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Tarragona ( , also , , ;
Phoenician Phoenician may refer to: * Phoenicia, an ancient civilization * Phoenician alphabet * Phoenician language * List of Phoenician cities * Phoenix, Arizona See also

* Phoenix (mythology) * Phoenicia (disambiguation) {{disambiguation Language an ...
: ''Tarqon''; la, Tarraco) is a port city located in northeast
Spain , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = , national_anthem = , image_map = , map_caption = , image_map2 ...

Spain
on the
Costa Daurada The Costa Daurada (, es, Costa Dorada, meaning in English language, English "Golden Coast") is an area on the coast of Catalonia, Spain, between Cunit and Alcanar on the Mediterranean Sea. Its traditional banks are the deltas of the Foix (river), ...
by the
Mediterranean Sea The Mediterranean Sea is a connected to the , surrounded by the and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by and and , on the south by , and on the east by the . The Sea has played a central role in the . Although the Mediterrane ...
. Founded before the 5th century BC, it is the capital of the
Province of Tarragona A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar terms, are gen ...
, and part of
Tarragonès Tarragonès is a Comarques of Catalonia, comarca (county) in Catalonia, Spain. It is one of the three comarques formed in the 1936 comarcal division of Camp de Tarragona. It lies on the Mediterranean coast, between the comarques of Baix Penedès to ...
and
Catalonia Catalonia (; ca, Catalunya ; Aranese, Aranese Occitan: ''Catalonha'' ; es, Cataluña ) is an Autonomous communities of Spain, autonomous community in the northeastern corner of Spain, designated as a ''nationalities and regions of Spain, na ...

Catalonia
. Geographically, it is bordered on the north by the
Province of Barcelona Barcelona (, ) is a province A province is almost always an administrative division within a country or state. The term derives from the ancient Roman '' provincia'', which was the major territorial and administrative unit of the Roman Emp ...
and the
Province of Lleida The Province of Lleida (; es, Lérida ; oc, Lhèida) is one of the four provinces of Catalonia Catalonia (; ca, Catalunya ; Aranese, Aranese Occitan: ''Catalonha'' ; es, Cataluña ) is an Autonomous communities of Spain, autonomous ...
. The city has a population of 201,199 (2014).


History


Origins

One Catalan legend holds that Tarragona was named for ''Tarraho'', eldest son of
Tubal Tubal ( he, תובל or תבל ), in Genesis 10 (the "Table of Nations 230px, The world as known to the Mosaic account (1854 map, ''Historical Textbook and Atlas of Biblical Geography'' by Lyman Coleman">Biblical_cosmology.html" ;"title="Hebre ...
in c. 2407 BC; another (derived from Strabo and
Megasthenes Megasthenes ( ; grc, Μεγασθένης, c. 350BCE– c. 290 BCE) was an ancient Greek historian, diplomat and Indian ethnographer and explorer in the Hellenistic period The Hellenistic period covers the period of Mediterranean history b ...
) attributes the name to '
Tearcon
Tearcon
the Ethiopian', a 7th-century BC pharaoh who campaigned in Spain. The real founding date of Tarragona is unknown. The city may have begun as an Iberian town called or , named for the Iberian tribe of the region, the Cossetans, though the identification of Tarragona with Kesse is not certain. William Smith suggests that the city was probably founded by the
Phoenicia Phoenicia () was an ancient Ancient history is the aggregate of past eventsWordNet Search – 3 ...
ns, who called it , which, according to
Samuel Bochart Samuel Bochart (30 May 1599 – 16 May 1667) was a French Protestant biblical scholar, a student of Thomas Erpenius and the teacher of Pierre Daniel Huet P. D. Huetius Pierre Daniel Huet (; la, Huetius; 8 February 1630 – 26 January 1721) was ...

Samuel Bochart
, means a citadel. This name was probably derived from its situation on a high rock, between above the sea; whence we find it characterised as . It was seated on the river Sulcis or Tulcis (modern Francolí), on a bay of the Mare Internum (Mediterranean), between the Pyrenees and the river Iberus (modern
Ebro , name_etymology = , image = Zaragoza shel.JPG , image_size = , image_caption = The Ebro River in Zaragoza , map = SpainEbroBasin.png , map_size = , map_caption = The Ebro r ...
).
Livy Titus Livius (; 59 BC – AD 17), known in English as Livy ( ), was a historian. He wrote a monumental history of and the Roman people, titled , covering the period from the earliest legends of Rome before the traditional founding in 753 BC th ...
mentions a ; and according to
Eratosthenes Eratosthenes of Cyrene (; grc-gre, Ἐρατοσθένης ;  – ) was a Greek polymath A polymath ( el, πολυμαθής, , "having learned much"; la, homo universalis, "universal human") is an individual whose knowledge spans a ...

Eratosthenes
it had a naval station or roads (); but
Artemidorus Ephesius Artemidorus of Ephesus ( grc-gre, Ἀρτεμίδωρος ὁ Ἐφέσιος; la, Artemidorus Ephesius) was a Greek geographer, who flourished around 100 BC. His work in eleven books is often quoted by Strabo Strabo''Strabo'' (meaning "squ ...
says with more probability that it had none, and scarcely even an anchoring place; and Strabo himself calls it "harbourless" (). This better reflects its present condition; for though a
mole Mole (or Molé) may refer to: Animals * Mole (animal) or "true mole", mammals in the family Talpidae, found in Eurasia and North America * Golden moles, southern African mammals in the family Chrysochloridae, similar to but unrelated to Talpidae ...
was constructed in the 15th century with the materials of the ancient
amphitheatre An amphitheatre ( British English) or amphitheater ( American English; both ) is an open-air venue used for entertainment, performances, and sports. The term derives from the ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek l ...

amphitheatre
, and another subsequently by an Irishman named John Smith Sinnot, it still affords little protection for shipping.


Rome

Tarraco lies on the main road along the northeastern coast of the Iberian Peninsula.
Antonine Itinerary The Antonine Itinerary ( la, Itinerarium Antonini Augusti,  "The Itinerary of the Emperor An emperor (from la, imperator, via fro, empereor) is a monarch, and usually the sovereignty, sovereign ruler of an empire or another type of im ...
pp. 391, 396, 399, 448, 452.
During the
Roman Republic The Roman Republic ( la, Rēs pūblica Rōmāna ) was a state of the classical Roman civilization, run through public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing and disseminating information from an indiv ...
, the city was fortified and much enlarged as a Roman colony by the brothers
Publius Cornelius ScipioThe name Publius Cornelius Scipio was regularly, though not always, given by the Scipio branch of the ''gens In ancient Rome, a gens ( or ), plural gentes, was a family consisting of individuals who shared the same Roman naming conventions#Nomen, ...
and
Gnaeus Cornelius Scipio Calvus Gnaeus Cornelius Scipio Calvus (died 211 BC) was a Roman noble, general and statesman during the third century BC. He played a major part in the Second Punic War The Second Punic War (218–201 BC) was the second of three wars fought betwee ...
, who converted it into a fortress and arsenal against the
Carthaginians The Punics, Carthaginians or Western Phoenicians, were a group of peoples in the Western Mediterranean who traced their origins to the Phoenicians. In modern scholarship, the term 'Punic' – the Latin equivalent of the Greek-derived term 'Phoen ...
. The city was first named
Colonia Iulia Urbs Triumphalis Tarraco
Colonia Iulia Urbs Triumphalis Tarraco
and was capital of the province of
Hispania Citerior Hispania Citerior (English: "Hither Iberia", or "Nearer Iberia") was a Roman province in Hispania Hispania ( ; ) was the Roman Roman or Romans most often refers to: *, the capital city of Italy *, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5t ...
. Subsequently, it became the capital (''
conventus iuridicusIn Ancient Rome In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman people, Roman civilization from the founding of the Italian city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman K ...
'') of the province named after it,
Hispania Tarraconensis Hispania Tarraconensis was one of three Roman province The Roman provinces (Latin: ''provincia'', pl. ''provinciae'') were the administrative regions of Ancient Rome outside Italy that were controlled by the Romans under the Roman Republic ...
.
Augustus Caesar Augustus (23 September 63 BC19 August AD 14) was the first Roman emperor The Roman emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the imperial period (starting in 27 BC). The emperors used a variety of different titles through ...

Augustus
wintered at Tarraco after his Cantabrian campaign, and bestowed many marks of honour on the city, among which were its honorary titles of ''Colonia Victrix Togata'' and ''Colonia Julia Victrix Tarraconensis''. According to Mela it was the richest town on the coast,''l. c.'' and Strabo represents its population as equal to that of Carthago Nova (now
Cartagena Cartagena or Carthagena may refer to: Places Chile *Cartagena, Chile, a commune in Valparaíso Region Colombia *Cartagena, Colombia, a city in the Bolívar Department, the largest city with this name **Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Cartagena, an ...
). Its fertile plain and sunny shores are celebrated by
Martial Marcus Valerius Martialis (known in English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has ...

Martial
and other poets; and its neighbourhood is described as producing good wine and
flax Flax, also known as common flax or linseed, is a flowering plant, ''Linum usitatissimum'', in the family Linaceae. It is cultivated as a food and fiber crop in regions of the world with temperate climates. Textiles made from flax are known in Wes ...

flax
. The city also minted coins. An inscribed stone base for a now lost statue of
Tiberius Claudius Candidus Tiberius Claudius Candidus (died c. 198 CE) was a Roman Empire, Roman general and Senate of the Roman Empire, senator. He played an important role supporting Septimius Severus in the Year of the Five Emperors, struggle for succession following t ...
was found in Tarragona during the nineteenth century. The 24-line Latin inscription describes the governor and senator's career as an ally of the future Roman emperor
Septimius Severus Lucius Septimius Severus (; 11 April 145 – 4 February 211) was Roman emperor from 193 to 211. He was born in Leptis Magna (present day Al-Khums, Libya) in the Roman province of Africa (Roman province), Africa. As a young man he advanced thro ...
, who fought in the civil war following the assassination of
Commodus Commodus (; 31 August 161 – 31 December 192) was a Roman emperor serving jointly with his father Marcus Aurelius from 176 until his father's death in 180, and solely until 192. His reign is commonly thought of as marking the end of a golden pe ...

Commodus
in 192 AD. This important marble block was purchased by the
British Museum The British Museum, in the Bloomsbury Bloomsbury is a district in the West End of London The West End of London (commonly referred to as the West End) is a district of Central London Central London is the innermost part of Lond ...

British Museum
in 1994.


From the demise of the Roman empire to the Union of Spain

After the demise of the
Western Roman Empire The Western Roman Empire comprises the western provinces of the Roman Empire The Roman Empire ( la, Imperium Rōmānum ; grc-gre, Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, Basileía tôn Rhōmaíōn) was the post-Republican Republican ...

Western Roman Empire
, the city was captured first by the
Vandals The Vandals were a Germanic people Germanic may refer to: * Germanic peoples The historical Germanic peoples (from lat, Germani) are a category of ancient northern European tribes, first mentioned by Graeco-Roman authors. They are also ...
and then by the
Visigoths The Visigoths (; la, Visigothi, Wisigothi, Vesi, Visi, Wesi, Wisi) were an early Germanic people Germanic may refer to: * Germanic peoples The historical Germanic peoples (from lat, Germani) are a category of ancient northern European t ...
. The
Visigothic Kingdom The Visigothic Kingdom, officially the Kingdom of the Goths ( la, Regnum Gothorum), was a kingdom that occupied what is now southwestern France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a ...

Visigothic Kingdom
's rule of Tarracona was ended by the
Umayyad conquest of Hispania The Umayyad conquest of Hispania, also known as the Muslim conquest of the Iberian Peninsula or the Umayyad conquest of the Visigothic Kingdom, was the initial expansion of the Umayyad Caliphate The Umayyad Caliphate (661–750 CE; , ; ar ...
in 714. It was an important border city of the
Caliphate of Córdoba A caliphate ( ar, خِلَافَة, ) is an Islamic state under the leadership of an Islam Islam (;There are ten pronunciations of ''Islam'' in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the '' ...
between 750 and 1013. After the demise of the Caliphate, it was part of the
Taifa of Zaragoza The taifa The ''taifas'' (singular ''taifa'', from ar, طائفة ''ṭā'ifa'', plural طوائف ''ṭawā'if'', a party, band or faction) were the independent Muslim principalities of the Iberian Peninsula (modern Portugal Port ...
between 1013 and 1110 and under the control of the
Almoravid dynasty The Almoravid dynasty ( ar, المرابطون, translit=Al-Murābiṭūn, lit=those from the ribat A ribāṭ ( ar, رِبَـاط; hospice, hostel, base or retreat) is an Arabic term for a small fortification built along a frontier during ...
between 1110 and 1117. It was taken by the
County of Barcelona The County of Barcelona ( la, Comitatus Barcinonensis, ca, Comtat de Barcelona) was originally a frontier region under the rule of the Carolingian dynasty The Carolingian dynasty (known variously as the Carlovingians, Carolingus, Caroling ...
in 1117. After the dynastic union of
Aragon Aragon ( or , Spanish and an, Aragón , ca, Aragó ) is an autonomous community eu, autonomia erkidegoa ca, comunitat autònoma gl, comunidade autónoma oc, comunautat autonòma an, comunidat autonoma ast, comunidá autónoma , alt_n ...
and
Barcelona Barcelona ( , , ) is a city on the coast of northeastern Spain. It is the capital and largest city of the autonomous community of Catalonia, as well as the second most populous municipality of Spain. With a population of 1.6 million within ci ...
, it was part of the
Principality of Catalonia The Principality of Catalonia ( ca, Principat de Catalunya, la, Principatus Cathaloniæ, oc, Principat de Catalonha, es, Principado de Cataluña, french: Principauté de Catalogne) was a medieval In the history of Europe The histor ...
within the
Crown of Aragon The Crown of Aragon (; an, Corona d'Aragón; ca, Corona d'Aragó; es, Corona de Aragón)' ()' (, , )' ()' (). was a composite monarchy A composite monarchy (or composite state) is a historical category, introduced by H. G. Koenigsberger ...
from 1164 to 1714. After dynastic union of
Aragon Aragon ( or , Spanish and an, Aragón , ca, Aragó ) is an autonomous community eu, autonomia erkidegoa ca, comunitat autònoma gl, comunidade autónoma oc, comunautat autonòma an, comunidat autonoma ast, comunidá autónoma , alt_n ...

Aragon
and the
Crown of Castile The Crown of Castile was a medieval polity in the that formed in 1230 as a result of the third and definitive union of the crowns and, some decades later, the parliaments of the kingdoms of and upon the accession of the then Castilian king, ...

Crown of Castile
, it remained a part of the Crown of Aragon until the foundation of the
Spanish Empire The Spanish Empire ( es, link=no, Imperio Español), also known as the Hispanic Monarchy ( es, link=no, Monarquía Hispánica) or the Catholic Monarchy ( es, link=no, Monarquía Católica) during the Early Modern period, was a colonial empire ...

Spanish Empire
in 1516. During the
Reapers' War The Reapers' War ( ca, Guerra dels Segadors, , es, Guerra de los Segadores), also known as the Catalan Revolt was a conflict that affected a large part of the Principality of Catalonia between the years of 1640 and 1659. It had an enduring effe ...
, Tarragona was captured by Catalan insurgents with French support in 1641, but it was retaken by Spanish troops in 1644. It was captured by allied Portuguese, Dutch, and British troops in 1705 during the
War of the Spanish Succession The War of the Spanish Succession (1701–1714) was an early-18th-century European war, triggered by the death in November 1700 of the childless Charles II of Spain. It established the principle that dynastic rights were secondary to maintaini ...
and remained in their hands until the
Treaty of Utrecht The Peace of Utrecht was a series of peace treaties A peace treaty is an agreement between two or more hostile parties, usually countries or government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized commun ...

Treaty of Utrecht
in 1713. During the war, the Catalans supported the unsuccessful claim of
Archduke Charles, Duke of Teschen Archduke Charles Louis John Joseph Laurentius of Austria, Duke of Teschen (german: link=no, Erzherzog Karl Ludwig Johann Joseph Lorenz von Österreich, Herzog von Teschen; 5 September 177130 April 1847) was an Austria Austria (, ; german: ...
against the victorious
BourbonBourbon may refer to: Food and drink * Bourbon whiskey, an American whiskey made using a corn-based mash * Bourbon barrel aged beer, a type of beer aged in bourbon barrels * Bourbon biscuit, a chocolate sandwich biscuit * A beer produced by Brass ...

Bourbon
Duke of Anjou The Count of Anjou was the ruler of the Anjou, county of Anjou, first granted by Charles the Bald in the 9th century to Robert the Strong. Ingelger and his son, Fulk I, Count of Anjou, Fulk the Red, were viscounts until Fulk assumed the title of Co ...
, who became
Philip V of Spain Philip V ( es, Felipe; 19 December 1683 – 9 July 1746) was King of Spain from 1 November 1700 to 14 January 1724, and again from 6 September 1724 to his death in 1746. Philip instigated many important reforms in Spain, most especially the centra ...

Philip V of Spain
. He signed the
Nueva Planta decrees The Nueva Planta decrees ( es, link=no, Decretos de Nueva Planta, ca, Decrets de Nova Planta) were a number of decree A decree is a rule of law Law is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements ...
, which abolished the
Crown of Aragon The Crown of Aragon (; an, Corona d'Aragón; ca, Corona d'Aragó; es, Corona de Aragón)' ()' (, , )' ()' (). was a composite monarchy A composite monarchy (or composite state) is a historical category, introduced by H. G. Koenigsberger ...
, as well as the Catalan institutions and prohibited the administrative use of Catalan language on 16 January 1716.


Peninsular War

During the
Peninsular War The Peninsular War (1807–1814) was the military conflict War is an intense armed conflict between State (polity), states, governments, Society, societies, or paramilitary groups such as Mercenary, mercenaries, Insurgency, insurg ...

Peninsular War
, in the first siege of Tarragona from 5 May to 29 June 1811,
Louis-Gabriel Suchet Louis-Gabriel Suchet (2 March 1770 – 3 January 1826), Duke of Albufera (french: Duc d'Albuféra), was a French Marshal of the Empire Marshal is a term used in several official titles in various branches of society. As marshals became tru ...

Louis-Gabriel Suchet
's Army of Aragon of the
First French Empire The First French Empire, officially the French Empire, also known as the Napoleonic Empire, was the empire ruled by Napoleon, Napoleon Bonaparte, who established French hegemony over much of continental Europe at the beginning of the 19th cen ...
laid siege to a Spanish garrison led by
Lieutenant general Lieutenant general (Lt Gen, LTG and similar) is a three-star rank, three-star military rank (NATO code OF-8) used in many countries. The rank traces its origins to the Middle Ages, where the title of lieutenant general was held by the second-in ...

Lieutenant general
Juan Senen de Contreras. A British naval squadron commanded by Admiral
Edward Codrington Sir Edward Codrington, (27 April 177028 April 1851) was a British Admiral (Royal Navy), admiral, who took part in the Battle of Trafalgar and the Battle of Navarino. Early life and career The youngest of three brothers born to Edward Codringto ...
harassed the French besiegers with cannon fire and transported large numbers of reinforcements into the city by sea. Nevertheless, Suchet's troops stormed into the defenses and killed or captured almost all the defenders. It became a subprefecture center in Bouches-de-l'Èbre department of French empire. In the second siege of Tarragona (3–11 June 1813), an overwhelming Anglo-Spanish force under the command of Lieutenant general
John Murray, 8th Baronet General Sir John Murray, 8th Baronet, (''c.'' 1768 – 15 October 1827) led a brigade under Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington in the Peninsular War. Later in the war, he commanded an independent force that operated on the east coast of Spain ...
failed to wrest Tarragona from a small Franco-Italian garrison led by
Brigadier general #REDIRECT Brigadier general #REDIRECT Brigadier general Brigadier general (Brig. Gen.) or brigade general is a military rank used in many countries. It is the lowest ranking general officer in some countries, usually sitting between the ranks of co ...

Brigadier general
. Murray was subsequently removed from command for his indecisive and contradictory leadership. The Anglo-Spanish forces finally captured Tarragona on 19 August.


Spanish Civil War

During the
Spanish Civil War The Spanish Civil War ( es, Guerra Civil Española)) or The Revolution ( es, La Revolución) among Nationalists, the Fourth Carlist War ( es, Cuarta Guerra Carlista) among Carlism, Carlists, and The Rebellion ( es, La Rebelión) or Uprising ( ...

Spanish Civil War
, Tarragona was in the hands of the
Second Spanish Republic The Spanish Republic ( es, link=no, República Española), commonly known as the Second Spanish Republic ( es, link=no, Segunda República Española), was the form of government in Spain from 1931 to 1939. The Republic was proclaimed on 14 Apri ...
until captured by Franco's Nationalist troops on 15 January 1939 during the
Catalonia Offensive The Catalonia Offensive ( ca, Ofensiva de Catalunya, es, Ofensiva de Cataluña) was part of the Spanish Civil War. The Nationalist faction (Spanish Civil War), Nationalist Army started the Offensive (military), offensive on 23 December 1938 and ...
.


Main sights


Ancient remains

The Roman ruins of Tarraco have been designated a
World Heritage Site A World Heritage Site is a landmark or area with legal protection by an international convention administered by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). World Heritage Sites are designated by UNESCO for h ...
by
UNESCO The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) (french: Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialised agency United Nations Specialized Agencies are autonomous orga ...

UNESCO
. Part of the bases of large
Cyclopean Cyclopean masonry is a type of stonework found in Mycenaean architecture, built with massive limestone Limestone is a common type of carbonate rock, carbonate sedimentary rock. It is composed mostly of the minerals calcite and aragonite, wh ...
walls near the Cuartel de Pilatos are thought to pre-date the Romans. The building just mentioned, a prison in the 19th century, is said to have been the palace of Augustus. The second century Tarragona Amphitheatre near the seashore was extensively used as a quarry after the fall of the
Western Roman Empire The Western Roman Empire comprises the western provinces of the Roman Empire The Roman Empire ( la, Imperium Rōmānum ; grc-gre, Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, Basileía tôn Rhōmaíōn) was the post-Republican Republican ...

Western Roman Empire
, and but few vestiges of it now remain. A circus c. long, was built over in the area now called ''Plaça de la Font'', though portions of it are still to be traced. Throughout the town
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became ...

Latin
, and even apparently
Phoenician Phoenician may refer to: * Phoenicia, an ancient civilization * Phoenician alphabet * Phoenician language * List of Phoenician cities * Phoenix, Arizona See also

* Phoenix (mythology) * Phoenicia (disambiguation) {{disambiguation Language an ...
, inscriptions on the stones of the houses mark the material used for buildings in the town. Two ancient monuments, at some little distance from the town, have, however, fared rather better. The first of these is , which spans a valley about north of the city. It is in length, and the loftiest arches, of which there are two tiers, are high. There is a monument about along the coast road east of the city, commonly called the "Tower of the Scipios"; but there is no authority for assuming that they were buried here. Other Roman buildings include: *The Roman walls *The capitol, or citadel *The Amphitheatre *The Roman circus *The Pretorium – Tower *The
Provincial Provincial may refer to: Government & Administration * Provincial capitals, an administrative sub-national capital of a country * Provincial city (disambiguation) * Provincial minister (disambiguation) * Provincial Secretary, a position in Canadi ...
and Colonial fora *The Necropolis *The palace of Augustus, called the house of Pilate *The so-called tower, or sepulchre, of the Scipios *Arch of Sura, or of Bara *The Aurelian Way. The city is also home to the National Archaeological Museum of Tarragona.


Religious buildings

* The
Tarragona Cathedral The Cathedral of Tarragona is a Roman Catholic church architecture, church in Tarragona, Catalonia, Spain. The edifice is located in a site previously occupied by a Roman Empire, Roman temple dating to the time of Tiberius, a Visigothic architectu ...
, dating to the 12th–13th centuries, combining Romanesque and Gothic architectural elements. * The convent of the
Poor Clares The Poor Clares, officially the Order of Saint Clare ( la, Ordo sanctae Clarae) – originally referred to as the Order of Poor Ladies, and later the Clarisses, the Minoresses, the Franciscan Clarist Order, and the Second Order of Saint Francis ...
, near the walls * The convent of ''Santa Teresa'' * The church of the
Order of Friars Minor Capuchin The Order of Friars Minor Capuchin (; postnominal Post-nominal letters, also called post-nominal initials, post-nominal titles or designatory letters, are letters placed after a person's name to indicate that the individual holds a position, ac ...
, the parish church of the port * The former convent of ''Sant Francesc'' * The
Jesuit , image = Ihs-logo.svg , caption = Christogram A Christogram (Latin ') is a monogram or combination of letters that forms an abbreviation for the name of Jesus Christ, traditionally used as a Christian symbolism ...
college was turned into barracks; their church, however, has been restored to them * The convent of the
Dominican Order The Order of Preachers, also known as the Dominicans ( la, Ordo Praedicatorum; abbreviated OP), is an order of the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the List of Christian denominations by ...
, now the town hall * The archiepiscopal palace, situated on the site of the ancient capitol, one tower of which still remains. It was rebuilt in the 19th century. * Near the sea, in the Roman amphitheatre, are the remains of a church called ''Santa Maria del Miracle'' (Holy Mary of the Miracle), which belonged to the
Knights Templar The Poor Fellow-Soldiers of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon ( la, Pauperes commilitones Christi Templique Salomonici), also known as the Order of Solomon's Temple, the Knights Templar, or simply the Templars, was a Catholic military order (so ...
. It was afterwards used by the
Trinitarian Order , logo = Trynitarze.svg , logo_size = 150px , logo_caption = Flag of the Trinitarians , image = Signumordinis.gif , image_size = 200px , caption = Mosaic of Jesus Christ use ...

Trinitarian Order
and was later converted into a penitentiary. It was demolished around 1915. The seminary of Sant Pau and Santa Tecla was founded in 1570 by the cardinal archbishop, , and was the first to comply with the decrees of the
Council of Trent The Council of Trent ( la, Concilium Tridentinum), held between 1545 and 1563 in Trent (or Trento, in northern Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of ...

Council of Trent
. In 1858 Archbishop José Domingo Costa y Borrás built a fourth wing. Benito Villamitjana built a new seminary behind the cathedral in 1886, in the courtyard of which stands the old chapel of Sant Pau.
Pope Leo XIII Pope Leo XIII ( it, Leone XIII; born Vincenzo Gioacchino Raffaele Luigi Pecci; 2 March 1810 – 20 July 1903) was the head of the Catholic Church from 20 February 1878 to his death in 1903. He was the oldest pope (living till the age of 93), w ...

Pope Leo XIII
raised this to the rank of a pontifical university. north of the city is
Poblet Monastery Poblet Abbey, otherwise the Royal Abbey of Santa Maria de Poblet ( ca, Reial Monestir de Santa Maria de Poblet), is a Cistercian , one of the most influential early Cistercians, seen here depicted in a historiated initial. Cistercian monks st ...

Poblet Monastery
, founded in 1151 by
Ramon Berenguer IV, Count of Barcelona Ramon Berenguer IV (; c. 1114 – 6 August 1162, Anglicize Linguistic anglicisation (or anglicization, occasionally anglification, anglifying, or Englishing) is the practice of modifying foreign words, names, and phrases to make them easier to sp ...
, which was used for sepultures of the kings.


Modern Tarragona

Tarragona is home to a large
port A port is a maritime Maritime may refer to: Geography * Maritime Alps, a mountain range in the southwestern part of the Alps * Maritime Region, a region in Togo * Maritime Southeast Asia * The Maritimes, the Canadian provinces of ...
and the Rovira i Virgili University. Much of its economic activity comes from a large number of chemical industries located south of the city. The main living heritage is the Popular Retinue, a great parade of dances, bestiary and spoken dances, and the s. They specially participate in Santa Tecla Festival. They are so popular in Tarragona and also in all Catalonia that they have got their own home. It is called "Casa de la Festa", Festivities House, where you can visit them all year. A number of beaches, some awarded a Blue Flag designation, line the Mediterranean coast near the city. Tarragona is located near the
resort A resort (North American English North American English (NAmE, NAE) is the most generalized variety (linguistics), variety of the English language as spoken in the United States and Canada. Because of their related histories and cultures, ...

resort
of
Salou Salou () is a municipality of the ''comarca A ''comarca'' (, or ) is a traditional region or local administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational e ...

Salou
and the
PortAventura World PortAventura World is an entertainment resort A resort (North American English North American English (NAmE, NAE) is the most generalized variety (linguistics), variety of the English language as spoken in the United States and Canada. ...
(
PortAventura Park PortAventura Park is a theme park File:Mountain at Canada's Wonderland.jpg, Wonder Mountain at Canada's Wonderland An amusement park is a park that features various attractions, such as rides and games, as well as other events for entertain ...
, the most visited theme park in Spain, Ferrari Land and also the PortAventura Caribe Aquatic Park). The city is served by
Camp de Tarragona railway station Camp de Tarragona is a railway station, opened on 19 December 2006, on the Madrid-Barcelona high-speed rail line between Madrid and Barcelona. Located between the municipalities of La Secuita and Perafort,Reus Airport Reus Airport is located by the beaches of Costa Daurada, equidistant in relation to the town of Constantí and the city of Reus Reus () is the capital of Baix Camp Baix Camp is a Comarques of Catalonia, comarca of Catalonia. It is one of the t ...
, which has many low-cost destinations and charter-flights (over a million passengers per year). The port is an export hub for the Spanish car industry.
Reus Reus () is the capital of Baix Camp, in the province of Tarragona, in Catalonia, Spain. The area has always been an important producer of wines and spirits, and gained continental importance at the time of the Phylloxera plague. Nowadays it is kno ...

Reus
is the second city of the Tarragona area (101,767 inhabitants in 2006), known by its commercial activity and for being the place where the architect
Antoni Gaudí Antoni Gaudí i Cornet (; ; 25 June 1852 – 10 June 1926) was a Catalans, Catalan architect known as the greatest exponent of Catalan Modernism. Gaudí's works have a highly individualized, ''sui generis'' style. Most are located in Barcelon ...

Antoni Gaudí
was born. The city hosted the 2018 Mediterranean Games, one year later than planned, because of political and economical instability.


Food and drink outlets

Tarragona contains a number of small bars, restaurants, and cafes serving tapas and sandwiches, and local seafood and Catalan dishes like " pa amb tomàquet" or "neules i torrons". Many such outlets are found in the historic centre, including those at the Plaça de la Font, Plaça del Rei and Plaça del Fòrum. The neighbourhood of El Serrallo, at the harbour, specialises in seafood cuisine. Between 1903 and 1989, the French liqueur made by the Carthusian Monks, Chartreuse, was distilled in Tarragona, following the monks' expulsion from France.


Climate

The climate of Tarragona can be described as a
humid subtropical climate A humid subtropical climate is a zone of climate characterized by hot and humid summers, and cool to mild winters. These climates normally lie on the southeast side of all continents, generally between latitude In geography Geograp ...
( Köppen ''Cfa''). Despite its location in the Mediterranean region, it does not have a Mediterranean climate since August has more rainfall than winter months, which receive near or less than . Winters are mildly cool and summers are hot and sultry, while the rainiest seasons are autumn and spring.


Events

*The Carnival *Tarragona International Dixieland Festival. Houses 25 bands and 100 concerts and activities the week before Holy Week. *''Tarraco Viva''. An international cultural festival dedicated to the history of the Roman period, with musical concerts, exhibitions, workshops and conferences *Tarragona International Fireworks Displays Competition. The competition selects six international pyrotechnic companies every year
Official website1
*''Sant Magí ''Festival, held between 15 and 19 August. * Santa Tecla Festival, held between 15 and 24 September. It has been celebrated since 1321 and it is considered of national touristic interest by the state. *2018 Mediterranean Games, Tarragona 2018 XVIII Mediterranean Games, an international multi-sport event held from 22 June to 1 July 2018. Tarragona was also a candidate to be the Spanish representative as European Capital of Culture in 2016.


Politics

The local Mayor is elected by the members of the plenary among its members the day the new municipal corporation is formed after the local election. The officeholder has a mandate for the 4-year duration of the elected body. If the Mayor leaves office ahead of time a new voting may take place among the plenary members in order to invest a new mayor (meanwhile, another local councillor, conventionally the first deputy mayor, may act as acting Mayor). Since 15 June 2019 the Mayor is Pau Ricomà. The opening session in which the Mayor is invested is traditionally held at the ''Saló de Plens''. ;List of mayors Since the first democratic election after the Francoist Spain, Francoist dictatorship, Tarragona has had 4 democratically elected mayors: *Josep Maria Recasens (Socialists' Party of Catalonia, PSC): 1979-1989 *Joan Miquel Nadal (Convergence and Union, CiU): 1989-2007 *Josep Fèlix Ballesteros (Socialists' Party of Catalonia, PSC): 2007-2019 *Pau Ricomà (Republican Left of Catalonia, ERC): 2019–present The local is the body formed by the elected councillors of the ''Ajuntament''. The plenary meetings (''Ple'') are held at the "Saló de Plens". It is formed by the municipal councillors, elected through Closed list, closed party list proportional representation. 27 councillors are currently elected on the basis of the population of the municipality. Councillors are grouped in Municipal Groups on the basis of their political filiation. It has a Government Commission (''Comissió de Govern''; also ''Junta de Govern'' or ''Junta de Gobierno'') is formed by the Mayor, the Deputy Mayors, and a number of appointed councillors.


International relations


Twin towns and sister cities

Tarragona is Twin towns and sister cities, twinned with: Tarragona had partnerships with: * Voiron, France


Notable people

*Domènec Batet (1872–1937), military general *Alejandro Cao de Benós (1974-), political activist


See also

* Tarraco#Archaeological ensemble, Archaeological Ensemble of Tarraco * Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Tarragona * Royal Tarragona Yacht Club


References

;Notes ;Sources * This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: William Smith (lexicographer), Smith, William, ed. (1854–1857)
Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography
London: John Murray.


External links

*
Official Website of Tarragona

Government data pages
{{Authority control Tarragona, Archaeological sites in Spain Phoenician colonies in Spain Mediterranean port cities and towns in Spain Coloniae (Roman) Roman sites in Spain Tourism in Spain Populated places in Tarragonès