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Taxonomy is the practice and science of
categorization Categorization is the human ability and activity of recognizing shared features or similarities between the elements of the experience Experience refers to conscious , an English Paracelsian physician Consciousness, at its simplest, is " se ...

categorization
or
classification Classification is a process related to categorization Categorization is the human ability and activity of recognizing shared features or similarities between the elements of the experience Experience refers to conscious , an English Paracels ...
. The word finds its roots in the
Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa''), generally referred to by speakers simply as Greek (, ), refers collectively to the dialects of the Greek language spoken in the modern era, including the ...
, ''taxis'' (meaning 'order', 'arrangement') and , ''nomos'' ('law' or 'science'). A taxonomy (or taxonomical classification) is a scheme of classification, especially a hierarchical classification, in which things are organized into groups or types. Among other things, a taxonomy can be used to organize and index knowledge (stored as documents, articles, videos, etc.), such as in the form of a library classification system, or a search engine taxonomy, so that users can more easily find the information they are searching for. Many taxonomies are
hierarchies A hierarchy (from the Greek: , from , 'president of sacred rites') is an arrangement of items (objects, names, values, categories, etc.) in which the items are represented as being "above", "below", or "at the same level as" one another. Hierarch ...

hierarchies
(and thus, have an intrinsic
tree structure A tree structure or tree diagram is a way of representing the hierarchical nature of a structure in a graphical form. It is named a "tree structure" because the classic representation resembles a tree, even though the chart is generally upside ...

tree structure
), but not all are. Originally, taxonomy referred only to the categorisation of organisms or a particular categorisation of organisms. In a wider, more general sense, it may refer to a categorisation of things or concepts, as well as to the principles underlying such a categorisation. Taxonomy organizes taxonomic units known as "taxa" (singular "taxon")." Taxonomy is different from
meronomy A meronomy or partonomy is a type of hierarchy that deals with part–whole relationships, in contrast to a taxonomy whose categorisation is based on discrete sets. Accordingly, the unit of meronomical classification is meron, while the unit o ...
, which deals with the categorisation of parts of a whole.


Applications

Wikipedia categories illustrate a taxonomy, and a full taxonomy of Wikipedia categories can be extracted by automatic means. , it has been shown that a manually-constructed taxonomy, such as that of computational lexicons like
WordNet WordNet is a lexical database of semantic relations between words in more than 200 languages. WordNet links words into semantic relations including synonyms, hyponyms, and meronyms. The synonyms are grouped into ''synsets'' with short definitions ...
, can be used to improve and restructure the Wikipedia category taxonomy. In a broader sense, taxonomy also applies to relationship schemes other than parent-child hierarchies, such as network structures. Taxonomies may then include a single child with multi-parents, for example, "Car" might appear with both parents "Vehicle" and "Steel Mechanisms"; to some however, this merely means that 'car' is a part of several different taxonomies. A taxonomy might also simply be organization of kinds of things into groups, or an alphabetical list; here, however, the term vocabulary is more appropriate. In current usage within
knowledge management Knowledge management (KM) is the collection of methods relating to creating, sharing, using and managing the knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity, awareness, or understanding of someone or something, such as facts ( descriptive knowledge), s ...

knowledge management
, taxonomies are considered narrower than
ontologies In computer science Computer science deals with the theoretical foundations of information, algorithms and the architectures of its computation as well as practical techniques for their application. Computer science is the study of Algor ...
since ontologies apply a larger variety of relation types. Mathematically, a hierarchical taxonomy is a
tree structure A tree structure or tree diagram is a way of representing the hierarchical nature of a structure in a graphical form. It is named a "tree structure" because the classic representation resembles a tree, even though the chart is generally upside ...

tree structure
of classifications for a given set of objects. It is also named
containment hierarchy A hierarchy (from the Ancient Greek, Greek: , from , 'president of sacred rites') is an arrangement of items (objects, names, values, categories, etc.) in which the items are represented as being "above", "below", or "at the same level as" one ano ...
. At the top of this structure is a single classification, the root node, that applies to all objects. Nodes below this root are more specific classifications that apply to subsets of the total set of classified objects. The progress of reasoning proceeds from the general to the more specific. By contrast, in the context of legal terminology, an open-ended contextual taxonomy is employed—a taxonomy holding only with respect to a specific context. In scenarios taken from the legal domain, a formal account of the open-texture of legal terms is modeled, which suggests varying notions of the "core" and "penumbra" of the meanings of a concept. The progress of reasoning proceeds from the specific to the more general.


History

Anthropologists An anthropologist is a person engaged in the practice of anthropology. Anthropology is the study of aspects of humans within past and present Society, societies. Social anthropology, cultural anthropology and philosophical anthropology study the nor ...
have observed that taxonomies are generally embedded in local cultural and social systems, and serve various social functions. Perhaps the most well-known and influential study of folk taxonomies is
Émile Durkheim David Émile Durkheim ( or ; 15 April 1858 – 15 November 1917) was a French sociologist. He formally established the academic discipline of sociology and, with Max Weber Maximilian Karl Emil Weber (; ; 21 April 186414 June 1920) was a Ge ...

Émile Durkheim
's ''The Elementary Forms of Religious Life''. A more recent treatment of folk taxonomies (including the results of several decades of empirical research) and the discussion of their relation to the scientific taxonomy can be found in
Scott Atran Scott Atran (born February 6, 1952) is an American-French cultural anthropologist who is Emeritus Director of Research in Anthropology at the Centre national de la recherche scientifique in Paris, Research Professor at the University of Michigan, ...
's ''Cognitive Foundations of Natural History.'' Folk taxonomies of organisms have been found in large part to agree with scientific classification, at least for the larger and more obvious species, which means that it is not the case that folk taxonomies are based purely on utilitarian characteristics. In the seventeenth century the German mathematician and philosopher
Gottfried Leibniz Gottfried Wilhelm (von) Leibniz ; see inscription of the engraving depicted in the "#1666–1676, 1666–1676" section. ( – 14 November 1716) was a German polymath active as a mathematician, philosopher, scientist, and diplomat. He is a promin ...
, following the work of the thirteenth-century Majorcan philosopher
Ramon Llull Ramon Llull (; c. 1232 – c. 1315/16) was a philosopher A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about reason, Metaphysics, existence, ...

Ramon Llull
on his '' Ars generalis ultima'', a system for procedurally generating concepts by combining a fixed set of ideas, sought to develop an
alphabet of human thoughtThe alphabet of human thought ( la, alphabetum cogitationum humanarum) is a concept originally proposed by Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Gottfried Wilhelm (von) Leibniz ; see inscription of the engraving depicted in the " 1666–1676" section. (; or ...
. Leibniz intended his ''
characteristica universalis The Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it ...
'' to be an "algebra" capable of expressing all conceptual thought. The concept of creating such a "
universal language Universal language may refer to a hypothetical or historical language spoken and understood by all or most of the world's population. In some contexts, it refers to a means of communication said to be understood by all humans. It may be the idea ...
" was frequently examined in the 17th century, also notably by the English philosopher
John Wilkins John Wilkins, (14 February 161419 November 1672) was an Anglican ministry, Anglican clergyman, natural philosophy, natural philosopher and author, and was one of the founders of the Royal Society. He was Bishop of Chester from 1668 until his d ...

John Wilkins
in his work ''
An Essay towards a Real Character and a Philosophical Language ''An Essay Towards a Real Character, and a Philosophical Language'' (London, 1668) is the best-remembered of the numerous works of John Wilkins John Wilkins, (14 February 161419 November 1672) was an Anglican ministry, Anglican clergyman, n ...
'' (1668), from which the classification scheme in
Roget
Roget
's
Thesaurus A thesaurus (plural ''thesauri'' or ''thesauruses'') or synonym dictionary is a reference work for finding synonyms and sometimes antonyms of words. They are often used by writers to help find the best word to express an idea: Synonym diction ...

Thesaurus
ultimately derives.


Taxonomy in various disciplines


Natural sciences

Taxonomy in biology encompasses the description, identification, nomenclature, and classification of organisms. Uses of taxonomy include: *
Alpha taxonomy In biology, taxonomy () is the scientific study of naming, defining (Circumscription (taxonomy), circumscribing) and classifying groups of biological organisms based on shared characteristics. Organisms are grouped into taxon, taxa (singular: ...
, the description and basic classification of new species, subspecies, and other taxa **
Linnaean taxonomy Linnaean taxonomy can mean either of two related concepts: # the particular form of biological classification In biology, taxonomy () is the scientific study of naming, defining (Circumscription (taxonomy), circumscribing) and classifying ...
, the original classification scheme of Carl Linnaeus ** rank-based scientific classification as opposed to clade-based classification *
Evolutionary taxonomy Evolutionary taxonomy, evolutionary systematics or Darwinian classification is a branch of biological classification that seeks to classify organisms using a combination of Phylogenetics, phylogenetic relationship (shared descent), progenitor-de ...
, traditional post-Darwinian hierarchical biological classification *
Numerical taxonomyNumerical taxonomy is a classification system Classification is a process related to categorization Categorization is the human ability and activity of recognizing shared features or similarities between the elements of the experience of the wo ...
, various taxonomic methods employing numeric algorithms *
Phenetics In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, molecular interactions, Physiology, physiological mechanis ...
, system for ordering species based on overall similarity *
Phylogenetics In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, molecular interactions, Physiology, physiological mechanism ...

Phylogenetics
, biological taxonomy based on putative ancestral descent of organisms *
Plant taxonomy Plant taxonomy is the science that finds, identifies, describes, classifies, and names plant Plants are predominantly photosynthetic Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to Energy transformation, convert lig ...
*
Virus classification Virus classification is the process of naming viruses and placing them into a Alpha taxonomy, taxonomic system similar to the classification systems used for cell (biology), cellular organisms. Viruses are classified by phenotypic characteristics, ...
, taxonomic system for viruses *
Folk taxonomy A folk taxonomy is a vernacular name, naming system, as distinct from Taxonomy (general), scientific taxonomy. Folk biological classification is the way people traditionally describe and organize their natural surroundings/the world around them, ...
, description and organization, by individuals or groups, of their own environments *
Nosology Nosology () is the branch of medical science Medicine is the art, science Science (from the Latin word ''scientia'', meaning "knowledge") is a systematic enterprise that Scientific method, builds and Taxonomy (general), organizes knowled ...
, classification of diseases *
Soil classification Soil classification deals with the systematic categorization Categorization is the ability and activity to recognize shared features or similarities between the elements of the experience of the world (such as Object (philosophy), objects, ev ...
, systematic categorization of soils


Business and economics

Uses of taxonomy in business and economics include: *
Corporate taxonomy Corporate taxonomy is the hierarchical classification A hierarchical classifier is a classifier that maps input data Data are units of information Information can be thought of as the resolution of uncertainty; it answers the question ...
, the hierarchical classification of entities of interest to an enterprise, organization or administration *
Economic taxonomy An economic taxonomy is a system of classification of economic activity, including products, companies and industries. Some economists believe that the study of economic policy demands the use of a taxonomic/classificatory approach.Day, A.C.L. (1955 ...
, a system of classification for economic activity **
Global Industry Classification Standard The Global Industry Classification Standard (GICS) is an industry taxonomy Industry classification or industry taxonomy is a type of economic taxonomy that classifies companies, organizations and traders into Industry (economics), industrial groupi ...
, an industry taxonomy developed by MSCI and Standard & Poor's (S&P) **
Industry Classification Benchmark The Industry Classification Benchmark (ICB) is an industry classification Industry classification or industry taxonomy is a type of economic taxonomy An economic taxonomy is a system of classification of economic activity, including products, compa ...
, an industry classification taxonomy launched by Dow Jones and FTSE **
International Standard Industrial ClassificationThe International Standard Industrial Classification of All Economic Activities (ISIC) is a United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization that aims to maintain international peace and international security, secu ...
(ISIC), a United Nations system for classifying economic data **
North American Industry Classification System The North American Industry Classification System or NAICS () is a classification of business establishments by type of economic activity (process of production). It is used by government and business in Canada Canada is a country in the n ...
(NAICS), used in Canada, Mexico, and the United States of America **
Pavitt's TaxonomyPavitt's Taxonomy categorizes mostly large industrial firms along trajectories of technological change according to sources of technology, requirements of the users, and appropriability regime (Pavitt 1984). The taxonomy Taxonomy (general) is the p ...
, classification of firms by their principal sources of innovation **
Standard Industrial Classification Standard may refer to: Symbols * Colours, standards and guidons In military organizations, the practice of carrying colours, standards or guidons, both to act as a rallying point for troops and to mark the location of the commander, is ...
, a system for classifying industries by a four-digit code **
United Kingdom Standard Industrial Classification of Economic Activities The United Kingdom Standard Industrial Classification of Economic Activities, or UKSIC, is a Standard Industrial Classification The Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) is a system for classifying industries by a four-digit code. Established ...
, a Standard Industrial Classification by type of economic activity *
Records management taxonomyRecords management taxonomy is the representation of data, upon which the classification of unstructured content is based, within an organization. It may manifest itself as metadata Metadata is " data" that provides information about other data". ...
, the representation of data, upon which the classification of unstructured content is based, within an organization. *
XBRL Taxonomy XBRL (eXtensible Business Reporting Language) is a freely available and global framework for exchanging business information. XBRL allows the expression of semantic meaning commonly required in business reporting. The language is XML-based and ...
, eXtensible Business Reporting Language *
SRK taxonomyEcological interface design (EID) is an approach to user interface, interface design that was introduced specifically for complex sociotechnical, real-time, and dynamic systems. It has been applied in a variety of domains including process control (e ...
, in workplace user-interface design


Computing


Software engineering

Vegas et al. make a compelling case to advance the knowledge in the field of software engineering through the use of taxonomies. Similarly, Ore et al. provide a systematic methodology to approach taxonomy building in software engineering related topics. Several taxonomies have been proposed in software testing research to classify techniques, tools, concepts and artifacts. The following are some example taxonomies: # A taxonomy of model-based testing techniques # A taxonomy of static-code analysis tools Engström et al. suggest and evaluate the use of a taxonomy to bridge the communication between researchers and practitioners engaged in the area of software testing. They have also developed a web-based tool to facilitate and encourage the use of the taxonomy. The tool and its source code are available for public use.


Other uses of taxonomy in computing

*
Flynn's taxonomy Flynn's taxonomy is a classification of computer architecture In computer engineering, computer architecture is a set of rules and methods that describe the functionality, organization, and implementation of computer A computer is a machine ...
, a classification for instruction-level parallelism methods *
Folksonomy Folksonomy is a classification system in which end users apply public tags to online items, typically to make those items easier for themselves or others to find later. Over time, this can give rise to a classification system based on those tags ...

Folksonomy
, classification based on user's tags *
Taxonomy for search enginesTaxonomy for search engines refers to classification methods that improve relevance in vertical search. Taxonomies of entities are tree structures whose nodes are labelled with entities likely to occur in a web search query. Searches use these tree ...
, considered as a tool to improve relevance of search within a vertical domain *
ACM Computing Classification SystemThe ACM Computing Classification System (CCS) is a subject classification system for computing Computing is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating computing machinery. It includes the study and experimentation of algorit ...
, a subject classification system for computing devised by the Association for Computing Machinery


Education and academia

Uses of taxonomy in education include: *
Bloom's taxonomy Bloom's taxonomy is a set of three hierarchical models used to classify educational learning objectives into levels of complexity and specificity. The three lists cover the learning objectives in cognitive, affective and sensory domains. The cognit ...

Bloom's taxonomy
, a standardized categorization of learning objectives in an educational context * Classification of Instructional Programs, a taxonomy of academic disciplines at institutions of higher education in the United States *
Mathematics Subject Classification The Mathematics Subject Classification (MSC) is an alphanumerical classification scheme collaboratively produced by staff of, and based on the coverage of, the two major mathematical reviewing databases, Mathematical Reviews and Zentralblatt MATH ...
, an alphanumerical classification scheme based on the coverage of Mathematical Reviews and Zentralblatt MATH * SOLO taxonomy, Structure of Observed Learning Outcome, proposed by Biggs and Collis Tax


Safety

Uses of taxonomy in safety include: * Safety taxonomy, a standardized set of terminologies used within the fields of safety and health care **
Human Factors Analysis and Classification SystemThe Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS) identifies the human causes of an accident and offers tools for analysis as a way to plan preventive training.
, a system to identify the human causes of an accident **
Swiss cheese model File:SwissCheese Respiratory Virus Interventions-ver3.0.png, upright=1.5, Swiss cheese model applied to COVID-19 The Swiss cheese model of accident causation is a model used in Risk analysis (engineering), risk analysis and risk management, includ ...

Swiss cheese model
, a model used in risk analysis and risk management propounded by Dante Orlandella and James T. Reason **A taxonomy of rail incidents in Confidential Incident Reporting & Analysis System (CIRAS)


Other taxonomies

*
Military taxonomyMilitary taxonomy encompasses the domains of weapons, equipment, organizations, strategies, and tactics.CycorpStructured information The use of Taxonomy (general), taxonomies in the military extends beyond its value as an indexing tool or record-keep ...
, a set of terms that describe various types of military operations and equipment *
Moys Classification Scheme The Moys Classification Scheme is a system of library classification A library book shelf in Hong Kong arranged using the Dewey classification A library classification is a system of knowledge organization by which library resources are arranged a ...
, a subject classification for law devised by Elizabeth Moys


Research publishing

Citing inadequacies with current practices in listing authors of papers in medical research journals, Drummond Rennie and co-authors called in a 1997 article in ''JAMA'', the ''
Journal of the American Medical Association ''The Journal of the American Medical Association'' (JAMA) is a peer-reviewed Peer review is the evaluation of work by one or more people with similar competencies as the producers of the work ( peers). It functions as a form of self-regul ...
'' for
''a radical conceptual and systematic change, to reflect the realities of multiple authorship and to buttress accountability. We propose dropping the outmoded notion of author in favor of the more useful and realistic one of contributor.''
Since 2012, several major academic and scientific publishing bodies have mounted ''Project CRediT'' to develop a
controlled vocabulary Controlled vocabularies provide a way to organize knowledge for subsequent retrieval. They are used in subject indexing Subject indexing is the act of describing or classifying a document A document is a written Writing is a medium of ...
of contributor roles. Known as ''
CRediT Credit (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the R ...
(Contributor Roles Taxonomy)'', this is an example of a flat, non-hierarchical taxonomy; however, it does include an optional, broad classification of the degree of contribution: ''lead'', ''equal'' or ''supporting''.
Amy Brand Amy Brand (born October 20, 1962) a leader in the field of scholarly communication and research information, is the current director of the MIT Press, a position she assumed in July 2015. Previously, Brand served as the assistant provost of faculty ...
and co-authors summarise their intended outcome as:
Identifying specific contributions to published research will lead to appropriate credit, fewer author disputes, and fewer disincentives to collaboration and the sharing of data and code.
As of mid-2018, this taxonomy apparently restricts its scope to ''research outputs'', specifically journal articles; however, it does rather unusually "hope to … support identification of peer reviewers". (As such, it has not yet defined terms for such roles as editor or author of a chapter in a ''book'' of research results.) Version 1, established by the first Working Group in the (northern) autumn of 2014, identifies 14 specific contributor roles using the following defined terms: *Conceptualization *Methodology *Software *Validation *Formal Analysis *Investigation *Resources *Data curation *Writing – Original Draft *Writing – Review & Editing *Visualization *Supervision *Project Administration *Funding acquisition Reception has been mixed, with several major publishers and journals planning to have implemented CRediT by the end of 2018, whilst almost as many aren't persuaded of the need or value of using it. For example,
The
National Academy of Sciences The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) is a United States nonprofit A nonprofit organization (NPO), also known as a non-business entity, not-for-profit organization, or nonprofit institution, is a legal entity organized and operated for a ...
has created a ''TACS (Transparency in Author Contributions in Science)'' webpage to list the journals that commit to setting authorship standards, defining responsibilities for corresponding authors, requiring ORCID iDs, and adopting the CRediT taxonomy.
The same webpage has a table listing 21 journals (or families of journals), of which: * 5 have, or by end 2018 will have, implemented CRediT, * 6 require an author contribution statement and suggest using CRediT, * 8 don't use CRediT, of which 3 give reasons for not doing so, and * 2 are uninformative. The taxonomy is an open standard conforming to the OpenStand principles, and is published under a
Creative Commons Creative Commons (CC) is an American non-profit organization A nonprofit organization (NPO), also known as a non-business entity, not-for-profit organization, or nonprofit institution, is a legal entity organized and operated for a collect ...

Creative Commons
licence.


Taxonomy for the web

Websites with a well designed taxonomy or hierarchy are easily understood by users, due to the possibility of users developing a mental model of the site structure. Guidelines for writing taxonomy for the web include: * Mutually exclusive categories can be beneficial. If categories appear several places, it's called cross-listing or polyhierarchical. The hierarchy will lose its value if cross-listing appears too often. Cross-listing often appears when working with ambiguous categories that fits more than one place. * Having a balance between breadth and depth in the taxonomy is beneficial. Too many options (breadth), will overload the users by giving them too many choices. At the same time having a too narrow structure, with more than two or three levels to click-through, will make users frustrated and might give up.


Is-a and has-a relationships, and hyponymy

Two of the predominant types of relationships in knowledge-representation systems are predication and the universally quantified conditional. Predication relationships express the notion that an individual entity is an example of a certain type (for example, ''John is a bachelor''), while universally quantified conditionals express the notion that a type is a subtype of another type (for example, "''A dog is a mammal"'', which means the same as "''All dogs are mammals"''). Ronald J. Brachman
What IS-A is and isn't. An Analysis of Taxonomic Links in Semantic Networks
IEEE Computer, 16 (10); October 1983.
The "has-a" relationship is quite different: an elephant ''has'' a trunk; a trunk is a part, not a subtype of elephant. The study of part-whole relationships is
mereology In logic Logic (from Ancient Greek, Greek: grc, wikt:λογική, λογική, label=none, lit=possessed of reason, intellectual, dialectical, argumentative, translit=logikḗ)Also related to (''logos''), "word, thought, idea, argument, a ...
. Taxonomies are often represented as ''is-a'' hierarchies where each level is more specific (in mathematical language "a subset of") the level above it. For example, a basic biology taxonomy would have concepts such as ''mammal'', which is a subset of ''animal'', and ''dogs'' and ''cats'', which are subsets of ''mammal''. This kind of taxonomy is called an is-a model because the specific objects are considered as instances of a concept. For example, ''Fido'' is-an instance of the concept ''dog'' and ''Fluffy'' is-a ''cat''.
In
linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo ...

linguistics
, is-a relations are called
hyponymy In linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the methods for studying and modeling them. The traditional areas of linguistic analysis include ...
. When one word describes a category, but another describe some subset of that category, the larger term is called a ''hypernym'' with respect to the smaller, and the smaller is called a "hyponym" with respect to the larger. Such a hyponym, in turn, may have further subcategories for which it is a hypernym. In the simple biology example, ''dog'' is a hypernym with respect to its subcategory ''collie'', which in turn is a hypernym with respect to ''Fido'' which is one of its hyponyms. Typically, however, ''hypernym'' is used to refer to subcategories rather than single individuals.


Research

Researchers reported that large populations consistently develop highly similar category systems. This may be relevant to lexical aspects of large communication networks and cultures such as and
language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the ...

language
or human communication, and sense-making in general. Available unde
CC BY 4.0


See also

* * * *
Categorization Categorization is the human ability and activity of recognizing shared features or similarities between the elements of the experience Experience refers to conscious , an English Paracelsian physician Consciousness, at its simplest, is " se ...

Categorization
, the process of dividing things into groups *
Classification (general theory) The term classification can apply to one or all of: * the process of classifying (distinguishing and distribution kinds of "things" into different groups) * a resulting set of classes (also called "a classification system") * the assignment of ele ...
* Celestial Emporium of Benevolent Recognition, a fictional Chinese encyclopedia with an "impossible" taxonomic scheme *
Conflation Flag of the Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports, a heraldic emblem which displays conflated or "con-joined" images. Conflation is the merging of two or more sets of information, texts, ideas, opinions, etc., into one, often in error. In logic, it ...
*
Folksonomy Folksonomy is a classification system in which end users apply public tags to online items, typically to make those items easier for themselves or others to find later. Over time, this can give rise to a classification system based on those tags ...

Folksonomy
* Gellish English dictionary, a taxonomy in which the concepts are arranged as a subtype–supertype hierarchy *
Hypernym In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic ...
*
Knowledge representation Knowledge representation and reasoning (KRR, KR&R, KR²) is the field of artificial intelligence Artificial intelligence (AI) is intelligence Intelligence has been defined in many ways: the capacity for abstraction Abstraction in its ...
*
Lexicon A lexicon is the vocabulary A vocabulary is a set of familiar words In linguistics, a word of a spoken language can be defined as the smallest sequence of phonemes that can be uttered in isolation with semantic, objective or pragmatics, pra ...

Lexicon
*
Ontology (information science) In computer science and information science, an ontology encompasses a representation, formal naming and definition of the categories, properties and relations between the concepts, data and entities that substantiate one, many, or all Domain of d ...
, formal representation of knowledge as a set of concepts within a domain *
Philosophical language A philosophical language is any constructed language that is constructed from first principles. It is considered a type of engineered language. Philosophical languages were popular in Early Modern times, partly motivated by the goal of revising norm ...

Philosophical language
*
Protégé (software) Protégé is a free, open source ontology Ontology is the branch of philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about reason, Metaphysics, existence, Epistemology, knowledge, Ethi ...
*
Semantic network A semantic network, or frame network is a knowledge base A knowledge base (KB) is a technology used to information storage, store complex structured data, structured and unstructured information used by a computer system. The initial use of ...
* Semantic similarity network *
Structuralism In sociology Sociology is a social science Social science is the Branches of science, branch of science devoted to the study of society, societies and the Social relation, relationships among individuals within those societies. The t ...
*
Systematics Biological Biology is the natural science Natural science is a branch of science Science (from the Latin word ''scientia'', meaning "knowledge") is a systematic enterprise that Scientific method, builds and Taxonomy (general), o ...
*
Taxon In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, molecular interactions, Physiology, physiological mechani ...
, a population of organisms that a taxonomist adjudges to be a unit *
Taxonomy for search enginesTaxonomy for search engines refers to classification methods that improve relevance in vertical search. Taxonomies of entities are tree structures whose nodes are labelled with entities likely to occur in a web search query. Searches use these tree ...
*
Thesaurus (information retrieval)In the context of information retrieval, a thesaurus (plural: "thesauri") is a form of controlled vocabulary that seeks to dictate semantic manifestations of metadata Metadata is " data" that provides information about other data". In other wor ...
*
Typology (disambiguation) Typology is the study of types or the systematic classification of the types of something according to their common characteristics. Typology is the act of finding, counting and classification facts with the help of eyes, other senses and logic. Ty ...


Notes


References

* Atran, S. (1993) ''Cognitive Foundations of Natural History: Towards an Anthropology of Science.'' Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge , mottoeng = Literal: From here, light and sacred draughts. Non literal: From this place, we gain enlightenment and precious knowled ...
. * Carbonell, J. G. and J. Siekmann, eds. (2005)
''Computational Logic in Multi-Agent Systems,'' Vol. 3487.
Berlin:
Springer-Verlag Springer Science+Business Media, commonly known as Springer, is a German multinational publishing Publishing is the activity of making information, literature, music, software and other content available to the public for sale or for free. ...
. * Malone, Joseph L. (1988)
''The Science of Linguistics in the Art of Translation: Some Tools from Linguistics for the Analysis and Practice of Translation.''
Albany, New York:
State University of New York Press The State University of New York (SUNY ) is a system of public colleges and universities in New York State New York is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine publishe ...
.
OCLC 15856738
* *Marcello Sorce Keller, "The Problem of Classification in Folksong Research: a Short History", ''Folklore'', XCV(1984), no. 1, 100-104. * Chester D Rowe and Stephen M Davis, 'The Excellence Engine Tool Kit'; * *


External links

* * *
Taxonomy 101: The Basics and Getting Started with Taxonomies
' {{Authority control Scientific nomenclature Hierarchy Ontology