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Temple Bar was the principal ceremonial entrance to the
City of London The City of London is a city A city is a large .Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Routledge. It ...

City of London
from the
City of Westminster The City of Westminster is a City status in the United Kingdom, city and London boroughs, borough in Inner London which forms a core part of Central London. It is the site of the United Kingdom's Houses of Parliament and much of the British gov ...

City of Westminster
. In the middle ages, London expanded city jurisdiction beyond
its walls
its walls
to gates, called ‘bars’, which were erected across thoroughfares. To the west of the City of London, the bar was located in the area known as the
Temple A temple (from the Latin ) is a building reserved for spiritual rituals and activities such as prayer and sacrifice. Religions which erect temples include Christianity (whose temples are typically called church (building), churches), Hinduism (w ...
. Temple Bar is situated on the historic royal ceremonial route from the
Tower of London The Tower of London, officially Her Majesty's Royal Palace and Fortress of the Tower of London, is a historic castle A castle is a type of structure built during the predominantly by the or royalty and by . Scholars debate the sc ...

Tower of London
to the
Palace of Westminster The Palace of Westminster serves as the meeting place for both the House of Commons The House of Commons is the name for the elected lower house A lower house is one of two chambers Chambers may refer to: Places Canada: *Chambers Towns ...
, the two chief residences of the medieval English monarchs, and from the Palace of Westminster to
St Paul's Cathedral St Paul's Cathedral is an Anglican Anglicanism is a Western Western may refer to: Places *Western, Nebraska, a village in the US *Western, New York, a town in the US *Western Creek, Tasmania, a locality in Australia *Western Jun ...

St Paul's Cathedral
. The road east of Temple Bar and within the City is
Fleet Street Fleet Street is a major street mostly in the City of London. It runs west to east from Temple Bar, London, Temple Bar at the boundary with the City of Westminster to Ludgate Circus at the site of the London Wall and the River Fleet from which ...

Fleet Street
, while the road to the west, in Westminster, is The Strand. At Temple Bar, the
Corporation of the City of London The City of London Corporation, officially and legally the Mayor and Commonalty and Citizens of the City of London, is the municipal governing body of the City of London The City of London is a City status in the United Kingdom, city, Cerem ...
formerly erected a barrier to regulate trade into the City. The 19th century
Royal Courts of Justice The Royal Courts of Justice, commonly called the Law Courts, is a court building in Westminster which houses the High Court of Justice of England and Wales, High Court and Court of Appeal of England and Wales. The High Court also sits on circui ...

Royal Courts of Justice
are located next to it on its north side, having been moved from
Westminster Hall The Palace of Westminster serves as the meeting place for both the House of Commons The House of Commons is the name for the elected lower house of the bicameral parliaments of the United Kingdom and Canada. In the UK and Canada, the Common ...
. To its south is the
Temple Church The Temple Church is a Royal peculiar church in the City of London located between Fleet Street and the River Thames, built by the Knights Templar as their English headquarters. It was consecrated on 10 February 1185 by Patriarch Heraclius of Je ...
, along with the
Inner Temple The Honourable Society of the Inner Temple, commonly known as the Inner Temple, is one of the four (professional associations for s and judges) in London. To be and practise as a barrister in , a person must belong to one of these Inns. It is ...

Inner Temple
and
Middle Temple The Honourable Society of the Middle Temple, commonly known simply as Middle Temple, is one of the four Inns of Court The Inns of Court in London are the professional associations for barristers in England and Wales. There are four Inns of ...

Middle Temple
Inns of Court The Inns of Court in London are the professional associations for barristers A barrister is a type of lawyer A lawyer or attorney is a person who practices law, as an advocate, attorney at lawAttorney at law or attorney-at-law, usuall ...
. As the most important entrance to the City of London from Westminster, it was formerly long the custom for the
monarch A monarch is a head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona A persona (plural personae or personas), depending on the context, can refer to either the public image of one's personality, or the social role tha ...
to halt at Temple Bar before entering the City of London, in order for the
Lord Mayor Lord mayor is a title of a mayor In many countries, a mayor is the highest-ranking official An official is someone who holds an office (function or mandate, regardless whether it carries an actual working space with it) in an organization or ...
to offer the Corporation's pearl-encrusted
Sword of State #REDIRECT Sword of state Swords of different Ottoman Sultans on display at the Topkapi Palace. A sword of state is a sword, used as part of the regalia, symbolizing the power of a monarch to use the might of the state against its enemies, and his o ...
as a token of loyalty. The term 'Temple Bar' strictly refers to a notional bar or barrier across the route, but it is also commonly used to refer to the 17th-century ornamental
Baroque The Baroque (, ; ) is a style Style is a manner of doing or presenting things and may refer to: * Architectural style, the features that make a building or structure historically identifiable * Design, the process of creating something * Fashi ...

Baroque
arched gateway designed by
Christopher Wren Sir Christopher Wren PRS FRS FRS may also refer to: Government and politics * Facility Registry System, a centrally managed Environmental Protection Agency database that identifies places of environmental interest in the United States * Fa ...

Christopher Wren
, which spanned the road until its removal in 1878. A memorial pedestal topped by a dragon symbol of London, and containing an image of
Queen Victoria Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland There have been 12 British monarchs since the political union of the Kingdom of England The Kingdom of En ...

Queen Victoria
, was erected to mark the bar's location in 1880. Wren's arch was preserved and was re-erected in 2004 in the City, in
Paternoster Square Paternoster Square is an urban development, owned by the Mitsubishi Estate Co. is one of the largest real-estate developers in Japan and is involved in property management and architecture research and design. As of 2018, Mitsubishi Estate h ...

Paternoster Square
next to St Paul's Cathedral.


Background

In the
Middle Ages In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the study, organization and presentation and the interpretation of past events and affairs of the people of Europe since the beginning of ...
, the authority of the
City of London Corporation The City of London Corporation, officially and legally the Mayor and Commonalty and Citizens of the City of London, is the municipal governing body of the City of London The City of London is a city A city is a large .Goodall, B. (19 ...
reached beyond the City's ancient defensive walls in several places, known as the
Liberties of London A liberty was an English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has eventually become the W ...
. To regulate trade into the City, barriers were erected on the major entrance routes wherever the true boundary was a substantial distance from the nearest ancient gatehouse in the walls. Temple Bar was the most used of these, since traffic between the City of London (England's prime commercial centre) and the
Palace of Westminster The Palace of Westminster serves as the meeting place for both the House of Commons The House of Commons is the name for the elected lower house A lower house is one of two chambers Chambers may refer to: Places Canada: *Chambers Towns ...

Palace of Westminster
(the political centre) passed through it. It was located where Fleet Street now meets The Strand, which is outside London's old boundary wall. Its name derives from the
Temple Church The Temple Church is a Royal peculiar church in the City of London located between Fleet Street and the River Thames, built by the Knights Templar as their English headquarters. It was consecrated on 10 February 1185 by Patriarch Heraclius of Je ...
, adjoining to the south, which has given its name to a wider area south of Fleet Street,
the Temple A temple (from the Latin word ) is a building reserved for religious or spiritual rituals and activities such as prayer and sacrifice. The term typically used for such buildings belonging to all faiths where a more specific term such as church ( ...
, once belonging to the
Knights Templar The Poor Fellow-Soldiers of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon ( la, Pauperes commilitones Christi Templique Salomonici), also known as the Order of Solomon's Temple, the Knights Templar, or simply the Templars, was a Catholic military order (so ...
but now home to two of the legal profession's
Inns of Court The Inns of Court in London are the professional associations for barristers A barrister is a type of lawyer A lawyer or attorney is a person who practices law, as an advocate, attorney at lawAttorney at law or attorney-at-law, usuall ...
. The historic ceremony of the monarch halting at Temple Bar and being met by the Lord Mayor has often featured in art and literature. It is commented on in televised coverage of modern-day royal ceremonial processions.


History

A bar is first mentioned in 1293 and was probably only a chain or bar between a row of posts. More substantial structures with arches followed. After the
Battle of Evesham The Battle of Evesham (4 August 1265) was one of the two main battles of 13th century England's Second Barons' War The Second Barons' War (1264–1267) was a civil war A civil war, also known as an intrastate war in polemology, is ...
of 1265,
Prince Edward Prince Edward may refer to: People * Edward, the Black Prince (1330–1376), eldest son of King Edward III and father of King Richard II * Edward of Westminster, Prince of Wales (1453–1471), son of King Henry VI of England and Margaret ...

Prince Edward
punished the rebellious Londoners, who had befriended
Simon de Montfort Simon de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester ( – 4 August 1265), later sometimes referred to as Simon V de Montfort to distinguish him from Simon de Montfort (disambiguation), his namesake relatives, was a nobleman of French origin and a member ...

Simon de Montfort
, by taking away all their street chains and bars, and storing them in the
Tower of London The Tower of London, officially Her Majesty's Royal Palace and Fortress of the Tower of London, is a historic castle A castle is a type of structure built during the predominantly by the or royalty and by . Scholars debate the sc ...

Tower of London
.Thornbury, Walter. "Temple Bar", ''Old and New London'', Vol. 1. London: Cassell, Petter & Galpin, 1878. pp.22-31
British History Online. Web. 21 July 2015
By 1351, a wooden archway had been built housing a small prison above it. The earliest known documentary and historical notice of Temple Bar is in 1327, concerning a hearing before the mayor regarding a right of way in the area. In 1384, Richard II granted a licence for paving the Strand Street from Temple Bar to the
Savoy Savoy (; frp, Savouè ; french: Savoie is a cultural-historical region in the Western Alps it, Alpi occidentaligerman: Westalpen , photo=Mont Blanc from Punta Helbronner, 2010 July.JPG , photo_caption=Mont Blanc Mont Blanc (french: Mont ...

Savoy
, and collecting tolls to cover the expense. On 5 November 1422, the corpse of
Henry V Henry V may refer to: People * Henry V, Duke of Bavaria (died 1026) * Henry V, Holy Roman Emperor (1081/86–1125) * Henry V, Duke of Carinthia (died 1161) * Henry V, Count Palatine of the Rhine (c. 1173–1227) * Henry V, Count of Luxembourg (1216 ...

Henry V
was borne to Westminster Abbey by the chief citizens and nobles, and every doorway from Southwark to Temple Bar had a torch-bearer. In 1503 the hearse of
Elizabeth of York Elizabeth of York (11 February 1466 – 11 February 1503) was List of English royal consorts, Queen of England from her marriage to King Henry VII on 18 January 1486 until her death in 1503. Elizabeth married Henry after his victory at the Battle ...

Elizabeth of York
, queen of Henry VII, halted at Temple Bar, on its way from the Tower to Westminster, and at the Bar the Abbots of Westminster and Bermondsey blessed the corpse, and the
Earl of Derby Earl of Derby ( ) is a title in the Peerage of England The Peerage of England comprises all peerage A peerage is a legal system historically comprising various hereditary title Hereditary titles, in a general sense, are nobility ...
and a large company of nobles joined the funeral procession.
Anne Boleyn Anne Boleyn (; 1501 – 19 May 1536) was Queen of England from 1533 to 1536 as the second wife of King Henry VIII Henry VIII (28 June 149128 January 1547) was King of England This list of kings and queens of the Kingdom of En ...

Anne Boleyn
passed through the Bar on May 31, 1534, the day before her coronation, on her way to the Tower. On that occasion Temple Bar was new painted and repaired, and near it stood singing men and children—the Fleet Street conduit all the time running claret. In 1554, Thomas Wyatt led an uprising in opposition to
Queen Mary I Mary I (18 February 1516 – 17 November 1558), also known as Mary Tudor, and as "Bloody Mary" by her Protestant Protestantism is a form of that originated with the 16th-century , a movement against what its followers perceived to ...

Queen Mary I
's proposed marriage to
Philip II of Spain Philip II) in Spain , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = , national_anthem = , image_map = , map_caption ...

Philip II of Spain
. When he had fought his way down Piccadilly to The Strand, Temple Bar was thrown open to him, or forced open by him; but when he had been repulsed at Ludgate he was hemmed in by cavalry at Temple Bar, where he surrendered. This revolt persuaded the government to go through with the verdict against
Lady Jane Grey Lady Jane Grey ( 1537 – 12 February 1554), later known as Lady Jane Dudley (after her marriage) and as the "Nine Days' Queen", was a teenage English noblewoman who claimed the throne of England and Ireland from 10 July until 19 July 1553. J ...

Lady Jane Grey
. The notable Scottish bookseller
Andrew Millar Andrew Millar (17058 June 1768) was a Scottish publisher in the eighteenth century. Biography In 1725, as a twenty-year-old bookseller apprentice, he evaded Edinburgh Edinburgh (; sco, Edinburgh; gd, Dùn Èideann ) is the capital cit ...
owned his first London shop at Temple Bar, taken over from the ownership of James McEuen in 1728, whom Millar had apprenticed to.


Wren's Temple Bar Gate

Although the Bar Gate escaped damage by the
Great Fire of London Great may refer to: Descriptions or measurements * Great, a relative measurement in physical space, see Size * Greatness, being divine, majestic, superior, majestic, or transcendent People with the name * "The Great", a historical suffix to people ...

Great Fire of London
of 1666, it was rebuilt as part of the general improvement works made throughout the City after that devastating event. Commissioned by , and attributed to Sir
Christopher Wren Sir Christopher Wren PRS FRS FRS may also refer to: Government and politics * Facility Registry System, a centrally managed Environmental Protection Agency database that identifies places of environmental interest in the United States * Fa ...

Christopher Wren
, the fine arch of Portland stone was constructed between 1669 and 1672, by Thomas Knight, the City Mason, and Joshua Marshall, Master of the Mason's Company. The statues of Anne of Denmark, James l, Charles I, and Charles II, in niches in the upper floor were carved by John Bushnell. Rusticated, it is a two-story structure consisting of one wide central arch for the road traffic, flanked on both sides by narrower arches for pedestrians. On the upper part, four
statue A statue is a free-standing sculpture in which the realistic, full-length figures of persons or animals are carved or Casting (metalworking), cast in a durable material such as wood, metal or stone. Typical statues are life-sized or close to ...

statue
s celebrate the 1660
Restoration Restoration is the act of restoring something to its original state and may refer to: * Conservation and restoration of cultural heritage * Restoration style Film and television * The Restoration (1909 film), ''The Restoration'' (1909 film), a ...
of the monarchy: on the west side King Charles II is shown with his father King
Charles I Charles is a masculine given name predominantly found in English language, English and French language, French speaking countries. It is from the French form ''Charles'' of the Proto-Germanic, Proto-Germanic name ᚲᚨᚱᛁᛚᚨᛉ (in r ...

Charles I
whose parents King
James I James VI and I (James Charles Stuart; 19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567 and King of England and King of Ireland, Ireland as James I from the Union of the Crowns, union of the Scottish and En ...
and
Anne of Denmark Anne of Denmark (; 12 December 1574 – 2 March 1619) was Queen of Scotland, England England is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to its west and Scotlan ...

Anne of Denmark
are depicted on the east side. During the 18th century the heads of convicted traitors were frequently mounted on pikes and exhibited on the roof, as was the case on
London Bridge Several bridges named London Bridge have spanned the River Thames The River Thames ( ), known alternatively in parts as the River Isis, is a river that flows through southern England Southern England, or the South of England, als ...

London Bridge
. The other seven principal gateways to London, (
Ludgate Ludgate was the westernmost gate in London Wall The London Wall was a defensive wall first built by the Ancient Rome, Romans around the strategically important port town of Londinium in AD 200. It has origins as an initial mound wall and ...
,
Newgate Newgate was one of the historic seven gates of the London Wall The London Wall was a defensive wall first built by the Ancient Rome, Romans around the strategically important port town of Londinium in AD 200. It has origins as an initial ...

Newgate
,
Aldersgate Aldersgate was one of the northern gates Gates is the plural of gate Candi bentar, a typical Indonesian gate that is often found on the islands of Java">Indonesia.html" ;"title="Candi bentar, a typical Indonesia">Candi bentar, a typical ...
,
Cripplegate Cripplegate was a gate A gate or gateway is a point of entry to or from a space enclosed by wall A wall is a structure and a surface that defines an area; carries a load; provides security Security is freedom from, or resilience ...
,
Moorgate Moorgate was one of the City of London's northern gates in its defensive wall A defensive wall is a fortification A fortification is a military construction or building designed for the defense of territories in warfare, and is also ...

Moorgate
,
Bishopsgate Bishopsgate was one of the eastern gates in London Wall, London’s former defensive wall. The gate gave its name to the Bishopsgate Wards of the City of London, Ward of the City of London. The ward is traditionally divided into ''Bishopsgate W ...

Bishopsgate
and
Aldgate Aldgate () was one of the gates in the former defensive wall around the City of London. It gives its name to Aldgate High Street, the first stretch of the A11 road which included the site of the former gate. The locality of ''Aldgate'', the mo ...
) were all demolished in the 1760s, but Temple Bar remained despite its impediment to the ever-growing traffic. The upper-storey room was leased to the neighbouring banking house of
Child & Co Child & Co. is a private banking, private bank. Founded in 1664 it is the oldest bank in the United Kingdom, and the List of oldest banks in continuous operation, third oldest bank in the world. Formerly independent it is now owned by the NatWest ...
for storage of records. In the 1853 ''Bleak House'',
Charles Dickens Charles John Huffam Dickens (; 7 February 1812 – 9 June 1870) was an English writer and social critic. He created some of the world's best-known fictional characters and is regarded by many as the greatest novelist of the Victorian e ...

Charles Dickens
described it as "that leaden-headed old obstruction, appropriate ornament for the threshold of a leaden-headed old corporation". It was also the subject of jokes, "Why is Temple Bar like a lady's veil? Both must be raised (razed) for "es" ( 'buses). It was noted in jest "as a weak spot in our defenses", since one could walk through the adjoining barbershop where one door opened on to the City and the other in the area of Westminster. In 1874 it was discovered that the keystones had dropped and the arches were propped up with timbers. The steady increase in horse and cart traffic led to complaints that Temple Bar was becoming a bottleneck, holding back the City trade. In 1878 the
City of London Corporation The City of London Corporation, officially and legally the Mayor and Commonalty and Citizens of the City of London, is the municipal governing body of the City of London The City of London is a city A city is a large .Goodall, B. (19 ...
, eager to widen the road but unwilling to destroy so historic a monument, dismantled it piece-by-piece over an 11-day period and stored its 2,700 stones carefully. In 1880 the brewer Henry Meux, at the instigation of his wife Valerie Susan Meux, bought the stones and re-erected the arch as the facade of a new gatehouse in the park of his mansion house
Theobalds Park Theobalds House (also known as Theobalds Palace), located in what is now Cedars Park, Broxbourne, Cedars Park in the parish of Cheshunt in the England, English county of Hertfordshire, was a significant stately home and (later) royal palace of the ...
in Hertfordshire, the site of a former substantial prodigy house of
James VI and I James VI and I (James Charles Stuart; 19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scotland The monarchy of the United Kingdom, commonly referred to as the British monarchy, is the constitutional monarchy, constitutional form of gover ...

James VI and I
. There it remained, positioned in a woodland clearing, until 2003. A plaque marks the site where Temple Bar once stood. File:Temple Bar, London, 1878.jpg, Temple Bar Gate, 1878 File:Temple bar theobolds park 1.jpg, Temple Bar Gate at
Theobalds Park Theobalds House (also known as Theobalds Palace), located in what is now Cedars Park, Broxbourne, Cedars Park in the parish of Cheshunt in the England, English county of Hertfordshire, was a significant stately home and (later) royal palace of the ...
, 1968 File:Temple Bar, Theobalds Park - geograph.org.uk - 185643.jpg, Temple Bar Gate at Theobalds Park, 1999


Present location

In March 1938 Theobalds Park was sold by Sir
Hedworth Meux Admiral of the Fleet (Royal Navy), Admiral of the Fleet The Honourable Sir Hedworth Meux (pronounced ''Mews''; ''né'' Lambton; 5 July 1856 – 20 September 1929) was a Royal Navy officer. As a junior officer he was present at the bombardment of A ...
to Middlesex County Council, but the Temple Bar Gatehouse was excluded from the sale and retained by the Meux trustees. In 1984 it was purchased by the Temple Bar Trust from the Meux Trust for the sum of £1. In December 2001 the City's Court of Common Council resolved to contribute funds for the return of Temple Bar Gate to the City. On 13 October 2003 the first stone was dismantled at Theobalds Park and all were placed on 500 pallets for storage. In 2004 it was returned to the City of London where it was painstakingly re-erected as an entrance to the
Paternoster Square Paternoster Square is an urban development, owned by the Mitsubishi Estate Co. is one of the largest real-estate developers in Japan and is involved in property management and architecture research and design. As of 2018, Mitsubishi Estate h ...

Paternoster Square
redevelopment immediately north of
St Paul's Cathedral St Paul's Cathedral is an Anglican Anglicanism is a Western Western may refer to: Places *Western, Nebraska, a village in the US *Western, New York, a town in the US *Western Creek, Tasmania, a locality in Australia *Western Jun ...

St Paul's Cathedral
, opening to the public on 10 November 2004. The total cost of the project was over £3 million, funded mainly by the City of London, with donations from the Temple Bar Trust and several City Livery Companies. The top of one of the gates was offered for sale by Dreweatts Auctioneers in a London sale of surplus stock from LASSCO on 15 June 2013.


Temple Bar Memorial

Following the removal of Wren's gate, Horace Jones, Architect and Surveyor to the City of London, designed a memorial to mark Temple Bar, which was unveiled in 1880. The Temple Bar Memorial stands in front of the Royal Courts of Justice. The elaborate
pedestal A pedestal (from French ''piédestal'', Italian ''piedistallo'' 'foot of a stall') or plinth A pedestal (from French ''piédestal'', Italian ''piedistallo'' 'foot of a stall') or plinth A pedestal (from French ''piédestal'', Italian ...

pedestal
in a
neo-Renaissance Renaissance Revival architecture (sometimes referred to as "Neo-Renaissance") is a group of 19th century architectural revival styles which were neither Greek Revival The Greek Revival was an architectural upright=1.45, alt=Plan d ...
style serves as the base for a sculpture by
Charles Bell Birch Charles Bell Birch (28 September 1832 – 16 October 1893) was a British sculptor. Biography Birch was born in Brixton, son of the author and translator Jonathan Birch (translator), Jonathan Birch (1783–1847) and his wife Esther (née Brook ...
of a dragon
supporter In heraldry Heraldry () is a broad term, encompassing the design, display and study of armorial bearings (known as armory), as well as related disciplines, such as vexillology, together with the study of ceremony, rank and genealogy, pedigre ...
(sometimes erroneously referred to as a
griffin The griffin, griffon, or gryphon (Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa''), generally referred to by speaker ...

griffin
) bearing a shield of the . The pedestal is decorated with statues by
Joseph Boehm Sir Joseph Edgar Boehm, 1st Baronet, (6 July 1834 – 12 December 1890) was a medallist:''"Medalist/medallist" is also used in sports and other areas for the winner of a medal, see Lists of awards, List of sport awards, Lists of Olympic medali ...
of
Queen Victoria Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland There have been 12 British monarchs since the political union of the Kingdom of England The Kingdom of En ...

Queen Victoria
and her son the
Prince of Wales Prince of Wales ( cy, Tywysog Cymru, ) is a title traditionally and ceremonially granted to the heir apparent An heir apparent is a person who is first in an order of succession An order of succession or right of succession is the line o ...

Prince of Wales
, the last royals to have entered the City through Wren's gate, which event is depicted in one of the
relief Relief is a sculptural technique where the sculpted elements remain attached to a solid background of the same material. The term ''wikt:relief, relief'' is from the Latin verb ''relevo'', to raise. To create a sculpture in relief is to give the ...
s which also decorate the structure. File:Temple Bar Marker, London 1.jpg, Temple Bar Memorial in 2009 File:Temple Bar Marker Detail.jpg, Detail from the Temple Bar Memorial In the 1960s, similar but smaller and more subdued dragon sculptures were set at other entry points to the City. Two were originally created in 1849 by J. B. Bunning for the entrance to the
Coal Exchange The Coal Exchange (also known as the Exchange Building) is a historic building in Cardiff, Wales. It is designed in Renaissance Revival architecture, Renaissance Revival style. Built in 1888 as the Coal and Shipping Exchange to be used as a mar ...
(and were relocated to
Victoria Embankment Victoria Embankment is part of the Thames Embankment The Thames Embankment is a work of 19th-century civil engineering that reclaimed marshy land next to the River Thames in central London. It consists of the Victoria Embankment and Chelse ...

Victoria Embankment
following that building's demolition in 1962), while the others are smaller-scale versions of Bunning's design.


In fiction

Charles Dickens Charles John Huffam Dickens (; 7 February 1812 – 9 June 1870) was an English writer and social critic. He created some of the world's best-known fictional characters and is regarded by many as the greatest novelist of the Victorian e ...

Charles Dickens
mentioned Temple Bar in ''
A Tale of Two Cities ''A Tale of Two Cities'' is an 1859 historical novel Historical fiction is a literary genre in which the plot takes place in a setting located in the past. Although the term is commonly used as a synonym for the historical novel, it can als ...
'' (Book II, Chapter I), noting its proximity to the fictional Tellson's Bank on Fleet Street. This was in fact Child & Co., which used the upper rooms of Temple Bar as storage space. Whilst critiquing the moral poverty of late 18th-century London, Dickens wrote that in matters of crime and punishment, "putting to death was a recipe much in vogue," and illustrated the horror caused by severed heads "exposed on Temple Bar with an insensate brutality and ferocity..." In
Herman Melville Herman Melville (Name change, born Melvill; August 1, 1819 – September 28, 1891) was an American novelist, short story writer, and poet of the American Renaissance (literature), American Renaissance period. Among his best-known works are ...

Herman Melville
's '' The Paradise of Bachelors and the Tartarus of Maids'', he contrasts the beauty of the Temple Bar gateway with the highest point on the road leading to the hellish paper factory, which he calls a "Dantean Gateway" (in his ''
Inferno Inferno may refer to: * Hell, an afterlife place of suffering * Conflagration, a large uncontrolled fire Film * ''L'Inferno'', a 1911 Italian film * Inferno (1953 film), ''Inferno'' (1953 film), a film noir by Roy Ward Baker * Inferno (1973 fi ...
'',
Dante Dante Alighieri (), probably baptized Durante di Alighiero degli Alighieri and often referred to Mononymous person, simply as Dante (, also ; – 14 September 1321), was an Italian Italian poetry, poet, writer and philosopher. His ''Divine Co ...

Dante
describes the gateway to
Hell In religion Religion is a - of designated and practices, , s, s, , , , , or , that relates humanity to , , and elements; however, there is no scholarly consensus over what precisely constitutes a religion. Different religions may o ...

Hell
, over which are written the words, "Abandon hope, all ye who enter here.") The dragon on top of the Temple Bar monument comes to life in Charlie Fletcher's children's book about London, '' Stoneheart''. The dragon also features in
Virginia Woolf Adeline Virginia Woolf (; ; 25 January 1882 28 March 1941) was an English writer, considered one of the most important modernist Modernism is both a philosophical movement A philosophical movement refers to the phenomenon defined by a ...

Virginia Woolf
's '' The Years'', in which one of the main characters, Martin, points "at the splayed-out figure at Temple Bar; it looked as ridiculous as usual – something between a serpent and a fowl."


See also

*
Dragon boundary mark The dragon boundary marks are cast iron statues of dragons on metal or stone plinths that mark the boundaries of the City of London. The dragons are painted silver, with details of their wings and tongue picked out in red. The dragon stands on on ...
*
Temple Bar, Dublin Temple Bar ( ga, Barra an Teampaill) is an area on the south bank of the River Liffey in central Dublin, Ireland. The area is bounded by the Liffey to the north, Dame Street to the south, Westmoreland Street to the east and Fishamble Street to t ...

Temple Bar, Dublin
, a district of the same name in
Dublin Dublin (; , or ) is the capital and largest city of Ireland Ireland ( ; ga, Éire ; Ulster-Scots: ) is an island upright=1.15, Great_Britain.html"_;"title="Ireland_(left)_and_Great_Britain">Ireland_(left)_and_Great_Britain_ ...

Dublin
, Ireland


References


External links


Victorian Web''The Return of Temple Bar to the City of London'' website ''City of London'' website with history of Temple Bar
* {{City of London gates Christopher Wren buildings in London Buildings and structures in the City of London
History of the City of London City of London History of London by location, City of London, History of the History of England by county, London, City of {{CatAutoTOC ...
Grade I listed gates Buildings and structures completed in 1672 Relocated buildings and structures in the United Kingdom Tourist attractions in the City of London 1672 establishments in England