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According to the
Hebrew Bible The Hebrew Bible or Tanakh (;"Tanach"
''Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary''.
Hebrew: ''Tān ...
, the tabernacle ( he, מִשְׁכַּן, mīškān, residence, dwelling place), also known as the Tent of the Congregation ( he, link=no, אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד, ’ōhel mō‘ēḏ, also Tent of Meeting, etc.), was the portable earthly dwelling place of
Yahweh Yahweh *''Yahwe'', was the national god of ancient Kingdom of Israel (Samaria), Israel and Kingdom of Judah, Judah. The origins of his worship reach at least to the early Iron Age, and likely to the Late Bronze Age if not somewhat earlier, ...
(the God of Israel) used by the
Israelites The Israelites (; , , ) were a group of ancient Semitic-speaking peoples, Semitic-speaking tribes in the ancient Near East who, during the Iron Age, inhabited a part of Canaan. The earliest recorded evidence of a people by the name of Israel ...
from
the Exodus The Exodus (Hebrew language, Hebrew: יציאת מצרים, ''Yeẓi’at Miẓrayim'': ) is the founding myth of the Israelites whose narrative is spread over four books of the Torah (or Pentateuch, corresponding to the first five books of the ...
until the conquest of
Canaan Canaan (; Phoenician language, Phoenician: 𐤊𐤍𐤏𐤍 – ; he, כְּנַעַן – , in pausa – ; grc-bib, Χανααν – ;The current scholarly edition of the Septuagint, Greek Old Testament spells the word without any accents, c ...
.
Moses Moses hbo, מֹשֶׁה, Mōše; also known as Moshe or Moshe Rabbeinu (Mishnaic Hebrew: מֹשֶׁה רַבֵּינוּ, ); syr, ܡܘܫܐ, Mūše; ar, موسى, Mūsā; grc, Mωϋσῆς, Mōÿsēs () is considered the most important Prop ...
was instructed at
Mount Sinai Mount Sinai ( he , הר סיני ''Har Sinai''; Aramaic Aramaic ( syc, ܐܪܡܝܐ, Arāmāyā; oar, 𐤀𐤓𐤌𐤉𐤀; arc, 𐡀𐡓𐡌𐡉𐡀; tmr, אֲרָמִית) is a Northwest Semitic languages, Northwest Semitic languages, Se ...
to construct and transport the tabernacle with the Israelites on their journey through the wilderness and their subsequent conquest of the
Promised Land The Promised Land ( he, הארץ המובטחת, translit.: ''ha'aretz hamuvtakhat''; ar, أرض الميعاد, translit.: ''ard al-mi'ad; also known as "The Land of Milk and Honey"'') is the land which, according to the Tanakh The H ...
. After 440 years,
Solomon's Temple Solomon's Temple, also known as the First Temple (, , ), was the Temple in Jerusalem The Temple in Jerusalem, or alternatively the Holy Temple (; , ), refers to the two now-destroyed religious structures that served as the central places ...
in
Jerusalem Jerusalem (; he, יְרוּשָׁלַיִם ; ar, القُدس ) (combining the Biblical and common usage Arabic names); grc, Ἱερουσαλήμ/Ἰεροσόλυμα, Hierousalḗm/Hierosóluma; hy, Երուսաղեմ, Erusałēm. i ...
superseded it as the dwelling-place of God. The main source describing the tabernacle is the biblical
Book of Exodus The Book of Exodus (from grc, Ἔξοδος, translit=Éxodos; he, שְׁמוֹת ''Šəmōṯ'', "Names") is the second book of the Bible. It narrates the story of the Exodus, in which the Israelites leave slavery in Biblical Egypt through th ...
, specifically Exodus 25–31 and 35–40. Those passages describe an inner sanctuary, the
Holy of Holies The Holy of Holies (Hebrew language, Hebrew: ''Qōḏeš haqQŏḏāšīm'' or ''Kodesh HaKodashim''; also הַדְּבִיר ''haDəḇīr'', 'the Sanctuary') is a term in the Hebrew Bible that refers to the inner sanctuary of the Tabernacle, w ...
, created by the veil suspended by four pillars. This sanctuary contained the
Ark of the Covenant The Ark of the Covenant,; Geʽez, Ge'ez: also known as the Ark of the Testimony or the Ark of God, is an alleged artifact believed to be the most sacred relic of the Israelites, which is described as a wooden Chest (furniture), chest, covere ...
, with its
cherub A cherub (; plural cherubim; he, כְּרוּב ''kərūḇ'', pl. ''kərūḇīm'', likely borrowed from a derived form of akk, 𒅗𒊏𒁍 ''karabu'' "to bless" such as ''karibu'', "one who blesses", a name for the lamassu) is one of the u ...
im-covered mercy seat. An outer sanctuary (the "Holy Place") contained a gold lamp-stand or candlestick. On the north side stood a table, on which lay the
showbread Showbread ( he, לחם הפנים ''Leḥem haPānīm'', literally: "Bread of the Faces"), in the King James Version: shewbread, in a Bible, biblical or Judaism, Jewish context, refers to the cakes or loaves of bread which were always present, o ...
. On the south side was the Menorah, holding seven oil lamps to give light. On the west side, just before the veil, was the golden
altar of incense Altars ( he, מִזְבֵּחַ, ''mizbeaḥ'', "a place of slaughter or sacrifice") in the Hebrew Bible The Hebrew Bible or Tanakh (;
. It was constructed of 4 woven layers of curtains and 48 15-foot tall standing wood boards overlaid in gold and held in place by its bars and silver sockets and was richly furnished with valuable materials taken from Egypt at God's command. This description is generally identified as part of the
Priestly source The Priestly source (or simply P) is perhaps the most widely recognized of the sources underlying the Torah. It is both stylistically and theologically distinct from other material in the Torah, and includes a set of claims that are contradicted b ...
("P"), written in the sixth or fifth century BCE. However, while the first Priestly source takes the form of instructions, the second is largely a repetition of the first in the past tense, i.e., it describes the execution of the instructions. Many scholars contend that it is of a far later date than the time of Moses, and that the description reflects the structure of Solomon's Temple, while some hold that the description derives from memories of a real pre-monarchic shrine, perhaps the sanctuary at Shiloh. Traditional scholars contend that it describes an actual tabernacle used in the time of Moses and thereafter. According to
historical criticism Historical criticism, also known as the historical-critical method or higher criticism, is a branch of criticism that investigates the origins of ancient texts in order to understand "the world behind the text". While often discussed in terms of ...
, an earlier, pre-exilic source, the
Elohist According to the documentary hypothesis, the Elohist (or simply E) is one of four source documents underlying the Torah,McDermott, John J., ''Reading the Pentateuch: A Historical Introduction'' (Pauline Press, 2002) p. 21. Via Books.google.com.au ...
("E"), describes the tabernacle as a simple tent-sanctuary.


Meaning

The English word ''tabernacle'' is derived from the
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally a dialect spoken in the lower Tiber area (then known as Latium) around present-day Rome, but through ...
'' tabernāculum'' meaning "tent" or "hut", which in
ancient Roman religion Religion in ancient Rome consisted of varying imperial and provincial religious practices, which were followed both by the people of Rome as well as those who were brought under its rule. The Romans thought of themselves as highly religious, ...
was a ritual structure. The Hebrew word ''mishkan'' implies "dwell", "rest", or "to live in". In
Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece, a country in Southern Europe: *Greeks, an ethnic group. *Greek language, a branch of the Indo-European language family. **Proto-Greek language, the assumed last common ancestor ...
, including the
Septuagint The Greek Old Testament, or Septuagint (, ; from the la, septuaginta, lit=seventy; often abbreviated ''70''; in Roman numerals, LXX), is the earliest extant Greek language, Greek translation of books from the Hebrew Bible. It includes several ...
, it is translated σκηνή ('' skēnē''), itself a Semitic loanword meaning "tent."


Description

Historical criticism Historical criticism, also known as the historical-critical method or higher criticism, is a branch of criticism that investigates the origins of ancient texts in order to understand "the world behind the text". While often discussed in terms of ...
has identified two accounts of the tabernacle in Exodus, a briefer Elohist account and a longer Priestly one. Traditional scholars believe the briefer account describes a different structure, perhaps Moses' personal tent. The Hebrew nouns in the two accounts differ, one is most commonly translated as "tent of meeting," while the other is usually translated as "tabernacle."


Elohist account

refers to "the tabernacle of the congregation" (in some translations, such as the
King James Version The King James Version (KJV), also the King James Bible (KJB) and the Authorized Version, is an Bible translations into English, English translation of the Christian Bible for the Church of England, which was commissioned in 1604 and publis ...
) or "the tent of meeting" (in most modern translations), which was set up outside of camp with the "cloudy pillar" visible at its door. The people directed their worship toward this center. Historical criticism attributes this description to the Elohist source (E), which is believed to have been written about 850 BCE or later.


Priestly account

The more detailed description of a tabernacle, located in Exodus chapters 25–27 and Exodus chapters 35–40, refers to an inner shrine (the most holy place) housing the ark and an outer chamber (holy place), with a six-branch seven-lamp menorah (lampstand), table for
showbread Showbread ( he, לחם הפנים ''Leḥem haPānīm'', literally: "Bread of the Faces"), in the King James Version: shewbread, in a Bible, biblical or Judaism, Jewish context, refers to the cakes or loaves of bread which were always present, o ...
, and
altar of incense Altars ( he, מִזְבֵּחַ, ''mizbeaḥ'', "a place of slaughter or sacrifice") in the Hebrew Bible The Hebrew Bible or Tanakh (;
. An enclosure containing the sacrificial altar and bronze laver for the priests to wash surrounded these chambers. This description is identified by historical criticism as part of the
Priestly source The Priestly source (or simply P) is perhaps the most widely recognized of the sources underlying the Torah. It is both stylistically and theologically distinct from other material in the Torah, and includes a set of claims that are contradicted b ...
(P), written in the 6th or 5th century BCE. Some scholars believe the description is of a far later date than Moses' time, and that it reflects the structure of the Temple of Solomon; others hold that the passage describes a real pre-monarchic shrine, perhaps the sanctuary at Shiloh, while traditional scholars contend that it describes an actual tabernacle used in the time of Moses and thereafter. This view is based on Exodus 36, 37, 38 and 39 that describe in full detail how the actual construction of the tabernacle took place during the time of Moses. The detailed outlines for the tabernacle and its priests are enumerated in the Book of Exodus: * : Materials needed: the Ark, the table for 12 showbread, the menorah. * : The tabernacle, the bars, partitions. * : The copper altar, the enclosure, oil. * : Vestments for the priests, '' ephod'' garment, ring settings, the
breastplate A breastplate or chestplate is a device worn over the torso to protect it from injury, as an item of religious significance, or as an item of status. A breastplate is sometimes worn by mythological beings as a distinctive item of clothing. It is ...
, robe, head-plate, tunic, turban, sashes, pants. * : Consecration of priests and altar. * : Incense altar, washstand, anointing oil, incense.


Tent of the Presence

Some interpreters assert the Tent of the Presence was a special meeting place outside the camp, unlike the Tabernacle which was placed in the center of the camp. According t
Exodus 33:7-11
this tent was for communion with
Yahweh Yahweh *''Yahwe'', was the national god of ancient Kingdom of Israel (Samaria), Israel and Kingdom of Judah, Judah. The origins of his worship reach at least to the early Iron Age, and likely to the Late Bronze Age if not somewhat earlier, ...
, to receive oracles and to understand the divine will. The people's elders were the subject of a remarkable prophetic event at the site of this tent i
Numbers 11:24-30


Builders

In Exodus 31, the main builder and maker of the priestly vestments is specified as Bezalel, son of Uri son of Hur of the
tribe of Judah According to the Hebrew Bible The Hebrew Bible or Tanakh (;"Tanach"
''Random House Webster's Unabridg ...
, who was assisted by Oholiab and a number of skilled artisans.


Plan

During the Exodus, the wandering in the desert and the
conquest of Canaan The Book of Joshua ( he, סֵפֶר יְהוֹשֻׁעַ‎ ', Tiberian Hebrew, Tiberian: ''Sēp̄er Yŏhōšūaʿ'') is the sixth book in the Hebrew Bible and the Christian Old Testament, and is the first book of the Deuteronomistic history, th ...
the Tabernacle was in part a portable tent, and in part a wooden enclosure draped with ten curtains, of indigo (''
tekhelet ''Tekhelet'' ( he, תְּכֵלֶת ''təḵēleṯ''; alternate spellings include ''tekheleth'', ''t'chelet'', ''techelet'' and ''techeiles'') is a "blue-violet", "blue", or "turquoise" dye highly prized by ancient Mediterranean civilizations. I ...
'' תְּכֵלֶת), purple (''’argāmān'' אַרְגָּמָן), and scarlet (''šānî'' שָׁנִי) fabric. It had a rectangular, perimeter fence of fabric, poles and staked cords. This rectangle was always erected when the Israelite tribes would camp, oriented to the east as the east side had no frames. In the center of this enclosure was a rectangular sanctuary draped with goat-hair curtains, with the roof coverings made from rams' skins.


Holy of Holies

Beyond this curtain was the cube-shaped inner room, the ''Qṓḏeš HaQŏḏāšîm'' (
Holy of Holies The Holy of Holies (Hebrew language, Hebrew: ''Qōḏeš haqQŏḏāšīm'' or ''Kodesh HaKodashim''; also הַדְּבִיר ''haDəḇīr'', 'the Sanctuary') is a term in the Hebrew Bible that refers to the inner sanctuary of the Tabernacle, w ...
). This area housed the
Ark of the Covenant The Ark of the Covenant,; Geʽez, Ge'ez: also known as the Ark of the Testimony or the Ark of God, is an alleged artifact believed to be the most sacred relic of the Israelites, which is described as a wooden Chest (furniture), chest, covere ...
, inside which were the two stone tablets brought down from Mount Sinai by Moses on which were written the
Ten Commandments The Ten Commandments (Biblical Hebrew עשרת הדברים \ עֲשֶׂרֶת הַדְּבָרִים, ''aséret ha-dvarím'', lit. The Decalogue, The Ten Words, cf. Mishnaic Hebrew עשרת הדיברות \ עֲשֶׂרֶת הַדִּבְ ...
, a golden urn holding the ''
manna Manna ( he, מָן, mān, ; ar, اَلْمَنُّ; sometimes or archaically spelled mana) is, according to the Bible, an edible substance which God provided for the Israelites during their travels in the desert during the 40-year period follow ...
'', and
Aaron According to Abrahamic religions, Aaron ''′aharon'', ar, هارون, Hārūn, Ancient Greek, Greek (Septuagint): wikt:Ἀαρών, Ἀαρών; often called Aaron the priest ()., group="note" ( or ; ''’Ahărōn'') was a prophet, a high p ...
's rod which had budded and borne ripe almonds. (, , ; )


Tachash

''Tachash'' is referred to fifteen times in the
Hebrew Bible The Hebrew Bible or Tanakh (;"Tanach"
''Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary''.
Hebrew: ''Tān ...
; 13 of these refer to the roof coverings. File:Tabernacle Schematic.jpg, Top view, parallel projection of tabernacle. File:The Desert Tabernacle (Mishkan) - Layout and Dimensions.jpg, Tabernacle Tent dimensions according to the Book of Exodus File:The Desert Tabernacle (Mishkan) - Layout and Dimensions - Full.jpg, Tabernacle Tent and Courtyard dimensions according to the Book of Exodus


Restrictions

* Wine forbidden to priests in the tabernacle
Leviticus 10:8-15
* Individuals with the
Tzaraat ''Tzaraath'' (Hebrew language, Hebrew צָרַעַת ''ṣāraʿaṯ''), #Name, variously transcribed into English and frequently mistranslated as leprosy, describes various ritual impurity, ritually unclean disfigurative conditions of the skin, ...
skin affliction were not permitted entry to the tabernacle. * Sacrifice only at the tabernacle
Leviticus 17
There is a strict set of rules to be followed for transporting the tabernacle laid out in the
Hebrew Bible The Hebrew Bible or Tanakh (;"Tanach"
''Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary''.
Hebrew: ''Tān ...
. For example:


Rituals

Twice a day, a priest would stand in front of the golden prayer altar and burn fragrant incense. Other procedures were also carried out in the tabernacle: * The daily
meal offering A meal offering, grain offering, or gift offering ( hbo, מנחה}, ), is a type of Biblical sacrifice, specifically a sacrifice that did not include sacrificial animals. In older English it is sometimes called an oblation, from Latin. The Heb ...

Leviticus 6:8–30
* Guilt offerings and peace offerings
Leviticus 7
* Ceremony of Ordination
Leviticus 8
* Octave of Ordination

*
Yom Kippur Yom Kippur (; he, יוֹם כִּפּוּר, , , ) is the holiest day in Judaism and Samaritanism. It occurs annually on the 10th of Tishrei, the first month of the Hebrew calendar. Primarily centered on Atonement in Judaism, atonement and R ...

Leviticus 16
* Ordeal of the bitter water for suspected adulteresses
Numbers 5:11-29
* Dedication of Nazirites
Numbers 6:1-21
* Preparation of the ashes of a red heifer for the water of purification
Numbers 19
An Israelite healed of ''
tzaraath ''Tzaraath'' (Hebrew language, Hebrew צָרַעַת ''ṣāraʿaṯ''), #Name, variously transcribed into English and frequently mistranslated as leprosy, describes various ritual impurity, ritually unclean disfigurative conditions of the skin, ...
'' would be presented by the priest who had confirmed his healing "at the door of the tabernacle of meeting", and a woman healed of prolonged
menstruation Menstruation (also known as a period, among other Colloquialism, colloquial terms) is the regular discharge of blood and Mucous membrane, mucosal tissue from the endometrium, inner lining of the uterus through the vagina. The menstrual cycle i ...
would present her offering (two turtledoves or two young pigeons) to the priest "at the door of the tabernacle of meeting". It was at the door of the tabernacle that the community wept in sorrow when all the chiefs of the people were impaled and the men who had joined in worship to the Baal of Peor were killed on God's orders.


Subsequent history

During the conquest of
Canaan Canaan (; Phoenician language, Phoenician: 𐤊𐤍𐤏𐤍 – ; he, כְּנַעַן – , in pausa – ; grc-bib, Χανααν – ;The current scholarly edition of the Septuagint, Greek Old Testament spells the word without any accents, c ...
, the main Israelite camp was at
Gilgal Gilgal ( he, גִּלְגָּל ''Gilgāl''), also known as Galgala or Galgalatokai of the 12 Stones ( grc-gre, Γαλαγα or , ''Dōdekalithōn''), is the name of one or more places in the Hebrew Bible. Gilgal is mentioned 39 times, in particula ...
(; ) and the tabernacle was probably erected within the camp: "…and returned into the camp" (''see'' "…they shall camp facing the tent of meeting on every side"). After the conquest and division of the land among the tribes, the tabernacle was moved to Shiloh in Ephraimite territory (Joshua's tribe) to avoid disputes among the other tribes (; ; ; ). It remained there during the 300-year period of the
biblical judges The biblical judges ''šōp̄êṭ''/''shofet'', pl. ''šōp̄əṭîm''/''shoftim'') are described in the Hebrew Bible, and mostly in the Book of Judges, as people who served roles as military leaders in times of crisis, in the period before an ...
(the rules of the individual judges total about 350 years but most ruled regionally and some terms overlapped). According to , the Ark, and thus possibly the tabernacle, was at
Bethel Bethel ( he, בֵּית אֵל, translit=Bēṯ 'Ēl, "House of El" or "House of God",Bleeker and Widegren, 1988, p. 257. also transliterated Transliteration is a type of conversion of a text from one writing system, script to another t ...
while Phinehas, grandson of Aaron, was still alive. The subsequent history of the structure is separate from that of the Ark of the Covenant. After the Ark was captured by the
Philistines The Philistines ( he, פְּלִשְׁתִּים, Pəlīštīm; Koine Greek (Septuagint, LXX): Φυλιστιείμ, romanized: ''Phulistieím'') were an ancient people who lived on the south coast of Canaan from the 12th century BC until 6 ...
, King
Saul Saul (; he, , ; , ; ) was, according to the Hebrew Bible, the first monarch of the Kingdom of Israel (united monarchy), United Kingdom of Israel. His reign, traditionally placed in the late 11th century BCE, supposedly marked the transition of ...
moved the tabernacle to Nob, near his home town of
Gibeah Gibeah (; he, גִּבְעָה ''Gīḇəʿā''; he, גִּבְעַת, link=no ''Gīḇəʿaṯ'') is the name of three places mentioned in the Hebrew Bible, in the tribes of Tribe of Benjamin, Benjamin, Tribe of Judah, Judah, and Tribe of Ephr ...
, but after he massacred the priests there (), it was moved to Gibeon, a
Yahwist The Jahwist, or Yahwist, often abbreviated J, is one of the most widely recognized Source criticism (biblical studies), sources of the Pentateuch (Torah), together with the Deuteronomist, the Priestly source and the Elohist. The existence of th ...
hill-shrine (; ; , 13). Just prior to David's moving the ark to Jerusalem, the ark was located in Kiriath-Jearim (). The Ark was eventually brought to Jerusalem, where it was placed "inside the tent David had pitched for it" (; ), not in the tabernacle, which remained at Gibeon. The altar of the tabernacle at Gibeon was used for sacrificial worship (; ; ), until Solomon finally brought the structure and its furnishings to Jerusalem to furnish and dedicate the Temple. () There is no mention of the tabernacle in the Tanakh after the destruction of Jerusalem and the Temple by the Babylonians in c. 587 BCE.


Relationship to the golden calf

Some rabbis have commented on the proximity of the narrative of the tabernacle with that of the episode known as the sin of the
golden calf According to the Bible, the golden calf (עֵגֶל הַזָּהָב '' ‘ēgel hazzāhāv'') was an idol (a cult image) made by the Israelites when Moses went up to Mount Sinai (bible), Mount Sinai. In Hebrew language, Hebrew, the incident is ...
recounted in .
Maimonides Musa ibn Maimon (1138–1204), commonly known as Maimonides (); la, Moses Maimonides and also referred to by the acronym Rambam ( he, רמב״ם), was a Sephardi Jews, Sephardic Jewish Jewish philosophy, philosopher who became one of the mos ...
asserts that the tabernacle and its accoutrements, such as the golden Ark of the Covenant and the golden Menorah were meant as "alternates" to the human weakness and needs for physical idols as seen in the golden calf episode. Other scholars, such as
Nachmanides Moses ben Nachman ( he, מֹשֶׁה בֶּן־נָחְמָן ''Mōše ben-Nāḥmān'', "Moses son of Nachman"; 1194–1270), commonly known as Nachmanides (; el, Ναχμανίδης ''Nakhmanídēs''), and also referred to by the acronym Ra ...
disagree and maintain that the tabernacle's meaning is not tied in with the golden calf, but instead symbolizes higher mystical lessons that symbolize God's constant closeness to the Children of Israel.


Blueprint for synagogues

Synagogue A synagogue, ', 'house of assembly', or ', "house of prayer"; Yiddish: ''shul'', Ladino: or ' (from synagogue); or ', "community". sometimes referred to as shul, and interchangeably used with the word temple, is a Jewish house of wo ...
construction over the last two thousand years has followed the outlines of the original tabernacle. Every synagogue has at its front an ark, ''aron kodesh'', containing the
Torah The Torah (; hbo, ''Tōrā'', "Instruction", "Teaching" or "Law") is the compilation of the first five books of the Hebrew Bible, namely the books of Book of Genesis, Genesis, Book of Exodus, Exodus, Leviticus, Book of Numbers, Numbers a ...
scrolls, comparable to the Ark of the Covenant which contained the tablets with Ten Commandments. This is the holiest spot in a synagogue, equivalent to the Holy of Holies. There is also usually a constantly lighted lamp, '' Ner tamid'', or a candelabrum, lighted during services, near a spot similar to the position of the original Menorah. At the center of the synagogue is a large elevated area, known as the ''bimah'', where the Torah is read. This is equivalent to the tabernacle's altars upon which incense and animal sacrifices were offered. On the main holidays the
priests A priest is a religious leader authorized to perform the sacred rituals of a religion, especially as a mediatory agent between humans and one or more deity, deities. They also have the authority or power to administer religious rites; in p ...
gather at the front of the synagogue to bless the congregation as did their priestly ancestors in the tabernacle from Aaron onwards ().


Inspiration for churches

Some Christian churches are built like a tent, to symbolize the tent of God with men, including St. Matthew Cathedral, São Mateus, Brazil, Zu den heiligen Engeln (To the Holy Angels),
Hanover Hanover (; german: Hannover ; nds, Hannober) is the capital and largest city of the German States of Germany, state of Lower Saxony. Its 535,932 (2021) inhabitants make it the List of cities in Germany by population, 13th-largest city in Germa ...
, Germany and the Cardboard Cathedral, Christchurch, New Zealand.


New Testament references

The tabernacle is mentioned several times in the
Epistle to the Hebrews The Epistle to the Hebrews ( grc, Πρὸς Ἑβραίους, Pros Hebraious, to the Hebrews) is one of the books of the New Testament. The text does not mention the name of its author, but was traditionally attributed to Paul the Apostle. Most ...
in the
New Testament The New Testament grc, Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, Transliteration, transl. ; la, Novum Testamentum. (NT) is the second division of the Christian biblical canon. It discusses the teachings and person of Jesus in Christianity, Jesus, as ...
. For example, according to and
Jesus Jesus, likely from he, יֵשׁוּעַ, translit=Yēšūaʿ, label=Hebrew/Aramaic ( AD 30 or 33), also referred to as Jesus Christ or Jesus of Nazareth (among other Names and titles of Jesus in the New Testament, names and titles), was ...
serves as the true climactic
high priest The term "high priest" usually refers either to an individual who holds the office of monarch, ruler-priest, or to one who is the head of a religious caste. Ancient Egypt In ancient Egypt, a high priest was the chief priest of any of the many go ...
in
heaven Heaven or the heavens, is a common Religious cosmology, religious cosmological or transcendence (religion), transcendent supernatural place where beings such as deity, deities, angels, souls, saints, or Veneration of the dead, venerated ancest ...
, the true tabernacle, to which its counterpart on earth was a symbol and foreshadow of what was to come ().


Mandaeism

A ''Mashkhanna'' (hebrew cognate );Secunda, Shai, and Steven Fine. Brill, 2012.p345 ''Beth Manda''; ''Beit Manda''; ''Mandi'' ('house of knowledge'), is a cultic hut and place of worship for followers of
Mandaeism Mandaeism (Mandaic language, Classical Mandaic: ࡌࡀࡍࡃࡀࡉࡉࡀ ; Arabic: المندائيّة ), sometimes also known as Nasoraeanism or Sabianism, is a Gnosticism, Gnostic, Monotheism, monotheistic and ethnic religion. Its adher ...
. A ''Mashkhanna'' must be built beside a river in order to perform maṣbuta (
baptism Baptism (from grc-x-koine, βάπτισμα, váptisma) is a form of ritual purification—a characteristic of many religions throughout time and geography. In Christianity, it is a Christian sacrament of initiation and adoption, almost i ...
) and other ceremonies because ''Living Water'' is an essential element in the
Mandaean Mandaeans ( ar, المندائيون ), also known as Mandaean Sabians ( ) or simply as Sabians ( ), are an ethnoreligious group An ethnoreligious group (or an ethno-religious group) is a grouping of people who are unified by a common Relig ...
faith.


See also

*
Church tabernacle A tabernacle or sacrament house is a fixed, locked box in which the Eucharist The Eucharist (; from Greek , , ), also known as Holy Communion and the Lord's Supper, is a Christianity, Christian Rite (Christianity), rite that is consider ...
* Priestly covenant * Replicas of the Jewish Temple * Tabernacle (LDS Church) * Tabernacle (Methodist)


References


External links


Precise reconstruction of the Tabernacle

Full color, 3d, printable model of the tabernacle

A study of the Tabernacle

The offerings of the Tabernacle

Jewish Encyclopedia article

Textual descriptions of the Tabernacle and all internal components.
{{Ark of the Covenant Book of Exodus