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In
botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or phytologist is a scientist who specialises in this field. The term "botany" comes from the Ancient Greek wo ...

botany
, succulent plants, also known as succulents, are
plant Plants are predominantly photosynthetic Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to Energy transformation, convert light energy into chemical energy that, through cellular respiration, can later be released to fuel ...

plant
s with parts that are thickened, fleshy, and engorged, usually to retain water in
arid A region is arid when it is characterized by a severe lack of available water, to the extent of hindering or preventing the growth and development Development or developing may refer to: Arts *Development hell, when a project is stuck in d ...

arid
climates or
soil Soil is a mixture In chemistry Chemistry is the science, scientific study of the properties and behavior of matter. It is a natural science that covers the Chemical element, elements that make up matter to the chemical compound, comp ...

soil
conditions. It is a characteristic that is not used scientifically for the definition of most families and genera of plants because it often can be used as an accurate characteristic only at the single species level. The word ''succulent'' comes from the Latin word ''sucus'', meaning 'juice', or 'sap'. Succulent plants may store water in various structures, such as
leaves A leaf (plural leaves) is the principal lateral appendage of the vascular plant plant stem, stem, usually borne above ground and specialized for photosynthesis. The leaves, stem, flower and fruit together form the shoot system. Leaves are ...

leaves
and
stems
stems
. The water content of some succulent organs can get up to 90–95%. Some definitions also include
root In vascular plant Vascular plants (from Latin ''vasculum'': duct), also known as Tracheophyta (the tracheophytes , from Greek τραχεῖα ἀρτηρία ''trācheia artēria'' 'windpipe' + φυτά ''phutá'' 'plants'), form a large grou ...

root
s, thus
geophyte A storage organ is a part of a plant Plants are mainly multicellular organisms, predominantly photosynthetic Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to Energy transformation, convert light energy into chemical ene ...
s that survive unfavorable periods by dying back to underground
storage organ A storage organ is a part of a plant Plants are predominantly photosynthetic Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to Energy transformation, convert light energy into chemical energy that, through cellular respi ...
s may be regarded as succulents. In
horticultural Horticulture is the art of cultivating plants in gardens to produce food and medicinal ingredients, or for comfort and ornamental purposes. Horticulturists grow flowers, fruits and nuts, vegetables and herbs, as well as ornamental trees and lawns. ...
use, the term ''succulent'' is sometimes used in a way that excludes plants that
botanists
botanists
would regard as succulents, such as
cacti A cactus (plural cacti, cactuses, or less commonly, cactus) is a member of the plant Plants are predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the Kingdom (biology), kingdom Plantae. Historically, the plant kingdom encompassed all living thi ...

cacti
. Succulents are often grown as
ornamental plant Ornamental plants or garden plants are plants Plants are predominantly photosynthetic Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to Energy transformation, convert light energy into chemical energy that, through cel ...

ornamental plant
s because of their striking and unusual appearance, as well as their ability to thrive with relatively minimal care. Many plant families have multiple succulent species found within them (more than 25 plant families). In some families, such as
Aizoaceae The Aizoaceae, or fig-marigold family, is a large family of dicotyledonous flowering plants containing 135 genera and about 1800 species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic ...

Aizoaceae
,
Cactaceae A cactus (plural cacti, cactuses, or less commonly, cactus) is a member of the plant Plants are predominantly photosynthetic Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to Energy transformation, convert light en ...

Cactaceae
, and
Crassulaceae The Crassulaceae (from Latin ''crassus'', thick), also known as the stonecrop family or the orpine family, are a diverse family of dicotyledon flowering plants characterized by succulent leaves and a unique form of photosynthesis, known as Crassu ...

Crassulaceae
, most species are succulents. The habitats of these water-preserving plants are often in areas with high temperatures and low rainfall, such as
desert A desert is a barren area of landscape where little precipitation occurs and, consequently, living conditions are hostile for plant and animal life. The lack of vegetation exposes the unprotected surface of the ground to the processes of ...

desert
s. Succulents have the ability to thrive on limited water sources, such as mist and dew, which makes them equipped to survive in an
ecosystem An ecosystem (or ecological system) consists of all the organisms and the physical environment with which they interact. These biotic and abiotic components are linked together through nutrient cycles and energy flows. Energy enters the syst ...

ecosystem
that contains scarce water sources.


Definition

By definition, succulent plants are
drought A drought is an event of prolonged shortages in the water supply, whether atmospheric (below-average precipitation In meteorology Meteorology is a branch of the (which include and ), with a major focus on . The study of meteorolog ...

drought
resistant plants in which the leaves, stem, or roots have become more than usually fleshy by the development of water-storing tissue. Other sources exclude roots as in the definition "a plant with thick, fleshy and swollen stems and/or leaves, adapted to dry environments". This difference affects the relationship between succulents and "geophytes" – plants that survive unfavorable seasons as a resting bud on an underground organ. These underground organs, such as bulbs, corms, and tubers, are often fleshy with water-storing tissues. Thus if roots are included in the definition, many geophytes would be classed as succulents. Plants adapted to living in dry environments such as succulents, are termed ''
xerophyteA xerophyte (from Greek ξηρός ''xeros'' dry, φυτόν ''phuton'' plant) is a species of plant Plants are mainly multicellular organisms, predominantly photosynthetic Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms ...

xerophyte
s''. However, not all xerophytes are succulents, since there are other ways of adapting to a shortage of water, e.g., by developing small leaves which may roll up or having leathery rather than succulent leaves. Nor are all succulents xerophytes, since plants such as ''
Crassula helmsii ''Crassula helmsii'', known as swamp stonecrop or New Zealand pigmyweed, is an aquatic plant, aquatic or semiterrestrial species of succulent plant in the family Crassulaceae. Originally found in Australia and New Zealand, it has been introduced a ...

Crassula helmsii
'' are both succulent and aquatic. Some who grow succulents as a hobby may use the term in a different way from botanists. In horticultural use, the term ''succulent'' regularly excludes
cacti A cactus (plural cacti, cactuses, or less commonly, cactus) is a member of the plant Plants are predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the Kingdom (biology), kingdom Plantae. Historically, the plant kingdom encompassed all living thi ...

cacti
. For example, Jacobsen's three volume ''Handbook of Succulent Plants'' does not include cacti. Many books covering the cultivation of these plants include "cacti and succulents" as the title or part of the title. However, in botanical terminology, cacti are succulents, but not the reverse as many succulent plants are not cacti. Cacti bear true spines and appear only in the New World (the Western Hemisphere), and through
parallel evolution Parallel evolution is the similar development of a trait in distinct species that are not closely related, but share a similar original trait in response to similar evolutionary pressure.Zhang, J. and Kumar, S. 1997Detection of convergent and parall ...
similar looking plants evolved in completely different plant families in the Old World without spines, a distinct organ structure. A further difficulty for general identification is that plant families (the genus) are neither ''succulent'' nor ''non-succulent'' and contain both. In many genera and families, there is a continuous gradation from plants with thin leaves and normal stems to those with very clearly thickened and fleshy leaves or stems. The ''succulent'' characteristic becomes meaningless for dividing plants into genera and families. Different sources may classify the same species differently. Horticulturists often follow commercial conventions and may exclude other groups of plants such as
bromeliads The Bromeliaceae (the bromeliads) is a family In human society, family (from la, familia) is a group of people related either by consanguinity (by recognized birth) or affinity (by marriage or other relationship). The purpose of familie ...

bromeliads
, that scientifically, are considered succulents. A practical horticultural definition has become "a succulent plant is any desert plant that a succulent plant collector wishes to grow", without any consideration of scientific classifications. Commercial presentations of "succulent" plants will present those that customers commonly identify as such. Plants offered commercially then as "succulents" (such as
hen and chicks Hen and chicks (also known as hen-and-chickens, or hen-widdies in the southern United States) is a common name for a group of small succulent plants ''. In botany, succulent plants, also known as succulents, are plants with parts that are thi ...

hen and chicks
), will less often include geophytes (in which the swollen storage organ is wholly underground), but will include plants with a
caudex A caudex (plural: caudices) of a plant is a stem Stem or STEM may refer to: Biology * Plant stem, the aboveground structures that have vascular tissue and that support leaves and flowers ** Stipe (botany), a stalk that supports some other stru ...
, that is a swollen above-ground organ at soil level, formed from a stem, a root, or both.


Appearance

The storage of water often gives succulent plants a more swollen or fleshy appearance than other plants, a characteristic known as succulence. In addition to succulence, succulent plants variously have other water-saving features. These may include: *
crassulacean acid metabolism Crassulacean acid metabolism, also known as CAM photosynthesis, is a carbon fixation Carbon fixation or сarbon assimilation is the process by which inorganic carbon (particularly in the form of carbon dioxide Carbon dioxide (chemical form ...
(CAM) to minimize water loss * absent, reduced, or cylindrical-to-spherical leaves * reduction in the number of
stoma File:LeafUndersideWithStomata.jpg, The underside of a leaf. In this species (''Tradescantia zebrina'') the guard cells of the stomata are green because they contain chlorophyll while the epidermal cells are chlorophyll-free and contain red pigme ...

stoma
ta * stems as the main site of
photosynthesis Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert Conversion or convert may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media * Conversion (Doctor Who audio), "Conversion" (''Doctor Who'' audio), an episode of the audio drama ' ...

photosynthesis
, rather than leaves * compact, reduced, cushion-like, columnar, or spherical growth form * ribs enabling rapid increases in plant volume and decreasing surface area exposed to the sun * waxy, hairy, or spiny outer surface to create a humid micro-habitat around the plant, which reduces air movement near the surface of the plant, and thereby reduces water loss and may create shade * roots very near the surface of the soil, so they are able to take up moisture from very small showers or even from heavy
dew Dew is in the form of droplets that appears on thin, exposed objects in the morning or evening due to . As the exposed surface cools by its heat, atmospheric moisture at a rate greater than that at which it can , resulting in the format ...

dew
* ability to remain plump and full of water even with high internal temperatures (e.g., ) * very impervious outer
cuticle A cuticle (), or cuticula, is any of a variety of tough but flexible, non-mineral outer coverings of an organism, or parts of an organism, that provide protection. Various types of "cuticle" are non-homology (biology), homologous, differing in the ...
(skin) *fast wound sealing and healing * mucilaginous substances, which retain water abundantly


Habitat

Other than Antarctica, succulents can be found within each continent. While it is often thought that most succulents come from dry areas such as
steppe In physical geography, a steppe () is an ecoregion characterized by grassland plains without trees apart from those near rivers and lakes. Steppe biomes may include: * the montane grasslands and shrublands biome * the temperate grassland ...

steppe
s,
semi-desert A semi-arid climate, semi-desert climate, or steppe climate is the climate Climate is the long-term pattern of weather Weather is the state of the atmosphere, describing for example the degree to which it is hot or cold, wet or dry, c ...
, and
desert A desert is a barren area of landscape where little precipitation occurs and, consequently, living conditions are hostile for plant and animal life. The lack of vegetation exposes the unprotected surface of the ground to the processes of ...

desert
, the world's driest areas do not make for proper succulent habitats. This is a result mainly due to the difficulty such low growing plants or seedlings would have to thrive in environments where they could easily be covered by sand. Australia, the world's driest inhabited continent, hosts very few native succulents due to the frequent and prolonged droughts. Even Africa, the continent with the most native succulents, does not host many of the plants in its most dry regions. However, while succulents are unable to grow in these harshest of conditions, they are able to grow in conditions that are uninhabitable by other plants. In fact, many succulents are able to thrive in dry conditions, and some are able to last up to two years without water depending on their surroundings and adaptations. Occasionally, succulents may occur as
epiphyte 200px, '' Tillandsia bourgaei'' growing on an oak tree in Mexico An epiphyte is an organism that grows on the surface of a plant and derives its moisture and nutrients from the air, rain, water (in marine environments) or from debris accumulating a ...

epiphyte
s, growing on other plants with limited or no contact with the ground, and being dependent on their ability to store water and gaining nutrients by other means; this niche is seen in ''
Tillandsia ''Tillandsia'' is a genus Genus /ˈdʒiː.nəs/ (plural genera /ˈdʒen.ər.ə/) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of extant taxon, living and fossil organisms as well as Virus classification#ICTV classification, viruses ...

Tillandsia
''. Succulents also occur as inhabitants of
sea The sea, connected as the world ocean or simply the ocean The ocean (also the sea or the world ocean) is the body of salt water which covers approximately 71% of the surface of the Earth.
sea
coast The coast, also known as the coastline or seashore, is defined as the area where land meets the ocean The ocean (also the or the world ocean) is the body of that covers approximately 70.8% of the surface of and contains 97% of . Anot ...

coast
s and
dry lake A dry lake bed, also known as a playa, is a basin or depression that formerly contained a standing surface water body, which disappeared when evaporation processes exceeded recharge. If the floor of a dry lake is covered by deposits of alkaline ...

dry lake
s, which are exposed to high levels of dissolved minerals that are deadly to many other plant species. Potted succulents are able to grow in most indoor environments with minimal care.


Families and genera

There are approximately sixty different plant families that contain succulents. Plant orders, families, and genera in which succulent species occur are listed below. Order
Alismatales The Alismatales (alismatids) are an order of flowering plant The flowering plants, also known as Angiospermae (), or Magnoliophyta (), are the most diverse group of Embryophyte, land plants, with 64 Order(biology), orders, 416 Family (biolog ...
*
Araceae The Araceae are a family In human society A society is a Social group, group of individuals involved in persistent Social relation, social interaction, or a large social group sharing the same spatial or social territory, typica ...

Araceae
: ''
Zamioculcas ''Zamioculcas'' is a genus of flowering plants in the family Araceae, containing the single species ''Zamioculcas zamiifolia''. It is a tropical perennial plant native to eastern Africa, from southern Kenya to northeastern South Africa. Common na ...

Zamioculcas
'' Order
Apiales The Apiales are an of s. The are those recognized in the . This is typical of the newer , though there is some slight variation and in particular, the Torriceliaceae may be divided. Under this definition, well-known members include s, , , and ...
*
Apiaceae Apiaceae or Umbelliferae is a family of mostly aromatic flowering plants The flowering plants, also known as Angiospermae (), or Magnoliophyta (), are the most diverse group of land plants The Embryophyta () or land plants are the most fami ...

Apiaceae
: '' Azorella, Crithmum'' *
Araliaceae The Araliaceae is a family of flowering plant Flowering plants include multiple members of the clade Angiospermae (), commonly called angiosperms. The term "angiosperm" is derived from the Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece ...
: '' Cussonia'' Order
Asparagales Asparagales (asparagoid lilies) is an order Order, ORDER or Orders may refer to: * Orderliness Orderliness is a quality that is characterized by a person’s interest in keeping their surroundings and themselves well organized, and is assoc ...
*
Amaryllidaceae The Amaryllidaceae are a family In human society A society is a Social group, group of individuals involved in persistent Social relation, social interaction, or a large social group sharing the same spatial or social territory, ty ...

Amaryllidaceae
(geophytes): ''
Amaryllis ''Amaryllis'' () is the only genus Genus /ˈdʒiː.nəs/ (plural genera /ˈdʒen.ər.ə/) is a taxonomic rank In biological classification In biology, taxonomy () is the scientific study of naming, defining (Circumscription (taxon ...

Amaryllis
'', ''
Boophone ''Boophone'' is a small genus of herbaceous, perennial and bulb, bulbous plants in the Amaryllis family (Amaryllidaceae, subfamily Amaryllidoideae.) It consists of two confirmed species distributed across South Africa to Kenya and Uganda. It is c ...
'', ''
Clivia ''Clivia'' is a genus Genus /ˈdʒiː.nəs/ (plural genera /ˈdʒen.ər.ə/) is a taxonomic rank In biological classification In biology, taxonomy () is the scientific study of naming, defining (Circumscription (taxonomy), circumsc ...

Clivia
,'' ''
Crinum ''Crinum'' is a genus Genus /ˈdʒiː.nəs/ (plural genera /ˈdʒen.ər.ə/) is a taxonomic rank In biological classification In biology, taxonomy () is the scientific study of naming, defining (Circumscription (taxonomy), circumsc ...

Crinum
,
Cryptostephanus ''Cryptostephanus'' is a genus of African plants in the Amaryllidaceae, Amaryllis family, native to Kenya, Tanzania, Angola, Mozambique, Zimbabwe and Namibia. Its closest relative is ''Clivia'', with which it shares some characters, including thic ...
'', ''
Cyrtanthus ''Cyrtanthus'' is a genus of perennial, herbaceous and bulbous plants in the family (biology), family Amaryllidaceae, subfamily Amaryllidoideae. Taxonomy ''Cyrtanthus'' is the sole genus in the African tribe Cyrtantheae. Phylogeny The placem ...
'', ''
Haemanthus ''Haemanthus'' is a Southern African genus of flowering plants in the family (biology), family Amaryllidaceae, subfamily Amaryllidoideae. Members of the genus are known as blood lily and paintbrush lily. There are some 22 known species, native t ...
'', '' Rauhia'', ''
Scadoxus ''Scadoxus'' is a genus of African and Arabian plants in the Amaryllidaceae, Amaryllis family, subfamily Amaryllidoideae. The English names blood lily or blood flower are used for some of the species. The genus has close affinities with ''Haemanth ...
'', '' Stenomesson'' *
Asparagaceae Asparagaceae is a Family (biology), family of flowering plants, placed in the Order (biology), order Asparagales of the monocots. Its best known member is ''Asparagus officinalis'', garden asparagus. Taxonomy In earlier classification systems, ...
**
Agavoideae Agavoideae is a subfamily of Monocotyledon, monocot flowering plants in the Family (biology), family Asparagaceae, Order (biology), order Asparagales. It has previously been treated as a separate family, Agavaceae. The group includes many well-kno ...
: ''
Agave ''Agave'' (, , ) is a genus Genus /ˈdʒiː.nəs/ (plural genera /ˈdʒen.ər.ə/) is a taxonomic rank In biological classification In biology, taxonomy () is the scientific study of naming, defining (Circumscription (taxonomy), ...

Agave
'', '' Beschorneria'', ''
Furcraea ''Furcraea'' is a genus Genus /ˈdʒiː.nəs/ (plural genera /ˈdʒen.ər.ə/) is a taxonomic rank In biological classification In biology, taxonomy () is the scientific study of naming, defining (Circumscription (taxonomy), circum ...

Furcraea
'', ''
Hesperaloe ''Hesperaloe'' (false yucca) is a genus of flowering plant Flowering plants include multiple members of the clade Angiospermae (), commonly called angiosperms. The term "angiosperm" is derived from the Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer t ...
'', ''
Hesperoyucca ''Hesperoyucca'' is a small genus of two recognized species of flowering plants closely related to, and recently split from, ''Yucca'', which is in the Agavoideae, century plant subfamily within the Asparagaceae, asparagus family. Description ''H ...
'', '' Manfreda, Polianthes,'' ''
Yucca ''Yucca'' is a genus Genus /ˈdʒiː.nəs/ (plural genera /ˈdʒen.ər.ə/) is a taxonomic rank In biological classification In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their an ...

Yucca
'' **
Lomandroideae Lomandroideae is a subfamily of monocot flowering plants in the Family (biology), family Asparagaceae, Order (biology), order Asparagales, according to the APG III system of 2009. The subfamily name is derived from the Binomial nomenclature, gener ...
: ''
Cordyline ''Cordyline'' is a genus Genus (plural genera) is a taxonomic rank Taxonomy (general) is the practice and science of classification of things or concepts, including the principles that underlie such classification. The term may also refer to ...
'' **
Nolinoideae Nolinoideae is a monocot subfamily of the family Asparagaceae in the APG III system of 2009. It used to be treated as a separate family, Ruscaceae s.l. The family name is derived from the Binomial nomenclature, generic name of the Biological ...
: ''
Beaucarnea ''Beaucarnea'' is a genus of flowering plants native plant, native to Mexico and Central America. In the APG III system, APG III classification system, it is placed in the family (biology), family Asparagaceae, subfamily Nolinoideae (formerly the ...
'', ''
Calibanus ''Calibanus'' is a genus of two species of flowering plants, both evergreen succulents from dry areas of northeastern Mexico. The APG III system, APG III classification system places it in the family (biology), family Asparagaceae, subfamily Nolin ...
'', ''
Dasylirion ''Dasylirion'' is a genus Genus (plural genera) is a taxonomic rank Taxonomy (general) is the practice and science of classification of things or concepts, including the principles that underlie such classification. The term may also refer to ...
'', '' Dracaena'', ''
Nolina ''Nolina'' is a of tropical s, with the principal distribution being in and extending into the southern . They are large, plants. Some botanists have included the genus ' in ''Nolina''. In the , it is placed in the , subfamily (formerly ...

Nolina
'' ** Scilloideae (Hyacinthaceae): ''
Albuca ''Albuca'' is a genus of flowering plants in the Family (biology), family Asparagaceae, subfamily Scilloideae. The genus is distributed mainly in southern and eastern Africa, with some species occurring in northern Africa and the Arabian Peninsula ...
'', '' Bowiea'', '' Daubenya'', '' Drimia'', '' Eucomis'', ''
Lachenalia ''Lachenalia'' is a genus (biology), genus of bulbous perennial plants in the family Asparagaceae, subfamily Scilloideae, which are usually found in Namibia and South Africa. Most of them have a dormancy period, but new roots will always grow ever ...
'', ''
Ledebouria ''Ledebouria'' is a genus of African bulbous perennial plant, perennial herbs in the Asparagus family, Asparagaceae, subfamily Scilloideae. Most members were previously part of the genus ''Scilla''. A number of species are grown by cacti and succu ...
'', '' Massonia'', ''
Ornithogalum ''Ornithogalum'' is a genus Genus (plural genera) is a taxonomic rank Taxonomy (general) is the practice and science of classification of things or concepts, including the principles that underlie such classification. The term may also refer ...

Ornithogalum
'', ''
Scilla ''Scilla'' () is a genus Genus /ˈdʒiː.nəs/ (plural genera /ˈdʒen.ər.ə/) is a taxonomic rank In biological classification In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including thei ...

Scilla
'', '' Urginea,'' '' Veltheimia'' * Doryanthaceae: '' Doryanthes'' *
Orchidaceae Orchidaceae ( ), common name, commonly called the orchid family, is a diverse and widespread family (biology), family of flowering plants, with blooms that are often colourful and fragrant. Along with the Asteraceae, they are one of the two la ...

Orchidaceae
: ''
Acampe ''Acampe'', abbreviated as Acp in horticultural trade, is a genus of monopodial, epiphytic vandaceous species of orchids, distributed from tropical Asia from India, eastwards to China and southwards to Malaysia, and the Philippines as well as fro ...
'', '' Aerangis'', '' Ansellia'', '' Bolusiella'', ''
Bulbophyllum ''Bulbophyllum'' is a genus Genus (plural genera) is a taxonomic rank Taxonomy (general) is the practice and science of classification of things or concepts, including the principles that underlie such classification. The term may also refer ...
'', '' Cirrhopetalum,'' ''
Calanthe ''Calanthe'', commonly known as Christmas orchids, is a genus of about 220 species of orchids in the Family (biology), family Orchidaceae. They are evergreen or deciduous Terrestrial plant, terrestrial plants with thick roots, small oval pseudobu ...
'', '' Cyrtorchis'', '' Eulophia'', '' Liparis'', '' Oberonia'', '' Oeceoclades'', ''
Polystachya ''Polystachya'', abbreviated Pol in horticultural trade, and commonly known as yellowspike orchid, is a flowering plant genus in the orchid family (biology), family (Orchidaceae). This rather distinctive genus was described by William Jackson Hook ...
'', '' Tridactyle'', ''
Vanilla Vanilla is a spice derived from orchids of the genus ''Vanilla (genus), Vanilla'', primarily obtained from pods of the Mexican species, flat-leaved vanilla (''Vanilla planifolia, V. planifolia''). The word ''vanilla'', derived from , th ...
'' *
Asphodelaceae Asphodelaceae is a family In human society A society is a Social group, group of individuals involved in persistent Social relation, social interaction, or a large social group sharing the same spatial or social territory, typically ...
** subfamily
Asphodeloideae Asphodeloideae is a subfamily of the monocot Family (biology), family Asphodelaceae in the Order (biology), order Asparagales. It has previously been treated as a separate family, Asphodelaceae ''sensu stricto''. The family Asphodelaceae has now ...
: ''
Aloe ''Aloe'' ( , ), also written ''Aloë'', is a genus Genus /ˈdʒiː.nəs/ (plural genera /ˈdʒen.ər.ə/) is a taxonomic rank In biological classification In biology, taxonomy () is the scientific study of naming, defining (Circum ...

Aloe
'' (succulents and succulent geophytes), '' Astroloba'', ''
Tulista ''Tulista'' is a small genus of succulent plants endemic to South Africa. They were formerly included within the genus ''Haworthia''. Characteristics The genus is characterised by a large size (relative to other haworthias), by their stemless ros ...
'', '' × Astrolista'', ''Bulbine'' (succulent geophytes, succulents, and geophytes), ''Bulbinella'' (geophyte), ''Chortolirion'' (succulent geophytes), ''Gasteria'', ''Gonialoe'', ''Haworthia'', ''Trachyandra'' (succulent geophytes and succulents), ** subfamily Xanothorrhoeoidae: ''Xanthorrhoea'' Order Asterales * Asteraceae: ''Arctotheca'', ''Baeriopsis'', ''Chrysanthemoides'', ''Coulterella'', ''Crassocephalum'', ''Curio (plant), Curio'', ''Didelta'', ''Emilia (plant), Emilia'', ''Eremothamnus'', ''Gymnodiscus'', ''Gynura'', ''Hillardiella'' (geophyte), ''Lopholaena'', ''Monoculus'', ''Nidorella'', ''Osteospermum'', ''Othonna'' (succulents and succulent geophytes), ''Phaneroglossa'', ''Poecilolepis'', ''Polyachyrus'', ''Pteronia'', ''Senecio'', ''Solanecio'', ''Tripteris'' * Campanulaceae: ''Brighamia'' Order Brassicales * Brassicaceae: ''Heliophila'', ''Lepidium'' * Capparidaceae: ''Maerua'' * Caricaceae: ''Carica'', ''Jacarathia'' * Moringaceae: ''Moringa'' Order Caryophyllales *
Aizoaceae The Aizoaceae, or fig-marigold family, is a large family of dicotyledonous flowering plants containing 135 genera and about 1800 species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic ...

Aizoaceae
: ''Corbichonia'', ''Gisekia'', ''Herreanthus'', ''Limeum'', ''Ophthalmophyllum'', ''Saphesia'' ** subfamily Aizooideae: ''Acrosanthes'', ''Aizoanthemum'', ''Aizoon'', ''Galenia'', ''Gunniopsis'', ''Plinthus'', ''Tetragonia'' ** subfamily Mesembryanthemoideae (syn. Mesembryanthemaceae): ''Aptenia'', ''Aridaria'', ''Aspazoma'', ''Brownanthus'', ''Calamophyllum'', ''Caulipsilon'', ''Conophytum'', ''Dactylopsis'', ''Erepsia'', ''Hameria'', ''Hartmanthus'', ''Hymenogyne'', ''Marlothistela'', ''Mesembryanthemum'', ''Phiambolia'', ''Phyllobolus'', ''Prenia'', ''Psilocaulon'', ''Ruschiella'', ''Sarozona'', ''Sceletium'', ''Synaptophyllum'' ** subfamily Ruschioideae: *** tribe Apatesieae: ''Apatesia'', ''Carpanthea'', ''Caryotophora'', ''Conicosia'', ''Hymenogyne'', ''Saphesia'', ''Skiatophytum'' *** tribe Dorotheantheae: ''Aethephyllum'' ''Cleretum'' ''Dorotheanthus'' *** tribe Ruschiae: ''Acrodon'', ''Aloinopsis'', ''Amphibolia'', ''Antegibbaeum'', ''Antimima'', ''Arenifera'', ''Argyroderma'', ''Astridia'', ''Bergeranthus'', ''Bijlia'', ''Braunsia (plant), Braunsia'', ''Brianhuntleya'', ''Carpobrotus'', ''Carruanthus'', ''Cephalophyllum'', ''Cerochlamys'', ''Chasmatophyllum'', ''Cheiridopsis'', ''Circandra'', ''Conophytum'', ''Corpuscularia'', ''Cylindrophyllum'', ''Delosperma'', ''Dicrocaulon'', ''Didymaotus'', ''Dinteranthus'', ''Diplosoma (plant), Diplosoma'', ''Disphyma'', ''Dracophilus'', ''Drosanthemum'', ''Eberlanzia (plant), Eberlanzia'', ''Ebracteola'', ''Enarganthe'', ''Erepsia'', ''Esterhuysenia'', ''Faucaria'', ''Fenestraria'', ''Frithia'', ''Gibbaeum'', ''Glottiphyllum'', ''Hallianthus'', ''Hereroa'', ''Ihlenfeldtia'', ''Imitaria'', ''Jacobsenia'', ''Jensenobotrya'', ''Jordaaniella'', ''Juttadinteria'', ''Khadia'', ''Lampranthus'', ''Lapidaria (plant)'', ''Leipoldtia'', ''Lithops'', ''Machairophyllum'', ''Malephora'', ''Mestoklema'', ''Meyerophytum'', ''Mitrophyllum'', ''Monilaria'', ''Mossia'', ''Muiria'', ''Namaquanthus'', ''Namibia'', ''Nananthus'', ''Nelia (plant), Nelia'', ''Neohenricia'', ''Octopoma'', ''Odontophorus (plant), Odontophorus'', ''Oophytum'', ''Ophthalmophyllum'', ''Orthopterum'', ''Oscularia'', ''Ottosonderia'', ''Pleiospilos'', ''Polymita'', ''Psammophora'', ''Rabiea'', ''Rhinephyllum'', ''Rhombophyllum'', ''Ruschia'', ''Ruschianthemum'', ''Ruschianthus'', ''Schlechteranthus'', ''Schwantesia'', ''Scopelogena'', ''Smicrostigma'', ''Stayneria'', ''Stoeberia'', ''Stomatium'' ''Tanquana'' ''Titanopsis'', ''Trichodiadema'', ''Vanheerdea'', ''Vanzijlia'', ''Vlokia'', ''Wooleya'', ''Zeuktophyllum'' ** subfamily Sesuvioideae: ''Cypselea'', ''Sesuvium'', ''Trianthema'', ''Tribulocarpus'', ''Zaleya'' * Amaranthaceae: ** subfamily Amaranthoideae: ''Arthraerva'' ** subfamily Chenopodioideae (family Chenopodiaceae):) ''Atriplex'', ''Chenopodium'', ''Dissocarpus'', ''Einadia'', ''Enchylaena'', ''Eremophea'', ''Halopeplis'', ''Maireana'', ''Malacocera'', ''Neobassia'', ''Osteocarpum'', ''Rhagodia'', ''Roycea'', ''Halosarcia'', ''Salicornia'', ''Salsola'', ''Sarcocornia'', ''Sclerochlamys'', ''Sclerolaena'', ''Suaeda'', ''Tecticornia'', ''Threlkeldia'' * Basellaceae: ''Anredera'', ''Basella'' * Cactus, Cactaceae: ''Acanthocalycium'', ''Acanthocereus'', ''Ariocarpus'', ''Armatocereus'', ''Arrojadoa'', ''Arthrocereus'', ''Astrophytum'', ''Austrocactus'', ''Aztekium'', ''Bergerocactus'', ''Blossfeldia'', ''Brachycereus'', ''Browningia'', ''Brasilicereus'', ''Calymmanthium'', ''Carnegiea'', ''Cephalocereus'', ''Cephalocleistocactus'', ''Cereus (plant), Cereus'', ''Cintia'', ''Cipocereus'', ''Cleistocactus'', ''Coleocephalocereus'', ''Copiapoa'', ''Corryocactus'', ''Coryphantha'', ''Dendrocereus'', ''Denmoza'', ''Discocactus'', ''Disocactus'', ''Echinocactus'', ''Echinocereus'', ''Echinopsis'', ''Epiphyllum'', ''Epithelantha'', ''Eriosyce'', ''Escobaria'', ''Escontria'', ''Espostoa'', ''Espostoopsis'', ''Eulychnia'', ''Facheiroa'', ''Ferocactus'', ''Frailea'', ''Geohintonia'', ''Gymnocalycium'', ''Haageocereus'', ''Harrisia (plant), Harrisia'', ''Hatiora'', ''Hylocereus'', ''Jasminocereus'', ''Lasiocereus'', ''Leocereus'', ''Lepismium'', ''Leptocereus'', ''Leuchtenbergia'', ''Lophophora'', ''Maihuenia'', ''Malacocarpus'', ''Mammillaria'', ''Mammilloydia'', ''Matucana'', ''Melocactus'', ''Micranthocereus'', ''Mila (plant), Mila'', ''Monvillea'', ''Myrtillocactus'', ''Neobuxbaumia'', ''Neolloydia'', ''Neoraimondia'', ''Neowerdermannia'', ''Obregonia'', ''Opuntia'', ''Cylindropuntia'', ''Oreocereus'', ''Oroya'', ''Ortegocactus'', ''Pachycereus'', ''Parodia'', ''Pediocactus'', ''Pelecyphora'', ''Peniocereus'', ''Pereskia'', ''Pereskiopsis'', ''Pilosocereus'', ''Polaskia'', ''Praecereus'', ''Pseudoacanthocereus'', ''Pseudorhipsalis'', ''Pterocactus'', ''Pygmaeocereus'', ''Quiabentia'', ''Rauhocereus'', ''Rebutia'', ''Rhipsalis'', ''Samaipaticereus'', ''Schlumbergera'', ''Sclerocactus'', ''Selenicereus'', ''Stenocactus'', ''Stenocereus'', ''Stephanocereus'', ''Stetsonia (plant), Stetsonia'', ''Strombocactus'', ''Tacinga'', ''Thelocactus'', ''Trichocereus'' ''Turbinicarpus'', ''Uebelmannia'', ''Weberbauerocereus'', ''Weberocereus'', ''Yungasocereus'' * Didiereaceae: ''Alluaudia'', ''Alluaudiopsis'', ''Decaria'', ''Didierea'' * Molluginaceae: ''Hypertelis'' * Phytolaccaceae: ''Phytolacca'' * Portulacaceae: ''Amphipetalum'', ''Anacampseros'', ''Avonia (plant), Avonia'', ''Calyptrotheca'', ''Ceraria'', ''Cistanthe'', ''Calandrinia'', ''Dendroportulaca'', ''Grahamia (plant), Grahamia'', ''Lewisia'', ''Parakeelya'', ''Portulaca'', ''Portulacaria'', ''Schreiteria'', ''Talinella'', ''Talinum'' Order Commelinales * Commelinaceae: ''Aneilema'', ''Callisia'', ''Cyanotis'', ''Tradescantia'', ''Tripogandra'' Order Cornales * Loasaceae: ''Schismocarpus'' Order Cucurbitales * Begoniaceae: ''Begonia'' * Cucurbitaceae: ''Acanthosicyos'', ''Apodanthera'', ''Brandegea'', ''Cephalopentandra'', ''Ceratosanthes'', ''Citrullus'', ''Coccinia'', ''Corallocarpus'', ''Cucumis, Cucumella'', ''Cucumis'', ''Cucurbita'', ''Cyclantheropsis'', ''Dactyliandra'', ''Dendrosicyos'', ''Doyera'', ''Eureindra'', ''Fevillea'', ''Gerrandanthus'', ''Gynostemma'', ''Halosicyos'', ''Ibervilla'', ''Kedostris'', ''Lagenaria'', ''Marah (plant), Marah'', ''Momordica'', ''Neoalsomitra'', ''Odosicyos'', ''Parasicyos'', ''Syrigia'', ''Telfairia'', ''Trochomeria'', ''Trochomeriopsis'', ''Tumamoca'', ''Xerosicyos'', ''Zehneria'', ''Zygosicyos'' Order Dioscoreales * Dioscoreaceae: ''Dioscorea'' Order Ericales * Balsaminaceae: ''Impatiens'' * Ericaceae: ''Sphyrospermum'' * Fouquieriaceae: ''Fouquieria'' Order Fabales * Fabaceae: ''Delonix'', ''Dolichos (plant), Dolichos'', ''Erythrina'', ''Lotononis'', ''Neorautanenia'', ''Pachyrhizus'', ''Tylosema'' Order Gentianales * Apocynaceae: ''Adenium'', ''Mandevilla'', ''Pachypodium'', ''Plumeria'' ** subfamily Asclepiadoideae (syn. Asclepiadaceae): ''Absolmsia'', ''Australluma'', ''Aspidoglossum'', ''Aspidonepsis'', ''Baynesia'', ''Brachystelma'', ''Ceropegia'', ''Chlorocyathus'', ''Cibirhiza'', ''Cordylogyne'', ''Cynanchum'', ''Dischidia'', ''Dischidiopsis'', ''Duvaliandra'', ''Eustegia'', ''Fanninia'', ''Fockea'', ''Glossostelma'', ''Hoya (plant), Hoya'', ''Ischnolepis'', ''Lavrania'', ''Marsdenia'', ''Miraglossum'', ''Odontostelma'', ''Ophionella'', ''Orbeanthus'', ''Pachycarpus'', ''Parapodium (plant), Parapodium'', ''Periglossum'', ''Petopentia'', ''Raphionacme'', ''Riocreuxia'', ''Sarcorrhiza'', ''Schizoglossum'', ''Schlechterella'', ''Stathmostelma'', ''Stenostelma'', ''Stomatostemma'', ''Trachycalymma'', ''Trichocaulon'', ''Tylophora'', ''Woodia'', ''Xysmalobium'' *** tribe Asclepiadeae: **** subtribe Asclepiadne: ''Asclepias'', **** subtribe Cynanchinae: ''Sarcostemma'', **** subtribe Gonolobinae: ''Matelea'', *** tribe Maxillarieae: **** subtribe Lycastinae: ''Rudolfiella'' *** tribe Stapelieae: ''Angolluma'', ''Caralluma'', ''Desmidorchis'', ''Duvalia'', ''Echidnopsis'', ''Edithcolea'', ''Frerea'', ''Hoodia'', ''Huernia'', ''Huerniopsis'', ''Larryleachia'', ''Notechidnopsis'', ''Orbea (plant)'', ''Orbeopsis'', ''Piaranthus'', ''Pachycymbium'', ''Pectinaria (plant), Pectinaria'', ''Pseudolithos'', ''Pseudopectinaria'', ''Quaqua'', ''Rhytidocaulon'', ''Stapelia'', ''Stapelianthus'', ''Stapeliopsis'', ''Tavaresia'', ''Tridentea'', ''Tromotriche'', ''Whitesloanea'' ** subfamily Periplocoideae: *** tribe Cryptolepideae: ''Cryptolepis (plant), Cryptolepis'' * Rubiaceae: ''Anthorrhiza'', ''Anthospermum'', ''Hydnophytum'', ''Hydrophylax'', ''Myrmecodia'', ''Myrmephytum'', ''Phylohydrax'', ''Squamellaria'' Order Geraniales * Geraniaceae: ''Monsonia'', ''Pelargonium'' (succulents and geophytes), ''Sarcocaulon'' Order Lamiales * Gesneriaceae: ''Aeschynanthus'', ''Alsobia'', ''Chirita'', ''Codonanthe'', ''Columnea'', ''Nematanthus'', ''Sinningia'', ''Streptocarpus'' * Lamiaceae: ''Aeollanthus'', ''Dauphinea'', ''Perrierastrum'', ''Plectranthus'', ''Rotheca'', ''Solenostemon'', ''Tetradenia'', ''Thorncroftia'' * Lentibulariaceae * Pedaliaceae: ''Holubia (plant), Holubia'', ''Pterodiscus (plant), Pterodiscus'', ''Sesamothamnus'', ''Uncarina'' Order Malpighiales * Euphorbiaceae: ''Cnidoscolus'', ''Euphorbia'', ''Jatropha'', ''Monadenium'', ''Pedilanthus'', ''Phyllanthus'', ''Synadenium'' * Passifloraceae: ''Adenia'' * Phyllanthaceae: ''Phyllanthus'' Order Malvales * Cochlospermaceae * Malvaceae: ''Adansonia'', ''Cavanillesia'', ''Ceiba'', ''Pseudobombax'' ** subgroup Sterculiaceae: ''Brachychiton'', ''Sterculia'' Order Myrtales * Melastomataceae: ''Medinilla'' Order Oxalidales * Oxalidaceae (geophytes): ''Oxalis'' Order Piperales * Piperaceae: ''Peperomia'' Order Poales * Bromeliaceae: ''Abromeitiella'', ''Aechmea'', ''Ananas'', ''Catopsis'', ''Connellia'', ''Dyckia'', ''Hechtia'', ''Neoregelia'', ''Puya (genus), Puya'', ''
Tillandsia ''Tillandsia'' is a genus Genus /ˈdʒiː.nəs/ (plural genera /ˈdʒen.ər.ə/) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of extant taxon, living and fossil organisms as well as Virus classification#ICTV classification, viruses ...

Tillandsia
'', ''Vriesea'' * Poaceae: ''Dregeochloa'' Order Ranunculales * Menispermaceae: ''Chasmanthera'', ''Stephania'', ''Tinospora'' Order Rosales * Moraceae: ''Dorstenia'', ''Ficus'' * Urticaceae: ''Laportea'', ''Obetia'', ''Pilea'', ''Pouzolzia'', ''Sarcopilea'' Order Santalales * Loranthaceae: ''Actinanthella'', ''Agelanthus'', ''Erianthemum'', ''Helixanthera'', ''Moquiniella'', ''Oncocalyx'', ''Pedistylis'', ''Plicosepalus'', ''Septulina'', ''Tapinanthus'', ''Vanwykia'' * Viscaceae (syn. Santalaceae): ''Viscum'' Order Sapindales * Anacardiaceae: ''Operculicaria'', ''Pachycormus (plant), Pachycormus'' * Burseraceae: ''Boswellia'', ''Bursera'', ''Commiphora'' * Meliaceae: ''Entandrophragma'' * Sapindaceae: ''Erythrophysa'' Order Saxifragales *
Crassulaceae The Crassulaceae (from Latin ''crassus'', thick), also known as the stonecrop family or the orpine family, are a diverse family of dicotyledon flowering plants characterized by succulent leaves and a unique form of photosynthesis, known as Crassu ...

Crassulaceae
: ''Adromischus'', ''Aeonium'', ''Aichryson'', ''Cotyledon (genus), Cotyledon'', ''Crassula'', ''Cremnophila (plant), Cremnophila'', ''Dudleya'', ''Echeveria'', ''Graptopetalum'', ''Greenovia'', ''Hylotelephium'', ''Kalanchoe'', ''Kungia'', ''Lenophyllum'', ''Meterostachys'', ''Monanthes'', ''Mucizonia'', ''Orostachys'', ''Pachyphytum'', ''Perrierosedum'', ''Petrosedum'', ''Phedimus'', ''Pistorinia'', ''Prometheum'', ''Pseudosedum'', ''Rhodiola'', ''Rosularia'', ''Sedella (plant), Sedella'', ''Sedum'', ''Sempervivum'', ''Sinocrassula'', ''Thompsonella'', ''Tylecodon'', ''Umbilicus (plant), Umbilicus'', ''Villadia'' * Saxifragaceae Order Solanales * Convolvulaceae: ''Ipomoea'', ''Merremia'', ''Stictocardia'', ''Turbina (plant)'' * Solanaceae: ''Nolana'' Order Vitales * Vitaceae: ''Cissus'', ''Cyphostemma'' Order Zygophyllales * Zygophyllaceae: ''Augea'', ''Seetzenia'', ''Zygophyllum'' (unplaced order)* Boraginaceae: ''Heliotropium'' (unplaced order)* Icacinaceae: ''Pyrenacantha'' (geophyte) There also are some succulent gymnosperms: Order Pinales * Cheirolepidiaceae: ''Frenelopsis'', ''Pseudofrenelopsis'', ''Suturovagina'', ''Glenrosa'' For some families and subfamilies, most members are succulent; for example the Cactus, Cactaceae,
Agavoideae Agavoideae is a subfamily of Monocotyledon, monocot flowering plants in the Family (biology), family Asparagaceae, Order (biology), order Asparagales. It has previously been treated as a separate family, Agavaceae. The group includes many well-kno ...
,
Aizoaceae The Aizoaceae, or fig-marigold family, is a large family of dicotyledonous flowering plants containing 135 genera and about 1800 species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic ...

Aizoaceae
, and
Crassulaceae The Crassulaceae (from Latin ''crassus'', thick), also known as the stonecrop family or the orpine family, are a diverse family of dicotyledon flowering plants characterized by succulent leaves and a unique form of photosynthesis, known as Crassu ...

Crassulaceae
. The table below shows the number of succulent species found in some families and their native habitat:


Cultivation

Succulents are favored as Houseplant, houseplants for their attractiveness and ease of care. If properly potted, succulents require little maintenance to survive indoors. Succulents are very adaptable houseplants and will thrive in a range of indoor conditions. For most plant owners, over-watering and associated infections are the main cause of death in succulents. Succulents can be propagated by different means. The most common is vegetative propagation; this includes ''cuttings'' where several inches of stem with leaves are cut and after healing, produce a callus. After a week or so, roots may grow. A second method is ''division'' consisting of uprooting an overgrown clump and pulling the stems and roots apart. A third method is propagation by leaf by allowing the formation of a callus. During this method, a bottom leaf is fully removed from the plant often by twisting or cutting. The leaf then dries out and a callus forms preventing the leaf from absorbing too much moisture and thus rotting. This method typically takes up to a few weeks to produce healthy roots that would eventually create new plants. The vegetative propagation can be different according to the species.


See also

*Cactus and Succulent Society of America * Crassulacean acid metabolism


References


Bibliography

* * * (publication date also given as 1930s or 1940s) * * * * * *


External links

{{Authority control Succulent plants, Plant common names Plant morphology Drought-tolerant plants Garden plants