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Tanoan , also Kiowa–Tanoan or Tanoan–Kiowa, is a family of languages spoken by indigenous peoples in present-day
New Mexico ) , population_demonym = New Mexican ( es, Neomexicano, Neomejicano, Nuevo Mexicano) , seat = Santa Fe , LargestCity = Albuquerque , LargestMetro = Greater Albuquerque , OfficialLang = None , Languages = English English usually refer ...

New Mexico
,
Kansas Kansas () is a U.S. state, state in the Midwestern United States, Midwestern United States. Its Capital city, capital is Topeka and its largest city is Wichita, Kansas, Wichita. Kansas is a landlocked state bordered by Nebraska to the north; ...

Kansas
,
Oklahoma Oklahoma () is a U.S. state, state in the South Central United States, South Central region of the United States, bordered by the state of Texas on the south and west, Kansas on the north, Missouri on the northeast, Arkansas on the east, New ...
, and
Texas Texas (, ; Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards, a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language **Spanish cuisine Other places * Spanish, Ontario, Canada * Spanish River (disambigu ...

Texas
. Most of the languages –
TiwaTiwa and Tigua may refer to: * Tiwa Puebloans, an ethnic group of New Mexico, US * Tiwa (Lalung), an ethnic group of north-eastern India * Tiwa language (India), a Sino-Tibetan language of India * Tiwa languages, a group of Tanoan languages of the U ...
(Taos, Picuris, Southern Tiwa),
Tewa upright=1.25, Chaiwa, a Tewa girl with a butterfly whorl hairstyle, photographed by Edward S. Curtis in 1922 The Tewa are a linguistic group of Pueblo In the Southwestern United States, Pueblo (capitalized) refers to the Native tribes of ...
, and Towa – are spoken in the Native American
Pueblo In the Southwestern United States The southwestern United States, also known as the American Southwest or simply the Southwest, is a geographic and cultural region of the United States that generally includes Arizona Arizona ( ; nv, ...

Pueblo
s of
New Mexico ) , population_demonym = New Mexican ( es, Neomexicano, Neomejicano, Nuevo Mexicano) , seat = Santa Fe , LargestCity = Albuquerque , LargestMetro = Greater Albuquerque , OfficialLang = None , Languages = English English usually refer ...

New Mexico
(with one outlier in Arizona). These were the first languages collectively given the name of ''Tanoan.''
Kiowa Kiowa () people are a Native American Native Americans may refer to: Ethnic groups * Indigenous peoples of the Americas, the pre-Columbian peoples of North and South America and their descendants * Native Americans in the United States * Indig ...
, which is a related language, is now spoken mostly in southwestern Oklahoma. The Kiowa historically inhabited areas of modern-day Texas and Oklahoma.


Languages

The Tanoan language family has seven languages in four branches: Kiowa–Towa might form an intermediate branch, as might Tiwa–Tewa.


Name

Tanoan has long been recognized as a major family of
Pueblo In the Southwestern United States The southwestern United States, also known as the American Southwest or simply the Southwest, is a geographic and cultural region of the United States that generally includes Arizona Arizona ( ; nv, ...
languages, consisting of
TiwaTiwa and Tigua may refer to: * Tiwa Puebloans, an ethnic group of New Mexico, US * Tiwa (Lalung), an ethnic group of north-eastern India * Tiwa language (India), a Sino-Tibetan language of India * Tiwa languages, a group of Tanoan languages of the U ...
,
Tewa upright=1.25, Chaiwa, a Tewa girl with a butterfly whorl hairstyle, photographed by Edward S. Curtis in 1922 The Tewa are a linguistic group of Pueblo In the Southwestern United States, Pueblo (capitalized) refers to the Native tribes of ...
, and Towa. The inclusion of
Kiowa Kiowa () people are a Native American Native Americans may refer to: Ethnic groups * Indigenous peoples of the Americas, the pre-Columbian peoples of North and South America and their descendants * Native Americans in the United States * Indig ...
into the family was at first controversial given the cultural differences between those groups. The once-nomadic
Kiowa people Kiowa () people are a Native Americans in the United States, Native American tribe and an indigenous people of the Great Plains of the United States. They migrated southward from western Montana into the Rocky Mountains in Colorado in the 17th and ...
of the Plains are culturally quite distinct from the Tiwa, Tewa, and Towa pueblos, which obscured somewhat the linguistic connection between Tanoans and Kiowans. Linguists now accept that a Tanoan family without Kiowa would be
paraphyletic In taxonomy, a group is paraphyletic if it consists of the group's last common ancestor and all descendants of that ancestor excluding a few—typically only one or two—Monophyly, monophyletic subgroups. The group is said to be paraphyleti ...
, as any ancestor of the Pueblo languages would be ancestral to Kiowa as well. Kiowa may be closer to Towa than Towa is to Tiwa–Tewa. In older texts, ''Tanoan'' and ''Kiowa–Tanoan'' were used interchangeably. Because of the cultural use of the name ''Tanoan'' as signifying several peoples who share a culture, the more explicit term ''Kiowa–Tanoan'' is now commonly used for the language family as a whole, with Tanoan being the branch that contains the languages now spoken in New Mexico and Arizona (i.e.
Arizona Tewa The Hopi-Tewa (also Tano, Southern Tewa, Hano, Thano, or Arizona Tewa) are a Tewa upright=1.25, Chaiwa, a Tewa girl with a butterfly whorl hairstyle, photographed by Edward S. Curtis in 1922 The Tewa are a linguistic group of Pueblo In t ...
) The prehistory of the Kiowa people is little known. As a result, the history is obscure about the separation of the members of this language family into two groups ('Puebloan' and 'Plains') with radically distinct lifestyles. There is apparently no oral tradition of any ancient connection between the peoples. Scholars have not determined when the peoples were connected so that the common linguistic elements could have developed. The earliest traditions and historical notices of the Kiowa record them migrating from the north and west, to the territory now associated with the tribal nation. Today this area is within the modern states of
Texas Texas (, ; Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards, a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language **Spanish cuisine Other places * Spanish, Ontario, Canada * Spanish River (disambigu ...

Texas
and
Oklahoma Oklahoma () is a U.S. state, state in the South Central United States, South Central region of the United States, bordered by the state of Texas on the south and west, Kansas on the north, Missouri on the northeast, Arkansas on the east, New ...
, which they occupied from the late 18th century.


Historical phonology

The chart belowThe original Americanist phonetic symbols differ from the
IPA IPA commonly refers to: * India pale ale, a style of beer * International Phonetic Alphabet The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based primarily on the Latin script Latin script, also ...
: Amer. = IPA , Amer = IPA .
contains the reconstructed consonants of the Tanoan
proto-language In the tree model In historical linguistics Historical linguistics, also termed diachronic linguistics, is the scientific study of language change over time. Principal concerns of historical linguistics include: # to describe and accou ...
as reconstructed by Hale (1967) based on consonant correspondences in stem-initial position. : The evidence for ' comes from prefixes; ' has not been found in stem-initial position and thus is in parentheses above. Hale reconstructs the nasalization feature for nasal vowels. Vowel quality and prosodic features like vowel length, tone, and stress have not yet been reconstructed for the Tanoan family. Hale (1967) gives certain sets of vowel quality correspondences. The following table illustrates the
reconstructed Reconstruction may refer to: Politics, history, and sociology *Reconstruction (law), the transfer of a company's (or several companies') business to a new company *''Perestroika'' (Russian for "reconstruction"), a late 20th century Soviet Union ...
initial consonants in Proto-Tanoan and its reflexes in the daughter languages. : As can be seen in the above table, a number of phonological mergers have occurred in the different languages.
Cognate In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign language) and writing. Most langu ...
sets supporting the above are listed below: :


Notes


Bibliography

* Campbell, Lyle. (1997). ''American Indian languages: The historical linguistics of Native America''. New York: Oxford University Press. . * Cordell, Linda A. (1979). Prehistory: Eastern Anasazi. In A. Ortiz (Ed.), ''Handbook of North American Indians: Southwest'' (Vol. 9, pp. 131–151). Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution. * Davis, Irvine. (1959). Linguistic cues to northern Rio Grande prehistory. ''El Palacio'', ''66'' (3), 73–84. * Davis, Irvine. (1979). The Kiowa–Tanoan, Keresan, and Zuni languages. In L. Campbell & M. Mithun (Eds.), ''The languages of native America: Historical and comparative assessment'' (pp. 390–443). Austin: University of North Texas. * Dozier, Edward P. (1954). The Hopi-Tewa of Arizona. ''University of California Publications in American Archaeology and Ethnology'', ''44'' (3), 259–376. * Eggan, Fred. (1979). Pueblos: Introduction. In A. Ortiz (Ed.), ''Handbook of North American Indians: Southwest'' (Vol. 9, pp. 224–235). Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution. * Ellis, Florence Hawley. (1967). Where did the Pueblo people come from? ''El Palacio'', ''74'' (3), 35–43. * Ford, Richard I.; Schroeder, Albert H.; & Peckham, Stewart L. (1972). Three perspectives on Puebloan prehistory. In A. Ortiz (Ed.), ''New perspectives on the Pueblos'' (pp. 19–39). Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press. * Foster, Michael K. (1999). Language and the culture history of North America. In I. Goddard (Ed.), ''Handbook of North American Indians: Languages'' (Vol. 17, pp. 64–110). Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution. * Hale, Kenneth L. (1962). Jemez and Kiowa correspondences in reference to Kiowa–Tanoan. ''International Journal of American Linguistics'', ''28'' (1), 1–5. * Hale, Kenneth L. (1967). Toward a reconstruction of Kiowa–Tanoan phonology. ''International Journal of American Linguistics'', ''33'' (2), 112–120. * Hale, Kenneth L. (1979). Historical linguistics and archeology. In A. Ortiz (Ed.), ''Handbook of North American Indians: Southwest'' (Vol. 9, pp. 170–177). Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution. * Harrington, J. P. (1910). On phonetic and lexic resemblances in Kiowan and Tanoan. ''American Anthropologist'', ''12'' (1), 119–123. * Harrington, J. P. (1928). ''Vocabulary of the Kiowa language''. Bureau of American Ethnology bulletin (No. 84). Washington, D.C.: U.S. Govt. Print. Off. * Hill, Jane H. (2002). Toward a linguistic prehistory of the Southwest: "Azteco-Tanoan" and the arrival of maize cultivation. ''Journal of Anthropological Research'', ''58'' (4), 457–476. * Hill, Jane H. (2008). Northern Uto-Aztecan and Kiowa–Tanoan: Evidence of contact between the proto-Languages? ''International Journal of American Linguistics'', ''74'' (2), 155–188. * Kinkade, M. Dale; & Powell, J. V. (1976). Language and prehistory of North America. ''World Archaeology'', ''8'' (1), 83-100. * Leap, William L. (1971). Who were the Piro? ''Anthropological Linguistics'', ''13'' (7), 321–330. * Miller, Wick R. (1959). A note on Kiowa linguistic affiliations. ''American Anthropologist'', ''61'' (1), 102–105. * Mithun, Marianne. (1999). ''The languages of Native North America''. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. (hbk); . * Mooney, James. (1898). Calendar history of the Kiowa Indians. In ''17th annual report of the Bureau of American Ethnology for 1895-1896'' (Part 1, pp. 129–445). Washington, D.C. * Mooney, James. (1907). Kiowa. In F. W. Hodge (Ed.), ''Handbook of American Indians'' (Part 1, pp. 669–701). Bureau of American Ethnology bulletin (No. 30). Washington, D.C. * Newman, Stanley S. (1954). American Indian linguistics in the Southwest. ''American Anthropologist'', ''56'' (4), 626–634. * Nichols, Lynn. (1994). Subordination and ablaut in Kiowa–Tanoan. ''Southwest Journal of Linguistics'', ''13'', 85–99. * Nichols, Lynn. (1996). Toward a reconstruction of Kiowa–Tanoan ablaut. In ''Proceedings of the 22nd annual meeting of the Berkeley Linguistics Society''. * Plog, Fred. (1979). Prehistory: Western Anasazi. In A. Ortiz (Ed.), ''Handbook of North American Indians: Southwest'' (Vol. 9, pp. 108–130). Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution. * Reed, Erik K. (1949). Sources of upper Rio Grande Pueblo culture and population. ''El Palacio'', ''56'' (6), 163–184. * Snow, Dean R. (1976). ''The archaeology of North America''. New York: The Viking Press. * Trager, George L. (1942). The historical phonology of the Tiwa languages. ''Studies in Linguistics'', ''1'' (5), 1-10. * Trager, George L. (1951). Linguistic history and ethnologic history in the Southwest. ''Journal of the Washington Academy of Science'', ''41'', 341–343. * Trager, George L. (1967). The Tanoan settlement of the Rio Grande area: A possible chronology. In D. H. Hymes & W. E. Bittle (Eds.), ''Studies in southwestern ethnolinguistics: Meaning and history in the languages of the American Southwest'' (pp. 335–350). The Hague: Mouton. * Trager, George L. (1969). Taos and Picuris: How long separated. ''International Journal of American Linguistics'', ''35'' (2), 180–182. * Trager, George L.; & Trager, Edith Crowell. (1959). Kiowa and Tanoan. ''American Anthropologist'', ''61'' (6), 1078–1083. * Wendorf, Fred. (1954). A reconstruction of northern Rio Grande prehistory. ''American Anthropologist'', ''56'' (2), 200–227. * Wendorf, Fred; & Reed, Erik K. (1955). An alternative reconstruction of northern Rio Grande prehistory. ''El Palacio'', ''62'' (5/6), 131–173. {{North American languages Language families Pueblo linguistic area