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Telegraphy is the long-distance transmission of messages where the sender uses symbolic codes, known to the recipient, rather than a physical exchange of an object bearing the message. Thus
flag semaphore Flag semaphore (from the Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the used in and the from around 1500 BC to 300 BC. It is often roughly divided into the following periods: (), Dark Ages (), the period (), and the period ...
is a method of telegraphy, whereas
pigeon post Pigeon post is the use of homing pigeon The true messenger pigeon is a variety of domestic pigeons (''Columba livia domestica'') derived from the wild rock dove, selective breeding, selectively bred for its ability to find its way home ov ...

pigeon post
is not. Ancient
signal In signal processing Signal processing is an electrical engineering subfield that focuses on analysing, modifying, and synthesizing signals such as audio signal processing, sound, image processing, images, and scientific measurements. Sig ...

signal
ling systems, although sometimes quite extensive and sophisticated as in China, were generally not capable of transmitting arbitrary text messages. Possible messages were fixed and predetermined and such systems are thus not true telegraphs. The earliest true telegraph put into widespread use was the
optical telegraph An optical telegraph is a line of stations, typically towers, for the purpose of conveying textual information by means of visual signals. There are two main types of such systems; the semaphore telegraph which uses pivoted indicator arms and ...

optical telegraph
of
Claude Chappe Claude Chappe (25 December 1763 – 23 January 1805) was a French inventor who in 1792 demonstrated a practical semaphore system that eventually spanned all of France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, Répub ...
, invented in the late 18th century. The system was extensively used in France, and European countries controlled by France, during the
Napoleonic era The Napoleonic era is a period in the and . It is generally classified as including the fourth and final stage of the , the first being the , the second being the , and the third being the . The Napoleonic era begins roughly with 's ...
. The
electric telegraph An electrical telegraph was a point-to-point text messaging system, used from the 1840s until the mid 20th century when it was slowly replaced by other telecommunication systems. At the sending station switches connected a source of current to ...
started to replace the optical telegraph in the mid-19th century. It was first taken up in Britain in the form of the
Cooke and Wheatstone telegraph The Cooke and Wheatstone telegraph was an early electrical telegraph An electrical telegraph is a point-to-point text messaging system, primarily used from the 1840s until the mid 20th century when it was slowly replaced by other telecommunic ...
, initially used mostly as an aid to
railway signalling Railway signalling is a system used to direct railway Rail transport (also known as train transport) is a means of transferring passengers and goods on wheeled vehicles running on rails, which are located on tracks. In contrast to roa ...
. This was quickly followed by a different system developed in the United States by
Samuel Morse Samuel Finley Breese Morse (April 27, 1791 – April 2, 1872) was an American inventor and painter. After having established his reputation as a portrait painter, in his middle age Morse contributed to the invention An invention is a uniq ...

Samuel Morse
. The electric telegraph was slower to develop in France due to the established optical telegraph system, but an electrical telegraph was put into use with a code compatible with the Chappe optical telegraph. The Morse system was adopted as the international standard in 1865, using a modified
Morse code Morse code is a method used in telecommunication Telecommunication is the transmission of information by various types of technologies over wire A wire is a single usually cylindrical A cylinder (from Greek Greek may refer to: ...
developed in Germany in 1848. The
heliograph A heliograph ('' helios'' (), meaning "sun", and '' graphein'' (), meaning "write") is a semaphore system that signals by flashes of sunlight (generally using Morse code) reflected by a mirror. The flashes are produced by momentarily pivoting ...

heliograph
is a telegraph system using reflected sunlight for signalling. It was mainly used in areas where the electrical telegraph had not been established and generally uses the same code. The most extensive heliograph network established was in Arizona and New Mexico during the
Apache Wars The Apache Wars were a series of armed conflicts between the United States Army and various Apache nations fought in the Southwest United States, southwest between 1849 and 1886, though minor hostilities continued until as late as 1924. The ...
. The heliograph was standard military equipment as late as
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
.
Wireless telegraphy Wireless telegraphy or radiotelegraphy is transmission of telegraph Telegraphy is the long-distance transmission of textual messages where the sender uses a semaphore system, known to the recipient, rather than a physical exchange of an ...
developed in the early 20th century. Wireless telegraphy became important for maritime use, and was a competitor to electrical telegraphy using
submarine telegraph cable A submarine communications cable is a cable laid on the seabed, sea bed between land-based stations to carry telecommunication signals across stretches of ocean and sea. The first submarine communications cables laid beginning in the 1850s carr ...
s in international communications. Telegrams became a popular means of sending messages once telegraph prices had fallen sufficiently. Traffic became high enough to spur the development of automated systems—
teleprinter A teleprinter (teletypewriter, teletype or TTY) is an electromechanical device that can be used to send and receive typed messages through various communications channels, in both point-to-point (telecommunications), point-to-point and point- ...
s and
punched tape file:PaperTapes-5and8Hole.jpg, Five- and eight-hole punched paper tape file:Harwell-dekatron-witch-10.jpg, Paper tape reader on the Harwell computer with a small piece of five-hole tape connected in a circle – creating a physical program loop P ...

punched tape
transmission. These systems led to new
telegraph code Telegraphy is the long-distance transmission of messages where the sender uses symbolic codes, known to the recipient, rather than a physical exchange of an object bearing the message. Thus flag semaphore Flag semaphore (from the Greek σ ...
s, starting with the
Baudot code The Baudot code is an early character encoding In computing Computing is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating computing machinery. It includes the study and experimentation of algorithmic processes and developme ...
. However, telegrams were never able to compete with the letter post on price, and competition from the
telephone A telephone is a telecommunication Telecommunication is the transmission of information by various types of technologies over wire A wire is a single usually cylindrical A cylinder (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anyt ...

telephone
, which removed their speed advantage, drove the telegraph into decline from 1920 onwards. The few remaining telegraph applications were largely taken over by alternatives on the
internet The Internet (or internet) is the global system of interconnected computer networks that uses the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to communicate between networks and devices. It is a ''internetworking, network of networks'' that consist ...

internet
towards the end of the 20th century.


Terminology

The word ''telegraph'' (from
Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa''), generally referred to by speakers simply as Greek (, ), refers collectively to the diale ...
: () 'at a distance' and () 'to write') was first coined by the French inventor of the
Semaphore telegraph Semaphore is the use of an apparatus with telegraphy to create a visual signal In signal processing Signal processing is an electrical engineering subfield that focuses on analysing, modifying, and synthesizing signals such as audio ...
,
Claude Chappe Claude Chappe (25 December 1763 – 23 January 1805) was a French inventor who in 1792 demonstrated a practical semaphore system that eventually spanned all of France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, Répub ...
, who also coined the word ''
semaphore Semaphore is the use of an apparatus with telegraphy Telegraphy is the long-distance transmission of textual messages where the sender uses a semaphore system, known to the recipient, rather than a physical exchange of an object bearing ...
''. A telegraph is a device for transmitting and receiving messages over long distances, i.e., for telegraphy. The word ''telegraph'' alone now generally refers to an
electrical telegraph An electrical telegraph was a point-to-point text messaging system, used from the 1840s until the mid 20th century when it was slowly replaced by other telecommunication systems. At the sending station switches connected a source of current to ...
. Wireless telegraphy is transmission of messages over radio with telegraphic codes. Contrary to the extensive definition used by Chappe, Morse argued that the term ''telegraph'' can strictly be applied only to systems that transmit ''and'' record messages at a distance. This is to be distinguished from ''semaphore'', which merely transmits messages. Smoke signals, for instance, are to be considered semaphore, not telegraph. According to Morse, telegraph dates only from 1832 when
Pavel Schilling Baron Pavel Lvovitch Schilling (1786–1837), also known as Paul Schilling, was a Russian military officer and diplomat A diplomat (from grc, δίπλωμα; romanized Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is t ...
invented one of the earliest electrical telegraphs. A telegraph message sent by an
electrical telegraph An electrical telegraph was a point-to-point text messaging system, used from the 1840s until the mid 20th century when it was slowly replaced by other telecommunication systems. At the sending station switches connected a source of current to ...
operator or telegrapher using
Morse code Morse code is a method used in telecommunication Telecommunication is the transmission of information by various types of technologies over wire A wire is a single usually cylindrical A cylinder (from Greek Greek may refer to: ...
(or a
printing telegraph The printing telegraph was invented by Royal Earl House in 1846. House's equipment could transmit around 40 instantly readable words per minute, but was difficult to manufacture in bulk. The printer could copy and print out up to 2,000 words per ...

printing telegraph
operator using plain text) was known as a telegram. A cablegram was a message sent by a submarine telegraph cable, often shortened to "cable" or "wire". Later, a Telex was a message sent by a
Telex The telex network is a customer-to-customer switched network of teleprinters similar to a Public switched telephone network, telephone network, using telegraph-grade connecting circuits for two-way text-based messages. Telex was a major method of ...

Telex
network, a switched network of
teleprinter A teleprinter (teletypewriter, teletype or TTY) is an electromechanical device that can be used to send and receive typed messages through various communications channels, in both point-to-point (telecommunications), point-to-point and point- ...
s similar to a telephone network. A
wirephoto Wirephoto, telephotography or radiophoto is the sending of pictures File:TEIDE.JPG, An Synthetic aperture radar, SAR radar imaging, radar image acquired by the SIR-C/X-SAR radar on board the Space Shuttle Endeavour shows the Teide volcano. The ...
or wire picture was a newspaper picture that was sent from a remote location by a
facsimile telegraph
facsimile telegraph
. A diplomatic telegram, also known as a
diplomatic cable A diplomatic cable, also known as a diplomatic telegram (DipTel) or embassy cable, is a confidential text-based message exchanged between a diplomatic mission, like an embassy or a consulate, and the foreign ministry of its parent country.Defi ...
, is a confidential communication between a
diplomatic mission A diplomatic mission or foreign mission is a group of people from one state or an organization present in another state to represent the sending state or organization officially in the receiving state. In practice, the phrase ''diplomatic mi ...
and the
foreign ministry A foreign affairs minister or minister of foreign affairs (less commonly minister for foreign affairs) is generally a cabinet Cabinet or The Cabinet may refer to: Furniture * Cabinetry, a box-shaped piece of furniture with doors and/or drawer ...
of its parent country. These continue to be called telegrams or cables regardless of the method used for transmission.


Early signalling

Passing messages by signalling over distance is an ancient practice. One of the oldest examples is the signal towers of the
Great Wall of China The Great Wall of China () is a series of fortifications that were built across the historical northern borders of ancient Chinese states and Imperial China as protection against Eurasian nomads, various nomadic groups from the Eurasian Step ...

Great Wall of China
. In , signals could be sent by
beacon fires
beacon fires
or
drum beats
drum beats
. By complex flag signalling had developed, and by the
Han dynasty#REDIRECT Han dynasty The Han dynasty () was the second Dynasties in Chinese history, imperial dynasty of China (202 BC – 220 AD), established by the rebel leader Liu Bang and ruled by the House of Liu. Preceded by the short-lived Qin dynas ...

Han dynasty
(200 BC–220 AD) signallers had a choice of lights, flags, or gunshots to send signals. By the
Tang dynasty The Tang dynasty (, ; ), or Tang Empire, was an imperial dynasty of China that ruled from 618 to 907, with an interregnum An interregnum (plural interregna or interregnums) is a period of discontinuity or "gap" in a government, organiza ...
(618–907) a message could be sent in 24 hours. The
Ming dynasty The Ming dynasty (), officially the Great Ming, was the ruling dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644 following the collapse of the Mongol The Mongols ( mn, Монголчууд, , ''Mongolchuud'', ; russian: Монголы, ) are an eth ...

Ming dynasty
(1368–1644) added
artillery Artillery is a class of heavy military ranged weapons built to launch Ammunition, munitions far beyond the range and power of infantry firearms. Early artillery development focused on the ability to breach defensive walls and fortifications dur ...

artillery
to the possible signals. While the signalling was complex (for instance, different-coloured flags could be used to indicate enemy strength), only predetermined messages could be sent. The Chinese signalling system extended well beyond the Great Wall. Signal towers away from the wall were used to give early warning of an attack. Others were built even further out as part of the protection of trade routes, especially the
Silk Road The Silk Road () was and is a network of trade routes connecting the Eastern world, East and Western culture, West, from the 2nd century BCE to the 18th century CE. It was central to the economic, cultural, political, and religious interactions ...

Silk Road
. Signal fires were widely used in Europe and elsewhere for military purposes. The Roman army made frequent use of them, as did their enemies, and the remains of some of the stations still exist. Few details have been recorded of European/Mediterranean signalling systems and the possible messages. One of the few for which details are known is a system invented by
Aeneas Tacticus Aeneas Tacticus ( grc-gre, Αἰνείας ὁ Τακτικός; fl. 4th century BC) was one of the earliest Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Re ...
(4th century BC). Tacticus's system had water filled pots at the two signal stations which were drained in synchronisation. Annotation on a floating scale indicated which message was being sent or received. Signals sent by means of
torch A torch is a stick with combustible material at one end, which is ignited and used as a light source. Torches have been used throughout history, and are still used in processions, symbolic and religious events, and in juggling entertainment. In ...

torch
es indicated when to start and stop draining to keep the synchronisation.David L. Woods, "Ancient signals", pp. 24-25 in, Christopher H. Sterling (ed), ''Military Communications: From Ancient Times to the 21st Century'', ABC-CLIO, 2008 . None of the signalling systems discussed above are true telegraphs in the sense of a system that can transmit arbitrary messages over arbitrary distances. Lines of signalling
relay A relay Electromechanical relay schematic showing a control coil, four pairs of normally open and one pair of normally closed contacts An automotive-style miniature relay with the dust cover taken off A relay is an electric Electricity i ...
stations can send messages to any required distance, but all these systems are limited to one extent or another in the range of messages that they can send. A system like
flag semaphore Flag semaphore (from the Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the used in and the from around 1500 BC to 300 BC. It is often roughly divided into the following periods: (), Dark Ages (), the period (), and the period ...
, with an alphabetic code, can certainly send any given message, but the system is designed for short-range communication between two persons. An
engine order telegraph An engine order telegraph or E.O.T., also referred to as a chadburn, is a communications device used on a ship A ship is a large watercraft that travels the world's oceans and other sufficiently deep Sea lane, waterways, carrying goods or pa ...
, used to send instructions from the bridge of a ship to the engine room, fails to meet both criteria; it has a limited distance and very simple message set. There was only one ancient signalling system described that ''does'' meet these criteria. That was a system using the
Polybius square The Polybius square, also known as the Polybius checkerboard, is a device invented by the ancient Greeks Ancient Greece ( el, Ἑλλάς, Hellás) was a civilization A civilization (or civilisation) is any complex society that is cha ...

Polybius square
to encode an alphabet.
Polybius Polybius (; grc-gre, Πολύβιος, ; ) was a Greek historian of the Hellenistic period The Hellenistic period covers the period of Mediterranean history between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the emergence of the ...

Polybius
(2nd century BC) suggested using two successive groups of torches to identify the coordinates of the letter of the alphabet being transmitted. The number of said torches held up signalled the grid square that contained the letter. There is no definite record of the system ever being used, but there are several passages in ancient texts that some think are suggestive. Holzmann and Pehrson, for instance, suggest that
Livy Titus Livius (; 59 BC – AD 17), known in English as Livy ( ), was a Ancient Rome, Roman historian. He wrote a monumental history of Rome and the Roman people, titled , covering the period from the earliest legends of Rome before the traditiona ...
is describing its use by
Philip V of Macedon Philip V ( grc-gre, Φίλιππος ; 238–179 BC) was king (Basileus ''Basileus'' ( el, βασιλεύς) is a Greek term and title A title is one or more words used before or after a person's name, in certain contexts. It may signify ...

Philip V of Macedon
in 207 BC during the
First Macedonian War The First Macedonian War (214–205 BC) was fought by Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus , image_map = Map of comune of Rome (metropolitan city of Capital ...
. Nothing else that could be described as a true telegraph existed until the 17th century. Possibly the first alphabetic
telegraph code Telegraphy is the long-distance transmission of messages where the sender uses symbolic codes, known to the recipient, rather than a physical exchange of an object bearing the message. Thus flag semaphore Flag semaphore (from the Greek σ ...
in the modern era is due to who published his work in 1616. Kessler used a lamp placed inside a barrel with a moveable shutter operated by the signaller. The signals were observed at a distance with the newly-invented telescope.


Drum telegraph

In several places around the world, a system of passing messages from village to village using drum beats was developed. This was particularly highly developed in Africa. At the time of its discovery in Africa, the speed of message transmission was faster than any existing European system using
optical telegraph An optical telegraph is a line of stations, typically towers, for the purpose of conveying textual information by means of visual signals. There are two main types of such systems; the semaphore telegraph which uses pivoted indicator arms and ...

optical telegraph
s. The African drum system was not alphabetical. Rather, the drum beats followed the tones of the language. This made messages highly ambiguous and context was important for their correct interpretation.


Optical telegraph

An
optical telegraph An optical telegraph is a line of stations, typically towers, for the purpose of conveying textual information by means of visual signals. There are two main types of such systems; the semaphore telegraph which uses pivoted indicator arms and ...

optical telegraph
is a telegraph consisting of a line of stations in towers or natural high points which signal to each other by means of shutters or paddles. Signalling by means of indicator pointers was called ''semaphore''. Early proposals for an optical telegraph system were made to the
Royal Society The Royal Society, formally The Royal Society of London for Improving Natural Knowledge, is a learned society and the United Kingdom's national academy of sciences. Founded on 28 November 1660, it was granted a royal charter by Charles II of ...
by
Robert Hooke Robert Hooke FRS FRS may also refer to: Government and politics * Facility Registry System, a centrally managed Environmental Protection Agency database that identifies places of environmental interest in the United States * Family Resources ...
in 1684 and were first implemented on an experimental level by Sir
Richard Lovell Edgeworth Richard Lovell Edgeworth (31 May 1744 – 13 June 1817) was an Anglo-Irish politician, writer and inventor. Biography Edgeworth was born in Pierrepont Street, Bath, England, son of Richard Edgeworth senior, and great-grandson of Sir Sa ...
in 1767. The first successful optical telegraph network was invented by
Claude Chappe Claude Chappe (25 December 1763 – 23 January 1805) was a French inventor who in 1792 demonstrated a practical semaphore system that eventually spanned all of France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, Répub ...
and operated in France from 1793. The two most extensive systems were Chappe's in France, with branches into neighbouring countries, and the system of
Abraham Niclas Edelcrantz Abraham Niclas (Clewberg) Edelcrantz (28 July 1754 in Turku Turku ( ; ; sv, Åbo, ; la, Aboa; russian: Турку, formerly ) is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London ...

Abraham Niclas Edelcrantz
in Sweden.Gerard J. Holzmann; Björn Pehrson, ''The Early History of Data Networks'', IEEE Computer Society Press, 1995 . During 1790–1795, at the height of the
French Revolution The French Revolution ( ) was a period of radical political and societal change in France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a spanning and in the and the , and s. Its ...

French Revolution
, France needed a swift and reliable communication system to thwart the war efforts of its enemies. In 1790, the Chappe brothers set about devising a system of communication that would allow the central government to receive intelligence and to transmit orders in the shortest possible time. On 2 March 1791, at 11 am, they sent the message "si vous réussissez, vous serez bientôt couverts de gloire" (If you succeed, you will soon bask in glory) between Brulon and Parce, a distance of . The first means used a combination of black and white panels, clocks, telescopes, and codebooks to send their message. In 1792, Claude was appointed ''Ingénieur-Télégraphiste'' and charged with establishing a line of stations between Paris and
Lille Lille ( , ; nl, Rijsel ; pcd, Lile; vls, Rysel) is a city in the northern part of France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a List of transcontinental countries, transcontinental ...

Lille
, a distance of . It was used to carry dispatches for the war between France and Austria. In 1794, it brought news of a French capture of
Condé-sur-l'Escaut Condé-sur-l'Escaut ( pcd, Condé-su-l'Escaut) is a Communes of France, commune of the Nord (département), Nord Departement in France, department in northern France. It lies on the border with Belgium. The population as of 1999 was 10,527. Residen ...
from the Austrians less than an hour after it occurred. A decision to replace the system with an electric telegraph was made in 1846, but it took a decade before it was fully taken out of service. The fall of Sebastopol was reported by Chappe telegraph in 1855. The Prussian system was put into effect in the 1830s. However, they were highly dependent on good weather and daylight to work and even then could accommodate only about two words per minute. The last commercial semaphore link ceased operation in Sweden in 1880. As of 1895, France still operated coastal commercial semaphore telegraph stations, for ship-to-shore communication.


Electrical telegraph

The early ideas for an electric telegraph included in 1753 using
electrostatic Electrostatics is a branch of physics that studies electric charges at Rest (physics), rest (static electricity). Since classical antiquity, classical times, it has been known that some materials, such as amber, attract lightweight particles af ...
deflections of
pith shoot cut longitudinally to show the broad, solid pith (rough-textured, white) inside the wood (smooth, yellow-tinged). Scale in mm. shoot cut longitudinally to show the chambered pith found in this genus. Scale in mm. Image:Taxus wood.jpg, 250 ...
balls, proposals for
electrochemical Electrochemistry is the branch of physical chemistry Physical chemistry is the study of macroscopic The macroscopic scale is the length scale on which objects or phenomena are large enough to be visible with the naked eye, without magnifying ...
bubbles in acid by Campillo in 1804 and von Sömmering in 1809. The first experimental system over a substantial distance was electrostatic by Ronalds in 1816. Ronalds offered his invention to the
British Admiralty The Admiralty was the British government department The departments of the Government of the United Kingdom are the principal units through which it exercises executive authority; a few of them are titled Ministry (government department), mi ...
, but it was rejected as unnecessary, the existing optical telegraph connecting the Admiralty in London to their main fleet base in
Portsmouth Portsmouth ( ) is a and island with status in the of , southern . It is the most densely populated city in the , with a population last recorded at 238,800. The city forms part of the , which also incorporates , , , , , and . Located mainly ...

Portsmouth
being deemed adequate for their purposes. As late as 1844, after the electrical telegraph had come into use, the Admiralty's optical telegraph was still used, although it was accepted that poor weather ruled it out on many days of the year. France had an extensive optical telegraph dating from Napoleonic times and was even slower to take up electrical systems. Eventually, electrostatic telegraphs were abandoned in favour of
electromagnet File:VFPt Solenoid correct2.svg, Magnetic field produced by a solenoid (coil of wire). This drawing shows a cross section through the center of the coil. The crosses are wires in which current is moving into the page; the dots are wires in whi ...

electromagnet
ic systems. An early experimental system ( Schilling, 1832) led to a proposal to establish a telegraph between
St Petersburg Saint Petersburg ( rus, links=no, Санкт-Петербург, a=Ru-Sankt Peterburg Leningrad Petrograd Piter.ogg, r=Sankt-Peterburg, p=ˈsankt pʲɪtʲɪrˈburk), formerly known as Petrograd (1914–1924) and later Leningrad (1924–1991), ...
and
Kronstadt Kronstadt (russian: Кроншта́дт, Kronštádt ), also spelled Kronshtadt, Cronstadt or Kronštádt (from german: link=no, Krone for " crown" and ''Stadt'' for "city"; et, Kroonlinn) is a Russian port city in Kronshtadtsky District of t ...

Kronstadt
, but it was never completed. The first operative electric telegraph (
Gauss Johann Carl Friedrich Gauss (; german: Gauß ; la, Carolus Fridericus Gauss; 30 April 177723 February 1855) was a German mathematician This is a List of German mathematician A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of m ...

Gauss
and
Weber Weber (, or ; German: ) is a surname of German language, German origin, derived from the noun meaning "weaving, weaver". In some cases, following migration to English-speaking countries, it has been anglicised to the English surname 'Webber' or ev ...

Weber
, 1833) connected
Göttingen Observatory Göttingen Observatory (''Universitätssternwarte Göttingen'' (Göttingen University Observatory) or ''königliche Sternwarte Göttingen'' (Royal Observatory Göttingen)) is a German astronomical observatory located in Göttingen, Lower Saxony, Ger ...
to the Institute of Physics about 1 km away during experimental investigations of the geomagnetic field. The first commercial telegraph was by Cooke and Wheatstone following their English patent of 10 June 1837. It was demonstrated on the
London and Birmingham Railway The London and Birmingham Railway (L&BR) was an early railway company in the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and ...
in July of the same year. In July 1839, a five-needle, five-wire system was installed to provide signalling over a record distance of 21 km on a section of the
Great Western Railway The Great Western Railway (GWR) was a British railway company that linked London London is the and of and the . It stands on the in south-east England at the head of a down to the , and has been a major settlement for two millenni ...
between
London Paddington station Paddington, also known as London Paddington, is a Central London railway terminus and London Underground The London Underground (also known simply as the Underground, or by its nickname the Tube) is a system serving and some parts of th ...
and West Drayton.Anton A. Huurdeman, ''The Worldwide History of Telecommunications'' (2003) p. 67-69 However, in trying to get railway companies to take up his telegraph more widely for
railway signalling Railway signalling is a system used to direct railway Rail transport (also known as train transport) is a means of transferring passengers and goods on wheeled vehicles running on rails, which are located on tracks. In contrast to roa ...
, Cooke was rejected several times in favour of the more familiar, but shorter range, steam-powered pneumatic signalling. Even when his telegraph was taken up, it was considered experimental and the company backed out of a plan to finance extending the telegraph line out to
Slough Slough () is a large town in Berkshire Berkshire ( ; in the 17th century sometimes spelt phonetically as Barkeshire; abbreviated Berks.) is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other pu ...

Slough
. However, this led to a breakthrough for the electric telegraph, as up to this point the Great Western had insisted on exclusive use and refused Cooke permission to open public telegraph offices. Cooke extended the line at his own expense and agreed that the railway could have free use of it in exchange for the right to open it up to the public. Most of the early electrical systems required multiple wires (Ronalds' system was an exception), but the system developed in the
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...

United States
by and
Vail Vail is a Colorado municipalities#Home rule municipality, home rule municipality in Eagle County, Colorado, Eagle County, Colorado, United States. The population of the town was 5,305 in 2010. The town, home to Vail Ski Resort, the largest ski mo ...

Vail
was a single-wire system. This was the system that first used the soon-to-become-ubiquitous
Morse code Morse code is a method used in telecommunication Telecommunication is the transmission of information by various types of technologies over wire A wire is a single usually cylindrical A cylinder (from Greek Greek may refer to: ...
. By 1844, the Morse system connected Baltimore to Washington, and by 1861 the west coast of the continent was connected to the east coast. The
Cooke and Wheatstone telegraph The Cooke and Wheatstone telegraph was an early electrical telegraph An electrical telegraph is a point-to-point text messaging system, primarily used from the 1840s until the mid 20th century when it was slowly replaced by other telecommunic ...
, in a series of improvements, also ended up with a one-wire system, but still using their own code and needle displays. The electric telegraph quickly became a means of more general communication. The Morse system was officially adopted as the standard for continental European telegraphy in 1851 with a revised code, which later became the basis of
International Morse Code Morse code is a method used in telecommunication to Character encoding, encode Written language, text characters as standardized sequences of two different signal durations, called ''dots'' and ''dashes'', or ''dits'' and ''dahs''. Morse cod ...

International Morse Code
.Lewis Coe, ''The Telegraph: A History of Morse's Invention and Its Predecessors in the United States'', McFarland, p. 69, 2003 . However, Great Britain and the
British Empire The British Empire was composed of the dominions, Crown colony, colonies, protectorates, League of Nations mandate, mandates, and other Dependent territory, territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states. ...

British Empire
continued to use the Cooke and Wheatstone system, in some places as late as the 1930s. Likewise, the United States continued to use American Morse code internally, requiring translation operators skilled in both codes for international messages.


Railway telegraphy

Railway signal telegraphy was developed in Britain from the 1840s onward. It was used to manage railway traffic and to prevent accidents as part of the railway signalling system. On 12 June 1837 Cooke and Wheatstone were awarded a patent for an electric telegraph. This was demonstrated between
Euston railway station Euston railway station ( ; also known as London Euston) is a central London railway terminus in the London Borough of Camden The London Borough of Camden () is a London borough The London boroughs are the 32 districts of England, lo ...
—where Wheatstone was located—and the engine house at Camden Town—where Cooke was stationed, together with
Robert Stephenson Robert Stephenson Fellow of the Royal Society, FRS HFRSE FRSA Doctor of Civil Law, DCL (16 October 1803 – 12 October 1859) was an English civil engineer and designer of locomotives. The only son of George Stephenson, the "Father of Railways ...

Robert Stephenson
, the
London and Birmingham Railway The London and Birmingham Railway (L&BR) was an early railway company in the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and ...
line's chief engineer. The messages were for the operation of the rope-haulage system for pulling trains up the 1 in 77 bank. The world's first permanent railway telegraph was completed in July 1839 between London Paddington and West Drayton on the
Great Western Railway The Great Western Railway (GWR) was a British railway company that linked London London is the and of and the . It stands on the in south-east England at the head of a down to the , and has been a major settlement for two millenni ...
with an electric telegraph using a four-needle system. The concept of a signalling "block" system was proposed by Cooke in 1842. Railway signal telegraphy did not change in essence from Cooke's initial concept for more than a century. In this system each line of railway was divided into sections or blocks of varying length. Entry to and exit from the block was to be authorised by electric telegraph and signalled by the line-side semaphore signals, so that only a single train could occupy the rails. In Cooke's original system, a single-needle telegraph was adapted to indicate just two messages: "Line Clear" and "Line Blocked". The
signaller A signaller, signalman, colloquially referred to as a radioman in the armed force A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare. It is typically authorized a ...
would adjust his line-side signals accordingly. As first implemented in 1844 each station had as many needles as there were stations on the line, giving a complete picture of the traffic. As lines expanded, a sequence of pairs of single-needle instruments were adopted, one pair for each block in each direction.


Wigwag

Wigwag is a form of flag signalling using a single flag. Unlike most forms of flag signalling, which are used over relatively short distances, wigwag is designed to maximise the distance covered—up to in some cases. Wigwag achieved this by using a large flag—a single flag can be held with both hands unlike flag semaphore which has a flag in each hand—and using motions rather than positions as its symbols since motions are more easily seen. It was invented by US Army surgeon in the 1850s who later became the first head of the
Signal CorpsA signal corps is a military A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare War is an intense armed conflict between State (polity), states, governments, ...
. Wigwag was used extensively during the
American Civil War The American Civil War (also known by other names Other most often refers to: * Other (philosophy), a concept in psychology and philosophy Other or The Other may also refer to: Books * The Other (Tryon novel), ''The Other'' (Tryon nove ...
where it filled a gap left by the electrical telegraph. Although the electrical telegraph had been in use for more than a decade, the network did not yet reach everywhere and portable, ruggedized equipment suitable for military use was not immediately available. Permanent or semi-permanent stations were established during the war, some of them towers of enormous height and the system for a while could be described as a communications network.


Heliograph

A
heliograph A heliograph ('' helios'' (), meaning "sun", and '' graphein'' (), meaning "write") is a semaphore system that signals by flashes of sunlight (generally using Morse code) reflected by a mirror. The flashes are produced by momentarily pivoting ...

heliograph
is a telegraph that transmits messages by flashing sunlight with a mirror, usually using Morse code. The idea for a telegraph of this type was first proposed as a modification of surveying equipment (
Gauss Johann Carl Friedrich Gauss (; german: Gauß ; la, Carolus Fridericus Gauss; 30 April 177723 February 1855) was a German mathematician This is a List of German mathematician A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of m ...

Gauss
, 1821). Various uses of mirrors were made for communication in the following years, mostly for military purposes, but the first device to become widely used was a heliograph with a moveable mirror ( Mance, 1869). The system was used by the French during the 1870–71 siege of Paris, with night-time signalling using
kerosene lamp A kerosene lamp (also known as a paraffin lamp in some countries) is a type of lighting device that uses kerosene as a fuel. Kerosene lamps have a Candle wick, wick or gas mantle, mantle as light source, protected by a glass chimney or globe; la ...

kerosene lamp
s as the source of light. An improved version (Begbie, 1870) was used by British military in many colonial wars, including the
Anglo-Zulu War The Anglo-Zulu War was fought in 1879 between the British Empire The British Empire was composed of the dominions, Crown colony, colonies, protectorates, League of Nations mandate, mandates, and other Dependent territory, territories ...
(1879). At some point, a morse key was added to the apparatus to give the operator the same degree of control as in the electric telegraph.David L. Woods, "Heliograph and mirrors", pp. 208-211 in, Christopher H. Sterling (ed), ''Military Communications: From Ancient Times to the 21st Century'', ABC-CLIO, 2008 . Another type of heliograph was the
heliostat experimental station in France. The mirror rotates on an altazimuth mount. Solar thermal energy, solar-thermal power project near Daggett, California. Every mirror in the field of heliostats reflects sunlight continuously onto the receiver on ...

heliostat
or heliotrope fitted with a Colomb shutter. The heliostat was essentially a surveying instrument with a fixed mirror and so could not transmit a code by itself. The term ''heliostat'' is sometimes used as a synonym for ''heliograph'' because of this origin. The Colomb shutter (
Bolton Bolton (, locally ) is a large town in Greater Manchester Greater Manchester is a metropolitan county and combined authority, combined authority area in North West England, with a population of 2.8 million; comprising ten metropolitan boro ...
and Colomb, 1862) was originally invented to enable the transmission of morse code by
signal lamp Signal lamp training during World War II A signal lamp (sometimes called an Aldis lamp or a Morse lamp) is a semaphore Semaphore is the use of an apparatus with telegraphy Telegraphy is the long-distance transmission of textual messa ...
between
Royal Navy The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare Naval warfare is combat Combat ( French for ''fight'') is a purposeful violent conflict meant to physically harm or kill the opposition. Combat may be armed (using weapon A ...
ships at sea. The heliograph was heavily used by Nelson A. Miles in
Arizona Arizona ( ; nv, Hoozdo Hahoodzo ; ood, Alĭ ṣonak) is a U.S. state, state in the Southwestern United States, Southwestern region of the United States. It is also usually considered part of the Mountain States, Mountain states. It is th ...

Arizona
and
New Mexico ) , population_demonym = New Mexican ( es, Neomexicano, Neomejicano, Nuevo Mexicano) , seat = Santa Fe , LargestCity = Albuquerque , LargestMetro = Greater Albuquerque , OfficialLang = None , Languages = English English usually refer ...

New Mexico
after he took over command (1886) of the fight against
Geronimo Geronimo ( apm, Goyaałé, , ; June 16, 1829 – February 17, 1909) was a prominent leader and medicine man 'ceremonial leader' in a 'medicine lodge' A medicine man or medicine woman is a traditional healer A folk healer, in a contempo ...

Geronimo
and other
Apache The Apache () are a group of culturally related Native American Native Americans may refer to: Ethnic groups * Indigenous peoples of the Americas, the pre-Columbian peoples of North and South America and their descendants * Native Americans ...

Apache
bands in the
Apache Wars The Apache Wars were a series of armed conflicts between the United States Army and various Apache nations fought in the Southwest United States, southwest between 1849 and 1886, though minor hostilities continued until as late as 1924. The ...
. Miles had previously set up the first heliograph line in the US between
Fort Keogh Fort Keogh is a former United States Army The United States Army (USA) is the land military branch, service branch of the United States Armed Forces. It is one of the eight Uniformed services of the United States, U.S. uniformed services, a ...
and Fort Custer in
Montana Montana () is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper ...

Montana
. He used the heliograph to fill in vast, thinly populated areas that were not covered by the electric telegraph. Twenty-six stations covered an area . In a test of the system, a message was relayed in four hours. Miles' enemies used
smoke signal The smoke signal is one of the oldest forms of long-distance communication. It is a form of visual communication Visual communication is the use of visual elements to convey ideas and information"7 Paramount Components of Visual Communication". ...
s and flashes of sunlight from metal, but lacked a sophisticated telegraph code. The heliograph was ideal for use in the American Southwest due to its clear air and mountainous terrain on which stations could be located. It was found necessary to lengthen the morse dash (which is much shorter in American Morse code than in the modern International Morse code) to aid differentiating from the morse dot. Use of the heliograph declined from 1915 onwards, but remained in service in Britain and
British Commonwealth The Commonwealth of Nations, generally known simply as the Commonwealth, is a political association of 54 member states, almost all of which are former territories A territory is an administrative division, usually an area that is under the ...
countries for some time. Australian forces used the heliograph as late as 1942 in the Western Desert Campaign of
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
. Some form of heliograph was used by the
mujahideen ''Mujahideen'', or ''Mujahidin'' ( ar, مُجَاهِدِين, mujāhidīn), is the plural form of ''mujahid'' ( ar, مجاهد, mujāhid, strugglers or strivers or justice, right conduct, Godly rule, etc. doers of jihād), an Arabic term th ...
in the
Soviet–Afghan War The Soviet–Afghan War was a conflict wherein insurgent groups known collectively as the Mujahideen ''Mujahideen'', or ''Mujahidin'' ( ar, مُجَاهِدِين, mujāhidīn), is the plural form of ''mujahid'' ( ar, مجاهد, mujā ...
(1979-1989).


Teleprinter

A teleprinter is a telegraph machine that can send messages from a typewriter-like keyboard and print incoming messages in readable text with no need for the operators to be trained in the telegraph code used on the line. It developed from various earlier printing telegraphs and resulted in improved transmission speeds. The
Morse telegraph An electrical telegraph is a point-to-point text messaging system, primarily used from the 1840s until the mid 20th century when it was slowly replaced by other telecommunication systems. It used coded pulses of electric current An electric c ...

Morse telegraph
(1837) was originally conceived as a system marking indentations on paper tape. A chemical telegraph making blue marks improved the speed of recording (
Bain Bain may refer to: People * Bain (surname), origin and list of people with the surname * Bain family, Scottish family Fictional characters * Bain (Wheel of Time), Bain (''Wheel of Time''), character from the novels by Robert Jordan * Sunset Bain, ...
, 1846), but was delayed by a patent challenge from Morse. The first true printing telegraph (that is printing in plain text) used a spinning wheel of
types Type may refer to: Science and technology Computing * Typing Typing is the process of writing or inputting text by pressing keys on a typewriter, computer keyboard, cell phone, or calculator. It can be distinguished from other means of text inpu ...
in the manner of a
daisy wheel printer Daisy wheel printing is an impact printing technology invented in 1970 by Dr Andrew Gabor at Diablo Data Systems. It uses interchangeable pre-formed type elements, each with typically 96 glyphs, to generate high-quality output comparable to p ...
(
House A house is a single-unit residential building A building, or edifice, is a structure with a roof and walls standing more or less permanently in one place, such as a house or factory. Buildings come in a variety of sizes, shapes, and functio ...
, 1846, improved by , 1855). The system was adopted by
Western Union The Western Union Company is an American worldwide financial services and communications company A company, abbreviated as co., is a Legal personality, legal entity representing an association of people, whether Natural person, natural, Lega ...

Western Union
. Early teleprinters used the
Baudot code The Baudot code is an early character encoding In computing Computing is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating computing machinery. It includes the study and experimentation of algorithmic processes and developme ...
, a five-bit sequential binary code. This was a telegraph code developed for use on the French telegraph using a five-key keyboard ( Baudot, 1874). Teleprinters generated the same code from a full alphanumeric keyboard. A feature of the Baudot code, and subsequent telegraph codes, was that, unlike Morse code, every character has a code of the same length making it more machine friendly. The Baudot code was used on the earliest
ticker tape Ticker tape was the earliest electrical dedicated financial communications medium, transmitting stock Stock (also capital stock) is all of the shares into which ownership of a corporation A corporation is an organization—usually a ...
machines ( Calahan, 1867), a system for mass distributing
stock price A share price is the price of a single Share (finance), share of a number of saleable share capital, equity shares of a company. In layman's terms, the stock price is the highest amount someone is willing to pay for the stock, or the lowest amount ...
information.Richard E. Smith, ''Elementary Information Security'', p. 433, Jones & Bartlett Publishers, 2015 .


Automated punched-tape transmission

In a system, the message is first typed onto punched tape using the code of the telegraph system—Morse code for instance. It is then, either immediately or at some later time, run through a transmission machine which sends the message to the telegraph network. Multiple messages can be sequentially recorded on the same run of tape. The advantage of doing this is that messages can be sent at a steady, fast rate making maximum use of the available telegraph lines. The economic advantage of doing this is greatest on long, busy routes where the cost of the extra step of preparing the tape is outweighed by the cost of providing more telegraph lines. The first machine to use punched tape was Bain's teleprinter (Bain, 1843), but the system saw only limited use. Later versions of Bain's system achieved speeds up to 1000 words per minute, far faster than a human operator could achieve. The first widely used system (Wheatstone, 1858) was first put into service with the British
General Post Office The General Post Office (GPO) was the state postal system and telecommunications Telecommunication is the transmission of information by various types of technologies over , radio, , or other systems. It has its origin in the desire of ...

General Post Office
in 1867. A novel feature of the Wheatstone system was the use of
bipolar encoding 360px, An example of bipolar encoding, known as AMI (Alternate mark inversion). In telecommunication, bipolar encoding is a type of return-to-zero (RZ) line code, where two nonzero values are used, so that the three values are +, −, and zero. Such ...
. That is, both positive and negative polarity voltages were used. Bipolar encoding has several advantages, one of which is that it permits duplex communication. The Wheatstone tape reader was capable of a speed of 400 words per minute.Tom Standage, ''The Victorian Internet'', Berkley, 1999 .


Oceanic telegraph cables

A worldwide communication network meant that telegraph cables would have to be laid across oceans. On land cables could be run uninsulated suspended from poles. Underwater, a good insulator that was both flexible and capable of resisting the ingress of seawater was required, and at first this was not available. A solution presented itself with
gutta-percha Gutta-percha is a tree of the genus '' Palaquium'' in the family Sapotaceae The Sapotaceae are a family In human society, family (from la, familia) is a group of people related either by consanguinity (by recognized birth) or affin ...
, a natural rubber from the ''
Palaquium gutta ''Palaquium gutta'' is a tree in the family Sapotaceae. The specific name (botany), specific epithet ' is from the Malay language, Malay word ''getah'' meaning "sap or latex". It is known in Indonesia as ''karet oblong''. Description ''Palaquium ...
'' tree, after
William Montgomerie William Montgomerie (1797–1856) was a Scottish military doctor with the East India Company, and later head of the medical department at Singapore Singapore (), officially the Republic of Singapore, is a sovereign state, sovereign island ...
sent samples to London from Singapore in 1843. The new material was tested by
Michael Faraday Michael Faraday (; 22 September 1791 – 25 August 1867) was an English scientist A scientist is a person who conducts scientific research The scientific method is an Empirical evidence, empirical method of acquiring knowledge ...

Michael Faraday
and in 1845 Wheatstone suggested that it should be used on the cable planned between
Dover Dover () is a town and major ferry port in Kent Kent is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary, L. Brookes (ed.), 2005, Chambers Harrap Publishers Ltd, Edi ...

Dover
and
Calais Calais ( , , traditionally , ; pcd, Calés; vls, Kales) is a city A city is a large .Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia ...

Calais
by
John Watkins Brett John Watkins Brett (1805–1863) was an English telegraph engineer. Life Brett was the son of a cabinetmaker, William Brett of Bristol, and was born in that city in 1805. Brett is known as the founder of submarine telegraphy. He formed the Submar ...

John Watkins Brett
. The idea was proved viable when the South Eastern Railway company successfully tested a gutta-percha insulated cable with telegraph messages to a ship off the coast of . The cable to France was laid in 1850 but was almost immediately severed by a French fishing vessel.Solymar, Laszlo.
The Effect of the Telegraph on Law and Order, War, Diplomacy, and Power Politics
' in ''Interdisciplinary Science Reviews'', 2000. Accessed 1 August 2014.
It was relaid the next year and connections to
Ireland Ireland ( ; ga, Éire ; Ulster Scots dialect, Ulster-Scots: ) is an island in the Atlantic Ocean, North Atlantic. It is separated from Great Britain to its east by the North Channel (Great Britain and Ireland), North Channel, the Irish Sea ...

Ireland
and the
Low Countries The term Low Countries, also known as the Low Lands ( nl, de Lage Landen, french: les Pays-Bas) and historically called the Netherlands ( nl, de Nederlanden), Flanders, or Belgica, refers to a coastal lowland region in Northwestern Europe ...
soon followed. Getting a cable across the proved much more difficult. The
Atlantic Telegraph Company The Atlantic Telegraph Company was a company A company, abbreviated as co., is a Legal personality, legal entity representing an association of people, whether Natural person, natural, Legal personality, legal or a mixture of both, with a spec ...
, formed in
London London is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and smaller lowerc ...

London
in 1856, had several failed attempts. A cable laid in 1858 worked poorly for a few days (sometimes taking all day to send a message despite the use of the highly sensitive
mirror galvanometer upModern mirror galvanometer from Scanlab A mirror galvanometer is an ammeter An ammeter (from ''ampere meter'') is a measuring instrument used to measure the electric current, current in a Electrical circuit, circuit. Electric currents are meas ...
developed by William Thomson (the future
Lord Kelvin William Thomson, 1st Baron Kelvin, (26 June 182417 December 1907) was a British mathematician A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of ...

Lord Kelvin
) before being destroyed by applying too high a voltage. Its failure and slow speed of transmission prompted Thomson and
Oliver Heaviside Oliver Heaviside FRS (; 18 May 1850 – 3 February 1925) was an English autodidactic Autodidacticism (also autodidactism) or self-education (also self-learning and self-teaching) is education without the guidance of masters (such as teach ...
to find better mathematical descriptions of long
transmission line In electrical engineering Electrical engineering is an engineering discipline concerned with the study, design, and application of equipment, devices, and systems which use electricity, electronics The field of electronics is a branch o ...

transmission line
s. The company finally succeeded in 1866 with an improved cable laid by SS ''Great Eastern'', the largest ship of its day, designed by
Isambard Kingdom Brunel Isambard Kingdom Brunel (; 9 April 1806 – 15 September 1859) was an English civil engineer who is considered "one of the most ingenious and prolific figures in engineering history," "one of the 19th-century engineering giants," and "on ...
. An overland telegraph from Britain to India was first connected in 1866 but was unreliable so a submarine telegraph cable was connected in 1870. Several telegraph companies were combined to form the ''Eastern Telegraph Company'' in 1872. Australia was first linked to the rest of the world in October 1872 by a submarine telegraph cable at
Darwin Darwin most often refers to: * Charles Darwin (1809–1882), English naturalist and writer, best known as the originator of the theory of biological evolution by natural selection * Darwin, Northern Territory, a capital city in Australia * Darwin ( ...

Darwin
. From the 1850s until well into the 20th century, British submarine cable systems dominated the world system. This was set out as a formal strategic goal, which became known as the
All Red Line The All Red Line was an informal name for the system of electrical telegraph An electrical telegraph is a point-to-point text messaging system, primarily used from the 1840s until the mid 20th century when it was slowly replaced by other tele ...

All Red Line
. In 1896, there were thirty cable-laying ships in the world and twenty-four of them were owned by British companies. In 1892, British companies owned and operated two-thirds of the world's cables and by 1923, their share was still 42.7 percent. During
World War I World War I, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war A world war is "a war engaged in by all or most of the principal nations of the world". The term is usually reserved for ...

World War I
, Britain's telegraph communications were almost completely uninterrupted while it was able to quickly cut Germany's cables worldwide.


Facsimile

In 1843, Scottish inventor
Alexander Bain Alexander Bain (11 June 1818 – 18 September 1903) was a Scottish philosopher and educationalist in the British school of empiricism and a prominent and innovative figure in the fields of psychology Psychology is the science of min ...
invented a device that could be considered the first
facsimile machine Fax (short for facsimile), sometimes called telecopying or telefax (the latter short for telefacsimile), is the telephonic transmission of scanned printed material (both text and images), normally to a telephone number connected to a printer or ...
. He called his invention a "recording telegraph". Bain's telegraph was able to transmit images by electrical wires.
Frederick Bakewell Frederick Collier Bakewell (29 September 1800 – 26 September 1869) was an English physicist who improved on the concept of the facsimile machine introduced by Alexander Bain in 1842 and demonstrated a working laboratory version at the 18 ...
made several improvements on Bain's design and demonstrated a telefax machine. In 1855, an Italian abbot,
Giovanni Caselli Giovanni Caselli (8 June 1815 – 25 April 1891) was an Italian priest, inventor, and physicist. He studied electricity and magnetism as a child which led to his invention of the pantelegraph The pantelegraph (Italian: ''pantelegrafo''; French: ...

Giovanni Caselli
, also created an electric telegraph that could transmit images. Caselli called his invention "
Pantelegraph The pantelegraph (Italian: ''pantelegrafo''; French: ''pantélégraphe'') was an early form of facsimile machine transmitting over normal telegraph lines developed by Giovanni Caselli, used commercially in the 1860s, that was the first such dev ...

Pantelegraph
". Pantelegraph was successfully tested and approved for a telegraph line between
Paris Paris () is the Capital city, capital and List of communes in France with over 20,000 inhabitants, most populous city of France, with an estimated population of 2,175,601 residents , in an area of more than . Since the 17th century, Paris ha ...

Paris
and
Lyon Lyon or Lyons (, , ; frp, Liyon, ) is the third-largest city and second-largest urban area of France. It is located at the confluence of the rivers Rhône The Rhône ( , ; german: Rhone ; wae, Rotten ; it, Rodano ; frp, Rôno ; oc, ...

Lyon
. In 1881, English inventor
Shelford Bidwell Shelford Bidwell FRS (6 March 1848 – 18 December 1909) was an English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early med ...
constructed the ''scanning phototelegraph'' that was the first telefax machine to scan any two-dimensional original, not requiring manual plotting or drawing. Around 1900, German physicist
Arthur Korn Arthur Korn (May 20, 1870, Breslau, Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px , capital = Berlin , coordinates = , largest_city = capital , languages_type = Official language , languages = German language, Ge ...

Arthur Korn
invented the '' Bildtelegraph'' widespread in continental Europe especially since a widely noticed transmission of a wanted-person photograph from Paris to London in 1908 used until the wider distribution of the radiofax. Its main competitors were the ''Bélinographe'' by
Édouard Belin Édouard Belin (5 March 1876 – 4 March 1963) was a French photographer and inventor. In 1907 Belin invented a phototelegraphic apparatus called the belinograph, Bélinographe (télestéréographe)—a system for receiving photographs over ...

Édouard Belin
first, then since the 1930s, the ''
Hellschreiber The Hellschreiber, Feldhellschreiber or Typenbildfeldfernschreiber (also Hell-Schreiber named after its inventor Rudolf Hell) is a facsimile '', a famous illuminated manuscript, is on view to both the public and to scholars only in the form of ...
'', invented in 1929 by German inventor
Rudolf Hell Rudolf Hell (19 December 1901 – 11 March 2002) was a German inventor. He was born in Eggmühl, Germany. From 1919 to 1923 he studied electrical engineering in Munich. He worked there from 1923 to 1929 as assistant of Prof. Max Dieckmann, w ...
, a pioneer in mechanical image scanning and transmission.


Wireless telegraphy

The late 1880s through to the 1890s saw the discovery and then development of a newly understood phenomenon into a form of
wireless telegraphy Wireless telegraphy or radiotelegraphy is transmission of telegraph Telegraphy is the long-distance transmission of textual messages where the sender uses a semaphore system, known to the recipient, rather than a physical exchange of an ...
, called ''Hertzian wave'' wireless telegraphy, radiotelegraphy, or (later) simply "
radio Radio is the technology of signaling and telecommunication, communicating using radio waves. Radio waves are electromagnetic waves of frequency between 30 hertz (Hz) and 300 gigahertz (GHz). They are generated by an electronic device ...

radio
". Between 1886 and 1888,
Heinrich Rudolf Hertz Heinrich Rudolf Hertz ( ; ; 22 February 1857 – 1 January 1894) was a German physicist A physicist is a scientist A scientist is a person who conducts Scientific method, scientific research to advance knowledge in an Branches of scien ...

Heinrich Rudolf Hertz
published the results of his experiments where he was able to transmit
electromagnetic waves In physics Physics (from grc, φυσική (ἐπιστήμη), physikḗ (epistḗmē), knowledge of nature, from ''phýsis'' 'nature'), , is the natural science that studies matter, its Motion (physics), motion and behavior through ...

electromagnetic waves
(radio waves) through the air, proving
James Clerk Maxwell James Clerk Maxwell (13 June 1831 – 5 November 1879) was a Scottish scientist A scientist is a person who conducts Scientific method, scientific research to advance knowledge in an Branches of science, area of interest. In classica ...

James Clerk Maxwell
's 1873 theory of
electromagnetic radiation In physics Physics is the natural science that studies matter, its Elementary particle, fundamental constituents, its Motion (physics), motion and behavior through Spacetime, space and time, and the related entities of energy and force. ...

electromagnetic radiation
. Many scientists and inventors experimented with this new phenomenon but the general consensus was that these new waves (similar to light) would be just as short range as light, and, therefore, useless for long range communication. At the end of 1894, the young Italian inventor
Guglielmo Marconi Guglielmo Giovanni Maria Marconi, 1st Marquis of Marconi (; 25 April 187420 July 1937) was an inventor and , known for his creation of a practical -based system. This led to Marconi being credited as the , and he shared the 1909 with "in ...

Guglielmo Marconi
began working on the idea of building a commercial wireless telegraphy system based on the use of Hertzian waves (radio waves), a line of inquiry that he noted other inventors did not seem to be pursuing. Building on the ideas of previous scientists and inventors Marconi re-engineered their apparatus by trial and error attempting to build a radio-based wireless telegraphic system that would function the same as wired telegraphy. He would work on the system through 1895 in his lab and then in field tests making improvements to extend its range. After many breakthroughs, including applying the wired telegraphy concept of grounding the transmitter and receiver, Marconi was able, by early 1896, to transmit radio far beyond the short ranges that had been predicted. Having failed to interest the
Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, an ethnic group or simply a citizen of the Italian Republic ** Italian language, a Romance language *** Regional Italian, regional variants of the ...

Italian
government, the 22-year-old inventor brought his telegraphy system to Britain in 1896 and met
William Preece Sir William Henry Preece (15 February 1834 – 6 November 1913) was a Welsh Welsh may refer to: Related to Wales * Welsh, referring or related to Wales * Welsh language, a Brittonic Celtic language of the Indo-European language family, indigen ...
, a Welshman, who was a major figure in the field and Chief Engineer of the
General Post Office The General Post Office (GPO) was the state postal system and telecommunications Telecommunication is the transmission of information by various types of technologies over , radio, , or other systems. It has its origin in the desire of ...

General Post Office
. A series of demonstrations for the British government followed—by March 1897, Marconi had transmitted Morse code signals over a distance of about across
Salisbury Plain , the most famous antiquity on Salisbury Plain Salisbury Plain is a chalk Chalk is a soft, white, porous, sedimentary carbonate rock, a form of limestone Limestone is a common type of carbonate rock, carbonate sedimentary rock. It ...
. On 13 May 1897, Marconi, assisted by George Kemp, a
Cardiff Cardiff (; cy, Caerdydd ) is the capital city of Wales and a Local government in Wales, county. Officially known as the City and County of Cardiff, it is the United Kingdom's eleventh-largest city and the main commercial centre of Wales. Cardi ...

Cardiff
Post Office engineer, transmitted the first
wireless Wireless communication (or just wireless, when the context allows) is the transfer of information between two or more points that do not use an electrical conductor In physics Physics (from grc, φυσική (ἐπιστήμη), ph ...

wireless
signals over water to
Lavernock Lavernock ( cy, Larnog) is a hamlet ''The Tragedy of Hamlet, Prince of Denmark'', often shortened to ''Hamlet'' (), is a tragedy written by William Shakespeare sometime between 1599 and 1601. It is Shakespeare's longest play, with 29,551 ...
(near
Penarth Penarth (, ) is a town and community A community is a social unitThe term "level of analysis" is used in the social sciences to point to the location, size, or scale of a research target. "Level of analysis" is distinct from the term " unit ...
in
Wales Wales ( cy, Cymru ) is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. It is bordered by England to the Wales–England border, east, the Irish Sea to the north and west, and the Bristol Channel to the south. It ...

Wales
) from
Flat Holm Flat Holm ( cy, Ynys Echni) is a Welsh island lying in the Bristol Channel The Bristol Channel ( cy, Môr Hafren) is a major inlet in the island of Great Britain Great Britain is an island in the North Atlantic Ocean off the northw ...

Flat Holm
. The message sent was "ARE YOU READY". From his Fraserburgh base, he transmitted the first long-distance, cross-country wireless signal to Poldhu in Cornwall. His star rising, he was soon sending signals across the
English Channel The English Channel,, "The Sleeve"; nrf, la Maunche, "The Sleeve" (Cotentinais Cotentinais is the dialect The term dialect (from Latin , , from the Ancient Greek word , , "discourse", from , , "through" and , , "I speak") is used in two ...

English Channel
(1899), from shore to ship (1899) and finally across the Atlantic (1901). A study of these demonstrations of radio, with scientists trying to work out how a phenomenon predicted to have a short range could transmit "over the horizon", led to the discovery of a radio reflecting layer in the Earth's atmosphere in 1902, later called the
ionosphere The ionosphere () is the ionized part of Earth's upper atmosphere, from about to altitude, a region that includes the thermosphere The thermosphere is the layer in the directly above the and below the . Within this layer of the atmosphere, ...
. Radiotelegraphy proved effective for rescue work in sea
disaster A disaster is a serious problem occurring over a short or long period of time that causes widespread human, material, economic or environmental loss which exceeds the ability of the affected community or society to cope using its own resources. ...

disaster
s by enabling effective communication between ships and from ship to shore. In 1904, Marconi began the first commercial service to transmit nightly news summaries to subscribing ships, which could incorporate them into their on-board newspapers. A regular transatlantic radio-telegraph service was finally begun on 17 October 1907. Notably, Marconi's apparatus was used to help rescue efforts after the sinking of ''
Titanic RMS ''Titanic'' was a British passenger liner Liner or LINER may refer to: Line drawing * , a type of makeup * , a porous-tip pen with its own ink source * used in engraving * A used by coach painters Linings * , a noise-damping ...

Titanic
''. Britain's postmaster-general summed up, referring to the ''Titanic'' disaster, "Those who have been saved, have been saved through one man, Mr. Marconi...and his marvellous invention."


Telegram services

A telegram service is a company or public entity that delivers telegraphed messages directly to the recipient. Telegram services were not inaugurated until
electric telegraph An electrical telegraph was a point-to-point text messaging system, used from the 1840s until the mid 20th century when it was slowly replaced by other telecommunication systems. At the sending station switches connected a source of current to ...
y became available. Earlier optical systems were largely limited to official government and military purposes. Historically, telegrams were sent between a network of interconnected telegraph offices. A person visiting a local telegraph office paid by-the-word to have a message telegraphed to another office and delivered to the addressee on a paper form. Messages sent by telegraph could be delivered faster than mail, and even in the telephone age, the telegram remained popular for social and business correspondence. At their peak in 1929, an estimated 200 million telegrams were sent. In 1919, the Central Bureau for Registered Addresses was established in the
financial district This is a list of financial districts in cities around the world. Background A financial district is usually a central area in a city where financial services firms such as banks, Insurance company, insurance companies and other related financ ...
of
New York City New York, often called New York City to distinguish it from New York State New York is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of ...

New York City
. The bureau was created to ease the growing problem of messages being delivered to the wrong recipients. To combat this issue, the bureau offered telegraph customers the option to register unique code names for their telegraph addresses. Customers were charged $2.50 per year per code. By 1934, 28,000 codes had been registered. Telegram services still operate in much of the world (see worldwide use of telegrams by country), but e-mail and text messaging have rendered telegrams obsolete in many countries, and the number of telegrams sent annually has been declining rapidly since the 1980s. Where telegram services still exist, the transmission method between offices is no longer by telegraph, but by
telex The telex network is a customer-to-customer switched network of teleprinters similar to a Public switched telephone network, telephone network, using telegraph-grade connecting circuits for two-way text-based messages. Telex was a major method of ...

telex
or IP link.


Telegram length

As telegrams have been traditionally charged by the word, messages were often abbreviated to pack information into the smallest possible number of words, in what came to be called "
telegram style 300px, This telegram was sent by Orville Wright in December 1903 from Kitty Hawk, North Carolina, following the first successful airplane flight. Telegram style, telegraph style, telegraphic style, or telegraphese is a clipped way of writing whic ...
". The average length of a telegram in the 1900s in the US was 11.93 words; more than half of the messages were 10 words or fewer. According to another study, the mean length of the telegrams sent in the UK before 1950 was 14.6 words or 78.8 characters. For German telegrams, the mean length is 11.5 words or 72.4 characters. At the end of the 19th century, the average length of a German telegram was calculated as 14.2 words.


Telex

Telex The telex network is a customer-to-customer switched network of teleprinters similar to a Public switched telephone network, telephone network, using telegraph-grade connecting circuits for two-way text-based messages. Telex was a major method of ...

Telex
(TELegraph EXchange) was a public switched network of teleprinters. It used rotary-telephone-style
pulse dialling model 500 rotary dial telephone was a pulse-dialing instrument. Pulse dialing is a Signaling (telecommunication), signaling technology in telecommunications in which a direct current local loop circuit is interrupted according to a defined codi ...
for automatic routing through the network. It initially used the
Baudot code The Baudot code is an early character encoding In computing Computing is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating computing machinery. It includes the study and experimentation of algorithmic processes and developme ...
for messages. Telex development began in Germany in 1926, becoming an operational service in 1933 run by the Reichspost (Reich postal service). It had a speed of 50 baud—approximately 66 words per minute. Up to 25 telex channels could share a single long-distance telephone channel by using voice frequency telegraphy
multiplexing In telecommunications Telecommunication is the transmission of information by various types of technologies over wire, radio, Optical system, optical, or other Electromagnetism, electromagnetic systems. It has its origin in the desire of ...
, making telex the least expensive method of reliable long-distance communication. Telex was introduced into Canada in July 1957, and the United States in 1958. A new code,
ASCII ASCII ( ), abbreviated from American Standard Code for Information Interchange, is a character encoding In computing Computing is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating computing machinery. It includes the stu ...
, was introduced in 1963 by the
American Standards Association The American National Standards Institute (ANSI ) is a private non-profit organization A nonprofit organization (NPO), also known as a non-business entity, not-for-profit organization, or nonprofit institution, is a legal entity organize ...
. ASCII was a 7-bit code and could thus support a larger number of characters than Baudot. In particular, ASCII supported upper and lower case whereas Baudot was upper case only.


Decline

Telegraph use began to permanently decline around 1920.Jeffrey L. Kieve, ''The Electric Telegraph: A Social and Economic History'', David and Charles, 1973 The decline began with the growth of the use of the
telephone A telephone is a telecommunication Telecommunication is the transmission of information by various types of technologies over wire A wire is a single usually cylindrical A cylinder (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anyt ...

telephone
. Ironically, the invention of the telephone grew out of the development of the harmonic telegraph, a device which was supposed to increase the efficiency of telegraph transmission and improve the profits of telegraph companies. Western Union gave up their patent battle with
Alexander Graham Bell Alexander Graham Bell (; March 3, 1847 – August 2, 1922) was a Scottish-born inventor, scientist, and engineer who is credited with inventing and patenting the first practical telephone. He also co-founded the (AT&T) in 1885. , grandf ...

Alexander Graham Bell
because they believed the telephone was not a threat to their telegraph business. The
Bell Telephone Company The Bell Telephone Company, a common law joint stock company, was organized in Boston, Massachusetts on July 9, 1877, by Alexander Graham Bell's father-in-law Gardiner Greene Hubbard, who also helped organize a sister company — the New England T ...

Bell Telephone Company
was formed in 1877 and had 230 subscribers which grew to 30,000 by 1880. By 1886 there were a quarter of a million phones worldwide, and nearly 2 million by 1900. The decline was briefly postponed by the rise of special occasion congratulatory telegrams. Traffic continued to grow between 1867 and 1893 despite the introduction of the telephone in this period, but by 1900 the telegraph was definitely in decline. There was a brief resurgence in telegraphy during
World War I World War I, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war A world war is "a war engaged in by all or most of the principal nations of the world". The term is usually reserved for ...

World War I
but the decline continued as the world entered the
Great Depression The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression An economic depression is a sustained, long-term downturn in economic activity in one or more economies. It is a more severe economic downturn than a economic recession, recess ...
years of the 1930s. After the
Second World War World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
new technology improved communication in the telegraph industry. Telegraph lines continued to be an important means of distributing news feeds from
news agencies A news agency is an organization that gathers news News is information about current events. This may be provided through many different Media (communication), media: word of mouth, printing, postal systems, broadcasting, electronic comm ...
by teleprinter machine until the rise of the internet in the 1990s. For Western Union, one service remained highly profitable—the
wire transfer Wire transfer, bank transfer or credit transfer, is a method of electronic funds transfer from one person or entity to another. A wire transfer can be made from one bank account A bank account is a financial account maintained by a bank or ot ...
of money. This service kept Western Union in business long after the telegraph had ceased to be important. In the modern era, the telegraph that began in 1837 has been gradually replaced by
digital data Digital data, in information theory and information systems, is information represented as a string of discrete symbols each of which can take on one of only a finite number of values from some alphabet, such as letters or digit (unit), digits. A ...
transmission based on
computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to Execution (computing), carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. Modern computers can perform generic sets of operations known as Computer program, programs. These ...

computer
information system An information system (IS) is a formal, sociotechnical Sociotechnical systems (STS) in organizational development is an approach to complex organizational work design that recognizes the interaction between people and technology in wiktionary:Wor ...
s.


Social implications

Optical telegraph lines were installed by governments, often for a military purpose, and reserved for official use only. In many countries, this situation continued after the introduction of the electric telegraph. Starting in Germany and the UK, electric telegraph lines were installed by railway companies. Railway use quickly led to private telegraph companies in the UK and the US offering a telegraph service to the public using telegraph along railway lines. The availability of this new form of communication brought on widespread social and economic changes. The electric telegraph freed communication from the time constraints of postal mail and revolutionized the global economy and society.Economic History Encyclopedia (2010) "History of the U.S. Telegraph Industry", By the end of the 19th century, the telegraph was becoming an increasingly common medium of communication for ordinary people. The telegraph isolated the message (information) from the physical movement of objects or the process.Carey, James (1989). ''Communication as Culture'', Routledge, New York and London, p. 210 There was some fear of the new technology. According to author Allan J. Kimmel, some people "feared that the telegraph would erode the quality of public discourse through the transmission of irrelevant, context-free information."
Henry David Thoreau Henry David Thoreau (July 12, 1817May 6, 1862) was an American naturalist, essay An essay is, generally, a piece of writing that gives the author's own argument, but the definition is vague, overlapping with those of a Letter (message), ...

Henry David Thoreau
thought of the Transatlantic cable "...perchance the first news that will leak through into the broad flapping American ear will be that Princess Adelaide has the whooping cough." Kimmel says these fears anticipate many of the characteristics of the modern internet age. Initially, the telegraph was expensive, but it had an enormous effect on three industries: finance, newspapers, and railways. Telegraphy facilitated the growth of organizations "in the railroads, consolidated financial and commodity markets, and reduced information costs within and between firms". In the US, there were 200 to 300 stock exchanges before the telegraph, but most of these were unnecessary and unprofitable once the telegraph made financial transactions at a distance easy and drove down transaction costs. This immense growth in the business sectors influenced society to embrace the use of telegrams once the cost had fallen. Worldwide telegraphy changed the gathering of information for news reporting. Journalists were using the telegraph for war reporting as early as 1846 when the
Mexican–American War The Mexican–American War, also known in the United States as the Mexican War and in Mexico as the (''U.S. intervention in Mexico''), was an armed conflict between the United States and Second Federal Republic of Mexico, Mexico from 1846 ...

Mexican–American War
broke out. News agencies were formed, such as the
Associated Press The Associated Press (AP) is an American non-profit A nonprofit organization (NPO), also known as a non-business entity, not-for-profit organization, or nonprofit institution, is a legal entity organized and operated for a collective, publi ...

Associated Press
, for the purpose of reporting news by telegraph. Messages and information would now travel far and wide, and the telegraph demanded a language "stripped of the local, the regional; and colloquial", to better facilitate a worldwide media language. Media language had to be standardized, which led to the gradual disappearance of different forms of speech and styles of
journalism Journalism is the production and distribution of report Image:Hurt Report cover page.png, 220px, Example of a front page of a report A report is a document that presents information in an organized format for a specific audience and purpose. ...

journalism
and storytelling. The spread of the railways created a need for an accurate
standard time Standard time is the synchronization of clock A clock or a timepiece is a device used to Measurement, measure and indicate time. The clock is one of the oldest Invention, human inventions, meeting the need to measure intervals of time ...
to replace local arbitrary standards based on local
noon Noon (or midday) is 12 o'clock The 12-hour clock is a time convention in which the 24 hours of the day are divided into two periods: a.m. (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the In ...

noon
. The means of achieving this synchronisation was the telegraph. This emphasis on precise time has led to major societal changes such as the concept of the
time value of money The time value of money is the widely accepted conjecture that there is greater benefit to receiving a sum of money Image:National-Debt-Gillray.jpeg, In a 1786 James Gillray caricature, the plentiful money bags handed to King George III are co ...
. The shortage of men to work as telegraph operators in the
American Civil War The American Civil War (also known by other names Other most often refers to: * Other (philosophy), a concept in psychology and philosophy Other or The Other may also refer to: Books * The Other (Tryon novel), ''The Other'' (Tryon nove ...
opened up the opportunity for women of a well-paid skilled job. The economic impact of the telegraph was not much studied by economic historians until parallels started to be drawn with the rise of the internet. In fact, the electric telegraph was as important as the invention of printing in this respect. According to economist Ronnie J. Phillips, the reason for this may be that
institutional economists Institutional economics focuses on understanding the role of the Sociocultural evolution, evolutionary process and the role of institutions in shaping Economy, economic Human behavior, behavior. Its original focus lay in Thorstein Veblen's instinc ...
paid more attention to advances that required greater capital investment. The investment required to build railways, for instance, is orders of magnitude greater than that for the telegraph.Ronnie J. Phillips
"Digital technology and institutional change from the gilded age to modern times: The impact of the telegraph and the internet"
''Journal of Economic Issues'', vol. 34, iss. 2, pp. 267-289, June 2000.


Popular culture

The optical telegraph was quickly forgotten once it went out of service. While it was in operation, it was very familiar to the public across Europe. Examples appear in many paintings of the period. Poems include ''Le Telégraphe'', by
Victor Hugo Victor-Marie Hugo (; 26 February 1802 – 22 May 1885) was a French poet, novelist, essayist, playwright, and dramatist of the Romantic movement Romanticism (also known as the Romantic era) was an artistic, literary, musical, and intellect ...

Victor Hugo
, and the collection ''Telegrafen: Optisk kalender för 1858'' by is dedicated to the telegraph. In novels, the telegraph is a major component in '' Lucien Leuwen'' by
Stendhal Marie-Henri Beyle (; 23 January 1783 – 23 March 1842), better known by his pen name Stendhal (, ; ), was a 19th-century French writer. Best known for the novels ''Le Rouge et le Noir'' (''The Red and the Black'', 1830) and ''La Chartreuse de Pa ...

Stendhal
, and it features in ''
The Count of Monte Cristo ''The Count of Monte Cristo'' (french: Le Comte de Monte-Cristo) is an adventure novel Adventure fiction is a genre of fiction that usually presents danger, or gives the reader a sense of excitement. History In the Introduction to the ''Enc ...
'', by
Alexandre Dumas Alexandre Dumas (, ; ; born Dumas Davy de la Pailleterie ; 24 July 1802 – 5 December 1870), also known as Alexandre Dumas père (where '' '' is French for 'father', thus 'the elder/senior'), was a French writer. His works have been tra ...

Alexandre Dumas
. Joseph Chudy's 1796 opera, ''Der Telegraph oder die Fernschreibmaschine'', was written to publicise Chudy's telegraph (a binary code with five lamps) when it became clear that Chappe's design was being taken up.
Rudyard Kipling Joseph Rudyard Kipling ( ; 30 December 1865 – 18 January 1936)''The Times ''The Times'' is a British daily Daily or The Daily may refer to: Journalism * Daily newspaper A newspaper is a Periodical literature, periodical pub ...

Rudyard Kipling
wrote a poem in praise of submarine telegraph cables; "And a new Word runs between: whispering, 'Let us be one!'" Kipling's poem represented a widespread idea in the late nineteenth century that international telegraphy (and new technology in general) would bring peace and mutual understanding to the world.John A. Britton, ''Cables, Crises, and the Press: The Geopolitics of the New Information System in the Americas, 1866-1903'', p. xi, University of New Mexico Press, 2013 When a submarine telegraph cable first connected America and Britain, the ''Post'' declared;


Newspaper names

Numerous newspapers and news outlets in various countries, such as ''
The Daily Telegraph ''The Daily Telegraph'', known online and elsewhere as ''The Telegraph'' (), is a national British daily broadsheet A broadsheet is the largest newspaper format and is characterized by long vertical pages, typically of . Other common ne ...

The Daily Telegraph
'' in Britain, ''The Telegraph'' in India, ''
De Telegraaf ''De Telegraaf'' (; en, The Telegraph) is the largest Dutch daily morning newspaper A newspaper is a Periodical literature, periodical publication containing written News, information about current events and is often typed in black ink w ...

De Telegraaf
'' in the Netherlands, and the
Jewish Telegraphic Agency The Jewish Telegraphic Agency (JTA) is an international news agency and wire service A news agency is an organization that gathers news News is information Information is processed, organised and structured data. It provides c ...
in the US, were given names which include the word "telegraph" due to their having received news by means of electric telegraphy. Some of these names are retained even though different means of news acquisition are now used.


See also

* Casa del Telegrafista, a Colombian museum dedicated to the telegrapher at a train station * Familygram * Foy–Breguet telegraph * First transcontinental telegraph *
Globotype The Globotype is a colour display for telecommunications. It was invented and patented by David McCallum (inventor), David McCallum of Stonehouse, Devon, England. The device features very low cost and does not use consumable supplies. It is Royal Le ...
* Radiogram *
Telecommunications Telecommunication is the transmission of information by various types of technologies over wire, radio, Optical system, optical, or other Electromagnetism, electromagnetic systems. It has its origin in the desire of humans for communication ov ...
*
Telegram messenger In many English-speaking countries, a telegram messenger, more often known as a telegram delivery boy, telegraph boy or telegram boy was a young man employed to deliver telegraphy, telegrams, usually on bicycle. In the United Kingdom, they were emp ...
*
Text messaging Text messaging, or texting, is the act of composing and sending electronic messages, typically consisting of alphabetic and numeric characters, between two or more users of mobile device A mobile device (or handheld computer) is a computer ...
*
Women in telegraphy Women in telegraphy have been evident since the 1840s. The introduction of practical systems of telegraphy in the 1840s led to the creation of a new occupational category, the telegrapher, telegraphist or telegraph operator. Duties of the telegraph ...


References


Further reading

* Britton, John A. ''Cables, Crises, and the Press: The Geopolitics of the New International Information System in the Americas, 1866–1903''. (University of New Mexico Press, 2013). * Fari, Simone. ''Formative Years of the Telegraph Union'' (Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2015). * Fari, Simone. ''Victorian Telegraphy Before Nationalization'' (2014). * Gorman, Mel. "Sir William O'Shaughnessy, Lord Dalhousie, and the establishment of the telegraph system in India." ''Technology and Culture'' 12.4 (1971): 581-60
online
* Hochfelder, David, ''The Telegraph in America, 1832–1920'' (Johns Hopkins University Press, 2012). * Huurdeman, Anton A. ''The Worldwide History of Telecommunications'' (John Wiley & Sons, 2003) * John, Richard R. ''Network Nation: Inventing American Telecommunications'' (Harvard University Press; 2010) 520 pages; the evolution of American telegraph and telephone networks. * Kieve, Jeffrey L. (1973). ''The Electric Telegraph: a Social and Economic History''. David and Charles. . * Lew, B., and Cater, B. "The Telegraph, Co-ordination of Tramp Shipping, and Growth in World Trade, 1870–1910", ''European Review of Economic History'' 10 (2006): 147–73. * Müller, Simone M., and Heidi JS Tworek. "'The telegraph and the bank': on the interdependence of global communications and capitalism, 1866–1914." ''Journal of Global History'' 10#2 (2015): 259–283. * O'Hara, Glen. "New Histories of British Imperial Communication and the 'Networked World' of the 19th and Early 20th Centuries" ''History Compass'' (2010) 8#7pp 609–625, Historiography, * Richardson, Alan J. "The cost of a telegram: Accounting and the evolution of international regulation of the telegraph." ''Accounting History'' 20#4 (2015): 405–429. * Standage, Tom (1998). ''
The Victorian Internet upright=1.35, Global network proposal, 1862 ''The Victorian Internet: The Remarkable Story of the Telegraph and the Nineteenth Century's On-Line Pioneers'' is a 1998 book by Tom Standage. The book was first published in September 1998 through Walke ...
''. Berkley Trade. . * Thompson, Robert Luther. ''Wiring a continent: The history of the telegraph industry in the United States, 1832–1866'' (Princeton UP, 1947). * Wenzlhuemer, Roland. "The Development of Telegraphy, 1870–1900: A European Perspective on a World History Challenge." ''History Compass'' 5#5 (2007): 1720–1742. * Wenzlhuemer, Roland. ''Connecting the nineteenth-century world: The telegraph and globalization'' (Cambridge UP, 2013)
online review
* Winseck, Dwayne R., and Robert M. Pike. ''Communication & Empire: Media, Markets & Globalization, 1860–1930'' (2007), 429pp. * ''The Victorian Internet: The Remarkable Story of the Telegraph and the Nineteenth Century's On-Line Pioneers'', a book about the telegraph


Technology

* * Dargan, J. "The Railway Telegraph", ''Australian Railway Historical Society Bulletin'', March 1985 pp. 49–71 * * Pichler, Franz, ''Magneto-Electric Dial Telegraphs: Contributions of Wheatstone, Stoehrer and Siemens'',
The AWA ReviewThe Antique Wireless Association (AWA) is chartered as a non-profit educational organization in New York State and is an IRS 501(c)(3) tax-exempt corporation based in Bloomfield, New York. It was originally established in 1952 by Bruce Kelley, Georg ...
vol. 26, (2013). * Ross, Nelson E
HOW TO WRITE TELEGRAMS PROPERLY
The Telegraph Office (1928) * Wheen, Andrew;— ''DOT-DASH TO DOT.COM: How Modern Telecommunications Evolved from the Telegraph to the Internet'' (Springer, 2011) * Wilson, Geoffrey, ''The Old Telegraphs'', Phillimore & Co Ltd 1976 ; a comprehensive history of the shutter, semaphore and other kinds of visual mechanical telegraphs.


External links

*
Britannica Encyclopedia - Telegraph

The Porthcurno Telegraph Museum
The biggest Telegraph station in the world, now a museum
Distant Writing
The History of the Telegraph Companies in Britain between 1838 and 1868
Western Union Telegraph Company Records, 1820–1995
Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution.
Early telegraphy and fax engineering, still operable in a German computer museum


''The New York Times'', 6 February 2006
International Facilities of the American Carriers
– an overview of the U.S. international cable network in 1950 *Elizabeth Bruton
Communication Technology
in

{{Authority control Telecommunications