PrecursorsAncient west–east were built to facilitate travel from the River to the .Rappoport, S. (Doctor of Philosophy, Basel). ''History of Egypt'' (undated, early 20th century), Volume 12, Part B, Chapter V: "The Waterways of Egypt", pp. 248–257. London: The Grolier Society.Hassan, F. A. & Tassie, G. J. ''Site location and history'' (2003)
Second millennium BCattributes the earliest known attempt to construct a canal up through the first cataract to the but its completion to of the . J. H. Breasted attributes the ancient canal's early construction to , up through the first cataract. Please refer to J. H. Breasted, '' '', 1906. Volume One, pp. 290-292, §§642-648. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. The legendary (likely either or of the ) may have constructed the ancient canal, the , joining the with the (BC1897–1839), when an irrigation channel was constructed around BC1848 that was navigable during the flood season, leading into a dry river valley east of the Nile River Delta named . (It is said that in the Red Sea reached northward to the and .''
One of their kings tried to make a canal to it (for it would have been of no little advantage to them for the whole region to have become navigable; Sesostris is said to have been the first of the ancient kings to try), but he found that the sea was higher than the land. So he first, andafterwards, stopped making the canal, lest the sea should mix with the river water and spoil it. wrote that Sesostris started to build a canal, and wrote:
165. Next comes the the Delta; this is a distance of over . Later the Persian king Darius had the same idea, and yet again , who made a trench wide, deep and about long, as far as the Bitter Lakes.In the 20th century, the northward extension of the later Darius I canal was discovered, extending from Lake Timsah to the Ballah Lakes. tribe and, the harbour of the , from which Sesostris, king of Egypt, intended to carry a ship-canal to where the Nile flows into what is known as Shea, William H. "A Date for the Recently Discovered Eastern Canal of Egypt", in ''Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research'', No. 226 (April 1977), pp. 31–38. This was dated to the by extrapolating the dates of ancient sites along its course. The reliefs of the expedition under , BC 1470, depict seagoing vessels carrying the expeditionary force returning from Punt. This suggests that a navigable link existed between the Red Sea and the Nile. Recent excavations in Wadi Gawasis may indicate that Egypt's maritime trade started from the Red Sea and did not require a canal. Evidence seems to indicate its existence by the 13th century BC during the time of .
Canals dug by Necho, Darius I and PtolemyRemnants of an ancient west–east canal through the ian cities of , , and were discovered by and his engineers and cartographers in 1799. According to the '' '' of the historian , about BC 600, undertook to dig a west–east canal through the Wadi Tumilat between Bubastis and Heroopolis, and perhaps continued it to the Heroopolite Gulf and the Red Sea. Regardless, Necho is reported as having never completed his project. Herodotus was told that 120,000 men perished in this undertaking, but this figure is doubtless exaggerated. According to , Necho's extension to the canal was about , equal to the total distance between Bubastis and the Great Bitter Lake, allowing for winding through s. The length that Herodotus tells, of over 1000 stadia (i.e., over ), must be understood to include the entire distance between the Nile and the Red Sea at that time. With Necho's death, work was discontinued. Herodotus tells that the reason the project was abandoned was because of a warning received from an that others would benefit from its successful completion. Necho's war with most probably prevented the canal's continuation. Necho's project was completed by , who ruled over after it had been conquered by his predecessor . It may be that by Darius's time a natural waterway passage which had existed between the Heroopolite Gulf and the Red SeaApparently, Arsinoe is located north of Shaluf. (See Naville, "Map of the Wadi Tumilat", referenced above.) in the vicinity of the Egyptian town of Shaluf considered the Great Bitter Lake as a northern extension of the Red Sea, whereas Darius had not, because (alt. ''Chalouf'' or ''Shaloof''), located just south of the Great Bitter Lake, had become so blocked with that Darius needed to clear it out so as to allow once again. According to Herodotus, Darius's canal was wide enough that two s could pass each other with oars extended, and required four days to traverse. Darius commemorated his achievement with a number of e that he set up on the Nile bank, including one near Kabret, and a further one a few kilometres north of Suez. read: The canal left the Nile at Bubastis. An inscription on a pillar at records that in 270 or 269 BCE, it was again reopened, by . In Arsinoe, Ptolemy constructed a navigable lock, with s, at the Heroopolite Gulf of the Red Sea, which allowed the passage of vessels but prevented salt water from the Red Sea from mingling with the fresh water in the canal. In the second half of the 19th century, French s discovered the remnants of an ancient north–south canal past the east side of and ending near the north end of the Great Bitter Lake.''Carte hydrographique de l'Basse Egypte et d'une partie de l'Isthme de Suez'' (1855, 1882). Volume 87, page 803. Paris. Se
Receding Red Sea and the dwindling NileThe is believed by some s to have gradually receded over the centuries, its coastline slowly moving southward away from and the Great Bitter Lake. Coupled with persistent accumulations of Nile , maintenance and repair of Ptolemy's canal became increasingly cumbersome over each passing century. Two hundred years after the construction of Ptolemy's canal, seems to have had no west–east waterway passage, because the Pelusiac branch of the Nile, which fed Ptolemy's west–east canal, had by that time dwindled, being choked with silt.
Old Cairo to the Red SeaBy the 8th century, a navigable canal existed between and the Red Sea, but accounts vary as to who ordered its construction – either or 'Amr ibn al-'As, or . This canal was reportedly linked to the River Nile at Old Cairo and ended near modern . A geography treatise ''De Mensura Orbis Terrae'' written by the Irish monk (born late 8th century) reports a conversation with another monk, Fidelis, who had sailed on the canal from the Nile to the Red Sea during a pilgrimage to the Holy Land in the first half of the 8th century The is said to have ordered this canal closed in 767 to prevent supplies from reaching detractors.
Repair by al-Ḥākimis claimed to have repaired the Cairo to Red Sea passageway, but only briefly, circa 1000 CE, as it soon "became choked with sand". However, parts of this canal still continued to fill in during the Nile's annual inundations.
Conception by VeniceThe successful 1488 navigation of southern Africa by opened a direct maritime trading route to India and the Maluku Islands, Spice Islands, and forever changed the balance of Mediterranean trade. One of the most prominent losers in the new order, as former middlemen, was the former spice trading center of Venice. Despite entering negotiations with Egypt's ruling Mamelukes, the Republic of Venice, Venetian plan to build the canal was quickly put to rest by the Ottoman Empire, Ottoman Ottoman–Mamluk War (1516–17), conquest of Egypt in 1517, led by Sultan Selim I.
Ottoman attemptsDuring the 16th century, the Ottoman Grand Vizier Sokollu Mehmed Pasha attempted to construct a canal connecting the and the Mediterranean. This was motivated by a desire to connect Constantinople to the Hajj, pilgrimage and trade routes of the Indian Ocean, as well as by strategic concerns—as the European presence in the Indian Ocean was growing, Ottoman mercantile and strategic interests were Ottoman-Portuguese confrontations, increasingly challenged, and the Sublime Porte was increasingly pressed to Ottoman naval expeditions in the Indian Ocean, assert its position. A navigable canal would allow the Ottoman Navy to connect its , Black Sea, and Mediterranean Sea, Mediterranean fleets. However, this project was deemed too expensive, and was never completed.
Napoleon's discovery of an ancient canalDuring the French campaign in Egypt and Syria in late 1798, Napoleon expressed interest in finding the remnants of an ancient waterway passage. This culminated in a cadre of archaeologists, scientists, s and engineers scouring northern Egypt. Their findings, recorded in the ''Description de l'Égypte'', include detailed maps that depict the discovery of an ancient canal extending northward from the Red Sea and then westward toward the Nile. Later, Napoleon, who became the French Emperor in 1804, contemplated the construction of a north–south canal to connect the Mediterranean with the Red Sea. But the plan was abandoned because it incorrectly concluded that the waterway would require locks to operate, the construction of which would be costly and time-consuming. The belief in the need for locks was based on the erroneous assumption that the Red Sea was higher than the Mediterranean. This estimate was the result of using fragmentary survey measurements taken in wartime during Napoleon's Egyptian Expedition. As late as 1861, the unnavigable ancient route discovered by Napoleon from to the Red Sea still channeled water in spots as far east as Kassassin.
History of the Suez Canal
Interim periodDespite the construction challenges that could have been the result of the alleged difference in sea levels, the idea of finding a shorter route to the east remained alive. In 1830, General Francis Rawdon Chesney, Francis Chesney submitted a report to the United Kingdom, British government that stated that there was no difference in elevation and that the Suez Canal was feasible, but his report received no further attention. Thomas Fletcher Waghorn, Lieutenant Waghorn established his "Overland Route", which transported post and passengers to India via Egypt.Wison, page 31 https://archive.org/details/suezcanal032262mbp •Overland Route later known as the Steam ship route which was the connection from Suez to Cairo, then down the Nile to the Mahmoudieh Canal and to the Mediterranean port of Alexandria. Superseded by the Suez canal, it operated from 1830 to 1869 and from 1837 with steam ships in the Red sea. •Between 1.36 and 2.49 deaths per thousand per year cited by the companies chief medical officer, page 31. Thus 34,258x2.49 deaths per thousand x 11 years=938 (highest reported working staff x highest reported deaths per thousand x number of years under construction) Louis Maurice Adolphe Linant de Bellefonds, Linant de Bellefonds, a French explorer of Egypt, became chief engineer of Egyptian Public Works, Egypt's Public Works. In addition to his normal duties, he surveyed the and made plans for the Suez Canal. French Saint-Simonianism, Saint-Simonianists showed an interest in the canal and in 1833, Barthélemy Prosper Enfantin tried to draw Muhammad Ali Pasha, Muhammad Ali's attention to the canal but was unsuccessful. , the Italians, Italian-Austrian Empire, Austrian railroad pioneer, became interested in the idea in 1836. In 1846, Prosper Enfantin's Société d'Études du Canal de Suez invited a number of experts, among them Robert Stephenson, Negrelli and Paul-Adrien Bourdaloue to study the feasibility of the Suez Canal (with the assistance of Linant de Bellefonds). Bourdaloue's survey of the isthmus was the first generally accepted evidence that there was no practical difference in altitude between the two seas. Britain, however, feared that a canal open to everyone might interfere with its British Raj, India trade and therefore preferred a connection by train from Alexandria via Cairo to Suez, which Stephenson eventually built.
Construction by the Suez Canal Company
Preparations (1854–1858)In 1854 and 1856, obtained a concession from Sa'id of Egypt, Sa'id Pasha, the Khedive of Khedivate of Egypt, Egypt and Sudan, to create a company to construct a canal open to ships of all nations. The company was to operate the canal for 99 years from its opening. De Lesseps had used his friendly relationship with Sa'id, which he had developed while he was a French diplomat in the 1830s. As stipulated in the concessions, de Lesseps convened the International Commission for the piercing of the isthmus of Suez (''Commission Internationale pour le percement de l'isthme de Suez'') consisting of 13 experts from seven countries, among them John Robinson McClean, later President of the Institution of Civil Engineers in London, and again Negrelli, to examine the plans developed by Louis Maurice Adolphe Linant de Bellefonds, Linant de Bellefonds, and to advise on the feasibility of and the best route for the canal. After surveys and analyses in Egypt and discussions in Paris on various aspects of the canal, where many of Negrelli's ideas prevailed, the commission produced a unanimous report in December 1856 containing a detailed description of the canal complete with plans and profiles. The Suez Canal Company (''Compagnie universelle du canal maritime de Suez'') came into being on 15 December 1858. The British government had opposed the project from the outset to its completion. The British, who controlled both the Cape route and the Overland route to India and the Far East, favored the ''status quo'', given that a canal might disrupt their commercial and maritime supremacy. Henry John Temple, 3rd Viscount Palmerston, Lord Palmerston, the project's most unwavering foe, confessed in the mid-1850s the real motive behind his opposition: that Britain's commercial and maritime relations would be overthrown by the opening of a new route, open to all nations, and thus deprive his country of its present exclusive advantages. As one of the diplomatic moves against the project when it nevertheless went ahead, it disapproved of the use of "forced labour" for construction of the canal. Involuntary labour on the project ceased, and the viceroy condemned the corvée, halting the project. Initially international opinion was skeptical and Suez Canal Company shares did not sell well overseas. Britain, Austrian Empire, Austria, and Russian Empire, Russia did not buy a significant number of shares. However, with assistance from the Cattaui banking family, and their relationship with James Mayer de Rothschild, James de Rothschild of the Rothschild banking family of France, French House of Rothschild bonds and shares were successfully promoted in France and other parts of Europe. All French shares were quickly sold in France. A contemporary British skeptic claimed "One thing is sure... our local merchant community doesn't pay practical attention at all to this grand work, and it is legitimate to doubt that the canal's receipts... could ever be sufficient to recover its maintenance fee. It will never become a large ship's accessible way in any case."
Construction (1859–1869)Work started on the shore of the future Port Said on 25 April 1859. The excavation took some 10 years, with forced labour (corvée) being employed until 1864 to dig out the canal. Some sources estimate that over 30,000 people were working on the canal at any given period, that more than 1.5 million people from various countries were employed, and that tens of thousands of labourers died, many of them from cholera and similar epidemics. Estimates of the number of deaths vary widely with famously citing 120,000 deaths upon nationalization of the canal in a 26 July 1956 speech and the company's chief medical officer reporting no higher than 2.49 deaths per thousand in 1866. Doubling these estimates with a generous assumption of 50,000 working staff per year over 11 years would put a conservative estimate at fewer than 3,000 deaths. More closely relying on the limited reported data of the time, the number would be fewer than 1,000.
Inauguration (17 November 1869)The canal opened under French control in November 1869. The opening ceremonies began at Port Said on the evening of 15 November, with illuminations, fireworks, and a banquet on the yacht of the Khedive Isma'il Pasha of Khedivate of Egypt, Egypt and Sudan. The royal guests arrived the following morning: the Franz Joseph I of Austria, Emperor Franz Joseph I, the Eugénie de Montijo, French Empress Eugenie in the Imperial yacht ''L'Aigle'', the Frederick III, German Emperor, Crown Prince of Prussia, and Louis III, Grand Duke of Hesse, Prince Louis of Hesse. Other international guests included the American natural historian H. W. Harkness. In the afternoon there were blessings of the canal with both Muslim and Christian ceremonies, a temporary mosque and church having been built side by side on the beach. In the evening there were more illuminations and fireworks. On the morning of 17 November, a procession of ships entered the canal, headed by the ''L'Aigle''. Among the ships following was HMS Newport (1867), HMS ''Newport'', captained by George Nares, which surveyed the canal on behalf of the British Admiralty, Admiralty a few months later. The ''Newport'' was involved in an incident that demonstrated some of the problems with the canal. There were suggestions that the depth of parts of the canal at the time of the inauguration were not as great as promised, and that the deepest part of the channel was not always clear, leading to a risk of grounding. The first day of the passage ended at Ismailia was the scene of more celebrations the following day, including a military "march past", illuminations and fireworks, and a ball at the Governor's Palace. The convoy set off again on the morning of 19 November, for the remainder of the trip to Suez. After Suez, many of the participants headed for Cairo, and then to the Pyramids, where a new road had been built for the occasion. An Anchor Line (steamship company), Anchor Line ship, the S.S. ''Dido'', became the first to pass through the Canal from South to North.
Initial difficulties (1869–1871)Although numerous technical, political, and financial problems had been overcome, the Cost overrun, final cost was more than double the original estimate. The Khedive, in particular, was able to overcome initial reservations held by both British and French creditors by enlisting the help of the Sursock family, whose deep connections proved invaluable in securing much international support for the project. After the opening, the Suez Canal Company was in financial difficulties. The remaining works were completed only in 1871, and traffic was below expectations in the first two years. De Lesseps therefore tried to increase revenues by interpreting the kind of net ton referred to in the second concession (''tonneau de capacité'') as meaning a ship's cargo capacity and not only the theoretical net tonnage of the "Moorsom System" introduced in Britain by the Merchant Shipping Act in 1854. The ensuing commercial and diplomatic activities resulted in the International Commission of Constantinople establishing a specific kind of net tonnage and settling the question of tariffs in its protocol of 18 December 1873. This was the origin of the Suez Canal Net Tonnage and the Suez Canal Special Tonnage Certificate, both of which are still in use today.
Growth and reorganisationThe canal had an immediate and dramatic effect on Global trade, world trade. Combined with the First Transcontinental Railroad, American transcontinental railroad completed six months earlier, it allowed the world to be circled in record time. It played an important role in increasing European colonization of Africa. The construction of the canal was one of the reasons for the Panic of 1873 in Great Britain, because goods from the Far East had, until then, been carried in sailing vessels around the Cape of Good Hope and stored in British warehouses. An inability to pay his bank debts led Said Pasha's successor, Isma'il Pasha, in 1875 to sell his 44% share in the canal for £4,000,000 ($19.2 million), equivalent to £432 million to £456 million ($540 million to $570 million) in 2019, to the government of the United Kingdom. French shareholders still held the majority. Local unrest caused the British to invade in 1882 and take full control, although nominally Egypt remained part of the Ottoman Empire. The British representative from 1883 to 1907 was Evelyn Baring, 1st Earl of Cromer, who reorganized and modernized the government and suppressed rebellions and corruption, thereby facilitating increased traffic on the canal. The European Mediterranean region, Mediterranean countries in particular benefited economically from the Suez Canal, as they now had much faster connections to Asia and East Africa than the North and West European maritime trading nations such as Great Britain, the Netherlands or Germany. The biggest beneficiary in the Mediterranean was Austria-Hungary, which had participated in the planning and construction of the canal. The largest Austrian maritime trading company, Österreichischer Lloyd, experienced rapid expansion after the canal was completed, as did the port city of Trieste, then an Austrian possession. The company was a partner in the Compagnie Universelle du Canal de Suez, whose vice-president was the Lloyd co-founder Pasquale Revoltella.Mary Pelletier "A brief history of the Suez Canal" In: Apollo 3.7.2018. The in 1888 declared the canal a neutral zone under the protection of the British, who had occupied Egypt and Sudan at the request of Khedive Tewfik Pasha, Tewfiq to suppress the Urabi Revolt against his rule. The revolt went on from 1879 to 1882. The British defended the strategically important passage against a major Ottoman Empire, Ottoman First Suez Offensive, attack in 1915, during the First World War.''First World War'' – Willmott, H.P. Dorling Kindersley, 2003, p.87 Under the Anglo-Egyptian Treaty of 1936, the UK retained control over the canal. The canal was again strategically important in the 1939–1945 Second World War, and Italo-German attempts to capture it were repulsed during the North Africa Campaign, during which the canal was closed to Axis powers, Axis shipping. In 1951 Egypt repudiated the treaty and in October 1954 the UK agreed to remove its troops. Withdrawal was completed on 18 July 1956.
Suez CrisisBecause of Egyptian overtures towards the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom and the United States withdrew their pledge to support the construction of the Aswan Dam. Egyptian President responded by nationalizing the canal on 26 July 1956 and transferring it to the , intending to finance the dam project using revenue from the canal. On the same day that the canal was nationalized Nasser also closed the Straits of Tiran to all Israeli ships. This led to the in which the UK, France, and Israel invaded Egypt. According to the pre-agreed war plans under the Protocol of Sèvres, Israel invaded the Sinai Peninsula on 29 October, forcing Egypt to engage them militarily, and allowing the Operation Musketeer (1956), Anglo-French partnership to declare the resultant fighting a threat to stability in the Middle East and enter the war – officially to separate the two forces but in reality to regain the Canal and bring down the Nasser government. To save the British from what he thought was a disastrous action and to stop the war from a possible escalation, Canadian Secretary of State for External Affairs Lester B. Pearson proposed the creation of the first United Nations peacekeeping force to ensure access to the canal for all and an Israeli withdrawal from the Sinai Peninsula. On 4 November 1956, a majority at the United Nations voted for Pearson's peacekeeping resolution, which Mandate (international law), mandated the UN peacekeepers to stay in Sinai unless both Egypt and Israel agreed to their withdrawal. The United States backed this proposal by putting pressure on the British government through the selling of Pound sterling, sterling, which would cause it to depreciate. Britain then called a ceasefire, and later agreed to withdraw its troops by the end of the year. Pearson was later awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. As a result of damage and ships sunk under orders from Nasser the canal was closed until April 1957, when it was cleared with UN assistance. A UN force (United Nations Emergency Force, UNEF) was established to maintain the free navigability of the canal, and peace in the Sinai Peninsula.
Arab–Israeli wars of 1967 and 1973In May 1967, Nasser ordered the UN peacekeeping forces out of Sinai, including the Suez Canal area. Israel objected to the closing of the Straits of Tiran to Israeli shipping. The canal had been closed to Israeli shipping since 1949, except for a short period in 1951–1952. After the 1967 , Israeli forces occupied the Sinai peninsula, including the entire east bank of the Suez Canal. Unwilling to allow the Israelis to use the canal, Egypt immediately imposed a blockade which closed the canal to all shipping. Fifteen cargo ships, known as the "Yellow Fleet", were trapped in the canal, and remained there until 1975. In 1973, during the Yom Kippur War, the canal was the scene of Operation Badr (1973), a major crossing by the Egyptian army into Israeli-occupied Sinai and a counter-crossing by the Israel Defense Forces, Israeli army to Egypt. Much wreckage from this conflict remains visible along the canal's edges.
Mine clearing operations (1974–75)After the Yom Kippur War, the United States initiated Operation Nimbus Moon. The amphibious assault ship USS Inchon (LPH-12), USS ''Inchon (LPH-12)'' was sent to the Canal, carrying 12 CH-53 Sea Stallion, RH-53D minesweeping helicopters of Helicopter Mine Countermeasures Squadron 12. These partly cleared the canal between May and December 1974. She was relieved by the LST USS Barnstable County, USS ''Barnstable County'' (LST1197). The British Royal Navy initiated Operation Rheostat and Task Group 65.2 provided for Operation Rheostat One (six months in 1974), the minehunters HMS ''Maxton'', HMS ''Bossington'', and HMS Wilton (M1116), HMS ''Wilton'', the Fleet Clearance Diving Team (FCDT) and HMS Abdiel (N21), HMS ''Abdiel'', a practice minelayer/MCMV support ship; and for Operation Rheostat Two (six months in 1975) the minehunters HMS ''Hubberston'' and HMS ''Sheraton'', and HMS ''Abdiel''. When the Canal Clearance Operations were completed, the canal and its lakes were considered 99% clear of mines. The canal was then reopened by Egyptian President Anwar Sadat aboard an Egyptian destroyer, which led the first convoy northbound to Port Said in 1975. At his side stood the Iranian Crown Prince Reza Pahlavi, Crown Prince of Iran, Reza Pahlavi, delegated to represent his father, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Mohammed Reza Pahlavi, the Shah of Iran. The cruiser USS Little Rock (CL-92), USS ''Little Rock'' was the only American naval ship in the convoy.
UN presenceThe United Nations Emergency Force, UNEF mandate expired in 1979. Despite the efforts of the United States, Israel, Egypt, and others to obtain an extension of the UN role in observing the peace between Israel and Egypt, as called for under the Egypt–Israel Peace Treaty of 1979, the mandate could not be extended because of the veto by the Soviet Union in the UN Security Council, at the request of Syria. Accordingly, negotiations for a new observer force in the Sinai produced the Multinational Force and Observers (MFO), stationed in Sinai in 1981 in coordination with a phased Israeli withdrawal. The MFO remains active under agreements between the United States, Israel, Egypt, and other nations.
Bypass expansionIn the summer of 2014, months after taking office as President of Egypt, Abdel Fattah el-Sisi ordered the expansion of the Ballah Bypass from wide to wide for . The project was called the , as it allows ships to transit the canal in both directions simultaneously. The project cost more than E£59.4 billion (US$bn) and was completed within one year. Sisi declared the expanded channel open for business in a ceremony on 6 August 2015.
2021 obstruction by ''Ever Given''On 23 March 2021, at around 05:40 UTC (07:40 local time), the Suez Canal was blocked in both directions by the ultra-large Evergreen G-class container ship ''Ever Given''. The ship, operated by Evergreen Marine, was en route from Malaysia to the Netherlands when it ran aground after strong winds allegedly blew the ship off course. Upon running aground, ''Ever Given'' turned sideways, completely blocking the canal. Although part of the length of the canal is paralleled by an older narrower channel which can be used to bypass obstructions, this particular incident occurred south of that area, in a section of the canal where there is only one channel. The site was located at . When the incident began, many economists and trade experts commented on the effects of the obstruction if not resolved quickly, citing how important the Suez was to global trade; the incident was likely to drastically affect the global economy because of the trapped goods scheduled to go through the canal. Among those goods, oil shipments were the most affected in the immediate aftermath, due to a significant number still blocked with no other way to reach their destination. Referring to the European and American market, a few maritime experts have disputed the prediction of a drastic effect on trade, saying this "really isn’t a substantial transit route for crude" according to Marshall Steeves, energy markets analyst at IHS Markit, and "there are existing stocks" according to Camille Egloff of Boston Consulting Group and alternative sources of supply, noting that traffic only slowed down and that it might only have impacted sectors with existing shortages (such as the semiconductor industry). The International Chamber of Shipping (ICS) estimates that up to $3 billion worth of cargo passes through the Suez Canal every day. It was said the blockage would have an impact on cargo schedules around the world. Shipping companies were also considering whether to divert their ships along the much longer route around the Cape of Good Hope. The first container ship to do so was ''Ever Given''s sister ship, ''Ever Greet''. The ship was re-floated on 29 March. Within a few hours, cargo traffic resumed, slowly resolving the backlog of around 450 ships. The first ship to successfully pass through the canal after the ''Ever Given''
Timeline* 1799: Napoleon Bonaparte conquered Egypt and ordered a feasibility analysis. This incorrectly reported a supposed difference in sea levels and a high cost, so the project was put on hold. * 1847: A second survey including Robert Stephenson found the first analysis incorrect. A direct link between the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea is possible and not as expensive as previously estimated. * 30 November 1854: The former French consul in Cairo, Ferdinand Marie de Lesseps, obtained the first licence for construction. * 15 December 1858: de Lesseps established the "Compagnie Universelle du Canal Maritime de Suez", with Said of Egypt, Said Pasha acquiring 22% of the Suez Canal Company; the majority was controlled by French private holders. * 25 April 1859: construction officially started. * 15 to 17 November 1869: An opening ceremony and celebrations were held; Empress Eugénie of France officially opened the canal. * 17 November 1869: The canal was opened, operated by the Suez Canal Company, the concessionary company that built the canal. * 18 December 1873: The International Commission of Constantinople established the Suez Canal Net Ton and the Suez Canal Special Tonnage Certificate (as known today) * 25 November 1875: The United Kingdom became a minority share holder in the company, acquiring 44%, with the remainder being controlled by French business syndicates. * 20 May 1882: The United Kingdom Battle of Tel el-Kebir, invaded Egypt, with French assistance, and began its occupation of Egypt. * 25 August 1882: The United Kingdom occupied Egypt. The canal remained under the control of the privately owned Suez Canal Company. * 2 March 1888: The renewed the guaranteed right of passage of all ships through the canal during war and peace; these rights were already part of the licences awarded to de Lesseps, but became recognised as international law. * 14 November 1936: Following a Anglo-Egyptian Treaty of 1936, new treaty, Britain pulled out of Egypt, but established the 'Suez Canal Zone' under its control. * 13 June 1956: Suez Canal Zone was restored to Egyptian sovereignty, following British withdrawal and years of negotiations. * 26 July 1956: Egypt nationalizes the company; its Egyptian assets, rights and obligations were transferred to the Suez Canal Authority, which compensates the previous owners at the established pre-nationalization price. Egypt closed the canal to Israeli shipping as part of a broader blockade involving the Straits of Tiran and the Gulf of Aqaba. * 31 October 1956 to 24 April 1957: the canal was blocked to shipping following the , a conflict that lead to an Israeli, French, and British occupation of the canal zone. * 22 December 1956: The canal zone was restored to Egyptian control, following French and British withdrawal, and the landing of United Nations Emergency Force, UNEF troops. * 5 June 1967 to 10 June 1975: The canal was blocked by Egypt, following the Six-Day War, war with Israel; it became the front line during the ensuing War of Attrition and the Yom Kippur War, 1973 war, remaining closed to international shipping, until Sinai Interim Agreement, general agreement was near. * 2004: The canal was closed for three days when the oil tanker ''Tropic Brilliance'' became stuck. * 1 January 2008: New rules of navigation passed by the Suez Canal Authority came into force. * 6 August 2015: The new canal extensions were opened. * 19 October 2017: ''OOCL Japan'' ran aground causing an obstruction which blocked the canal for a few hours. * 23 to 29 March 2021: ''Ever Given'', a Panama-flagged container ship, ran aground and became stuck across the southern section of the canal. The blockage prevented movement through the canal, caused nearly $10 billion worth of disruptions in shipping traffic each day, and created a large traffic jam of ships on both sides.
Layout and operationWhen built, the canal was long and deep. After several enlargements, it is long, deep and wide. It consists of the northern access channel (geography), channel of , the canal itself of and the southern access channel of . The so-called , functional since 6 August 2015, currently has a new parallel canal in the middle part, with its length over . The current parameters of the Suez Canal, including both individual canals of the parallel section are: depth and width at least (that width measured at of depth).
CapacityThe canal allows passage of ships up to draft (hull), draft or 240,000 deadweight tons and up to a height of above water level and a maximum beam (nautical), beam of under certain conditions.Suez Canal Authority http://www.suezcanal.gov.eg The canal can handle more traffic and larger ships than the Panama Canal, as Suezmax dimensions are greater than both Panamax and New Panamax. Some supertankers are too large to traverse the canal. Others can offload part of their cargo onto a canal-owned ship to reduce their draft, transit, and reload at the other end of the canal. On 15 April 2021 Egyptian authorities announced that they would widen the southern section of the Suez Canal to improve the efficiency of the canal. The plan mainly covers about from Suez to the Great Bitter Lake. It will be widened by 40 meters and the maximum depth will be increased from about to about .
NavigationShips approaching the canal from the sea are expected to radio the harbor when they are within of the Safe water mark, Fairway Buoy near Port Said. The canal has no canal lock, locks because of the flat terrain, and the minor sea level difference between each end is inconsequential for shipping. As the canal has no sea surge gates, the ports at the ends would be subject to the sudden impact of tsunamis from the Mediterranean Sea and Red Sea, according to a 2012 article in the ''Journal of Coastal Research''. There is one shipping lane with passing areas in Ballah-Bypass near El Qantara and in the Great Bitter Lake. On a typical day, three convoys transit the canal, two southbound and one northbound. The passage takes between 11 and 16 hours at a speed of around . The low speed helps prevent erosion of the banks by ships' Wake (physics), wakes. By 1955, about two-thirds of Europe's oil passed through the canal. Around 8% of world sea trade is carried via the canal. In 2008, 21,415 vessels passed through the canal and the receipts totaled $5.381 billion, with an average cost per ship of $251,000. New Rules of Navigation came into force on 1 January 2008, passed by the board of directors of the (SCA) to organise vessels' transit. The most important amendments include allowing vessels with draught to pass, increasing the allowed breadth from (following improvement operations), and imposing a fine on vessels using pilots from outside the SCA inside the canal boundaries without permission. The amendments allow vessels loaded with dangerous cargo (such as radioactive or flammable materials) to pass if they conform with the latest amendments provided by international conventions. The SCA has the right to determine the number of Tugboat, tugs required to assist warships traversing the canal, to achieve the highest degree of safety during transit.
OperationBefore August 2015, the canal was too narrow for free two-way traffic, so ships had to pass in convoys and use bypasses. The bypasses were out of (40%). From north to south, they are Port Said bypass (entrances) , Ballah bypass & anchorage , Timsah bypass , and the Deversoir bypass (northern end of the Great Bitter Lake) . The bypasses were completed in 1980. Typically, it would take a ship 12 to 16 hours to transit the canal. The canal's 24-hour capacity was about 76 standard ships. In August 2014, Egypt chose a consortium that includes the Egyptian army and global engineering firm Dar Al-Handasah to develop an international industrial and logistics hub in the Suez Canal area, and began the construction of a new canal section from combined with expansion and deep digging of the other of the canal. This will allow navigation in both directions simultaneously in the central section of the canal. These extensions were formally opened on 6 August 2015 by President Al-Sisi.
Convoy sailingSince the canal does not cater to unregulated two-way traffic, all ships transit in convoys on regular times, scheduled on a 24-hour basis. Each day, a single northbound convoy starts at 04:00 from Suez. At dual lane sections, the convoy uses the eastern route. Synchronised with this convoy's passage is the southbound convoy. It starts at 03:30 from Port Said and so passes the Northbound convoy in the two-lane section.
Canal crossingsFrom north to south, the crossings are: * The El Nasr pontoon bridge (), connecting Port Said to Port Fuad. Opened in 2016, length. * The Abanoub Gerges pontoon bridge (), north of the Suez Canal Bridge * The Suez Canal Bridge (), also called the Egyptian-Japanese Friendship Bridge, a high-level road bridge at El Qantara. In Arabic, ''al qantara'' means "arch". Opened in 2001, it has a clearance over the canal and was built with assistance from the Japanese government and by Kajima. * El Ferdan Railway Bridge () north of Ismailia () was completed in 2001 and is the longest swing bridge, swing-span bridge in the world, with a span of 340 m (1100 ft). The previous bridge was destroyed in 1967 during the Arab-Israeli conflict. The current bridge is no longer functional due to the expansion of the Suez Canal, as the parallel shipping lane completed in 2015 just east of the bridge lacks a structure spanning it. * The Ahmed Mansi, Ahmed el-Mansy pontoon bridge (), a pair of pontoons bridging both channels * The Taha Zaki Abdullah pontoon bridge (), a pair of pontoons bridging both channels * Pipelines taking fresh water under the canal to Sinai Peninsula, Sinai, about north of Suez, at . * Ahmed Hamdi Tunnel () south of the Great Bitter Lake () was built in 1983. Because of leakage problems, a new water-tight tunnel was built inside the old one from 1992 to 1995. * The Ahmed Omar Shabrawy pontoon bridge () * The Suez Canal overhead powerline crossing () was built in 1999. A railway on the west bank runs parallel to the canal for its entire length. The five pontoon bridges were opened between 2016 and 2019. They are designed to be movable, and can be completely rotated against the banks of the canal to allow shipping through, or else individual sections can be moved to create a narrower channel. Six new tunnels for cars and trains are also planned across the canal. Currently the Ahmed Hamdi Tunnel, Ahmed Hamdi is the only tunnel connecting to the Sinai.
Economic impactEconomically, after its completion, the Suez Canal benefited primarily the sea trading powers of the Mediterranean region, Mediterranean countries, which now had much faster connections to the Near and Far East than the North and West European sea trading nations such as Great Britain or Germany. The main Habsburg trading port of Trieste with its direct connections to Central Europe experienced a meteoric rise at that time. The time saved in the 19th century for an assumed steamship trip to Bombay from Brindisi and Trieste was 37 days, from Genoa 32, from Marseille 31, from Bordeaux, Liverpool, London, Amsterdam and Hamburg 24 days. At that time, it was also necessary to consider whether the goods to be transported could bear the costly canal tariff. This led to a rapid growth of Mediterranean ports with their land routes to Central Europe, Central and Eastern Europe. According to today's information from the shipping companies, the route from Singapore to Rotterdam through the Suez Canal will be shortened by and thus by nine days compared to the route around Africa. As a result, liner services between Asia and Europe save 44 percent CO2 (carbon dioxide) thanks to this shorter route. The Suez Canal has a correspondingly important role in the connection between East Africa and the Mediterranean region.Harry de Wilt: Is One Belt, One Road a China crisis for North Sea main ports? in World Cargo News, 17. December 2019. In the 20th century, trade through the Suez Canal came to a standstill several times, due to the two world wars and the Suez Canal crisis. Many trade flows were also shifted away from the Mediterranean ports towards Northern European terminals, such as Hamburg and Rotterdam. Only after the end of the Cold War, the growth in European economic integration, the consideration of CO2 emission and the Belt and Road Initiative, Chinese Silk Road Initiative, are Mediterranean ports such as Piraeus and Trieste again at the focus of growth and investment.
Alternative routesBefore the canal's opening in 1869, goods were sometimes offloaded from ships and carried overland between the Mediterranean and the Red Sea.
Cape AgulhasThe main alternative is around Cape Agulhas, the southernmost point of Africa, commonly referred to as the Cape of Good Hope route. This was the only sea route before the canal was constructed, and when the canal was closed. It is still the only route for ships that are Capesize, too large for the canal. In the early 21st century, the Suez Canal has suffered from diminished traffic due to piracy in Somalia, with many shipping companies choosing to take the long route instead. Between 2008 and 2010, it is estimated that the canal lost 10% of traffic due to the threat of piracy, and another 10% due to the Financial crisis of 2007–2008, financial crisis. An oil tanker going from Saudi Arabia to the United States has farther to go when taking the route south of Africa rather than the canal.
Northern Sea RouteIn recent years, the Climate change in the Arctic, shrinking Arctic sea ice has made the Northern Sea Route feasible for commercial cargo ships between Europe and East Asia during a six-to-eight-week window in the summer months, shortening the voyage by thousands of kilometres compared to that through the Suez Canal. According to polar climate researchers, as the extent of the Arctic summer ice pack recedes the route will become passable without the help of icebreakers for a greater period each summer. The Bremen-based Beluga Group claimed in 2009 to be the first Western company to attempt using the Northern Sea Route without assistance from icebreakers, cutting off the journey between Ulsan, Korea and Rotterdam, the Netherlands.
Cape HornSailing ships, such as the windjammers in the heyday of the Grain race, Great Grain Race between Australia and Europe during the 1930s, often preferred the Cape Horn route when going to Europe, due to prevalent wind directions, even though it is slightly longer from Sydney to Europe this way than past Cape Agulhas.
Negev desert railwayIn February 2012, Israel announced its intention to construct a High-speed railway to Eilat, railway between the Mediterranean and Eilat through the Negev desert to compete with the canal. By 2019, the project had been indefinitely frozen.
Environmental impactThe opening of the canal created the first salt-water passage between the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea. Although the Red Sea is about higher than the eastern Mediterranean, the current between the Mediterranean and the middle of the canal at the flows north in winter and south in summer. The current south of the Bitter Lakes is tidal, varying with the tide at Suez. The Bitter Lakes, which were hypersaline natural lakes, blocked the migration of Red Sea species into the Mediterranean for many decades, but as the salinity of the lakes gradually equalised with that of the Red Sea the barrier to migration was removed, and plants and animals from the Red Sea have begun to colonise the eastern Mediterranean. The Red Sea is generally saltier and more nutrient-poor than the Atlantic, so the Red Sea species have advantages over Atlantic species in the less salty and nutrient-rich eastern Mediterranean. Accordingly, most Red Sea species invade the Mediterranean biota, and only few do the opposite. This migratory phenomenon is called Lessepsian migration (after Ferdinand de Lesseps) or "Erythrean invasion". Also impacting the eastern Mediterranean, starting in 1968, was the operation of Aswan High Dam across the Nile. While providing for increased human development, the project reduced the inflow of freshwater and ended all natural nutrient-rich silt entering the eastern Mediterranean at the Nile Delta. This provided less natural dilution of Mediterranean salinity and ended the higher levels of natural turbidity, additionally making conditions more like those in the Red Sea. Invasive species originating from the Red Sea and introduced species, introduced into the Mediterranean by the canal have become a major component of the Mediterranean ecosystem and have serious impacts on the ecology, endangering many local and endemism, endemic species. About 300 species from the Red Sea have been identified in the Mediterranean, and there are probably others yet unidentified. The Egyptian government's intent to enlarge the canal raised concerns from marine biologists, who feared that it would enhance the invasion of Red Sea species. Construction of the canal was preceded by cutting a small fresh-water canal called Sweet Water Canal from Nile Delta, the Nile delta along
Suez Canal Economic ZoneThe Suez Canal Economic Zone, sometimes shortened to the Suez Canal Zone, describes the set of locations neighbouring the canal where customs rates have been reduced to zero in order to attract investment. The zone comprises over within the governorates of Port Said Governorate, Port Said, Ismailia Governorate, Ismailia and Suez Governorate, Suez. Projects in the zone are collectively described as the Suez Canal Area Development Project (SCADP). The plan focuses on development of East Port Said Industrial Zone, East Port Said and the port of Ain Sokhna, and hopes to extend to four more ports at West Port Said, El-Adabiya, Arish and El Tor, Egypt, El Tor. The zone incorporates the three "Qualifying Industrial Zones" at Port Said, Ismailia and Suez, a 1996 American initiative to encourage economic ties between Israel and its neighbors.
See also* Belt and Road Initiative * Canal des Deux Mers * Container transport * Corinth Canal * Istanbul Canal * Maritime Silk Road * Mediterranean–Dead Sea Canal * New Imperialism * * Panama Canal * Red Sea–Dead Sea Water Conveyance * 21st Century Maritime Silk Road * Yellow Fleet
References* Britannica (2007) "Suez Canal", in: ''The new Encyclopædia Britannica'', 15th ed., 28, Chicago, Ill. ; London : Encyclopædia Britannica, * Farnie, D.A. ''East and West of Suez: Suez Canal in History, 1854–1956'', a stanmdard scholarly history; 870 pp * Galil, B.S. and Zenetos, A. (2002). "A sea change: exotics in the eastern Mediterranean Sea", in: Leppäkoski, E., Gollasch, S. and Olenin, S. (eds), ''Invasive aquatic species of Europe : distribution, impacts, and management'', Dordrecht ; Boston : Kluwer Academic, , pp. 325–336 * Garrison, Ervan G. (1999) ''A history of engineering and technology : artful methods'', 2nd ed., Boca Raton, Fla. ; London : CRC Press, * Hallberg, Charles W. ''The Suez Canal: Its History and Diplomatic Importance'' (1931), a standard scholarly history; 440 pp