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ar, المحكمة العليا , image = Emblem of Israel dark blue full.svg , imagesize = 100px , caption = Emblem of Israel , motto = , established = , location =
Givat Ram Givat Ram ( he, גִּבְעַת רָם; ar, تلة الشيخ بدر, translit=Talla aš-Šayḫ Badr, lit=Hill of Sheikh Badr ) is a neighborhood in central Jerusalem. Many of Israel's most important national institutions are located in Givat ...
,
Jerusalem Jerusalem (; he, יְרוּשָׁלַיִם ; ar, القُدس, ', , (combining the Biblical and common usage Arabic names); grc, Ἱερουσαλήμ/Ἰεροσόλυμα, Hierousalḗm/Hierosóluma; hy, Երուսաղեմ, Erusał ...

Jerusalem
, coordinates = , type =
Presidential President most commonly refers to: *President (corporate title) *President (education), a leader of a college or university *President (government title) President may also refer to: Automobiles * Nissan President, a 1966–2010 Japanese full- ...
appointment upon nomination by the Judicial Selection Committee , authority =
Basic Laws of Israel The Basic Laws of Israel ( he, , χuke ha-yesod) are 14 constitutional laws of the State of Israel, and some of them can only be changed by a supermajority vote in the Knesset The Knesset ( he, הַכְּנֶסֶת ; "gathering" or "asse ...
, appeals = , terms = , positions = 15 , website = https://supreme.court.gov.il , chiefjudgetitle = President , chiefjudgename =
Esther Hayut Esther Hayut (; born 16 October 1953) is the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of Israel The Supreme Court (, ''Beit HaMishpat HaElyon'') is the Supreme court, highest court in Israel. It has ultimate appellate jurisdiction over all other court ...

Esther Hayut
, termstart = 26 October 2017 , termend = , termend2 = , chiefjudgetitle2= Deputy President , chiefjudgename2 =
Hanan Melcer Image:Justice Hanan Meltzer2013.jpg, Hanan Melcer Hanan Melcer (, born April 1951) is an Israeli judge who currently serves as a justice on the Supreme Court of Israel, and as of October 2017, Deputy Chief Justice. Biography Hanan Melcer was born ...
, termstart2 = 2017 , termend3 = , termend4 = The Supreme Court (, ''Beit HaMishpat HaElyon''; ar, المحكمة العليا) is the
highest court
highest court
in
Israel Israel (; he, יִשְׂרָאֵל, translit=Yīsrāʾēl; ar, إِسْرَائِيل, translit=ʾIsrāʾīl), officially the State of Israel ( he, מְדִינַת יִשְׂרָאֵל, label=none, translit=Medīnat Yīsrāʾēl; ), is a ...

Israel
. It has ultimate
appellate jurisdiction Appellate jurisdiction is the power of an appellate court An appellate court, commonly called an ''appeals court'', ''court of appeals'' (American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United State ...
over all other courts, and in some cases
original jurisdiction In common law legal systems original jurisdiction of a court A court is any person or institution, often as a government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state Sta ...
. The Supreme Court consists of 15
Judge A judge is a person who presides over court A court is any person or institution, often as a government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a State (polity), state. In th ...

Judge
s, who are appointed by the
President of Israel President most commonly refers to: *President (corporate title) A president is a leader of an organization, company, community, club, trade union, university or other group. The relationship between a president and a chief executive officer ...
, upon nomination by the Judicial Selection Committee. Once appointed, Judges serve until retirement at the age of 70 unless they resign or are removed from office. The current President of the Supreme Court (equivalent to Chief Justice) is
Esther Hayut Esther Hayut (; born 16 October 1953) is the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of Israel The Supreme Court (, ''Beit HaMishpat HaElyon'') is the Supreme court, highest court in Israel. It has ultimate appellate jurisdiction over all other court ...

Esther Hayut
. The Court is situated in
Jerusalem Jerusalem (; he, יְרוּשָׁלַיִם ; ar, القُدس, ', , (combining the Biblical and common usage Arabic names); grc, Ἱερουσαλήμ/Ἰεροσόλυμα, Hierousalḗm/Hierosóluma; hy, Երուսաղեմ, Erusał ...

Jerusalem
's
Givat Ram Givat Ram ( he, גִּבְעַת רָם; ar, تلة الشيخ بدر, translit=Talla aš-Šayḫ Badr, lit=Hill of Sheikh Badr ) is a neighborhood in central Jerusalem. Many of Israel's most important national institutions are located in Givat ...
governmental campus, about half a kilometer from Israel's legislature, the
Knesset The Knesset ( he, הַכְּנֶסֶת ; "gathering" or "assembly") is the unicameral In government, unicameralism (Latin , "one" and , "chamber") is the practice of having a single legislative or legislative chamber, parliamentary chamber ...

Knesset
. When ruling as the High Court of Justice (, ''Beit Mishpat Gavo'ah LeTzedek''; also known as its acronym ''Bagatz'', בג"ץ), the court rules on the legality of decisions of State authorities: government decisions, those of local authorities and other bodies and persons performing public functions under the law, and direct challenges to the constitutionality of laws enacted by the Knesset. The court may review actions by state authorities outside of Israel. By the principle of binding
precedent A precedent is a principle or rule established in a previous legal case A legal case is in a general sense a dispute between opposing parties which may be resolved by a court A court is any person or institution, often as a government inst ...
(''stare decisis''), Supreme Court rulings are binding upon every other court, except itself. Over the years, it has ruled on numerous sensitive issues, some of which relate to the
Israeli–Palestinian conflict The Israeli–Palestinian conflict is one of the world's most enduring conflicts, with the Israeli occupation of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip reaching years of conflict. Various attempts have been made to resolve the conflict as part of th ...
, the rights of
Arab citizens
Arab citizens
, and
discrimination Discrimination is the act of making unjustified distinctions between people based on the groups, classes, or other categories to which they belong or are perceived to belong. People may be discriminated on the basis of Racial discrimination, r ...
between
Jewish Jews ( he, יְהוּדִים ISO 259-2 , Israeli pronunciation ) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and nation originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is ...

Jewish
groups in Israel.


Appointment

Supreme Court Judges are appointed by the President of Israel, from names submitted by the Judicial Selection Committee, which is composed of nine members: three Supreme Court Judges (including the President of the Supreme Court), two
cabinet Cabinet or The Cabinet may refer to: Furniture * Cabinetry, a box-shaped piece of furniture with doors and/or drawers * Display cabinet, a piece of furniture with one or more transparent glass sheets or transparent polycarbonate sheets * Filing ...
ministers (one of them being the
Minister of Justice A justice ministry, ministry of justice, or department of justice is a ministry or other government agency in charge of the administration of justice. The ministry or department is often headed by a minister of justice (minister for justice in a ...
), two Knesset members, and two representatives of the
Israel Bar Association Israel Bar Association (; IBA) is the bar association for all Israeli lawyers. History The Israel Bar is organized as a corporation, with a Central Committee, a National Assembly and five districts. Membership is mandatory for lawyers licensed ...
. Appointing Supreme Court Judges requires a majority of 7 of the 9 committee members, or two less than the number present at the meeting. The three organs of state—the legislative, executive, and judicial branches of government—as well as the bar association are represented in the Judges' Nominations Committee. Thus, the shaping of the judicial body, through the manner of judicial appointment, is carried out by all the authorities together. Supreme Court Judges cannot be removed from office except by a decision of the Court of Discipline, consisting of judges appointed by the President of the Supreme Court, or upon a decision of the Judicial Selection Committee—at the proposal of the Minister of Justice or the President of the Supreme Court—with the agreement of seven of its nine members.


Qualifications

The following are qualified to be appointed Judge of the Supreme Court: a person who has held office as a judge of a District Court for a period of five years, or a person who is inscribed, or entitled to be inscribed, in the roll of advocates, and has for not less than ten years –continuously or intermittently, and of which five years at least in Israel – been engaged in the profession of an
advocate An advocate is a professional in the field of law. Different countries' legal systems use the term with somewhat differing meanings. The broad equivalent in many English law English law is the common law List of national legal systems, lega ...

advocate
, served in a judicial capacity or other legal function in the service of the State of Israel or other service as designated in regulations in this regard, or has taught law at a
university A university () is an educational institution, institution of higher education, higher (or Tertiary education, tertiary) education and research which awards academic degrees in several Discipline (academia), academic disciplines. Universities typ ...

university
or a higher school of learning as designated in regulations in this regard. An "eminent jurist" can also be appointed to the Supreme Court.


Judges

The number of Supreme Court Judges is determined by a resolution of the Knesset. Currently, there are 15 Supreme Court Judges. At the head of the Supreme Court and at the head of the judicial system as a whole stands the President of the Supreme Court, and at his or her side, the Deputy President. A judge's term ends when he or she reaches 70 years of age, resigns, dies, is appointed to another position that disqualifies him or her, or is removed from office.


Current Judges

, the Supreme Court Judges are: Gilad Lubinsky Ziv and Sarit Abadian serve as the Court Magistrate Judges (or "Registrars").


Presidents

Below is a list of presidents of the Supreme Court. Italics indicates expected future appointments. * Moshe Smoira (1948–1954) * Yitzhak Olshan (1954–1965) *
Shimon Agranat Shimon Agranat ( he, שמעון אגרנט; September 5, 1906 – August 10, 1992) was an Israeli jurist and the third President of the Supreme Court of Israel The Supreme Court (, ''Beit HaMishpat HaElyon'') is the Supreme court, highest court ...
(1965–1976) * Yoel Zussman (1976–1980) *
Moshe Landau Moshe Landau ( he, משה לנדוי) (29 April 1912 – 1 May 2011) was an Israeli judge. He was the fifth President of the Supreme Court of Israel. Biography Landau was born in Danzig, German Empire, Germany (modern Gdańsk, Poland) to Dr. Isaa ...
(1980–1982) * Yitzhak Kahan (1982–1983) *
Meir Shamgar Meir Shamgar ( he, מאיר שמגר; August 13, 1925 – October 18, 2019) was the chief justice of the Israeli Supreme Court from 1983 to 1995. Biography Meir Shamgar (Sterenberg or Sternberg) was born in the Free City of Danzig (present-day ...

Meir Shamgar
(1983–1995) *
Aharon Barak Aharon Barak ( he, אהרן ברק, born Erik Brick, 16 September 1936) is an Israeli Professor of Law at the Interdisciplinary Center The Interdisciplinary Center Herzliya ( he, המרכז הבינתחומי הרצליה ''Ha-Merkaz ha-Benteh ...

Aharon Barak
(1995–2006) *
Dorit Beinisch Dorit Beinisch ( he, דורית ביניש; born February 28, 1942) was the 9th President (judiciary), president of the Supreme Court of Israel. Appointed on September 14, 2006, after the retirement of Aharon Barak, she served in this position unt ...
(2006–2012) * Asher Grunis (2012–2015) *
Miriam Naor Miriam Naor ( he, מרים נאור; born October 26, 1947) was President of the Supreme Court of Israel from January 2015 to October 2017. Naor retired at the end of October 2017 upon reaching the mandatory judicial retirement age of 70. She was ...
(2015–2017) *
Esther Hayut Esther Hayut (; born 16 October 1953) is the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of Israel The Supreme Court (, ''Beit HaMishpat HaElyon'') is the Supreme court, highest court in Israel. It has ultimate appellate jurisdiction over all other court ...

Esther Hayut
(2017–2023) * '' Uzi Vogelman (2023–2024)'' * '' Yitzhak Amit (2024–2028)'' * '' Noam Sohlberg (2028–2032)'' * ''
Daphne Barak-Erez
Daphne Barak-Erez
(2032–2035)'' * '' Ofer Grosskopf (2035–2039)''


Roles


Appellate court

As an
appellate court An appellate court, commonly called an ''appeals court'', ''court of appeals'' (American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of variety (linguistics ...
, the Supreme Court considers cases on appeal (criminal, civil, and military ) on judgments and other decisions of the District Courts. It also considers appeals on judicial and
quasi-judicial A quasi-judicial body is a non-judicial body which can interpret law. It is an entity such as an Arbitration Image:LCIA.jpg, upright=1.5, The London Court of International Arbitration Arbitration, a form of alternative dispute resolution (ADR ...
decisions of various kinds, such as matters relating to the legality of Knesset elections and disciplinary rulings of the Bar Association.


High Court of Justice

As the High Court of Justice ( he, בית משפט גבוה לצדק, ''Beit Mishpat Gavo'ah LeTzedek''; also known as its acronym ''Bagatz'', בג"ץ), the Supreme Court rules as a court of the first instance, primarily in matters regarding the legality of decisions of State authorities: Government decisions, those of local authorities and other bodies and persons performing public functions under the law, and direct challenges to the constitutionality of laws enacted by the Knesset. The
Israeli Defense Forces Israeli may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to the State of Israel Israel (; he, יִשְׂרָאֵל, translit=Yīsrāʾēl; ar, إِسْرَائِيل, translit=ʾIsrāʾīl), officially the State of Israel ( he, מְדִ ...
are also subject to the HCJ's judicial review. The court has broad discretionary authority to rule on matters in which it considers it necessary to grant relief in the interests of justice, and which are not within the jurisdiction of another court or tribunal. The High Court of Justice grants relief through
orders Orders is a surname In some cultures, a surname, family name, or last name is the portion of one's personal name 300px, First/given, middle and last/family/surname with John Fitzgerald Kennedy as example. This shows a structure typical f ...
such as
injunction An injunction is a legal Law is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules to form a unified whole. A system, surrounded and influenced by its environment ...
,
mandamus (; ) is a judicial remedy A legal remedy, also referred to as judicial relief or a judicial remedy, is the means with which a court of law A court is any person or institution, often as a government institution, with the authority to Ad ...
and
Habeas Corpus (; from Medieval Latin Medieval Latin was the form of Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin '' ...
, as well as through
declaratory judgment A declaratory judgment, also called a declaration, is the legal determination of a court A court is any person or institution, often as a government institution, with the authority to Adjudication, adjudicate legal disputes between Party ( ...
s.


Further hearing

The Supreme Court can also sit at a “further hearing” on its own judgment. In a matter on which the Supreme Court has ruled, whether as a court of appeals or as the High Court of Justice, with a panel of three or more Judges, it may rule at a further hearing with a panel of a larger number of Judges. A further hearing may be held if the Supreme Court makes a ruling inconsistent with a previous ruling or if the Court deems that the importance, difficulty or novelty of a ruling of the Court justifies such hearing.


Composition

The Supreme Court, both as an appellate court and the High Court of Justice, is normally constituted of a panel of three Judges. A single Supreme Court Judge may rule on interim orders, temporary orders or petitions for an '' order nisi'', and on appeals on interim rulings of District Courts, or on judgments given by a single District Court judge on appeal, and on a judgment or decision of the Magistrates’ Courts. The Supreme Court sits as a panel of five Judges or more in a rehearing on a matter in which the Supreme Court sat with a panel of three Judges. The Supreme Court may sit as a panel of a larger uneven number of Judges than three in matters that involve fundamental legal questions and
constitutional A constitution is an aggregate of fundamental principles or established precedents A precedent is a principle or rule established in a previous legal case A legal case is in a general sense a dispute between opposing parties which may be ...
issues of particular importance.


Presiding Judge

In a case on which the President of the Supreme Court sits, the President is the
Presiding Judge A chief judge (also known as chief justice, presiding judge, president judge or administrative judge) is the highest-ranking or most senior member of a court or tribunal with more than one judge. The chief judge commonly presides over trials and He ...
; in a case on which the Deputy President sits and the President does not sit, the Deputy President is the Presiding Judge; in any other case, the Judge with the greatest length of service is the Presiding Judge. The length of service, for this purpose, is calculated from the date of the appointment of the Judge to the Supreme Court.


Retrial

A special power, unique to the Supreme Court, is the power to order a "
retrial A new trial or retrial is a recurrence of a court case. Depending on the rules of the jurisdiction, a new trial In law, a trial is a coming together of parties to a dispute, to present information (in the form of evidence Evidence, bro ...
" on a criminal matter in which the defendant has been convicted by a final
judgment Judgement (or US spelling judgment) is also known as ''adjudication Adjudication is the legal process by which an arbitration, arbiter or judge reviews evidence (law), evidence and argumentation, including legal reasoning set forth by opposing ...
. A ruling to hold a retrial may be made where the Court finds that evidence provided in the case was based upon lies or was forged; where new facts or
evidence Evidence for a proposition In logic and linguistics, a proposition is the meaning of a declarative sentence (linguistics), sentence. In philosophy, "Meaning (philosophy), meaning" is understood to be a non-linguistic entity which is shared by a ...

evidence
are discovered that are likely to alter the decision in the case in favor of the accused; where another has meanwhile been convicted of carrying out the same offense and it appears from the circumstances revealed in the trial of that other person that the original party convicted of the offense did not commit it; or, where there is a real concern for
miscarriage of justice A miscarriage of justice occurs when a grossly unfair outcome is made in a criminal In ordinary language, a crime is an unlawful act punishable by a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazin ...
in the conviction. In practice, a ruling to hold a retrial is very rarely made.


Opinions

The Court announces its judgments through individually signed opinions setting out the result and underlying reasoning. In general, there is a lead opinion for the majority, but there is no "opinion of the Court" as such. Each participating Judge will either note that she or he concurs in the lead opinion (and possibly another opinion as well) or write a separate concurrence. It is not unusual for most or all of the participating Judges to write separately, even when they agree as to the outcome. The Court's opinions are available in Hebrew on its ow
website
and fro
Nevo
A relatively small subset has been translated into English. These are available in a searchable online database a
Versa
They can also be found on the Court's ow
site
and have been published in hard copy in annual volumes by William S. Hein & Co. as the ''Israel Law Reports''. In addition, the Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs, in cooperation with the Court, has published three volumes of English translations of selected decisions entitled ''Judgments of the Israel Supreme Court: Fighting Terrorism within the Law''. These are part of the Versa database and also can be found online at th
MFA's website


Intervention

In the 1980s and the 1990s, the Supreme Court established its role as a protector of human rights, intervening to secure freedom of speech and freedom to demonstrate, reduce military censorship, limit the use of certain military methods and promote equality between various sectors of the population. However critics question the role of the court in protecting the human rights of Palestinians in the
Occupied Territories Military or belligerent occupation, often simply occupation, is provisional control by a ruling power over a territory, without a claim of formal sovereignty.Eyāl Benveniśtî. The international law of occupation. Princeton University Press, ...
and point to double standards in their application.


Building

The building was donated to Israel by the Jewish philanthropist
Dorothy de Rothschild Dorothy Mathilde de Rothschild (née Pinto; 7 March 1895 – 10 December 1988) was an English philanthropist Philanthropy consists of "private initiatives, for the Public good (economics), public good, focusing on quality of life". Philanthropy ...
. Outside the President's Chamber has displayed the letter Ms. Rothschild wrote to Prime Minister
Shimon Peres Shimon Peres (; he, שמעון פרס ; born Szymon Perski; 2 August 1923 – 28 September 2016) was an Israeli politician who served as the ninth In music Music is the of arranging s in time through the of melody, harmony, ...

Shimon Peres
expressing her intention to donate a new building for the Supreme Court. It was designed by
Ram Karmi Ram Karmi ( he, רם כרמי; 1931 – 11 April 2013) was an Israeli architect. He was head of the Tel Aviv-based Ram Karmi Architects company, and is known for his Brutalist architecture, Brutalist style. Biography Ram Karmi was born in Jerusalem ...
and Ada Karmi-Melamede and opened in 1992. According to the critic Ran Shechori, the building is a "serious attempt to come to grips with the local building tradition". He writes that,
It makes rich and wide-ranging references to the whole lexicon of Eretz-Israel building over the centuries, starting with Herodian structures, through the Hellenistic , the Crusaders, Greek Orthodox monasteries, and up to the British Mandate period. This outpouring is organized in a complex, almost baroque structure, built out of contrasts light-shade, narrow-wide, open-closed, stone-plaster, straight-round, and a profusion of existential experiences.
Paul Goldberger Paul Goldberger (born in 1950) is an American architecture critic. He is known for his "Sky Line" column in ''The New Yorker''. Biography Shortly after starting as a reporter at ''The New York Times'' in 1972, he was assigned to write the obitua ...
of ''
The New York Times ''The New York Times'' is an American daily newspaper based in New York City with a worldwide readership. Founded in 1851, the ''Times'' has since won List of Pulitzer Prizes awarded to The New York Times, 132 Pulitzer Prizes, the most of a ...

The New York Times
'' calls it "Israel's finest public building," achieving "a remarkable and exhilarating balance between the concerns of daily life and the symbolism of the ages." He notes the complexity of the design with its interrelated geometric patterns:
There is no clear front door and no simple pattern to the organization. The building cannot be described solely as long, or solely as rounded or as being arranged around a series of courtyards, though from certain angles, like the elephant described by the blind man, it could be thought to be any one of these. The structure, in fact, consists of three main sections: a square library wing within which is set a round courtyard containing a copper-clad pyramid, a rectangular administrative wing containing judges' chambers arrayed around a cloistered courtyard and a wing containing five courtrooms, all of which extend like fingers from a great main hall.
The building is a blend of enclosed and open spaces; old and new; lines and circles. Approaching the Supreme Court library, one enters the pyramid area, a large space that serves as a turning point before the entrance to the courtrooms. This serene space acts as the inner "gatehouse" of the Supreme Court building. The Pyramid was inspired by the
Tomb of Zechariah The Tomb of Zechariah is an ancient stone monument adjacent to the Tomb of Benei Hezir that is considered in Jewish tradition to be the tomb of Zechariah ben Jehoiada. It is a few meters from the Tomb of Absalom and adjacent to the Tomb of Benei Hez ...
and in the
Kidron Valley The Kidron Valley (Classics, classical transliteration, ''Cedron'', from he, נחל קדרון, ''Naḥal Qidron'', literally Qidron River; also Qidron Valley) is the valley originating slightly northeast of the Old City (Jerusalem), Old City of ...

Kidron Valley
in Jerusalem. Natural light enters round windows at the apex of the pyramid, forming circles of sunlight on the inside walls and on the floor. Guided tours of the building are offered most Sundays through Thursdays at 11 am (in Hebrew) and 12 noon (in English). The address is Kiryat Ben-Gurion, 1 Shaare Mishpat St, Jerusalem 9195001.


Public perception

According to a 2017 poll by
non-profit organization A nonprofit organization (NPO), also known as a non-business entity, not-for-profit organization, or nonprofit institution, is a legal entity organized and operated for a collective, public or social benefit, in contrast with an entity that o ...
Israel Democracy Institute Israel Democracy Institute (IDI; he, המכון הישראלי לדמוקרטיה), established in 1991, is an independent center of research and action dedicated to strengthening the foundations of Israeli democracy. It is located in Jerusalem ...
, the Supreme Court is the only State institution that the majority of both
Jewish Jews ( he, יְהוּדִים ISO 259-2 , Israeli pronunciation ) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and nation originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is ...
(57%) and
Arab The Arabs (singular Arab ; singular ar, عَرَبِيٌّ, : , Arabic pronunciation: , plural ar, عَرَبٌ, : , Arabic pronunciation: ) are an mainly inhabiting the . In modern usage the term refers to those who originate from an Arab co ...

Arab
(54%) Israelis have trust in, marking a slight increase from their 2016 poll. The Institute's 2017 poll on the statement " e power of
judicial review Judicial review is a process under which executive Executive may refer to: Role, title, or function * Executive (government), branch of government that has authority and responsibility for the administration of state bureaucracy * Executive, ...
over Knesset legislation should be taken away from the Supreme Court" found that 58% of
Israelis Israelis ( he, ישראלים, translit=Yiśraʾelim, ar, الإسرائيليين, translit=al-ʾIsrāʾīliyyin) are the citizens and nationals of the State of Israel Israel (; he, יִשְׂרָאֵל, translit=Yīsrāʾēl; ...

Israelis
disagree, 36% agree, and 6% do not know.
Direct link to poll graph on the Supreme Court
/ref>


See also

* Israeli Supreme Court opinions on the West Bank Barrier


References


External links


Supreme Court of Israel Official websiteHarvard Law School guide to finding selected decisions and opinions translated to English

Versa
(Cardozo Law School site devoted to the Israeli Supreme Court, including English translations of several hundred opinions) {{Coord, 31, 46, 51, N, 35, 12, 13, E, display=title Government buildings in Israel
Buildings and structures in Jerusalem Jerusalem Jerusalem Jerusalem (; he, יְרוּשָׁלַיִם ; ar, القُدس (combining the Biblical and common usage Arabic names); grc, Ἱερουσαλήμ/Ἰεροσόλυμα, Hierousalḗm/Hierosóluma; hy, Երուսաղ ...
Israel Israel (; he, יִשְׂרָאֵל, translit=Yīsrāʾēl; ar, إِسْرَائِيل, translit=ʾIsrāʾīl), officially the State of Israel ( he, מְדִינַת יִשְׂרָאֵל, label=none, translit=Medīnat Yīsrāʾēl; ), is a ...
1948 establishments in Israel Courts and tribunals established in 1948