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TED Conferences LLC (Technology, Entertainment, Design) is an American media organization that posts talks online for free distribution under the slogan "ideas worth spreading". TED was conceived by
Richard Saul Wurman Richard Saul Wurman (born March 26, 1935) is an American architect An architect is a person who plans, designs and oversees the construction of buildings. To practice architecture means to provide services in connection with the design of b ...

Richard Saul Wurman
, who co-founded it with Harry Marks in February 1984 as a conference; it has been held annually since 1990. TED's early emphasis was on technology and design, consistent with its
Silicon Valley Silicon Valley is a region in Northern California Northern California (colloquially known as NorCal) is a geographic and cultural region that generally comprises the northern portion of the U.S. state of California California is a U.S ...

Silicon Valley
origins. It has since broadened its perspective to include talks on many scientific, cultural, political, humanitarian and academic topics. It has been curated by Chris Anderson, a British-American businessman, through the non-profit TED Foundation since July 2019 (originally by the non-profit
Sapling Foundation The Sapling Foundation is a non-profit organization that owned the TED (conference), TED global conference, from 1996 to June 2019. It was founded by Chris Anderson (entrepreneur), Chris Anderson in 1996. The organization describes its purpose as ...
). The main TED conference is held annually in
Vancouver, British Columbia Vancouver ( ) is a major city in western Canada, located in the Lower Mainland region of British Columbia. As the List of cities in British Columbia, most populous city in the province, the 2016 Canadian census, 2016 census recorded 631,486 pe ...
, Canada, at the
Vancouver Convention Centre The Vancouver Convention Centre (formerly known as the Vancouver Convention & Exhibition Centre, or VCEC) is a convention centre in Vancouver Vancouver ( ) is a major city in western Canada, located in the Lower Mainland region of British Co ...
. Prior to 2014, the conference was held in
Long Beach, California Long Beach is a city in Los Angeles County, California. It is the list of United States cities by population, 42nd-most populous city in the United States, with a population of 466,742 as of 2020. A charter city, Long Beach is the List of citie ...
, United States. TED events are also held throughout North America and in Europe, Asia, and Africa, offering
live streaming Livestreaming is online streaming media Streaming media is multimedia that is delivered and consumed in a continuous manner from a source, with little or no intermediate storage in network elements. ''Streaming'' refers to the delivery met ...
of the talks. They address a wide range of topics within the research and practice of science and culture, often through storytelling. The speakers are given a maximum of 18 minutes to present their ideas in the most innovative and engaging ways they can. Past speakers include
Bill Clinton William Jefferson Clinton ('' né'' Blythe III; born August 19, 1946) is an American politician and attorney who served as the 42nd president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and ...

Bill Clinton
, Sean M. Carroll,
Elon Musk Elon Reeve Musk (; born June 28, 1971) is an entrepreneur and business magnate A business magnate is someone who has achieved great success and enormous wealth through the ownership of multiple lines of enterprise. The term characteris ...

Elon Musk
,
Ray Dalio Raymond Thomas Dalio (born August 8, 1949) is an American billionaire A billionaire is a person with a net worth of at least 1,000,000,000, one billion (1,000,000,000, i.e. a thousand million) units of a given currency, usually of a major cu ...
,
Cédric Villani Cédric Patrice Thierry Villani (; born 5 October 1973) is a French politician and mathematician working primarily on partial differential equation In mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such topic ...
,
Stephen Hawking Stephen William Hawking (8 January 1942 – 14 March 2018) was an English theoretical physicist Theoretical physics is a branch of physics Physics is the that studies , its , its and behavior through , and the related enti ...

Stephen Hawking
,
Jane Goodall Dame Jane Morris Goodall (; born Valerie Jane Morris-Goodall on 3 April 1934), formerly Baroness Jane van Lawick-Goodall, is an English primatologist and anthropologistAn anthropologist is a person engaged in the practice of anthropology. Ant ...

Jane Goodall
,
Al Gore Albert Arnold Gore Jr. (born March 31, 1948) is an American politician and environmentalist who served as the 45th vice president of the United States from 1993 to 2001. Gore was Bill Clinton's running mate in their Bill Clinton presidential ...

Al Gore
,
Temple Grandin Mary Temple Grandin (born August 29, 1947) is an American scientist and animal behaviorist. She is a prominent proponent for the humane treatment of livestock for slaughter and the author of more than 60 scientific papers on animal behavior. Gran ...
,
Shahrukh Khan Shah Rukh Khan (; born 2 November 1965), also known by the initialism SRK, is an Indian actor, film producer, and television personality who works in Hindi films. Referred to in the media as the "Padishah, Baadshah of Bollywood" (in referenc ...

Shahrukh Khan
,
Gordon Brown James Gordon Brown (born 20 February 1951) is a British politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom The prime minister of the United Kingdom is the head of government The head of government is either the h ...

Gordon Brown
,
David Cameron David William Donald Cameron (born 9 October 1966) is a British politician, businessman, Lobbying, lobbyist, and author who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 2010 to 2016. He was Member of Parliament (United Kingdom), Memb ...
,
Billy Graham William Franklin Graham Jr. (November 7, 1918 – February 21, 2018) was an American evangelist, a prominent evangelical Christian Evangelicalism (), evangelical Christianity, or evangelical Protestantism, is a worldwide trans-den ...

Billy Graham
,
Richard Dawkins Richard Dawkins (born 26 March 1941) is a British evolutionary biology, evolutionary biologist and author. He is an Oxford fellow, emeritus fellow of New College, Oxford and was Simonyi Professor for the Public Understanding of Science, Prof ...

Richard Dawkins
,
Sam Harris Samuel Benjamin Harris (born April 9, 1967) is an American philosopher A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about Metaphysics, existe ...

Sam Harris
,
Bill Gates William Henry Gates III (born October 28, 1955) is an American business magnate A business magnate is someone who has achieved great success and enormous wealth through the ownership of multiple lines of enterprise. The term character ...
,
Dolph Lundgren Hans Lundgren (, ; born 3 November 1957), better known as Dolph Lundgren, is a Swedish actor, filmmaker, and martial artist. Lundgren's breakthrough came in 1985, when he starred in '' Rocky IV'' as the imposing Soviet boxer Ivan Drago. Sinc ...

Dolph Lundgren
,
Bob Weir Robert Hall Weir ( ; né Parber, born October 16, 1947) is an American musician and songwriter best known as a founding member of the rock band Grateful Dead. After the Grateful Dead disbanded in 1995, Weir performed with The Other Ones, later ...

Bob Weir
,
Shashi Tharoor Shashi Tharoor (; ; born 9 March, 1956) is an Indian former international diplomat, politician, writer and public intellectual who has been serving as Member of Parliament, Lok Sabha from Thiruvananthapuram (Lok Sabha constituency), Thiruvananth ...

Shashi Tharoor
,
Bono Paul David Hewson (born 10 May 1960), known by his stage name Bono (), is an Irish singer-songwriter, activist, philanthropist, venture capitalist Venture capital (VC) is a form of private equity Private equity (PE) typically refers to ...

Bono
,
Larry Page Lawrence Edward Page (born March 26, 1973) is an American computer scientist and Internet entrepreneur. He is best known as one of the co-founders of Google, along with Sergey Brin. Page was the chief executive officer of Google from 1997 unt ...

Larry Page
and
Sergey Brin Sergey Mikhaylovich Brin (russian: Сергей Михайлович Брин; born August 21, 1973) is an American business magnate A business magnate is someone who has achieved great success and enormous wealth through the ownership o ...
,
Leana Wen Leana Sheryle Wen (; born Wen Linyan; January 27, 1983) is an American physician, an op-ed columnist with ''The Washington Post ''The Washington Post'' (also known as the ''Post'' and, informally, ''WaPo'') is an American daily newspaper pub ...
,
Pope Francis Pope Francis ( la, Franciscus; it, Francesco; es, link=, Francisco; born Jorge Mario Bergoglio, 17 December 1936) is the head of the Catholic Church and sovereign of the Vatican City State since 2013. Francis is the first pope to be a member ...

Pope Francis
,
Jeff Bezos Jeffrey Preston Bezos ( ; né Jorgensen; born January 12, 1964) is an American entrepreneur, media proprietor, investor, computer engineer, and commercial astronaut. He is the founder and executive chairman of Amazon (company), Amazon, where ...

Jeff Bezos
, and many
Nobel Prize The Nobel Prizes ( ; sv, Nobelpriset ; no, Nobelprisen ) are five separate prizes that, according to Alfred Nobel Alfred Bernhard Nobel ( , ; 21 October 1833 – 10 December 1896) was a Swedish chemist, engineer, inventor, busines ...
winners. Since June 2006, TED Talks have been offered for free viewing online, under an Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives
Creative Commons license A Creative Commons (CC) license is one of several public copyright license A public license or public copyright licenses is a license by which a copyright holder as licensor can grant additional copyright permissions to any and all person ...
, through TED.com. over 3,500 TED Talks are freely available on the website. In June 2011, TED Talks' combined viewing figure stood at more than 500 million, by November 2012, TED Talks had been watched over one billion times worldwide."TED reaches its billionth video view!"
TED Blog. November 13, 2012. Retrieved December 20, 2014.
While TED Talks are available for free online for personal learning, sharing TED content in commercial contexts (for example, in corporate learning and talent development) requires a license.


History


1984–1999: Founding and early years

TED was conceived in 1984 by Emmy-winning broadcast and graphic designer Harry Marks, who observed a
convergence Convergence may refer to: Arts and media Literature *Convergence (book series), ''Convergence'' (book series), edited by Ruth Nanda Anshen *Convergence (comics), "Convergence" (comics), two separate story lines published by DC Comics: **A four-par ...
of the fields of technology, entertainment, and design (that is, "TED"). He approached architect and graphic designer
Richard Saul Wurman Richard Saul Wurman (born March 26, 1935) is an American architect An architect is a person who plans, designs and oversees the construction of buildings. To practice architecture means to provide services in connection with the design of b ...

Richard Saul Wurman
for assistance, who agreed on the condition that he be allowed to be a co-founder. The first conference, organized that same year by Marks and Wurman with help from Dr. Frank Stanton, featured demos of the
compact disc The compact disc (CD) is a digital Digital usually refers to something using digits, particularly binary digits. Technology and computing Hardware *Digital electronics Digital electronics is a field of electronics Electronics compri ...

compact disc
, co-developed by
Philips Koninklijke Philips N.V. (in Dutch Dutch commonly refers to: * Something of, from, or related to the Netherlands * Dutch people () * Dutch language () *Dutch language , spoken in Belgium (also referred as ''flemish'') Dutch may also refer t ...

Philips
and
Sony , commonly known as Sony and stylized as SONY, is a Japanese multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from mult ...

Sony
and one of the first demonstrations of the
Apple Macintosh The Macintosh (mainly Mac since 1998) is a family of personal computers designed, manufactured, and sold by Apple Inc. (originally as Apple Computer, Inc.) since January 1984. The Macintosh 128K, original Macintosh is the first successful m ...

Apple Macintosh
computer.Cadwalladr, Carol
TED – the ultimate forum for blue-sky thinking
July 4, 2010,
The Guardian ''The Guardian'' is a British daily newspaper. It was founded in 1821 as ''The Manchester Guardian'', and changed its name in 1959. Along with its sister papers ''The Observer ''The Observer'' is a British newspaper published on Sun ...

The Guardian
, Retrieved September 20, 2012.
Presentations were given by famous mathematician
Benoit Mandelbrot Benoit B. Mandelbrot (20 November 1924 – 14 October 2010) was a Polish-born French-American mathematician A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) include ...
and influential members of the
digerati The digerati (or digirati) are the elite of digital transformation, digitalization, social media, content marketing, computer industry and online communities. The word is a portmanteau, derived from "Digital data, digital" and "wikt:literati, liter ...
community, like
Nicholas Negroponte Nicholas Negroponte (born December 1, 1943) is a Greek American Greek Americans ( el, Ελληνοαμερικανοί, ''Ellinoamerikanoí'' , ''Ellinoamerikánoi'' ) are Americans Americans are the Citizenship of the United States, c ...
and
Stewart Brand Stewart Brand (born December 14, 1938) is an American writer, best known as editor of the ''Whole Earth Catalog The ''Whole Earth Catalog'' (WEC) was an American counterculture of the 1960s, counterculture magazine and product catalog published ...
. The event was financially unsuccessful; hence, it took six years before the second conference was organized. TED2 was held at the Monterey Conference Center in California in 1990. From 1990 onward, a growing community of "TEDsters" gathered annually with Wurman leading the conference in Monterey until 2009, when it was relocated to
Long Beach, California Long Beach is a city in Los Angeles County, California. It is the list of United States cities by population, 42nd-most populous city in the United States, with a population of 466,742 as of 2020. A charter city, Long Beach is the List of citie ...
due to a substantial increase in attendees. Initially, the speakers had been drawn from the fields of expertise behind the acronym TED, but during the nineties, the roster of presenters broadened to include scientists, philosophers, musicians, religious leaders, philanthropists, and many others.


2000–present: Recent growth

In 2000, Wurman, looking for a successor at age 65, met with new-media entrepreneur and TED enthusiast Chris Anderson to discuss future happenings. Anderson's UK media company
Future The future is the time after the past and present. Its arrival is considered inevitable due to the existence of time and the laws of physics. Due to the apparent nature of reality and the unavoidability of the future, everything that currently ...
bought TED. In November 2001, Anderson's non-profit The
Sapling Foundation The Sapling Foundation is a non-profit organization that owned the TED (conference), TED global conference, from 1996 to June 2019. It was founded by Chris Anderson (entrepreneur), Chris Anderson in 1996. The organization describes its purpose as ...
(motto: "fostering the spread of great ideas") acquired TED from Future for £6m. In February 2002, Anderson gave a TED Talk in which he explained his vision of the conference and his future role of
curator A curator (from la, cura, meaning "to take care") is a manager or overseer. When working with cultural organizations, a curator is typically a "collections curator" or an "exhibitions curator", and has multifaceted tasks dependent on the parti ...
. Wurman left after the 2002 conference. In 2006, attendance cost was $4,400 per person and was by invitation only. The membership model was shifted in January 2007 to an annual membership fee of $6,000, which includes attendance of the conference, club mailings, networking tools, and conference DVDs. The 2018 conference was $10,000 per attendee. Between 2001 and 2006, TED upgraded its platform to have TED talks online for free, added TEDGlobal that became a worldwide conference, and created the TED prize. In 2014, the conference was relocated to Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. TED is currently funded by a combination of various revenue streams, including conference attendance fees, corporate sponsorships, foundation support, licensing fees, and book sales. Corporate sponsorships are diverse, provided by companies such as
Google Google LLC is an American multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countries * Multinational stat ...

Google
, GE,
AOL AOL (stylized as Aol., formerly a company known as AOL Inc. and originally known as America Online) is an American web portal A web portal is a specially designed website A website (also written as web site) is a collection of web page ...

AOL
,
Goldman Sachs The Goldman Sachs Group, Inc. () is an American multinational investment bank Investment is the dedication of an asset to attain an increase in value over a period of time. Investment requires a sacrifice of some present asset, such as tim ...

Goldman Sachs
, and
The Coca-Cola Company The Coca-Cola Company is an American multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countries * Multinational ...
. Sponsors do not participate in the creative direction of the event, nor are they allowed to present on the main stage, in the interests of independence. In 2015, TED staff consisted of about 180 people headquartered in
New York City New York, often called New York City to distinguish it from New York State New York is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of ...

New York City
and
Vancouver Vancouver ( ) is a major city in western Canada Western Canada, also referred to as the Western Provinces and more commonly known as the West, is a region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth desc ...

Vancouver
, B.C. On July 1, 2019, the TED Conferences LLC was transferred from Sapling Foundation to TED Foundation to "align with our brand and make it easier for our donors to connect TED donations to TED Conferences, LLC." At TED 2015,
Bill Gates William Henry Gates III (born October 28, 1955) is an American business magnate A business magnate is someone who has achieved great success and enormous wealth through the ownership of multiple lines of enterprise. The term character ...
warned that the world was not prepared for the next pandemic, a situation that would come to pass in late 2019 when the
COVID-19 pandemic The COVID-19 pandemic is an ongoing global pandemic A pandemic (from , , "all" and , , "local people" the 'crowd') is an of an that has spread across a large region, for instance multiple or worldwide, affecting a substantial numbe ...

COVID-19 pandemic
began. The ensuing pandemic prompted the 2020 edition of the event to be initially postponed from April to July 2020 before its outright cancellation.


TED Prize

The TED Prize was introduced in 2005. Until 2010, it annually granted three individuals $100,000 and a "wish to change the world". Each winner unveils their wish at the main annual conference. Since 2010, in a changed selection process, a single winner is chosen to ensure that TED can maximize its efforts in achieving the winner's wish. In 2012, the prize was not awarded to an individual, but to a concept connected to the current global phenomenon of increasing
urbanization Urbanization (or urbanisation) refers to the population shift from rural File:Rural landscape in Finland.jpg, A rural landscape in Lappeenranta, South Karelia, Finland. 15 July 2000. In general, a rural area or a countryside is a geographi ...
. In 2013, the prize amount was increased to $1 million. TED Prize winners in previous years: TED Conference commissioned New York artist Tom Shannon to create a prize sculpture to be given to all TED Prize winners. The sculpture consists of an aluminum sphere magnetically levitated above a walnut disc. As of 2018 the TED Prize has been recast as The Audacious Project.


TED.com

In 2005, Chris Anderson hired June Cohen as Director of TED Media. In June 2006, after Cohen's idea of a TV show based on TED lectures was rejected by several networks, a selection of talks that had received the highest audience ratings was posted on the websites of TED,
YouTube YouTube is an American online video sharing and social media platform Social media are interactive technologies that allow the Content creation, creation or information sharing, sharing/exchange of information, ideas, career interests, an ...

YouTube
, and
iTunes iTunes () is a media player, media library, Internet radio Internet radio (also web radio, net radio, streaming radio, e-radio, IP radio, online radio) is a digital audio Digital audio is a representation of sound recorded in, or ...

iTunes
, under
Creative Commons Creative Commons (CC) is an American non-profit organization A nonprofit organization (NPO), also known as a non-business entity, not-for-profit organization, or nonprofit institution, is a legal entity organized and operated for a colle ...
Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0. Initially, only a handful of talks were posted, to test if there was an audience for them. In January of the next year, the number of TED Talks on the site had grown to 44, and they had been viewed more than three million times. On the basis of that success, the organization pumped hundreds of thousands of dollars into its video production operations and into the development of a website to showcase about 100 of the talks. In April 2007, the new TED.com was launched, developed by design fir
Method
In subsequent years, the website has won many prizes, among which are seven
Webby Award The Webby Awards are List of web awards, awards for excellence on the Internet presented annually by the International Academy of Digital Arts and Sciences, a judging body composed of over two thousand industry experts and technology innovators. ...
s, iTunes' "Best Podcast of the Year" (2006–2010), the ''
Communication Arts ''Communication Arts'' is the largest international trade journal of visual communications.Aud ...
'' Interactive Award for "Information Design" in 2007, the OMMA Award for "video sharing" in 2008, the Web Visionary Award for "technical achievement" in 2008, The One Show Interactive Bronze Award in 2008, the AIGA Annual Design Competition (2009), and a
Peabody Award The George Foster Peabody Awards (or simply Peabody Awards or the Peabodys) program, named for the American businessman and philanthropist George Foster Peabody, George Peabody, honor the most powerful, enlightening, and invigorating stories in ...
in 2012. As of October 2020, over 3500 TED talks had been posted. Every week 5 to 7 new talks are published. In January 2009, the then number of videos had been viewed 50 million times. In June 2011, the number of views totaled 500 million, and on November 13, 2012, TED reached its billionth video view. Chris Anderson in an interview in March 2012:
It used to be 800 people getting together once a year; now it's about a million people a day watching TED Talks online. When we first put up a few of the talks as an experiment, we got such impassioned responses that we decided to flip the organization on its head and think of ourselves not so much as a conference but as "ideas worth spreading," building a big website around it. The conference is still the engine, but the website is the amplifier that takes the ideas to the world.
In March 2012,
Netflix Netflix, Inc. is an American subscription The subscription business model is a business model in which a customer In sales Sales are activities related to selling or the number of goods sold in a given targeted time period. Th ...

Netflix
announced a deal to
stream A stream is a body of water (Lysefjord) in Norway Norway, officially the Kingdom of Norway,Names in the official and recognised languages: Bokmål Bokmål (, ; literally "book tongue") is an official written standard for the No ...
an initial series of 16 two-hour shows, consisting of TED Talks covering similar subjects, from multiple speakers. The content was made available to subscribers in the US, Canada, Latin America, the UK, and Ireland. Hosted by Jami Floyd, '' TED Talks NYC'' debuted on NYC Life on March 21, 2012.


Related projects and events


TED Conferences


TEDGlobal

In 2005, under Anderson's supervision, a more internationally oriented sister conference was added, under the name TEDGlobal. It was held, in chronological order: in
Oxford Oxford () is a city in England. It is the county town In the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' u ...

Oxford
, UK (2005), in
Arusha Arusha is a city in north eastern Tanzania Tanzania (; ), officially the United Republic of Tanzania ( sw, Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania), is a country in East Africa East Africa or Eastern Africa is the eastern subregion of the ...
, Tanzania (2007, titled TEDAfrica), in Oxford again (2009 and 2010), and in
Edinburgh Edinburgh (; sco, Edinburgh; gd, Dùn Èideann ) is the capital city of Scotland and one of its 32 Council areas of Scotland, council areas. Historically part of the county of Midlothian (interchangeably Edinburghshire before 1921), it is ...

Edinburgh
, UK (2011, 2012, and 2013). In 2014, it was held in
Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Rio de Janeiro (; ), or simply Rio, is the second-most populous city in Brazil Brazil ( pt, Brasil; ), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (Portuguese: ), is the largest country in both and . At 8.5 million square kilome ...

Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
. Additionally, there was TED India, in
Mysore Mysore (), officially Mysuru (; Kannada: ಮೈಸೂರು), is a city in the southern part of the state of Karnataka, India. Mysore city is geographically located between 12° 18′ 26″ north latitude and 76° 38′ 59″ east longitude. I ...

Mysore
(2009) and TEDGlobal London in
London London is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and smaller lowerc ...

London
(2015). TEDGlobal 2017 was held again in Arusha, Tanzania and it was curated and hosted by Emeka Okafor. TED's European director (and curator of TEDGlobal) is Swiss-born .


TED Translators (formerly The Open Translation Project (OTP))

TED Translators started as the TED Open Translation Project in May 2009. It intends to "
each Each may refer to: *''each'', a determiner A determiner, also called determinative ( abbreviated ), is a word In linguistics, a word of a spoken language can be defined as the smallest sequence of phonemes that can be uttered in isolation wit ...
out to the 4.5 billion people on the planet who don't speak English", according to TED Curator Chris Anderson. The OTP used crowd-based subtitling platforms to translate the text of TED and TED-Ed videos, as well as to caption and translate videos created in the TEDx program. (Until May 2012 it worked with its technology partner
dotSUB Dotsub is a global software company founded in 2007 and headquartered in New York, New York New York, often called New York City to distinguish it from New York State New York is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and ...
, and then with the
open source Open source is source code that is made freely available for possible modification and redistribution. Products include permission to use the source code, design documents, or content of the product. The open-source model is a decentralized softwa ...
translation tool Amara). When the project was launched, 300 translations had been completed in 40 languages by 200 volunteer transcribers. By May 2015, more than 70,000 sets of subtitles in 107 languages had been completed by (an all-time total of) 38,173 volunteer translators. The project helped generate a significant increase in international visitors to TED's website. Traffic from outside the US has increased 350 percent: there has been 600 percent growth in Asia, and more than 1000 percent in South America. Members have several tools dedicated to knowledge management, such as the OTP Wiki OTPedia, Facebook groups, or video tutorials.


TEDx

TEDx are independent events similar to TED in presentation. They can be organized by anyone who obtains a free license from TED, and agrees to follow certain principles. TEDx events are required to be non-profit, but organizers may use an admission fee or commercial sponsorship to cover costs. Speakers are not paid and must also relinquish the copyrights to their materials, which TED may edit and distribute under a
Creative Commons Creative Commons (CC) is an American non-profit organization A nonprofit organization (NPO), also known as a non-business entity, not-for-profit organization, or nonprofit institution, is a legal entity organized and operated for a colle ...

Creative Commons
license. As of January 2014, the TEDxTalks library contained some 30,000 films and presentations from more than 130 countries. As of October 2017, the TEDx archive surpassed 100,000 talks. In March 2013, eight TEDx events were organised every day; raised up from five in June 2012, the previous year, in 133 countries.Heller, Natha
''Listen and Learn''
''
The New Yorker ''The New Yorker'' is an American weekly magazine featuring journalism Journalism is the production and distribution of report Image:Hurt Report cover page.png, 220px, Example of a front page of a report A report is a document that pr ...

The New Yorker
'', July 9, 2012. Retrieved September 2, 2012.
TEDx presentations may include live performances, which are catalogued in the TEDx Music Project. In 2011, TED began a program called "TEDx in a Box", which is intended to enable people in developing countries to hold TEDx events. TEDx also expanded to include TEDxYouth events, TEDx corporate events, and TEDxWomen. TEDxYouth events are independent programs set up for students who are in grades 7–12. These events usually have audiences of people close to the age of the students and sometimes show TED Talks. According to TEDxSanta Cruz, "as of 2015, over 1,500 EDx eventshave been scheduled all over the world." TEDx events have evolved over time. Events such as TEDxBeaconStreet created TEDx Adventures for participants. People may sign up for free, hands-on experiences in their local communities, led by an expert. A TEDx youth event license follows the same format as the standard event license and falls within the same TEDx event rules, except this event is oriented towards youth. TEDxYouth licenses may be held by youth, adults, or a combination of both. For events held at schools, the license must be held by a current student, faculty, or staff member. The first TEDxYouth event was held by TEDxYouth@Tokyo in Japan


TED Fellows

TED Fellows were introduced in 2007, during the first TEDAfrica conference in
Arusha Arusha is a city in north eastern Tanzania Tanzania (; ), officially the United Republic of Tanzania ( sw, Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania), is a country in East Africa East Africa or Eastern Africa is the eastern subregion of the ...
,
Tanzania Tanzania (; ), officially the United Republic of Tanzania ( sw, Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania), is a country in East Africa East Africa or Eastern Africa is the eastern subregion of the Africa Africa is the world's second-larges ...

Tanzania
, where 100 young people were selected from across the continent. Two years later, during TEDIndia, 99 Fellows were recruited, mainly from South Asia. In 2009, the Fellows program was initiated in its present form. For every TED or TEDGlobal conference, 20 Fellows are selected; a total of 40 new Fellows a year. Each year, 20 past Fellows are chosen to participate in the two-year Senior Fellows program (in which they will attend four more conferences). 2019 marked the tenth anniversary of the TED Fellows program. Acceptance as a Fellow is not based on academic
credential A credential is a piece of any document that details a qualification, competence, or authority issued to an individual by a third party with a relevant or ''de facto'' authority or assumed competence to do so. Examples of credentials include ac ...

credential
s, but mainly on past and current actions, and plans for the future. Besides attending a conference free of charge, each Fellow takes part in a special program with
mentoring Mentorship is the influence, guidance, or direction given by a mentor. In an organizational setting, a mentor influences the personal and professional growth of a mentee. Most traditional mentorships involve having senior employees mentor more ...
by experts in the field of spreading ideas, and he or she can give a short talk on the "TED Fellows" stage. Some of these talks are subsequently published on TED.com. Senior Fellows have additional benefits and responsibilities.


TED-Ed

TED-Ed is a
YouTube YouTube is an American online video sharing and social media platform Social media are interactive technologies that allow the Content creation, creation or information sharing, sharing/exchange of information, ideas, career interests, an ...

YouTube
channel from Ted which creates short animated educational videos. It also has its own website. TED-Ed lessons are created in collaboration with educators and animators. Current advisers for Ted-Ed lessons include Aaron Sams, Jackie Bezos, John Hunter, Jonathan Bergmann,
Sir Ken Robinson Sir Ken Robinson (4 March 1950 – 21 August 2020) was a British author, speaker and international advisor on education in the arts to government, non-profits, education and arts bodies. He was director of the Arts in Schools Project (1985 ...
, Melinda French Gates, and
Sal Khan Salman "Sal" Khan (born October 11, 1976) is an educator and the founder of Khan Academy, a free online education platform and an organization with which he has produced over 6,500 video lessons teaching a wide spectrum of academic An aca ...
. It has over 14.7 million subscribers and over 2.6 billion views as of September 2021.


TED Interview

The TED Interview is a weekly
podcast A podcast is an episodic series of digital audio Digital audio is a representation of sound recorded in, or converted into, Digital signal (signal processing), digital form. In digital audio, the sound wave of the audio signal is typical ...

podcast
launched on October 16, 2018, during which Chris Anderson holds conversations with speakers who have previously given a
TED talk TED Conferences LLC (Technology, Entertainment, Design) is an American media organization that posts talks online for free distribution under the slogan "ideas worth spreading". TED was conceived by Richard Saul Wurman, who co-founded it with ...
, providing the guest a chance to speak in greater depth about their background, projects, motivation, re-evaluation of past experiences, or plans for the future.
Each interview lasts between 45 minutes and about one hour. All podcasts are available on the TED website, in part together with transcripts, as well as through platforms such as Apple Podcasts,
Spotify Spotify (Help:IPA/English, /ˈspɒtɪfaɪ/; Swedish: Help:IPA/Swedish, spɔ̂tːɪfaj, is a Sweden, Swedish Streaming media, audio streaming and media services provider, founded in 2006 by Daniel Ek. Spotify is incorporated in Luxembourg a ...

Spotify
,
Google Podcasts Google Podcasts is a podcast A podcast is an episodic series of spoken word digital audio Digital audio is a representation of sound recorded in, or converted into, Digital signal (signal processing), digital form. In digital audio, the so ...

Google Podcasts
,
TuneIn TuneIn is an American audio streaming Streaming media is multimedia that is delivered and consumed in a continuous manner from a source, with little or no intermediate storage in network elements. ''Streaming'' refers to the delivery metho ...
,
Stitcher Stitcher is a media company that specializes in the creation, distribution, and monetization of Podcast, podcasts. Stitcher creates original shows through networks such as Earwolf and Witness Docs. Stitcher provides ad sales and distribution servi ...
, RadioPublic, Castbox, iHeartRadio, and BBC Radio 4 Extra. Season Four began in March 2020 during the
COVID-19 pandemic The COVID-19 pandemic is an ongoing global pandemic A pandemic (from , , "all" and , , "local people" the 'crowd') is an of an that has spread across a large region, for instance multiple or worldwide, affecting a substantial numbe ...

COVID-19 pandemic
as a live-stream broadcast co-hosted by Chris Anderson and Whitney Pennington Rodgers and often offered listeners the opportunity to submit questions to the speaker.


TEDMED

TEDMED is an annual conference concerned with health and medicine. It is an independent event operating under license from the nonprofit TED conference. TEDMED was founded in 1998 by TED's founder Ricky Wurman. After years of inactivity, in 2008 Wurman sold TEDMED to entrepreneur Marc Hodosh, who recreated and relaunched it. The first event under Hodosh's ownership was held in San Diego in October 2009. In January 2010, TED.com began including videos of TEDMED talks on the TED website. The second Hodosh-owned edition of TEDMED took place in October 2010, also in San Diego. It sold out for a second year and attracted notable healthcare leaders and Hollywood celebrities. In 2011, Jay S. Walker, Jay Walker and a group of executives and investors purchased TEDMED from Hodosh for $16 million with future additional payments of as much as $9 million. The conference was then moved to Washington, DC.


TEDWomen

TEDWomen is a three-day conference. Established in 2010, TEDWomen features speakers focused on women-oriented themes, including gender issues and reproductive health. There are over 130 TEDWomen Talks available to watch on the TED website. Past speakers include former president Jimmy Carter, Hillary Clinton, Sheryl Sandberg, Madeleine Albright, Nancy Pelosi and Halla Tómasdóttir.


TEDYouth

TEDYouth talks are aimed at middle school and high school students and feature information from youth innovators.


Other programs

* TED@Work — A program that leverages TED content to inspire new ways of working in professional settings. This program provides ways for organizations and companies to license TED content for use in learning and talent development contexts. *TED Books — These are original books from TED. The initiative began in January 2011 as an ebook series and re-launched in September 2014 with its first book in print. * TedEd Clubs — An education based initiative to get young people (ages 8 to 18) to share their ideas with peers and others by giving a TED-like presentation on a topic. TED provides curricula and limited support for the Clubs free of charge. * TED Salon — Smaller evening-length events with speakers and performers. * ''TED Radio Hour'' — A radio program, with audio downloads and a podcast RSS feed, hosted by Manoush Zomorodi, previously Guy Raz and co-produced with NPR. Each episode uses multiple TED Talks to examine a common theme. The first episode was broadcast in 2012. *''TEDx Talks'' is a YouTube channel which is ranked #1 globally for a non profit (2021). The channel has approximately 30m subscribers and 800m views with estimated revenues of between $24.5K - $391.6K monthly. *TED also offers other podcasts such as ''Sincerely, X'' (featuring anonymous TED Talks) and ''Work / Life'' which discusses creative workplaces.


Criticism


Pricing

Frank Swain, a deaf journalist, refused to participate in a TEDx event without getting paid. He said that it is unacceptable that TED, which is a non-profit organization, charges TED attendees $6,000 but prohibits organisers of the smaller, independently organized TEDx events from paying anything to speakers. Speakers and performers at official TED events are not compensated for their talks. Sarah Lacy of ''BusinessWeek'' and ''TechCrunch'' wrote in 2010 that TED attendees complained of elitism from a "hierarchy of parties throughout the LA-area with strict lists and security" after the sessions. She gave TED credit for making talks free online or live streamed.


TED Talk content

Disagreements have also occurred between TED speakers and organizers. In her 2010 TED Talk, comedian Sarah Silverman referred to adopting a "retarded" child. TED organizer Chris Anderson objected via his Twitter account, leading to a Twitter skirmish between them. Also in 2010, statistician Nassim Taleb called TED a "monstrosity that turns scientists and thinkers into low-level entertainers, like circus performers". He claimed TED curators did not initially post his talk "warning about the financial crisis" on their site on purely cosmetic grounds. Nick Hanauer spoke at TED University, challenging the belief that top income earners in America are the engines of job creation. TED was accused of censoring the talk by not posting it on the website. The ''National Journal'' reported Chris Anderson had reacted by saying the talk probably ranked as one of the most politically controversial talks they had ever run, and they needed to be careful about when they posted it. Anderson officially responded, indicating that TED only posts one talk every day, selected from many. ''Forbes'' staff writer Bruce Upbin described Hanauer's talk as "shoddy and dumb" while ''New York (magazine), New York'' magazine condemned the conference's move. Following a TEDx talk by parapsychologist Rupert Sheldrake, TED issued a statement saying their scientific advisors believed that "there is little evidence for some of Sheldrake's more radical claims" made in the talk and recommended that it "should not be distributed without being framed with caution". The video of the talk was moved from the TEDx YouTube channel to the TED blog accompanied by the framing language called for by the advisors. The move and framing prompted accusations of censorship, to which TED responded by saying the accusations were "simply not true" since Sheldrake's talk was still on their website. A 2013 talk by Graham Hancock, promoting the use of the drug N,N-Dimethyltryptamine, DMT, was treated in the same way. According to Professor Benjamin H. Bratton, Benjamin Bratton at University of California, San Diego, TED Talks' efforts at fostering progress in socio-economics, science, philosophy, and technology have been ineffective. Chris Anderson responded that some critics have a misconception of TED's goals, and failed to recognise that TED aimed to instill excitement in the audience in the same way the speaker felt it. He stated that TED only wishes to bring news of the significance of certain topics to a large audience.


In popular culture

The Alien (franchise), Alien franchise features a fictional portrayal of the year 2023 edition of the TED Conference in the form of a Alien (franchise)#Short_films, short film called "The Peter Weyland Files: TED Conference, 2023". This was a part of the Prometheus (2012 film)#Viral_campaign, viral marketing campaign for the Prometheus (2012 film), Prometheus film.


See also

* List of educational video websites * List of TED speakers * Chautauqua


References


External links


TED-Ed YouTube Channel
*
TED interview
{{Authority control 1984 establishments in the United States Academic conferences American educational websites Business conferences Education-related YouTube channels International conferences Non-profit organizations based in New York City Organizations established in 1984 Peabody Award-winning websites Recurring events established in 1984 Technology conferences TED (conference), Universal Windows Platform apps YouTube channels