governing bodies to determine whether a test taker is allowed to practice a profession, to use a specific job title, or to claim competency in a specific set of skills. For example, a test taker who intends to become a lawyer is usually required by a governing body such as a governmental bar licensing agency to pass a bar exam.


Immigration and naturalization

Standardized tests are also used in certain countries to regulate immigration. For example, intended immigrants to Australia are legally required to pass a citizenship test as part of that country's naturalization process.


Language testing in naturalization process

When analyzed in the context of language texting in the naturalization processes, the ideology can be found from two distinct but nearly related points. One refers to the construction and deconstruction of the nation's constitutive elements that makes their own identity, while the second has a more restricted view of the notion of specific language and ideologies that may served in a specific purpose.


Intelligence quotient


Competitions

Tests are sometimes used as a tool to select for participants that have potential to succeed in a competition such as a sporting event. For example, serious skaters who wish to participate in figure skating competitions in the United States must pass official U.S. Figure Skating tests just to qualify.


Group memberships

Tests are sometimes used by a group to select for certain types of individuals to join the group. For example,
Mensa International Mensa is the largest and oldest high IQ society A high-IQ society is an organization that limits its membership to people who have attained a specified score on an intelligence quotient, IQ test, usually in the top two percent of the populatio ...
is a high-IQ society that requires individuals to score at the 98th percentile or higher on a standardized, supervised IQ test.


Types

Assessment types include: *
Formative assessment Formative assessment, formative evaluation, formative feedback, or assessment for learning, including ''diagnostic testing'', is a range of formal and informal assessment procedures conducted by teachers during the learning process in order to mo ...
s are informal and formal tests taken during the learning process. These assessments modify the later learning activities, to improve student achievement. They identify strengths and weaknesses and help target areas that need work. The goal of formative assessment is to monitor student learning to provide ongoing feedback that can be used by instructors to improve their teaching and by students to improve their learning. *
Summative assessment Summative assessment, summative evaluation, or assessment of learning is the assessment Assessment may refer to: Healthcare *Health assessment, identifies needs of the patient and how those needs will be addressed *Nursing assessment, gathering ...
s evaluate competence at the end of an instructional unit, with the goal of determining if the candidate has assimilated the knowledge or skills to the required standard. Summative assessments may cover a few days' instruction, an entire term's work in cases such as final exams, or even multiple years' study, in the case of high school exit exams,
GCE Advanced Level#REDIRECT GCE Advanced Level The A Level (Advanced Level) is a subject-based qualification conferred as part of the General Certificate of Education, as well as a school leaving qualificationA school leaving qualification is an academic qualificat ...
examples, or professional licensing tests such as the
United States Medical Licensing Examination The United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) is a three-step examination program for medical licensure Licensure means a restricted practice or a restriction on the use of an occupational title, requiring a license A license (Americ ...
. *
Norm-referenced test A norm-referenced test (NRT) is a type of test Test(s), testing, or TEST may refer to: * Test (assessment), an educational assessment intended to measure the respondents' knowledge or other abilities Arts and entertainment * Test (2013 film), ...
s compare a student's performance against a national or other "norm" group. Only a certain percentage of test takers will get the best and worse scores. Norm-referencing is usually called ''
grading on a curve A norm-referenced test (NRT) is a type of Test (student assessment), test, Educational assessment, assessment, or evaluation which yields an estimate of the position of the tested individual in a predefined population, with respect to the trait bein ...
'' when the comparison group is students in the same classroom. Norm-referenced tests report whether test takers performed better or worse than a hypothetical average student, which is determined by comparing scores against the performance results of a statistically selected group of test takers, typically of the same age or grade level, who have already taken the exam. *
Criterion-referenced testA criterion-referenced test is a style of test which uses test Test(s), testing, or TEST may refer to: * Test (assessment), an educational assessment intended to measure the respondents' knowledge or other abilities Arts and entertainment * Tes ...
s are designed to measure student performance against a fixed set of criteria or learning standards. It is possible for all test takers to pass, just like it is possible for all test takers to fail. These tests can use individual's scores to focus on improving the skills that were lacking in comprehension. * Performance-based assessments require students to solve real-world problems or produce something with real-world application. For example, the student can demonstrate
baking Baking is a method of preparing food that uses dry heat, typically in an oven, but can also be done in hot ashes, or on hot stones. The most common baked item is bread but many other types of foods are baked. Heat is gradually transferred "fro ...

baking
skills by baking a cake, and having the outcome judged for appearance, flavor, and texture. *
Authentic assessment Authentic assessment is the measurement of "intellectual accomplishments that are worthwhile, significant, and meaningful," as contrasted with Multiple choice test, multiple-choice tests. Authentic assessment can be devised by the teacher, or in co ...
is the measurement of accomplishments that are worth while compared to multiple-choice standardized tests. For example, an authentic assessment of arithmetic skills is figuring out how much the family's groceries will cost this week. This provides as much information about the students' addition skills as a test question that asks what the sum of various numbers are. *
Standardized test A standardized test is a test Test(s), testing, or TEST may refer to: * Test (assessment), an educational assessment intended to measure the respondents' knowledge or other abilities Arts and entertainment * Test (2013 film), ''Test'' (2013 f ...
s are all tests that are administered and scored in a consistent manner, regardless of whether it is a quick quiz created by the local teacher or a heavily researched test given to millions of people. Standardized tests are often used in
education Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, value (ethics), values, morals, beliefs, habits, and personal development. Educational methods include teaching, training, storytelling, discussion ...

education
,
professional certification Professional certification, trade certification, or professional designation, often called simply ''certification'' or ''qualification'', is a designation earned by a person to assure qualification to perform a job or task. Not all certifications ...
,
psychology Psychology is the scientific Science () is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity or awareness, of someone or something, such as facts A fact is an occurrence in the real world. ...

psychology
(e.g., MMPI), the
military A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare War is an intense armed conflict between State (polity), states, governments, Society, societies, or pa ...

military
, and many other fields. *Non-standardized tests are flexible in scope and format, and variable in difficulty. For example, a teacher may go around the classroom and ask each student a different question. Some questions will inevitably be harder than others, and the teacher may be more strict with the answers from better students. A non-standardized test may be used to determine the proficiency level of students, to motivate students to study, to provide feedback to students, and to to make it more appropriate for either low- or high-skill students. *Competitive examinations are tests where candidates are ranked according to their grades and/or percentile and then top rankers are selected. If the examination is open for ''n'' positions, then the first ''n'' candidates in ranks pass, the others are rejected. They are used as
entrance examination An entrance examination is an examination Examination may refer to: * Physical examination, a medical procedure * Questioning and more specific forms thereof, for example in law: ** Cross-examination ** Direct examination * Test (assessment), info ...
s for
university and college admissions University admission or college admission is the process through which students enter tertiary education at universities and colleges. Systems vary widely from country to country, and sometimes from institution to institution. In many countries, p ...
such as the
Joint Entrance Examination The Joint Entrance Examination (JEE) is an engineering entrance assessment conducted for admission to various engineering colleges in India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is ...
or to
secondary school A secondary school describes an institution that provides secondary education and also usually includes the building where this takes place. Some secondary schools provide both lower secondary education (ages 11 to 14) and upper secondary educat ...
s. Types are
civil service examination Civil service examinations (also public tendering) are examinations implemented in various countries for recruitment and admission to the civil service The civil service is a collective term for a sector of government composed mainly of career ci ...
s, required for positions in the public sector; the U.S.
Foreign Service Exam The United States Foreign Service is the primary personnel system used by the diplomatic service of the United States federal government, under the aegis of the United States Department of State. It consists of over 13,000 professionals carryin ...
, and the
United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization aiming to maintain international peace and international security, security, develop friendly relations among nations, achieve international cooperation, and be a centre for harm ...

United Nations
Competitive Examination A test or examination (exam or evaluation) is an educational assessment intended to measure a test-taker's knowledge, skill, aptitude, physical fitness, or classification in many other topics (e.g., beliefs). A test may be administered verba ...
. Competitive examinations are considered an
egalitarian Egalitarianism (), or equalitarianism, is a school of thought within political philosophy that builds from the concept of social equality, prioritizing it for all people. Egalitarian doctrines are generally characterized by the idea that all hu ...
way to select worthy applicants without risking
influence peddling Influence peddling is the practice of using one's influence in government or connections with persons in authority to obtain favours or preferential treatment for another, usually in return for payment. Also called traffic of influence or trading i ...
,
bias Bias is a disproportionate weight ''in favor of'' or ''against'' an idea or thing, usually in a way that is closed-minded Open-mindedness is receptiveness to new ideas. Open-mindedness relates to the way in which people approach the views and kn ...

bias
or other concerns. * High-stakes tests are tests with important consequences for the individual test taker, such as getting a driver's license. A high-stakes test does not need to be a high-stress test, if the test taker is confident of passing. A single test can have multiple qualities. For example, the bar exam for aspiring lawyers may be a norm-referenced, standardized, summative assessment. This means that only the test takers with higher scores will pass, that all of them took the same test under the same circumstances and were graded with the same scoring standards, and that the test is meant to determine whether the
law school A law school (also known as a law centre or college of law) is an institution specializing in legal education Legal education is the education of individuals in the principles, practices, and theory of law Law is a system A syste ...
graduates have learned enough to practice their profession.


Assessment formats


Written tests

Written tests are tests that are administered on paper or on a computer (as an eExam). A test taker who takes a written test could respond to specific items by writing or typing within a given space of the test or on a separate form or document. In some tests; where knowledge of many constants or technical terms is required to effectively answer questions, like
Chemistry Chemistry is the scientific Science () is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity or awareness, of someone or something, such as facts A fact is an occurrence in the real world. T ...

Chemistry
or
Biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, molecular interactions, Physiology, physiological mechanisms, Development ...

Biology
– the test developer may allow every test taker to bring with them a
cheat sheet Image:Spicker trinkflasche.jpg, Cheat sheet in a juicebox (container), juice box A cheat sheet (also ''cheatsheet'') or crib sheet is a concise set of notes used for quick reference. Cheat sheets are so named because they may be used by student ...
. A test developer's choice of which style or format to use when developing a written test is usually arbitrary given that there is no single invariant standard for testing. Be that as it may, certain test styles and format have become more widely used than others. Below is a list of those formats of test items that are widely used by educators and test developers to construct paper or computer-based tests. As a result, these tests may consist of only one type of test item format (e.g., multiple-choice test, essay test) or may have a combination of different test item formats (e.g., a test that has multiple-choice and essay items).


Multiple choice

In a test that has items formatted as multiple-choice questions, a candidate would be given a number of set answers for each question, and the candidate must choose which answer or group of answers is correct. There are two families of multiple-choice questions. The first family is known as the True/False question and it requires a test taker to choose all answers that are appropriate. The second family is known as One-Best-Answer question and it requires a test taker to answer only one from a list of answers. There are several reasons to using multiple-choice questions in tests. In terms of administration, multiple-choice questions usually requires less time for test takers to answer, are easy to score and grade, provide greater coverage of material, allows for a wide range of difficulty, and can easily diagnose a test taker's difficulty with certain concepts. As an educational tool, multiple-choice items test many levels of learning as well as a test taker's ability to integrate information, and it provides feedback to the test taker about why distractors were wrong and why correct answers were right. Nevertheless, there are difficulties associated with the use of multiple-choice questions. In administrative terms, multiple-choice items that are effective usually take a great time to construct. As an educational tool, multiple-choice items do not allow test takers to demonstrate knowledge beyond the choices provided and may even encourage guessing or approximation due to the presence of at least one correct answer. For instance, a test taker might not work out explicitly that 6.14 \cdot 7.95=48.813, but knowing that 6 \cdot 8=48, they would choose an answer close to 48. Moreover, test takers may misinterpret these items and in the process, perceive these items to be tricky or picky. Finally, multiple-choice items do not test a test taker's attitudes towards learning because correct responses can be easily faked.


Alternative response

True/False questions present candidates with a binary choice – a statement is either true or false. This method presents problems, as depending on the number of questions, a significant number of candidates could get 100% just by guesswork, and should on average get 50%.


Matching type

A matching item is an item that provides a defined term and requires a test taker to match identifying characteristics to the correct term.


Completion type

A fill-in-the-blank item provides a test taker with identifying characteristics and requires the test taker to recall the correct term. There are two types of fill-in-the-blank tests. The easier version provides a word bank of possible words that will fill in the blanks. For some exams all words in the word bank are used exactly once. If a teacher wanted to create a test of medium difficulty, they would provide a test with a word bank, but some words may be used more than once and others not at all. The hardest variety of such a test is a fill-in-the-blank test in which no word bank is provided at all. This generally requires a higher level of understanding and memory than a multiple-choice test. Because of this, fill-in-the-blank tests ith no word bankare often feared by students.


Essay

Items such as short answer or essay typically require a test taker to write a response to fulfill the requirements of the item. In administrative terms, essay items take less time to construct. As an assessment tool, essay items can test complex learning objectives as well as processes used to answer the question. The items can also provide a more realistic and generalizable task for test. Finally, these items make it difficult for test takers to guess the correct answers and require test takers to demonstrate their writing skills as well as correct spelling and grammar. The difficulties with essay items are primarily administrative: for example, test takers require adequate time to be able to compose their answers. When these questions are answered, the answers themselves are usually poorly written because test takers may not have time to organize and proofread their answers. In turn, it takes more time to score or grade these items. When these items are being scored or graded, the grading process itself becomes subjective as non-test related information may influence the process. Thus, considerable effort is required to minimize the subjectivity of the grading process. Finally, as an assessment tool, essay questions may potentially be unreliable in assessing the entire content of a subject matter. Instructions to exam takers rely on the use of command words which direct the examinee to respond in a particular way, for example by describing or defining a concept, comparing and contrasting two or more scenarios or events. In the UK, Ofqual maintains an official list of command words explaining their meaning.


Quizzes

A quiz is a brief assessment which may cover a small amount of material that was given in a class. Some of them cover two to three lectures that were given in a period of times as a reading section or a given exercise in were the most important part of the class was summarize. However, a simple quiz usually does not count very much, and instructors usually provide this type of test as a formative assessment to help determine whether the student is learning the material. In addition, doing this at the time the instructor collected all can make a significant part of the final course grade.


Mathematical questions

Most mathematics questions, or calculation questions from subjects such as chemistry, physics, or economics employ a style which does not fall into any of the above categories, although some papers, notably the United Kingdom Mathematics Trust#Mathematical Challenges, Maths Challenge papers in the United Kingdom employ multiple choice. Instead, most mathematics questions state a mathematical problem or exercise (mathematics), exercise that requires a student to write a freehand response. Marks are given more for the steps taken than for the correct answer. If the question has multiple parts, later parts may use answers from previous sections, and marks may be granted if an earlier incorrect answer was used but the correct method was followed, and an answer which is correct (given the incorrect input) is returned. Higher-level mathematical papers may include variations on true/false, where the candidate is given a statement and asked to verify its validity by direct proof or stating a counterexample.


Open-note Tests

Though not as popular as the closed-note test, open-note tests are slowly rising in popularity. An open-note test allows the test taker to bring in all of their notes and use them while taking the test. The questions asked on open-note exams are typically more thought provoking and intellectual than questions on a closed-note exam. Rather than testing what facts you know, open-note exams force you to apply the facts to a broader question. The main benefit that is seen from open-note tests is that they are a better preparation for the real world where you don't have to memorize and have anything you need at your disposal.


Oral tests

An oral test is a test that is answered orally (verbally). The teacher or oral test assessor will verbally ask a question to a student, who will then answer it using words.


Physical fitness tests

A physical fitness test is a test designed to measure physical strength, sport agility, agility, and endurance. They are commonly employed in educational institutions as part of the physical education curriculum, in medicine as part of diagnostic testing, and as eligibility requirements in fields that focus on physical ability such as
military A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare War is an intense armed conflict between State (polity), states, governments, Society, societies, or pa ...

military
or police. Throughout the 20th century, scientific evidence emerged demonstrating the usefulness of strength training and aerobic exercise in maintaining overall health, and more agencies began to incorporate standardized fitness testing. In the United States, the President's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports, President's Council on Youth Fitness was established in 1956 as a way to encourage and monitor fitness in schoolchildren. Common tests include timed running or the multi-stage fitness test (commonly known as the "beep test"), and numbers of push-ups, sit-up (exercise), sit-ups/abdominal crunches, and pull-up (exercise), pull-ups that the individual can perform. More specialised tests may be used to test ability to perform a particular job or role. Many gyms, private organisations and event organizers have their own fitness tests. Using military techniques developed by the British Army and modern test like Illinois Agility Run and Cooper Test. Stop watch timing was the norm until recent years when hand timing has been proven to be inaccurate and inconsistent. Electronic timing is the new norm in order to promote accuracy and consistency, and lessen bias.


Performance tests

A performance test is an assessment that requires an examinee to actually perform a task or activity, rather than simply answering questions referring to specific parts. The purpose is to ensure greater fidelity to what is being tested. An example is a behind-the-wheel driving test to obtain a driver's license. Rather than only answering simple multiple-choice items regarding the driving of an automobile, a student is required to actually drive one while being evaluated. Performance tests are commonly used in workplace and professional applications, such as professional certification and licensure. When used for personnel selection, the tests might be referred to as a work sample. A licensure example would be cosmetologists being required to demonstrate a haircut or manicure on a live person. The Bourdon–Wiersma test, Group–Bourdon test is one of a number of psychometrics, psychometric tests which trainee train drivers in the UK are required to pass. Some performance tests are simulations. For instance, the assessment to become certified as an ophthalmic technician includes two components, a multiple-choice examination and a computerized skill simulation. The examinee must demonstrate the ability to complete seven tasks commonly performed on the job, such as retinoscopy, that are simulated on a computer.


Preparations

From the perspective of a test developer, there is great variability with respect to time and effort needed to prepare a test. Likewise, from the perspective of a test taker, there is also great variability with respect to the time and needed to obtain a desired grade or score on any given test. When a test developer constructs a test, the amount of time and effort is dependent upon the significance of the test itself, the proficiency of the test taker, the format of the test, class size, deadline of test, and experience of the test developer. The process of test construction has been aided in several ways. For one, many test developers were themselves students at one time, and therefore are able to modify or outright adopt questions from their previous tests. In some countries, book publishers often provide teaching packages that include test banks to university instructors who adopt their published books for their courses. These test banks may contain up to four thousand sample test questions that have been peer-reviewed and time-tested. The instructor who chooses to use this testbank would only have to select a fixed number of test questions from this test bank to construct a test. As with test constructions, the time needed for a test taker to prepare for a test is dependent upon the frequency of the test, the test developer, and the significance of the test. In general, nonstandardized tests that are short, frequent, and do not constitute a major portion of the test taker's overall course grade or score do not require the test taker to spend much time preparing for the test. Conversely, nonstandardized tests that are long, infrequent, and do constitute a major portion of the test taker's overall course grade or score usually require the test taker to spend great amounts of time preparing for the test. To prepare for a nonstandardized test, test takers may rely upon their reference books, class or lecture notes, Internet, and past experience. Test takers may also use various learning aids to study for tests such as flashcards and mnemonics. Test takers may even hire tutors to coach them through the process so that they may increase the probability of obtaining a desired test grade or score. In countries such as the United Kingdom, demand for private tuition has increased significantly in recent years. Finally, test takers may rely upon past copies of a test from previous years or semesters to study for a future test. These past tests may be provided by a friend or a group that has copies of previous tests or by instructors and their institutions, or by the test provider (such as an examination board) itself. Unlike a nonstandardized test, the time needed by test takers to prepare for standardized tests is less variable and usually considerable. This is because standardized tests are usually uniform in scope, format, and difficulty and often have important consequences with respect to a test taker's future such as a test taker's eligibility to attend a specific university program or to enter a desired profession. It is not unusual for test takers to prepare for standardized tests by relying upon commercially available books that provide in-depth coverage of the standardized test or compilations of previous tests (e.g., ten year series in Singapore). In many countries, test takers even enroll in test preparation centers or cram schools that provide extensive or supplementary instructions to test takers to help them better prepare for a standardized test. In Hong Kong, it has been suggested that the tutors running such centers are celebrities in their own right. This has led to private tuition being a popular career choice for new graduates in developed economies. Finally, in some countries, instructors and their institutions have also played a significant role in preparing test takers for a standardized test.


Cheating

Cheating on a test is the process of using unauthorized means or methods for the purpose of obtaining a desired test score or grade. This may range from bringing and using notes during a closed book examination, to copying another test taker's answer or choice of answers during an individual test, to sending a paid proxy to take the test. Several common methods have been employed to combat cheating. They include the use of multiple proctors or invigilators during a testing period to monitor test takers. Test developers may construct multiple variants of the same test to be administered to different test takers at the same time, or write tests with few multiple-choice options, based on the theory that fully worked answers are difficult to imitate. In some cases, instructors themselves may not administer their own tests but will leave the task to other instructors or invigilators, which may mean that the invigilators do not know the candidates, and thus some form of identification may be required. Finally, instructors or test providers may compare the answers of suspected cheaters on the test themselves to determine whether cheating did occur.


Other types of tests and other related terms

* ordinary exam: an exam taken during the corresponding course; * sufficiency exam or examination for credit: an exam which should be taken as a way of getting official credits from the academic institution; * revalidation exam or equivalence exam: offering value for an exam previously taken in another institution; * extraordinary exam: an exam taken after the period of ordinary exams corresponding to the course.


See also

* * * * , used in free response exams * * * * , used by Law, Military, and Fire services * * * * , a technology and approach that looks specifically at the assessment of creativity and collaboration. * * * * * , a cardiovascular test * Law ** ** * * * * * * * * * (in the US) * , a leg power test * , a method of problem solving


International examinations

* ''Abitur'' – used in
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Germany
. * General Certificate of Secondary Education, GCSE and Advanced Level (UK), A-level—Used in the United Kingdom, UK except Scotland. * International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme – international examination * International General Certificate of Secondary Education (IGCSE) – international examinations * Junior Certificate and Irish Leaving Certificate, Leaving Certificate – Republic of Ireland. * ''Matura''/''Maturita'' – used in Austria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, the Czech Republic, Italy, Liechtenstein, Hungary, Montenegro, North Macedonia, Poland, Serbia, Slovenia, Switzerland, and Ukraine; previously used in Albania. * ' – used in Sweden * National 5, Higher Grade, and Advanced Higher – used in Scotland * Uttar Pradesh Subordinate Services Selection Commission – Organization authorized to conduct examinations in Uttar Pradesh state in India


References


Bibliography

* Ted de Bary, de Bary, William Theodore, ed. (1960) ''Sources of Chinese Tradition: Volume I'' (New York: Columbia University Press). . * * * Christie, Anthony (1968). ''Chinese Mythology''. Feltham: Hamlyn Publishing. . * Ch'ü, T'ung-tsu (1967 [1957]). "Chinese Class Structure and its Ideology", in ''Chinese Thoughts & Institutions'', John K. Fairbank, editor. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press. * * * * * John K. Fairbank, Fairbank, John King (1992). ''China: A New History''. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Belknap Press/Harvard University Press. . * * * David Hinton, Hinton, David (2008). ''Classical Chinese Poetry: An Anthology''. New York: Farrar, Straus, and Giroux. / * * * * Kracke, E. A. (1947) "Family vs. Merit in Chinese Civil Service Examinations under the Empire.” ''Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies'' 10#2 1947, pp. 103–123
online
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* ''This article incorporates material from the Library of Congress that is believed to be in the public domain.''


Further reading

* Airasian, P. (1994) "Classroom Assessment", Second Edition, NY: McGraw-Hill. * Cangelosi, J. (1990) "Designing Tests for Evaluating Student Achievement". NY: Addison-Wesley. * Gronlund, N. (1993) "How to make achievement tests and assessments", 5th edition, NY: Allyn and Bacon. * Haladyna, T.M. & Downing, S.M. (1989) Validity of a Taxonomy of Multiple-Choice Item-Writing Rules. "Applied Measurement in Education", 2(1), 51–78. * Monahan, T. (1998
The Rise of Standardized Educational Testing in the U.S. – A Bibliographic Overview
* Phelps, R.P., Ed. (2008
Correcting Fallacies About Educational and Psychological Testing
American Psychological Association. * Diane Ravitch, Ravitch, Diane
"The Uses and Misuses of Tests"
in ''The Schools We Deserve'' (New York: Basic Books, 1985), pp. 172–181. * Wilson, N. (1997) Educational standards and the problem of error
Education Policy Analysis Archives, Vol 6 No 10
{{Authority control Tests, Educational psychology Psychological testing School examinations Sports science cy:Arholiad ja:学力検査