Administrative statusThe city is the administrative center of Ternopil Oblast (Oblasts of Ukraine, region), as well as of surrounding Ternopil Raion (Raions of Ukraine, district) within the oblast. It hosts the administration of Ternopil urban hromada, one of the hromadas of Ukraine.
DemographyAccording to Ukrainian Census (2001), Ternopil city and Ternopil oblast are homogeneously populated by ethnic Ukrainians. Ternopil city and Ternopil oblast are also homogeneously Ukrainian-speaking. National structure of Ternopil Oblast - 1,138.5 (100%) * Ukrainians - 1,113.5 (97.8%) * Russians - 14.2 (1.2%) * Poles - 3.8 (0.3%) Native languages in Ternopil: * Ukrainian language — 94,8 %, * Russian language — 3,37 %, * Belarusian language — 0,07 %, * Polish language — 0,04 %,
HistoryThe city was founded in 1540 by Polish commander and Hetman Jan Tarnowski, Jan Amor Tarnowski,Snitovsky, O.
20th CenturyThe region was part of Habsburg Galicia and was an ethnic mix of mainly Roman Catholic Poles, Greek Catholic Ruthenians, and Jews. Intermarriage between Poles and Ruthenians was common. Church of St. Mary of the Perpetual Assistance, Ternopil, Church of St. Mary of the Perpetual Assistance was consecrated in 1908 with its main tower reaching . In 1954 the church was blown up by Communist authorities and in its place was built the city's central supermarket. During World War I the city passed from Germany, German and Austrian forces to Russia several times. In 1917 the city and its castle were burnt down by fleeing Imperial Russian Army, Russian forces. After the dissolution of the Austria-Hungary, Austro-Hungarian Empire, the city was proclaimed as part of the West Ukrainian National Republic, West Ukrainian People's Republic on 11 November 1918. After Polish forces captured Lwów during the Polish–Ukrainian War, Polish-Ukrainian War, Tarnopol became the country's temporary capital (22 November to 30 December 1918). The Jewish and German population accepted the new Ukrainian state, but the Poles started the military campaign against the Ukrainian authority. [...]. On Armistice with Germany (Compiègne), November 11, 1918 following bloody fighting, the Polish forces captured Lwów. The government of the WUPR moved to Ternopol and from the end of December the Council and the Government of the WUPR were located in Ivano-Frankivsk.
World War IIAt the onset of World War II, the Soviet invasion of Poland began on September 17, 1939. The Red Army entered eastern Poland in furtherance of the secret Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact and contrary to the Soviet–Polish Non-Aggression Pact. Tarnopol was captured, renamed Ternopol (in Russian) or Ternopil (in Ukrainian), and incorporated into the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic under Ternopil Oblast, Ternopol Oblast. The Soviets made it their first priority to decimate the Polish intelligentsia and destroy Ukrainian political movements. Ukrainian nationalist leaders were imprisoned. Mass arrests, torture, and executions of Ukrainians, Poles and Jews followed. The Soviets also carried out mass deportations of "enemies of the working class" to Kazakhstan. In practice, this translated into members of the former state administration, police, border service, and land and business owners, Christians and Jews alike. On 2 July 1941, the city was occupied by the Nazis who immediately led a Jewish pogrom, partly assisted by the local population. Several thousand Jews were murdered until the Germans ordered the program stopped. Between then and July 1943, 10,000 Jews were murdered by Nazi Germans, another 6000 were rounded up and sent to Belzec extermination camp, and a few hundred others to labor camps. During most of this time Jews lived in the Tarnopol Ghetto. Many Ukrainians were sent as Unfree labour, forced labour to Germany. In the years 1942–1943, the Polish Armia Krajowa was active opposing Nazi rule and performing operations in a bid to incorporate Ternopil into a future Polish state. Ukrainians, politically represented by Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists (OUN), on the other hand, fought for the creation of their independent state. In the years 1942 – 1949, Ukrainian Insurgent Army (UPA) was active in Ternopil region and battled for independence of Ukraine (opposing Nazis, Polish Armia Krajowa and People's Army of Poland as well as the Soviets), following Act of restoration of the Ukrainian state proclaimed in Lviv on 30 June 1941. During the Soviet offensive in March and April 1944, the city was encircled. In March 1944, the city was declared a ''fortified place'' (Gates to the Reich) by Adolf Hitler, to be defended until the last round was fired. The stiff German resistance caused extensive use of Artillery, heavy artillery by the Red Army on March 7–8, resulting in the complete destruction of the city and killing of nearly all German occupants (55 survivors out of 4,500). Unlike many other occasions, where the Germans had practised a Scorched earth, scorched earth policy during their withdrawal from territories of the Soviet Union, the devastation was caused directly by the hostilities. Finally, Ternopol was occupied by the Red Army on 15 April 1944. After the second Soviet occupation, 85% of the city's living quarters were destroyed. Due to heavy destruction, the regional seat was moved to Chortkiv. From 1944 to 1949 (active) and 1949–1956 (localized) Ukrainian Insurgent Army resisted Soviet rule in the region and fought for Ukraine's independence. Following the defeat of Nazi Germany, the ethnic Polish population of Ternopil and its region was Polish population transfers (1944–46), forcibly deported to postwar Poland and settled in, and near Wrocław (among other locations), as part of Stalinist ethnic cleansing in the Soviet Ukraine. In the following decades, Ternopil was rebuilt in a typical Soviet style and only a few buildings were reconstructed.
Jewish TernopilHistory of the Jews in Poland, Polish Jews settled in Ternopil beginning at its founding and soon formed a majority of the population. During the 16th and 17th centuries there were 300 Jewish families in the city. The Great Synagogue of Ternopil was built in Gothic architecture, Gothic Survival style between 1622 and 1628. After the first partition of Poland, Ternopil came under Habsburg Monarchy, Austrian domination. Nevertheless, Joseph Perl was able to continue his efforts to improve the condition of the Jews, which he had begun under the Russian rule. In 1813 he established a Jewish school which had as its chief object the instruction of Jewish youth in German language, German as well as in Hebrew language, Hebrew and in various other subjects. Controversy between the traditional Hasidim and the modernising Haskalah, Maskilim which this school caused, resulted four years later in a victory for the latter, whereupon the institution received official recognition and was placed under communal control. Starting in 1863, the school policy was gradually modified by Polish influences, and very little attention was given to instruction in German. The ''Tempel für Geregelten Gottesdienst'', opened by Perl in 1819, also caused dissensions within the community, and its rabbi, Samuel Judah Löb Rapoport, was forced to withdraw. This dispute also was eventually settled in favour of the Maskilim. As of 1905, the Jewish community numbered 14,000 in a total population of 30,415. Jews took control of the active import/export trade with Russia conducted through the border city of Pidvolochysk. In 1939, the Jewish population was 18,500.
The HolocaustIn 1941, soon after the Operation Barbarossa, German invasion of the Soviet Union, 2,000 Jews were killed in a pogrom. In September 1941, the Germans announced the creation of the Tarnopol Ghetto for Jews still remaining in the city. In the winter of 1941–42, mortality in the ghetto escalated to such a degree that the ''Judenrat'' was forced to bury the dead in a common grave. Between August 1942 to June 1943 there were 5 "selections" that depleted the Jewish population of the ghetto by sending the Jews to Belzec extermination camp. A few hundred Jews from Tarnopol and its vicinity attempted to survive by hiding within the town limits. Many were denounced to the Germans, including some 200 people shortly before the Soviets established control over the area. A number of Jews survived by hiding with Ukrainians and Poles. A monument in memory of the The Holocaust, Holocaust victims was built at Petrikovsky Yar in 1996. On September 19, 2012, the monument was desecrated, in what seems to be an antisemitism, anti-Semitic act.
After WWIIFollowing Potsdam Conference in 1945, Poland's Territorial changes of Poland after World War II, borders were redrawn and Tarnopol (then again, Терно́поль) was incorporated into the Ukrainian SSR of the Soviet Union. Polish population was Polish population transfers (1944–1946), resettled to new Poland before the end of 1946. Following the fall of the Soviet Union, Ternopil has become part of the independent Ukraine. In 2013 the mayor of the city Serhiy Nadal issued an order which announced the 2013 year as the year of Jan Tarnowski, the Crown Hetman and Voivode. In 2015 the National Bank of Ukraine released jubilee coins commemorating the founder of Ternopil Jan Tarnowski. Until 18 July 2020, Ternopil was designated as a City of regional significance (Ukraine), city of oblast significance and did not belong to Ternopil Raion even though it was the center of the raion. As part of the administrative reform of Ukraine, which reduced the number of raions of Ternopil Oblast to three, the city was merged into Ternopil Raion.
ClimateTernopil has a moderate humid continental climate, continental climate with cold winters and warm summers.
Higher educationUniversities include: * Ternopil National Economic University * Ternopil Ivan Pul'uj National Technical University * Ternopil Volodymyr Hnatyuk National Pedagogical University * Ternopil State Medical University On 31 December 2013, the 11th Artillery Brigade (Ukraine), 11th Artillery Brigade, descendant of artillery units that had been based in the city since 1949, was disbanded.
Major landmarks and tourist attractions*Ternopil Regional Art Museum *Church of the Exaltation of the Cross, Ternopil *Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church, Ukrainian Greek Catholic Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception of the Blessed Virgin Mary, Ternopil, Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception of The Blessed Virgin Mary * The sanctuary of Our Lady of Zarvanytsia with a miraculous icon of the 13th century called icon of the Mother of God of Zarvanytsia, sanctuary of Greek-Catholic rite. Located about 40 km from Ternopil, celebrated on 22 July.
Twin towns – Sister citiesTernopil is Twin towns and sister cities, twinned with: Former twin towns: * Tarnów in Poland In June 2021, the Polish city of Tarnów decided to suspend its partnership with Ternopil as a reaction to the naming of a stadium in Ternopil in honour of Roman Shukhevych, one of the leaders of the Ukrainian Insurgent Army responsible for the Massacres of Poles in Volhynia and Eastern Galicia between 1943–1945.
FestivalsA well-known international open-air music festival called has been held annually near Ternopil for 2–4 days in July since 2013.
References;Bibliography * A. Bresler, Joseph Perl, ''Warsaw'', 1879, passim; * ''Allg. Zeit. des Jud.'' 1839, iii. 606; * * J. H. Gurland, ''Le-Ḳarot ha-Gezerot'', p. 22, Odessa, 1892; * Meyers Konversations-Lexikon * Orgelbrandt, in ''Encyklopedia Powszechna'', xiv. 409;
External links* Volodymyr Kubiyovych, Volodymyr Kubijovyč, Roman Mykolaievych