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Syrians ( ar, سُورِيُّون, ''Sūriyyūn''), also known as the Syrian people ( ar, الشَّعْب السُّورِيّ,
ALA-LC ALA-LC (American Library Association - Library of Congress) is a set of standards for romanization, the representation of text in other writing systems using the Latin script. Applications The system is used to represent bibliographic information ...
: eş''-Şa‘b es-Sūrī''; syr, ܣܘܪܝܝܢ), are the majority inhabitants of
Syria Syria ( ar, سُورِيَا or ar, سُورِيَة, ''Sūriyā''), officially the Syrian Arab Republic ( ar, ٱلْجُمْهُورِيَّةُ ٱلْعَرَبِيَّةُ ٱلسُّورِيَّةُ, al-Jumhūrīyah al-ʻArabīyah as-S ...

Syria
and share common
Levant The Levant () is an term referring to a large area in the region of . In its narrowest sense, it is equivalent to the , which included present-day , , , , and most of southwest of the middle . In its widest historical sense, the Levant ...

Levant
ine
Semitic Semitic most commonly refers to the Semitic languages, a name used since the 1770s to refer to the language family currently present in West Asia, North and East Africa, and Malta. Semitic may also refer to: Religions * Abrahamic religions ** ...
roots. The cultural and linguistic heritage of the Syrian people is a blend of both indigenous elements and the foreign cultures that have come to inhabit the
region of Syria The region of Syria ( ar, ٱلشَّام, '; Hieroglyphic Luwian: ''Sura/i''; gr, Συρία), known in modern literature as Greater Syria (, '), "Syria-Palestine", or the Levant The Levant () is an approximate historical geographical ...
and govern its people over the course of thousands of years. The mother tongue of most Syrians is
Levantine Arabic Levantine Arabic, also called Shami (autonym Autonym may refer to: * Autonym, the name used by a person to refer to themselves or their language; see Exonym and endonym An endonym (from Greek: , 'inner' + , 'name'; also known as autonym) is ...
, which came to replace the former mother tongue,
Aramaic Aramaic (: ''Arāmāyā''; : ; : ; ) is a language that originated among the in the ancient , at the end of the , and later became one of the most prominent languages of the . During its three thousand years long history, Aramaic went thr ...
, in the aftermath of the
Muslim conquest of the Levant The Muslim conquest of the Levant ( ar, اَلْـفَـتْـحُ الْإٍسْـلَامِيُّ لِـلـشَّـامِ, ''Al-Fatḥ ul-Islāmiyyu lish-Shām''), also known as the Arab conquest of the Levant ( ar, اَلْـفَـتْـحُ ...
in the 7th century. The conquest led to the establishment of the
Caliphate A caliphate ( ar, خِلَافَة, ) is an Islamic state under the leadership of an Islamic steward with the title of caliph (; ar, خَلِيفَة ', ), a person considered a politico-religious successor to the Islamic prophet Muhammad ...
under successive
Arab The Arabs (singular Arab ; singular ar, عَرَبِيٌّ, : , Arabic pronunciation: , plural ar, عَرَبٌ, : , Arabic pronunciation: ) are an mainly inhabiting the . In modern usage the term refers to those who originate from an Arab co ...

Arab
dynasties, who, during the period of the
Abbasid Caliphate The Abbasid Caliphate ( or ar, اَلْخِلَافَةُ ٱلْعَبَّاسِيَّةُ, ') was the third caliphate A caliphate ( ar, خِلَافَة, ) is an Islamic state under the leadership of an Islamic steward with the tit ...

Abbasid Caliphate
, promoted the use of the Arabic language. A minority of Syrians have retained Aramaic which is still spoken in its
Eastern Eastern may refer to: Transportation *China Eastern Airlines, a current Chinese airline based in Shanghai *Eastern Air, former name of Zambia Skyways *Eastern Air Lines, a defunct American airline that operated from 1926 to 1991 *Eastern Air Lin ...
and
Western Western may refer to: Places *Western, Nebraska, a village in the US *Western, New York, a town in the US *Western Creek, Tasmania, a locality in Australia *Western Junction, Tasmania, a locality in Australia *Western world, countries that ide ...
dialects. In 2018, the Syrian Arab Republic had an estimated population of 19.5 million, which includes, aside from the aforementioned majority, ethnic minorities such as
Kurds Kurds ( ku, کورد ,Kurd, italic=yes, rtl=yes) or Kurdish people are an Iranian peoples, Iranian ethnic group native to the mountainous region of Kurdistan in Western Asia, which spans southeastern Turkey, northwestern Iran, northern Iraq, ...
, Turks,
Armenians Armenians ( hy, հայեր, '' hayer'' ) are an ethnic group native to the Armenian Highlands of Western Asia Western Asia, also West Asia, is the westernmost subregion of Asia. It is entirely a part of the Greater Middle East. It includes An ...
,
Assyrians Assyrian may refer to: * Assyria, a major Mesopotamian kingdom and empire * Assyrian people, an ethnic group indigenous to the Middle East * Assyrian Church (disambiguation) * Assyrian language (disambiguation) * SS Assyrian, SS ''Assyrian'', seve ...
and others. Before the
Syrian Civil War#REDIRECT Syrian civil war The Syrian civil war ( ar, الْحَرْبُ الْأَهْلِيَّةُ السُّورِيَّةُ, ''al-ḥarb al-ʾahlīyah as-sūrīyah'') is an ongoing multi-sided civil war in Syria fought between the Syrian Ara ...

Syrian Civil War
, there was quite a large Syrian diaspora who had immigrated to North America (
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...
and
Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of North America North America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, ...
),
European Union member states The European Union (EU) consists of 27 member states. Each member state is party to the Treaties of the European Union, founding treaties of the union and thereby shares in the privileges and obligations of membership. The twenty-seven states hav ...

European Union member states
(including Sweden, France and Germany), South America (mainly in
Brazil Brazil ( pt, Brasil; ), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (Portuguese: ), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America. At 8.5 million square kilometers (3.2 million square miles) and with over 211 mill ...
,
Argentina Argentina (), officially the Argentine Republic ( es, link=no, República Argentina), is a country located mostly in the southern half of South America South America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasse ...

Argentina
,
Venezuela Venezuela (; ), officially the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela ( es, link=no, República Bolivariana de Venezuela), is a country on the northern coast of South America, consisting of a continent A continent is any of several large l ...
and
Chile Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a country in the western part of South America South America is a entirely in the and mostly in the , with a relatively small portion in the . It can also be described as the southern ...
), the
West Indies The West Indies are a subregion A subregion is a part of a larger region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, in ...
, Africa, Australia and New Zealand. Six million
refugees of the Syrian Civil War#REDIRECT Refugees of the Syrian civil war {{Redirect category shell, {{R from move {{R from other capitalisation ...
also live outside Syria now, mostly in
Turkey Turkey ( tr, Türkiye ), officially the Republic of Turkey, is a country located mainly on Anatolia Anatolia,, tr, Anadolu Yarımadası), and the Anatolian plateau. also known as Asia Minor, is a large peninsula in Western Asia an ...

Turkey
.


Etymology

The name "Syrians" was employed by the
Greeks The Greeks or Hellenes (; el, Έλληνες, ''Éllines'' ) are an ethnic group An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people A people is any plurality of person A person (plural people or persons) is a being that has cer ...
and
Romans Roman or Romans usually refers to: *Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus , image_map = Map of comune of Rome (metropolitan city of Capital Rome, region Lazio, ...

Romans
to denote the inhabitants of
Syria Syria ( ar, سُورِيَا or ar, سُورِيَة, ''Sūriyā''), officially the Syrian Arab Republic ( ar, ٱلْجُمْهُورِيَّةُ ٱلْعَرَبِيَّةُ ٱلسُّورِيَّةُ, al-Jumhūrīyah al-ʻArabīyah as-S ...
; however, they called themselves Arameans and Assyrians. The ethnic designation "Syrian" is derived from the word "Assyrian" and appeared in the
Hellenistic The Hellenistic period spans the period of History of the Mediterranean region, Mediterranean history between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the emergence of the Roman Empire, as signified by the Battle of Actium in 31  ...
and Roman periods. Some argue that the Çineköy inscription supports this theory.


Applications of the name

The Greeks used the terms "Syrian" and "Assyrian" interchangeably to indicate the indigenous
Arameans The Arameans (Old Aramaic Old Aramaic refers to the earliest stage of the Aramaic language Aramaic ( Classical Syriac: ''Arāmāyā''; Old Aramaic: ; Aramaic alphabet, Imperial Aramaic: ; Hebrew alphabet, square script ) is a language t ...
,
Assyrians Assyrian may refer to: * Assyria, a major Mesopotamian kingdom and empire * Assyrian people, an ethnic group indigenous to the Middle East * Assyrian Church (disambiguation) * Assyrian language (disambiguation) * SS Assyrian, SS ''Assyrian'', seve ...
and other inhabitants of the Near East,
Herodotus Herodotus ( ; grc, Ἡρόδοτος, Hēródotos, ; BC) was an Classical Greece, ancient Greek writer, geographer, and historian born in the Greek city of Halicarnassus, part of the Achaemenid Empire, Persian Empire (now Bodrum, Turkey). He ...
considered "Syria" west of the
Euphrates The Euphrates () is the longest and one of the most historically important rivers of Western Asia. Tigris–Euphrates river system, Together with the Tigris, it is one of the two defining rivers of Mesopotamia (the "Land Between the Rivers"). O ...
. Starting from the 2nd century BC onwards, ancient writers referred to the ruler of the
Seleucid Empire The Seleucid Empire (; grc, Βασιλεία τῶν Σελευκιδῶν, ''Basileía tōn Seleukidōn'') was a Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), off ...
as the
King of Syria of the King of the Romans (variant used in the early modern period) File:Nezahualpiltzintli.jpg"> Aztec King Nezahualpiltzintli of Texcoco King is the title given to a male monarch in a variety of contexts. The female equivalent is queen ...
or King of the Syrians. The Seleucids designated the districts of Seleucis and
Coele-Syria Coele-Syria (, also spelt Coele Syria, Coelesyria, Celesyria) alternatively Coelo-Syria or Coelosyria (; grc-gre, Κοίλη Συρία, ''Koílē Syría'', 'Hollow Syria'; lat, Cœlē Syria or ), was a region of Syria Syria ( ar, ...
explicitly as Syria and ruled the Syrians as indigenous populations residing west of the Euphrates ( Aramea) in contrast to Assyrians who had their native
homeland A homeland is the concept of the place where a cultural, national, or racial identity had formed. The definition can also mean simply one's country of birth. When used as a proper noun, the Homeland, as well as its equivalents in other languag ...
in
Mesopotamia Mesopotamia ( grc, Μεσοποταμία ''Mesopotamíā''; ar, بِلَاد ٱلرَّافِدَيْن ; syc, ܐܪܡ ܢܗܪ̈ܝܢ, or , ) is a historical region of Western Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in th ...

Mesopotamia
east of the Euphrates. However, the interchangeability between Assyrians and Syrians persisted during the
Hellenistic period The Hellenistic period spans the period of History of the Mediterranean region, Mediterranean history between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the emergence of the Roman Empire, as signified by the Battle of Actium in 31  ...
. In one instance, the
Ptolemaic dynasty The Ptolemaic dynasty (; grc, Πτολεμαῖοι, ''Ptolemaioi''), the Thirty-third dynasty of Egypt, sometimes referred to as the Lagid dynasty (Λαγίδαι, ''Lagidae;'' after Ptolemy I Soter, Ptolemy I's father, Lagus), was a Ancient ...
of the Hellenistic kingdom of
Egypt Egypt ( ar, مِصر, Miṣr), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country This is a list of countries located on more than one continent A continent is one of several large landmasses. Generally identi ...
applied the term "Syrian Village" as the name of a settlement in
Fayoum Faiyum ( ar, الفيوم ' , borrowed from cop,  ̀Ⲫⲓⲟⲙ or Ⲫⲓⲱⲙ ' from egy, pꜣ ym "the Sea, Lake") is a city in Middle Egypt Middle Egypt () is the section of land between Lower Egypt (the Nile Delta) and Upper ...

Fayoum
. The term "Syrians" is under debate whether it referred to
Jews Jews ( he, יְהוּדִים ISO 259-2 ISO The International Organization for Standardization (ISO ) is an international standard An international standard is a technical standard A technical standard is an established norm (social), ...

Jews
or to Arameans, as the Ptolemies referred to all peoples originating from Modern Syria and
Palestine Palestine ( or ) most often refers to: * State of Palestine, a ''de jure'' sovereign state in the Middle East * Palestine (region), a geographical and historical region in the Middle East Palestine may also refer to: * Palestinian National Aut ...
as Syrian. The term ''Syrian'' was imposed upon Arameans of modern
Levant The Levant () is an term referring to a large area in the region of . In its narrowest sense, it is equivalent to the , which included present-day , , , , and most of southwest of the middle . In its widest historical sense, the Levant ...

Levant
by the Romans.
Pompey Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus (; 29 September 106 BC – 28 September 48 BC), known in English as Pompey or Pompey the Great, was a leading Roman Roman or Romans most often refers to: *, the capital city of Italy *, Roman civilization f ...
created the province of
Syria Syria ( ar, سُورِيَا or ar, سُورِيَة, ''Sūriyā''), officially the Syrian Arab Republic ( ar, ٱلْجُمْهُورِيَّةُ ٱلْعَرَبِيَّةُ ٱلسُّورِيَّةُ, al-Jumhūrīyah al-ʻArabīyah as-S ...
, which included modern-day
Lebanon Lebanon ( , ar, لُبْنَان, translit=lubnān, ), officially the Republic of Lebanon or the Lebanese Republic, is a country in Western Asia Western Asia, West Asia, or Southwest Asia, is the westernmost subregion A subregion is a part ...

Lebanon
and Syria west of the Euphrates, framing the province as a regional social category with civic implications.
Plutarch Plutarch (; grc-gre, Πλούταρχος, ''Ploútarchos''; ; AD 46 – after AD 119) was a Greek Middle Platonist Middle Platonism is the modern name given to a stage in the development of Platonic philosophy, lasting from about 90 BC&nbs ...

Plutarch
described the indigenous people of this newly created Roman province as "Syrians", so did
Strabo Strabo''Strabo'' (meaning "squinty", as in strabismus Strabismus is a condition in which the eyes do not properly align with each other when looking at an object. The eye that is focused on an object can alternate. The condition may be pre ...

Strabo
, who observed that Syrians resided west of the Euphrates in Roman Syria, and he explicitly mentions that those Syrians are the Arameans, whom he calls ''Aramaei'', indicating an extant ethnicity.
Posidonius Posidonius (; grc-gre, Ποσειδώνιος , "of Poseidon Poseidon (; grc-gre, Ποσειδῶν, ) was one of the Twelve Olympians upright=1.8, Fragment of a relief Relief is a sculptural technique where the sculpted eleme ...
noted that the people called Syrians by the Greeks refer to themselves as Arameans. In his book ''The Great Roman-Jewish War'',
Josephus Flavius Josephus (; grc-gre, Ἰώσηπος, ; 37 – 100) was a first-century Roman Jews, Romano-Jewish historian and military leader, best known for ''The Jewish War'', who was born in Jerusalem—then part of Judea (Roman province), Roman ...

Josephus
, a
Hebrew Hebrew (, , or ) is a Northwest Semitic languages, Northwest Semitic language of the Afroasiatic languages, Afroasiatic language family. Historically, it is regarded as one of the spoken languages of the Israelites and their longest-survivi ...

Hebrew
native to the Levant, mentioned the Syrians as the non-Hebrew, non-Greek indigenous inhabitants of Syria. The
Arabs The Arabs (singular Arab ; singular ar, عَرَبِيٌّ, ISO 233 The international standard An international standard is a technical standard A technical standard is an established norm (social), norm or requirement for a repeatable technica ...
called the
Greater Syria The historic region of Syria ( ar, الـشَّـام, ash-Shām, Hieroglyphic Luwian: ''Sura/i''; gr, Συρία; in modern literature called Greater Syria, Syria-Palestine, or the Levant) is an area located east of the Mediterranean sea. ...
region ''
al-Sham The historic region of Syria ( ar, الـشَّـام, ash-Shām, Hieroglyphic Luwian Hieroglyphic Luwian (''luwili'') is a variant of the Luwian language Luwian , sometimes known as Luvian or Luish, is an ancient language, or group of la ...
'' ( ar, بِـلَاد الـشَّـام, Bilād al-Šām, lit=the country of Sham). The national and ethnic designation "Syrian" is one that has been reused, accepted and espoused by the Syrian people since the advent of modern
nationalism Nationalism is an idea and movement that holds that the nation A nation is a community A community is a social unitThe term "level of analysis" is used in the social sciences to point to the location, size, or scale of a research target ...
, which emanated from Europe and began with the culmination of the
Napoleonic Wars The Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815) were a series of major World war, global conflicts pitting the First French Empire, French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon, Napoleon I, against a fluctuating array of Coalition forces of the Napoleonic W ...
of the early 1800s.


History

Syrians emerged from various origins; the main influence came from ancient Semitic peoples, populations from Arabia and Mesopotamia, while Greco-Roman influence is marginal. Ancient Syria of the first millennium BC was dominated by the Aramaeans; they originated in the Northern Levant as a continuum of the
Bronze Age The Bronze Age is a prehistoric Periodization, period that was characterized by the use of bronze, in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization. The Bronze Age is the second principal period of the Three-age sys ...
populations of Syria. The Seleucids ruled the Syrians as a conquered nation; Syrians were not assimilated into Greek communities, and many local peasants were exploited financially as they had to pay rent for Greek landlords. Outside
Greek coloniesGreek colonization was an organised colonial expansion by the Archaic Greeks into the Mediterranean Sea The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by lan ...
, the Syrians lived in districts governed by local temples that did not use the Greek civic system of ''
poleis ''Polis'' (, ; grc-gre, πόλις, ), plural ''poleis'' (, , ), literally means "city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (199 ...
'' and colonies. The situation changed after the Roman conquest in 64 BC; Syrians obtained the citizenship of Greek ''poleis'', and the line separating between the colonists and the colonized blurred. The idioms Syrian and Greek were used by Rome to denote civic societies instead of separate ethnic groups. The Aramaeans assimilated the earlier populations through their language; combined with the common religion,
Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic The Abrahamic religions, also referred to collectively as the world of Abrahamism and Semitic religions, are a group of Semitic-originated religion Religion is a social system, social-cultural system of ...

Christianity
, most of the inhabitants turned into Syrians (Aramaeans). Islam and the Arabic language had a similar effect where the Aramaeans themselves became Arabs regardless of their ethnic origin following the
Muslim conquest of the Levant The Muslim conquest of the Levant ( ar, اَلْـفَـتْـحُ الْإٍسْـلَامِيُّ لِـلـشَّـامِ, ''Al-Fatḥ ul-Islāmiyyu lish-Shām''), also known as the Arab conquest of the Levant ( ar, اَلْـفَـتْـحُ ...
. The presence of Arabs in Syria is recorded since the 9th century BC, and Roman period historians, such as
Strabo Strabo''Strabo'' (meaning "squinty", as in strabismus Strabismus is a condition in which the eyes do not properly align with each other when looking at an object. The eye that is focused on an object can alternate. The condition may be pre ...

Strabo
,
Pliny the Elder #REDIRECT Pliny the Elder #REDIRECT Pliny the Elder#REDIRECT Pliny the Elder Gaius Plinius Secundus (AD 23/2479), called Pliny the Elder (), was a Roman author, a naturalist Natural history is a domain of inquiry involving organisms, includi ...

Pliny the Elder
, and
Ptolemy Claudius Ptolemy (; grc-koi, Κλαύδιος Πτολεμαῖος, , ; la, Claudius Ptolemaeus; AD) was a mathematician A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes ...
, reported that Arabs inhabited many parts of Syria. What antiquity's writers meant by the designation "Arab" is debated; the historian Michael Macdonald suggested that the term is an ethnic designation based on an "ill-defined complex of linguistic and cultural characteristics", while according to academic consensus, "Arab", in addition to it being an ethnic name, had a social meaning describing a nomadic way of life. The ''
urheimat In historical linguistics Historical linguistics, also termed diachronic linguistics, is the scientific study of language change over time. Principal concerns of historical linguistics include: # to describe and account for observed changes i ...
'' of the Arab ethnos is unclear; the traditional 19th century theory locates this in the Arabian Peninsula, while some modern scholars, such as David Frank Graf, note that the epigraphic and archaeological evidence render the traditional theory inadequate to explain the Arabs' appearance in Syria. The Arabs mentioned in Syria by Greco-Roman writers were assimilated into the "Greco–Aramaean culture" that dominated the region, and the texts they produced were written in Greek or Aramaic;
Old Arabic Old Arabic is the name for the pre-Islamic Arabic dialects and languages. The oldest attestation of the Arabic language goes back to Bayer, Jordan written in Ancient North Arabian script that is undifferentiated from other scripts of North Arabia. ...
, the precursor of
Classical Arabic Classical Arabic ( ar, links=no, ٱلْعَرَبِيَّةُ ٱلْفُصْحَىٰ, al-ʿarabīyah al-fuṣḥā) or Quranic Arabic is the standardized literary form of the Arabic language Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic languages, ...
, was not a written language, and its speakers used Aramaic for writing purposes.


Arabization

On the eve of the
Rashidun Caliphate The Rashidun Caliphate ( ar, اَلْخِلَافَةُ ٱلرَّاشِدَةُ, al-Khilāfah ar-Rāšidah) was the first of the four major caliphate A caliphate ( ar, خِلَافَة, ) is an Islamic state under the leadership of an ...
conquest of the Levant, 634 AD, Syria's population mainly spoke Aramaic; Greek was the official language of administration.
Arabization Arabization Ise vs ize, or Arabisation ( ar, تعريب ') describes both the process of growing Arab influence on non-Arab populations, causing a language shift by their gradual adoption of the Arabic language and their incorporation of the cultu ...
and
Islamization Islamization (also spelled Islamisation, see spelling differences; ar, أسلمة, ), Islamicization or Islamification, is the process of a society's shift towards the religion of Islam Islam (;There are ten pronunciations of ''Islam'' in ...
of Syria began in the 7th century, and it took several centuries for Islam, the Arab identity, and language to spread; the Arabs of the caliphate did not attempt to spread their language or religion in the early periods of the conquest, and formed an isolated aristocracy. The Arabs of the caliphate accommodated many new tribes in isolated areas to avoid conflict with the locals; caliph
Uthman Uthman ibn Affan ( ar, عثمان بن عفان, ʿUthmān ibn ʿAffān; – 17 June 656), also spelled by the Turkish and Persian rendering Osman, was the third Rashidun , image = تخطيط كلمة الخلفاء الراشدون.png ...

Uthman
ordered his governor,
Muawiyah I Mu'awiya I ( ar, معاوية بن أبي سفيان, Muʿāwiya ibn Abī Sufyān; –April 680) was the founder and first caliph A caliphate ( ar, خِلَافَة, ) is an Islamic state {{Infobox war faction , name ...
, to settle the new tribes away from the original population. Syrians who belonged to Monophysitic denominations welcomed the peninsular Arabs as liberators. The
Abbasids The Abbasid Caliphate ( or ar, اَلْخِلَافَةُ ٱلْعَبَّاسِيَّةُ, ') was the third caliphate A caliphate or khilāfah ( ar, خِلَافَة, ) is an institution or public office governing a territory under I ...

Abbasids
in the eighth and ninth century sought to integrate the peoples under their authority, and the Arabization of the administration was one of the tools. Arabization gained momentum with the increasing numbers of Muslim converts; the ascendancy of Arabic as the formal language of the state prompted the cultural and linguistic assimilation of Syrian converts. Those who remained
Christian Christians () are people who follow or adhere to Christianity, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus in Christianity, Jesus Christ. The words ''Christ (title), Christ'' and ''Christian'' derive from the Koi ...

Christian
also became arabized; it was probably during the Abbasid period in the ninth century that Christians adopted Arabic as their first language; the first translation of the gospels into Arabic took place in this century. Many historians, such as
Claude Cahen Claude Cahen (26 February 1909 – 18 November 1991) was a 20th-century French Marxism, Marxist oriental studies, orientalist and historian. He specialized in the studies of the Islamic Middle Ages, Muslim sources about the Crusades, and social hist ...
and Bernard Hamilton, proposed that the Arabization of Christians was completed before the
First Crusade The First Crusade (1096–1099) was the first of a series of religious wars, or Crusades, initiated, supported and at times directed by the Latin Church in the medieval period. The objective was the recovery of the Holy Land from Muslim conqu ...
. By the thirteenth century, Arabic language achieved dominance in the region and its speakers became Arabs. Those who were able to avoid losing the Aramaic language are divided between two groups: *The
Eastern Aramaic The Eastern Aramaic languages have developed from the varieties of Aramaic Aramaic (: ''Arāmāyā''; : ; : ; ) is a language that originated among the in the ancient , at the end of the , and later became one of the most prominent lang ...
SyriacSyriac may refer to: *Syriac language, a dialect of Middle Aramaic * Syriac alphabet ** Syriac (Unicode block) ** Syriac Supplement * Neo-Aramaic languages also known as Syriac in most native vernaculars * Syriac Christianity, the churches using Syr ...

Syriac
-speaking group, followers of the
West Syriac Rite The West Syriac Rite, also called Syro-Antiochene Rite, is an Eastern Christian liturgical rite that employs the Divine Liturgy of Saint James in the West Syriac dialect, West Syriac dialect. It is practised in the Maronite Church, the Syri ...
of the
Syriac Orthodox Church , native_name_lang = syc , image = Syrian Orthodox Patriarchate 2k18.jpg , imagewidth = , alt = Cathedral of Saint George , caption = Cathedral of Saint George, Damascus, Syria ...
and the Syrian Catholic Church; they kept the pre-Islamic Syrian (Syriac) identity throughout the ages, asserting their culture in face of the Arabic language dominance. Linguists, such as
Carl Brockelmann Carl Brockelmann (17 September 1868 – 6 May 1956) German Semiticist, was the foremost orientalist of his generation. He was a professor at the universities in Breslau, Berlin Berlin (; ) is the Capital city, capital and List of cities in ...
and François Lenormant, suggested that the rise of the
GarshuniGarshuni or Karshuni (Syriac alphabet: , Arabic alphabet: ) are Arabic writings using the Syriac alphabet. The word "Garshuni" was used by George Kiraz to coin the term "garshunography", denoting the writing of one language in the script of another. ...
writing (using
Syriac alphabet The Syriac alphabet ( ) is a writing system A writing system is a method of visually representing verbal communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be in relation with") is "an apparent answer to ...
to write Arabic) was an attempt by the Syriac Orthodox to assert their identity. Syriac is still the liturgical language for most of the different Syriac churches in Syria. The Syriac Orthodox Church was known as the Syrian Orthodox Church until 2000, when the holy synod decided to rename it to avoid any nationalistic connotations; the Catholic Church still have "Syrian" in its official name. *The
Western Neo-Aramaic Western Neo-Aramaic (), more commonly referred to as Siryon (), is a modern Western Aramaic language. Today, it is only spoken in three villages in the Anti-Lebanon Mountains of western Syria. Western Neo-Aramaic is the only modern language, livi ...
-speaking group, that is, the inhabitants of Bakh'a,
Jubb'adin Jubb'adin or Ġuppaҁōḏ ( ar, جبعدين, arc, ܓܦܥܘܕ - ) is a village in southern Syria Syria ( ar, سُورِيَا, ''Sūriyā''), officially the Syrian Arab Republic ( ar, ٱلْجُمْهُورِيَّةُ ٱلْعَرَبِ ...
and
Ma'loula Maaloula or Maʿlūlā ( arc, ܡܥܠܘܠܐ in Eastern Aramaic Syriac alphabet, Syriac script, in Western Aramaic Western Neo-Aramaic#Alphabet, Maalouli script; ar, معلولا) is a town in the Rif Dimashq Governorate in Syria. The town is locat ...
. The residents of Bakh'a and Jubb'adin converted to Islam in the eighteenth century, while in Ma'loula, the majority are Christians, mainly belonging to the
Melkite Greek Catholic Church The Melkite Greek Catholic Church ( ar, كنيسة الروم الملكيين الكاثوليك, '; el, Μελχιτική Ελληνική Καθολική Εκκλησία; la, Ecclesiae Graecae Melchitae Catholicae) or Melkite Byzantine Ca ...
, but also to the
Greek Orthodox Church of Antioch The Greek Orthodox Church of Antioch, also known as the Antiochian Orthodox Church and legally as the Greek Orthodox Patriarchate of Antioch and All the East ( ar, بطريركية أنطاكية وسائر المشرق للروم الأرثوذك ...
, in addition to a Muslim minority, who speaks the same Aramaic dialect of the Christian residents. The people of those villages use Arabic intensively to communicate with each other and the rest of the country; this led to a noticeable Arabic influence on their Aramaic language where around 20% of its vocabulary is of Arabic roots. Bakh'a is steadily losing its dialect; by 1971, people aged younger than 40 could no longer use the Aramaic language properly, although they could understand it. The situation of Bakh'a will eventually lead to the extinction of its Aramaic dialect.


Identity

Besides religious identities, the Syrian people are split among three identities, the Arab, Syriac, and Syrian identities. Many Muslims and some Arabic-speaking Christians describe themselves as Arabs, while many Aramaic-speaking Christians and some Muslims prefer to describe themselves as Syriacs or Arameans. Also some people from Syria, mainly
Syrian nationalists Syrians ( ar, سوريون, ''Sūriyyūn''), also known as the Syrian people ( ar, الشعب السوري, Romanization of Arabic, ALA-LC: ''al-sha‘ab al-Sūrī''; syr, ܣܘܪܝܝܢ), are the majority inhabitants of Syria and share common Lev ...
, describe themselves only as Syrians or ethnic Syrians. Most of the divisions in ethnic nomenclature are actually due to religious backgrounds.


Genetics

Genetic tests on Syrians were included in many genetic studies. The
genetic marker A genetic marker is a gene In biology, a gene (from ''genos'' "...Wilhelm Johannsen coined the word gene to describe the Mendelian_inheritance#History, Mendelian units of heredity..." (Greek language, Greek) meaning ''generation'' or ''birth ...
which identifies descendants of the ancient
Levant The Levant () is an term referring to a large area in the region of . In its narrowest sense, it is equivalent to the , which included present-day , , , , and most of southwest of the middle . In its widest historical sense, the Levant ...

Levant
ines is found in Syrians in high proportion. Modern Syrians exhibit "high affinity to the Levant" based on studies comparing modern and ancient DNA samples. Syrians cluster closely with ancient Levantine populations of the Neolithic and Bronze Ages. A Levantine ancestral genetic component was identified; it is estimated that the Levantine and the Arabian Peninsula/East African ancestral components diverged 23,700-15,500 years ago, while the divergence between the Levantine and European components happened 15,900-9,100 years ago. The Levantine ancestral component is the most recurrent in Levantines (42–68%); the Arabian Peninsula/East African ancestral components represent around 25% of Syrian genetic make-up. The paternal Y-DNA haplogroup J1, which reaches its highest frequencies in Yemen 72.6% and Qatar 58.3%, accounted for 33.6% of Syrians. The J2 group accounted for 20.8% of Syrians; other Y-DNA haplogroups include the
E1B1B E-M215, also known as E1b1b and formerly E3b, is a major human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup In human genetics, a human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup is a haplogroup defined by mutation Image:Darwin Hybrid Tulip Mutation 2014-05-01.jpg, A t ...
12.0%, I 5.0%,
R1a Haplogroup R1a, or haplogroup R-M420, is a human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup In human genetics, a human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup is a haplogroup defined by mutation Image:Darwin Hybrid Tulip Mutation 2014-05-01.jpg, A tulip flower ex ...
10.0% and
R1b Haplogroup R1b (R-M343), previously known as Hg1 and Eu18, is a human Y-chromosome haplogroup. It is the most frequently occurring paternal lineage in Western Europe Western Europe is the western region of Europe. The region's countries a ...

R1b
15.0%. The Syrians are closest to other Levantine populations: the
Palestinians The Palestinian people ( ar, الشعب الفلسطيني, ''ash-sha‘b al-Filasṭīnī''), also referred to as Palestinians ( ar, الفلسطينيون, links=no, ''al-Filasṭīniyyūn''; he, פָלַסְטִינִים) or Palestinian ...
,
Lebanese Lebanese may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to Lebanon * Lebanese people, people from Lebanon or of Lebanese descent * Lebanese Arabic, the colloquial form of Arabic spoken in Lebanon * Lebanese culture * Lebanese cuisine See also

and Jordanians; this closeness can be explained with the common Canaanite ancestry and geographical unity which was broken only in the twentieth century with the advent of British and French mandates. Regarding the genetic relation between the Syrians and the Lebanese based on Y-DNA, Muslims from Lebanon show closer relation to Syrians than their Christian compatriots. The people of Western Syria show close relation with the people of Northern Lebanon.
Mitochondrial DNA Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA or mDNA) is the DNA Deoxyribonucleic acid (; DNA) is a molecule File:Pentacene on Ni(111) STM.jpg, A scanning tunneling microscopy image of pentacene molecules, which consist of linear chains of five car ...

Mitochondrial DNA
shows the Syrians to have affinity with Europe; main haplogroups are H and R. Based on Mitochondrial DNA, the Syrians, Palestinian, Lebanese and Jordanians form a close cluster. Compared to the Lebanese, Bedouins and Palestinians, the Syrians have noticeably more Northern European component, estimated at 7%. Regarding the HLA alleles, Syrians, and other Levantine populations, exhibit "key differences" from other
Arab The Arabs (singular Arab ; singular ar, عَرَبِيٌّ, : , Arabic pronunciation: , plural ar, عَرَبٌ, : , Arabic pronunciation: ) are an mainly inhabiting the . In modern usage the term refers to those who originate from an Arab co ...

Arab
populations; based on
HLA-DRB1 HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DRB1 beta chain is a protein Proteins are large biomolecules or macromolecules that are comprised of one or more long chains of amino acid residue (biochemistry), residues. Proteins perform a vast array o ...
alleles, Syrians were close to eastern Mediterranean populations, such as the
Cretans Crete ( el, Κρήτη, translit=, Modern: , Ancient: '','' ) is the largest and most populous of the Greek islands, the 88th largest island in the world and the fifth largest island in the Mediterranean Sea The Mediterranean Sea is a ...

Cretans
and Lebanese Armenians. Studying the genetic relation between
Jews Jews ( he, יְהוּדִים ISO 259-2 ISO The International Organization for Standardization (ISO ) is an international standard An international standard is a technical standard A technical standard is an established norm (social), ...

Jews
and Syrians showed that the two populations share close affinity. Apparently, the cultural influence of Arab expansion in the
Eastern Mediterranean Eastern Mediterranean is a loose definition of the eastern Eastern may refer to: Transportation *China Eastern Airlines, a current Chinese airline based in Shanghai *Eastern Air, former name of Zambia Skyways *Eastern Air Lines, a defunct Amer ...

Eastern Mediterranean
in the seventh century was more prominent than the genetic influx. However, the expansion of Islam did leave an impact on Levantine genes; religion drove Levantine Muslims to mix with other Muslim populations, who were close culturally despite the geographic distance, and this produced genetic similarities between Levantine Muslims and Moroccan and Yemeni populations. Christians and
Druze Druze (; ar, درزي ' or ', plural ') are members of an Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East The Mi ...
became a genetic isolate in the predominantly Islamic world.


Language

Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East The Middle East is a list of transcontinental countries, transcontinental region ...

Arabic
is the mother tongue of the majority of Syrians as well as the official state language. The Syrian variety of
Levantine Arabic Levantine Arabic, also called Shami (autonym Autonym may refer to: * Autonym, the name used by a person to refer to themselves or their language; see Exonym and endonym An endonym (from Greek: , 'inner' + , 'name'; also known as autonym) is ...
differs from
Modern Standard Arabic Modern Standard Arabic (MSA) or Modern Written Arabic (shortened to MWA), terms used mostly by Western linguists, is the variety of standardized Standardization or standardisation is the process of implementing and developing technical standa ...
.
Western Neo-Aramaic Western Neo-Aramaic (), more commonly referred to as Siryon (), is a modern Western Aramaic language. Today, it is only spoken in three villages in the Anti-Lebanon Mountains of western Syria. Western Neo-Aramaic is the only modern language, livi ...
, the only surviving Western Aramaic language, is still spoken in three villages (
Ma'loula Maaloula or Maʿlūlā ( arc, ܡܥܠܘܠܐ in Eastern Aramaic Syriac alphabet, Syriac script, in Western Aramaic Western Neo-Aramaic#Alphabet, Maalouli script; ar, معلولا) is a town in the Rif Dimashq Governorate in Syria. The town is locat ...
,
Al-Sarkha (Bakhah) Al-Sarkha, Bakhʽah or Bakhʽa ( ar, الصرخه or , arc, ܒܟܥܐ - ) is a Syria Syria ( ar, سُورِيَا, ''Sūriyā''), officially the Syrian Arab Republic ( ar, ٱلْجُمْهُورِيَّةُ ٱلْعَرَبِيَّةُ ٱل ...
and
Jubb'adin Jubb'adin or Ġuppaҁōḏ ( ar, جبعدين, arc, ܓܦܥܘܕ - ) is a village in southern Syria Syria ( ar, سُورِيَا, ''Sūriyā''), officially the Syrian Arab Republic ( ar, ٱلْجُمْهُورِيَّةُ ٱلْعَرَبِ ...
) in the Anti-Lebanon Mountains by both Muslim and Christian residents. Syriac-Assyrians in the northeast of the country are mainly Surayt/Turoyo speakers but there are also some speakers of
Assyrian Neo-Aramaic Assyrian Neo-Aramaic or simply Assyrian ( or ''Sūreṯ''), also known as Syriac, Eastern Syriac, Neo-Syriac and Modern Syriac, is an Aramaic Aramaic (Classical Syriac The Syriac language (; syc, ܠܫܢܐ ܣܘܪܝܝܐ / '), also kn ...
, especially in the Khabour Valley.
Classical Syriac The Syriac language (; syc, / '), also known as Syriac Aramaic (''Syrian Aramaic'', ''Syro-Aramaic'') and Classical Syriac (in its literary and liturgical form), is an Aramaic Aramaic (Classical Syriac The Syriac language (; syc, ...

Classical Syriac
is also used as a liturgical language by Syriac Christians. English, and to a lesser extent French, is widely understood and used in interactions with tourists and other foreigners.


Religion and minority groups

Religious differences in Syria have historically been tolerated, and religious minorities tend to retain distinct cultural, and religious identities.
Sunni Islam Sunni Islam () is by far the largest branch A branch ( or , ) or tree branch (sometimes referred to in botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, ...
is the religion of 74% of Syrians. The
Alawites The Alawis, or Alawites ( ar, علوية ''Alawīyah''), are a sect of Shia Islam Shia Islam or Shi'ism is one of the two main Islamic schools and branches, branches of Islam. It holds that the Prophets and messengers in Islam, Islamic ...
, a variety of
Shia Islam Shia Islam or Shi'ism is the second largest branch A branch ( or , ) or tree branch (sometimes referred to in botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanis ...
, make up 12% of the population and mostly live in and around
Tartus Tartus ( ar, طَرْطُوس / ALA-LC ALA-LC (American Library Association - Library of Congress) is a set of standards for romanization, the representation of text in other writing systems using the Latin script. Applications The system is used ...

Tartus
and
Latakia Latakia ( ar, ٱللَّاذْقِيَّة \ ٱللَّاذِقِيَّة, '; Syrian Arabic, Syrian pronunciation: ) is the principal port city of Syria, as well as the capital of the Latakia Governorate. Historically, it has also been known as L ...
.
Christians Christians () are people who follow or adhere to Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic, Monotheism, monotheistic religion based on the Life of Jesus in the New Testament, life and Teachings of Jesus, teachings of ...

Christians
make up 10% of the country. Most
Syrian ChristiansSyrian or Syriac Christians may refer to * Adherents of Christianity in Syria * Adherents of Syriac Christianity, various Christian bodies of Syriac traditions, especially: ** Assyrian people, a.k.a. ''Syriacs'', a Christian ethnic group of the Midd ...

Syrian Christians
adhere to the
Byzantine Rite The Byzantine Rite, also known as the Greek Rite or the Rite of Constantinople, identifies the wide range of cultural, liturgical, and canonical practices that developed in the Eastern Orthodox Church of Constantinople. The canonical hours are v ...
; the two largest are the
Antiochian Orthodox Church The Greek Orthodox Church of Antioch, also known as the Antiochian Orthodox Church and legally as the Greek Orthodox Patriarchate of Antioch and All the East ( ar, بطريركية أنطاكية وسائر المشرق للروم الأرثوذك ...
and the
Melkite Greek Catholic Church The Melkite Greek Catholic Church ( ar, كنيسة الروم الملكيين الكاثوليك, '; el, Μελχιτική Ελληνική Καθολική Εκκλησία; la, Ecclesiae Graecae Melchitae Catholicae) or Melkite Byzantine Ca ...
. The
Druze Druze (; ar, درزي ' or ', plural ') are members of an Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East The Mi ...
are a mountainous people who reside in
Jabal al-Druze Jabal al-Druze ( ar, جبل الدروز, ''jabal ad-durūz'', ''Mountain of the Druze''), officially Jabal al-Arab ( ar, جبل العرب, links=no, ''jabal al-ʿarab'', ''Mountain of the Arabs''), is an elevated volcanic region in the As-Suway ...
who helped spark the
Great Syrian Revolt The Great Syrian Revolt ( ar, الثورة السورية الكبرى) or Great Druze Revolt (1925–1927) was a general uprising across Mandatory Syria and Mandatory Lebanon, Lebanon aimed at getting rid of the French, who had been in control ...
. The Ismailis are an even smaller sect that originated in Asia. Many Armenian and Assyrian Christians fled
Turkey Turkey ( tr, Türkiye ), officially the Republic of Turkey, is a country located mainly on Anatolia Anatolia,, tr, Anadolu Yarımadası), and the Anatolian plateau. also known as Asia Minor, is a large peninsula in Western Asia an ...

Turkey
during the
Armenian genocide The Armenian Genocide (Terminology of the Armenian Genocide, other names) was the systematic mass murder and ethnic cleansing of around 1 million ethnic Armenians from Asia Minor and adjoining regions by the Ottoman Empire and its ruling ...

Armenian genocide
and the
Assyrian genocide The ''Seyfo'' or ''Sayfo'' ( syr, ܣܝܦܐ ; see below), also known as the Assyrian genocide or the Syriac-Aramean Genocide, was the mass slaughter and deportation of Syriac Christians (mostly belonging to the Syriac Orthodox Church, Church o ...

Assyrian genocide
and settled in Syria. There are also roughly 500,000
Palestinians The Palestinian people ( ar, الشعب الفلسطيني, ''ash-sha‘b al-Filasṭīnī''), also referred to as Palestinians ( ar, الفلسطينيون, links=no, ''al-Filasṭīniyyūn''; he, פָלַסְטִינִים) or Palestinian ...
, who are mostly descendants of refugees from the 1948 Israeli-Arab War. The community of
Syrian Jews Syrian Jews ( he, יהודי סוריה ''Yehudey Surya'', ar, الْيَهُود السُّورِيُّون ''al-Yahūd as-Sūriyyūn'', colloquially called SYs in the United States) are Jews who lived in the region of the modern state of Syria ...
inside Syria once numbered 30,000 in 1947, but has only 200 today. The Syrian people's beliefs and outlooks, similar to those of most Arabs and people of the wider Middle-East, are a mosaic of West and East. Conservative and liberally minded people will live right next to each other. Like the other countries in the region, religion permeates life; the government registers every Syrian's religious affiliation. However, the number of non-believers in Syria is increasing but there is no credible source or statistics to support this information.


Cuisine

Syrian cuisine is dominated by ingredients native to the region.
Olive oil Olive oil is a liquid fat obtained from olive The olive, botanical name ''Olea europaea'', meaning "European olive", is a species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomi ...

Olive oil
,
garlic Garlic (''Allium sativum'') is a species of bulbous flowering plant in the genus ''Allium''. Its close relatives include the onion, shallot, leek, chive, Allium fistulosum, Welsh onion and Allium chinense, Chinese onion. It is native to Central ...

garlic
,
olive The olive, botanical name ''Olea europaea'', meaning "European olive", is a species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodivers ...

olive
s,
spearmint Spearmint, also known as garden mint, common mint, lamb mint and mackerel mint, is a species In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, c ...

spearmint
, and
sesame oil Sesame oil is an edible derived from s. The oil is one of the earliest-known crop-based oils. Worldwide mass modern production is limited due to the inefficient manual harvesting process required to extract the oil. Sesame, in the language and ...

sesame oil
are some of the ingredients that are used in many traditional meals. Traditional Syrian dishes enjoyed by Syrians include,
tabbouleh Tabbouleh ( ar, تبولة ''tabūla''; also tabouleh, tabbouli, tabouli, or taboulah) is a Levant The Levant () is an approximate historical geographical term referring to a large area in the Eastern Mediterranean region of Western Asi ...

tabbouleh
, labaneh, , wara' 'enab, ,
kebab Kebab is a cooked meat dish (food), dish, with its origins in Middle Eastern cuisine, Middle Eastern cuisines. Many variants are popular around the world. In most Anglosphere, English-speaking countries, a ''kebab'' may be the classic shish keb ...

kebab
,
Kibbeh Kibbeh (, also kubba and other spellings; ar, كبة, kibba) is a family of dishes based on spiced ground meat, onions, and grain, popular in Middle Eastern cuisine Middle Eastern cuisine or West Asian cuisine includes Arab cuisine, Arab, ...

Kibbeh
,
sfiha Sfiha or sfeeha ( ar, صفيحة, ṣafīḥa) is a dish consisting of flatbread A flatbread is a bread Bread is a staple food prepared from a dough of flour and water Water is an Inorganic compound, inorganic, Transparency ...

sfiha
, ,
hummus Hummus (, ; ar, حُمُّص, 'chickpeas'; full Arabic name: ''ḥummuṣ bi-ṭ-ṭaḥīna'' ar, حمص بالطحينة, 'chickpeas with tahini') is a Middle Eastern The Middle East ( ar, الشرق الأوسط, ISO 233 The inter ...

hummus
, mana'eesh, , and
fattoush Fattoush ( ar, فتوش, also fattush, fatush, fattoosh, and fattouche) is a Levantine salad made from toasted or fried pieces of khubz (Arabic flat bread) combined with mixed greens and other vegetable Vegetables are parts of plants that ...

fattoush
. A typical Syrian breakfast is a
meze Mazzeh, Meze, Mezze, or Mazza (; fa, مزه ''mazzeh'' or ''mazzah'', meaning "taste") is a selection of small dishes served as appetizers in much of West Asia Western Asia, also West Asia, is the westernmost subregion of Asia Asia ( ...

meze
. It is an assortment platter of foods with cheeses, pickles, olives, and spreads. Meze is usually served with Arab-style tea - highly concentrated black tea, which is highly sweetened and served in small glass cups. Another popular drink, especially with Christians and non-practicing Muslims, is the arak, a liquor produced from grapes or dates and flavored with
anise Anise (, ; '), also called aniseed or rarely anix, is a flowering plant Flowering plants include multiple members of the clade Angiospermae (), commonly called angiosperms. The term "angiosperm" is derived from the Greek Greek may refer t ...

anise
that can have an alcohol content of over 90% ABV (however, most commercial Syrian arak brands are about 40-60% ABV).


Notable people


Scholars

*
Lucian Lucian of Samosata, '; la, Lucianus Samosatensis (Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa''), generally referre ...
, a Greek language author. *
Posidonius Posidonius (; grc-gre, Ποσειδώνιος , "of Poseidon Poseidon (; grc-gre, Ποσειδῶν, ) was one of the Twelve Olympians upright=1.8, Fragment of a relief Relief is a sculptural technique where the sculpted eleme ...
, a polymath *
Libanius Libanius ( grc-gre, Λιβάνιος, ; c. 314 – 392 or 393) was a Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country loc ...
, Greek language author and orator, from an Antiochan family. *
John Chrysostom John Chrysostom (; gr, Ἰωάννης ὁ Χρυσόστομος; 14 September 407) was an important Early Church Father The Church Fathers, Early Church Fathers, Christian Fathers, or Fathers of the Church were ancient and influential ...
, Syrian-Greek founding father of the church. *
Hunayn ibn Ishaq Hunayn ibn Ishaq al-Ibadi (also Hunain or Hunein) ( ar, أبو زيد حنين بن إسحاق العبادي; , la, Iohannitius, syr, ܚܢܝܢ ܒܪ ܐܝܣܚܩ) (809–873) was an influential Assyrian Nestorian Christian Nestorianism is a ...
, scholar, physician, and a scientist. *
Ishaq ibn Hunayn Abū Yaʿqūb Isḥāq ibn Ḥunayn ( ar, إسحاق بن حنين) (c. 830 Baghdad Baghdad (; ar, بَغْدَاد ) is the capital of Iraq Iraq ( ar, ٱلْعِرَاق, '; ku, عێراق '), officially the Republic of Iraq ( ar, ج ...
, was an influential physician and translator. * Thebit, a polymath who has a significant contributions in
maths Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers (arithmetic and number theory), formulas and related structures (algebra), shapes and spaces in which they are contained (geometry), and quantities and their changes (calc ...

maths
,
astronomy Astronomy (from el, ἀστρονομία, literally meaning the science that studies the laws of the stars) is a natural science that studies astronomical object, celestial objects and celestial event, phenomena. It uses mathematics, phys ...
and
physics Physics is the natural science that studies matter, its Elementary particle, fundamental constituents, its Motion (physics), motion and behavior through Spacetime, space and time, and the related entities of energy and force. "Physical scie ...

physics
. He worked in translation from
SyriacSyriac may refer to: *Syriac language, a dialect of Middle Aramaic * Syriac alphabet ** Syriac (Unicode block) ** Syriac Supplement * Neo-Aramaic languages also known as Syriac in most native vernaculars * Syriac Christianity, the churches using Syr ...

Syriac
and
Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as of ...
into
Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East The Middle East is a list of transcontinental countries, transcontinental region ...

Arabic
* Severus Sebokht the first Syrian to mention the Indian number system. *
Al-Battani Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad ibn Jābir ibn Sinān al-Raqqī al-Ḥarrānī aṣ-Ṣābiʾ al-Battānī ( ar, محمد بن جابر بن سنان البتاني) ( Latinized as Albategnius, Albategni or Albatenius) (c. 858 – 929) was a Syrian A ...

Al-Battani
, who introduced a number of trigonometric relations, and his Kitāb az-Zīj was frequently quoted by many medieval astronomers, including
Copernicus Nicolaus Copernicus (; pl, Mikołaj Kopernik; german: link=no, Niclas Koppernigk, modern: ''Nikolaus Kopernikus''; 19 February 1473 – 24 May 1543) was a Renaissance The Renaissance ( , ) , from , with the same meanings. was a ...

Copernicus
. *
Ibn al-Nafis Ala-al-Din abu al-Hasan Ali ibn Abi-Hazm al-Qarshi al-Dimashqi (Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language that first emerged in the 1st to 4th centuries CE.Semitic languages: an international handbook / edited by Stefan Weninger ...

Ibn al-Nafis
, a physician mostly famous for being the first to describe the pulmonary circulation of the blood. *Ibn al-Shatir, an astronomer. He worked as muwaqqit (موقت, religious timekeeper) in the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus and constructed a sundial for its minaret in 1371/72. *John of Damascus, a polymath and theologian *Meleager of Gadara, Syrian-Greek poet *Raphael of Brooklyn, of Damascene Syrian parents. The first Orthodox bishop to be consecrated in North America. *Hunein Maassab, professor of Epidemiology known for developing the Live attenuated influenza vaccine. *Shadia Habbal, an astronomer and physicist, played a key role in establishing the NASA Parker Solar Probe *Riad Barmada, orthopaedic surgeon and the former president of the Illinois Orthopedic Society *Fawwaz T. Ulaby, Professor of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science at the University of Michigan, received the IEEE Edison Medal in 2006. *Juan José Saer, Argentine writer. Lecturer at the University of Rennes 2 – Upper Brittany, University of Rennes and winner of the Nadal Prize. *Kefah Mokbel, Fellowship of the Royal College of Surgeons, FRCS. The lead breast surgeon at the London Breast Institute of The Princess Grace Hospital, professor of Breast Cancer Surgery (The Brunel Institute of Cancer Genetics and Pharmacogenomics) Brunel University London. *Oussama Khatib, a roboticist and a professor of Computer Science at Stanford University. Received the IEEE Robotics and Automation Society, IEEE RAS for Distinguished Service Award (2013). *Dina Katabi, director of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Wireless Center. *Malatius Jaghnoon, Epigrapher and founder of the archaeological society in Homs. *Jorge Sahade, founder of the University of Buenos Aires Institute of Astronomy and Physics of Space (IAFE) and the first Latin American to achieve the presidency of the International Astronomical Union (IAU).


Public figures and politicians

*Julia Domna, Roman empress *Julia Maesa, Roman empress *Elagabalus, Roman emperor *Alexander Severus, Roman emperor *Philip the Arab, Roman emperor *Papinian, Roman jurist *Tiberius Claudius Pompeianus, Roman Consul *Leo III the Isaurian, Leo III the Syrian, Byzantine emperor and the founder of the Byzantine Empire under the Isaurian dynasty, Syrian dynasty. *Eutropia wife of Roman Emperor, Emperor Maximian. *Cassiodorus, Consul of the Roman Empire. *Tiye, Queen consort of Egypt. *Carlos Menem (born July 2, 1930), former president of Argentina (1989-1999). *Carlos Fayt (1918-2016), former minister of the Supreme Court of Argentina (1983-2015). *Tareck El Aissami, Vice President of Venezuela (2017-2018), serving as Minister of Industries and National Production since 14 June 2018. *Oscar Aguad, Argentine politician, was the minister of defense. *Juliana Awada (born April 3, 1974), former First Ladies and Gentlemen of Argentina, First Lady of Argentina (2015-2019). *Rosemary Barkett (born 1939), was the first woman to serve on the Florida Supreme Court, and the first woman Chief Justice of that court. She currently serves as a federal judge on the United States Court of Appeals for the Eleventh Circuit *Rushdi al-Kikhya, Syrian political leader *Mustafa Bey Barmada, Mustafa bey Barmada, former General Governor of state of Aleppo *Haqqi al-Azm, Haqi Al-azm, former General Governor of state of Damascus *Shukri al-Quwatli, former president of Syria. *Nazim al-Kudsi, former president of Syria. *Hashim al-Atassi, former president of Syria. *Khalid al-Azm, former prime minister of Syria *Saadallah al-Jabiri, former prime minister of Syria *Fares al-Khoury, former prime minister of Syria *Said al-Ghazzi, former prime minister of Syria *Nureddin al-Atassi, former president of Syria. *Nizar Kabbani, Syrian Poet, and a prominent feminist figure in Western Asia and North Africa. *Mitch Daniels, American politician, Governor of Indiana from 2005 to 2013 and President of Purdue University. *Queen Noor of Jordan, widow of King Hussein of Jordan, is of paternal Syrian ancestry. *Justin Amash Former U.S. Representative. *Omar Alghabra, Canadian politician, member of the House of Commons of Canada, and federal Minister of Transport (Canada), Minister of Transport. *Romeu Tuma (1931 - 2010), Brazilian Politician.


Religious Figures

*Pope Anicetus c. 168, Bishop of Rome (Pope) *Saint Peter, The first Pope of the Vatican * Pope John V, Roman Catholic pope, 685-686 *Pope Sergius I, Roman Catholic pope, 687-701 * Pope Sisinnius, Roman Catholic pope, 708 * Pope Constantine, Roman Catholic pope, 708-715 * Pope Gregory III, Roman Catholic pope, 731-741 *Philip the Apostle, Christian saint and apostle *James the Great, One of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus *Simeon Stylites, saint *Thaddeus of Edessa، was one of the seventy disciples of Jesus. *Luke the Evangelist, is one of the Four Evangelists *Sergius and Bacchus, martyrs and military saints *Lucian of Antioch, Christian martyr, presbyter and theologian *


Business

*Steve Jobs (February 24, 1955 – October 5, 2011), was the co-founder and former Chief executive officer, CEO of Apple Inc., Apple, the largest The Walt Disney Company, Disney shareholder, and a member of Disney's Board of Directors. Jobs was considered a leading figure in both the computer industry, computer and entertainment industry, entertainment industries. *Jacques Saadé, was a billionaire with a net worth of $7 billion. *Rodolphe Saadé, billionaire with a net worth of $10.9 billion. *Jose Mugrabi billionaire with a net worth $5 billion *Ayman Asfari, Chief Executive of Petrofac. *Najeeb Halaby, American politician and businessman, former Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense, former CEO and chairman of Pan American World Airways, Pan Am and father of Queen Noor of Jordan. *Wafic Saïd, established the Saïd Foundation in 1982 and the Saïd Business School at the University of Oxford in 1996. *Mohed Altrad, French-Syrian businessman. *Arturo Elías Ayub, Mexican businessman, Director of Telmex. *Joseph Safra, Chairman of Banco Safra. *Ronaldo Mouchawar, CEO and co-founder of Souq.com *Sam Yagan, Internet entrepreneur best known as the co-founder of OkCupid, SparkNotes and Match.com. *Omar Hamoui, the founder of AdMob, has a net worth of $300 million. *Mohammed Rahif Hakmi, founder and Chairman of Armada Group


Entertainment

*Leonardo Favio, Argentine actor, screenwriter and film director. *Flamma, gladiator who's considered one of the most successful of his time. *Bob Marley, pop Singer *Mohamad Fityan (born August 1, 1984), musician and composer. *Hala Gorani (born March 1, 1970), news anchor and CNN correspondent. *René Angélil, Canadian singer and manager, the husband and former manager of singer Celine Dion. *Shannon Elizabeth, American actress and former fashion model. Of paternal Syrian ancestry. *Wentworth Miller, American actor, model, screenwriter and producer. Of partial maternal Syrian ancestry.Paumgarten, Nic
Central Casting: The Race Card
''The New Yorker'', November 10, 2003. Retrieved June 16, 2008.
* Teri Hatcher, American actress. * Jerry Seinfeld, American comedian. * Bassam Kousa, Syrian actress. *Paula Abdul, American singer, songwriter, dancer, choreographer, actress, and television personality.


Sport

*Ghada Shouaa, heptathlete, olympic gold medalist. *Philipp Stamma was a chess master and a pioneer of modern chess. *Yasser Seirawan, chess grandmaster and four-time United States champion. *Carolina Duer, Argentine boxer and former world champion. *Brandon Saad, American ice hockey player, of paternal Syrian descent. *Rocco Baldelli, American former MLB player. *Sami Zayn, professional wrestler. *Mojo Rawley, professional wrestler


See also

*Ottoman Syria *
Arameans The Arameans (Old Aramaic Old Aramaic refers to the earliest stage of the Aramaic language Aramaic ( Classical Syriac: ''Arāmāyā''; Old Aramaic: ; Aramaic alphabet, Imperial Aramaic: ; Hebrew alphabet, square script ) is a language t ...
*Greeks *Arabs *Al-Shaitat *
Assyrians Assyrian may refer to: * Assyria, a major Mesopotamian kingdom and empire * Assyrian people, an ethnic group indigenous to the Middle East * Assyrian Church (disambiguation) * Assyrian language (disambiguation) * SS Assyrian, SS ''Assyrian'', seve ...


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External links


Syrian people, Every CulturePhotos and images of Syrian people, Syrian History - OnlineCollections of images of Eastern Mediterranean people, including Syrian people, Mideast ImageSyrian people, Encyclopædia Britannica
{{Authority control Syrian people, Syrian diaspora Semitic-speaking peoples Articles containing video clips Ethnic groups in the Middle East