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Stoke Poges () is a
green-buffered
green-buffered
scattered village and
civil parish In England, a civil parish is a type of administrative parish used for local government Local government is a generic term for the lowest tiers of public administration Public administration is the implementation of public policy, gove ...
in south-east
Buckinghamshire Buckinghamshire (), abbreviated Bucks, is a ceremonial county The counties and areas for the purposes of the lieutenancies, also referred to as the lieutenancy areas of England and informally known as ceremonial counties, are areas of Eng ...

Buckinghamshire
, England. It is centred north-north-east of
Slough Slough () is a large town in Berkshire Berkshire ( ; in the 17th century sometimes spelt phonetically as Barkeshire; abbreviated Berks.) is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other pu ...

Slough
(historically Upton-cum-Chalvey), its
post town #REDIRECT Post town A post town is a required part of all postal addresses in the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' ...
, and southeast of
Farnham Common Farnham Common is a village in Buckinghamshire, England, 3 miles north of Slough and 3 miles south of Beaconsfield, on the A355 road. It adjoins the ancient woodland of Burnham Beeches, has an area of 2.5 miles and a population of around 6,000. I ...
.


Etymology

In the name Stoke Poges, ''stoke'' means " stockaded (place)" that is staked with more than just boundary-marking stakes. In the 1086 ''
Domesday Book Domesday Book () – the Middle English Middle English (abbreviated to ME) was a form of the English language spoken after the Norman conquest of England, Norman conquest (1066) until the late 15th century. The English language underwent ...
'', the village was recorded as ''Stoche''.
William Fitz-Ansculf William Fitz-Ansculf was a Norman-French landowner who succeeded his father, Ansculf de PicquignyAnsculf de Picquigny (c. 1014 – c. 1084) was a French baron who followed William the Conqueror William I (c. 1028Bates ''William the Conquer ...
, who held the
manor Manor may refer to: Land tenure *Manor, the land belonging to the Lord of the manor under manorialism in parts of medieval Europe, notably England *Manor house, the main residence of the lord of the manor *Lord of the manor, the landholder of a ma ...
in 1086 (in the grounds of which the
Norman Norman or Normans may refer to: Ethnic and cultural identity * The Normans, a people partly descended from Norse Vikings who settled in the territory of Normandy in France in the 10th and 11th centuries ** People or things connected with the Norm ...
parish church A parish church (or parochial church) in Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic, Monotheism, monotheistic religion based on the Life of Jesus in the New Testament, life and Teachings of Jesus, teachings of Jesus, Je ...
was built), later became known as William Stoches or William of Stoke. Amicia of Stoke, heiress to the manor, married Robert Pogeys, Knight of the Shire, 200 years later and the village eventually became known as Stoke Poges. Robert Poges was the son of Savoyard Imbert Pugeys valet to
King Henry III
King Henry III
and later steward of the royal household. Poges and Pocheys being an English attempt at Pugeys which ironically meant “worthless thing”. The spelling appearing as "Stoke Pocheys", if applicable to this village, may suggest the pronunciation of the second part had a slightly more open "o" sound than the word "Stoke".


Stoke Poges Manor House

A manor house at Stoke Poges was built before the
Norman Conquest The Norman Conquest (or the Conquest) was the 11th-century invasion and occupation of England by an army made up of thousands of Normans, Duchy of Brittany, Bretons, County of Flanders, Flemish, and men from other Kingdom of France, French ...
and was mentioned in the 1086
Domesday Book Domesday Book () – the Middle English Middle English (abbreviated to ME) was a form of the English language spoken after the Norman conquest of England, Norman conquest (1066) until the late 15th century. The English language underwent ...
. In 1555 the owner,
Francis Hastings, 2nd Earl of Huntingdon Francis Hastings, 2nd Earl of Huntingdon, KG (151420 June 1561) was the eldest son of George Hastings, 1st Earl of Huntingdon and Anne Stafford, Countess of Huntingdon, the ex-mistress of Henry VIII Henry VIII (28 June 149128 January ...

Francis Hastings, 2nd Earl of Huntingdon
, pulled down much of the existing fortified house. He replaced it with a large
Tudor Tudor most commonly refers to: * House of Tudor, English royal house of Welsh origins ** Tudor period, a historical era in England coinciding with the rule of the Tudor dynasty Tudor may also refer to: Architecture * Tudor architecture, the fi ...
brick-built house, with numerous chimneys and gables. In 1599 it was acquired by
Sir Edward Coke Sir Edward Coke ( "cook", formerly ; 1 February 1552 – 3 September 1634) was an English barrister, judge, and politician who is considered the greatest jurist of the Elizabethan era, Elizabethan and Jacobean era, Jacobean eras. Born into ...

Sir Edward Coke
, who is said to have entertained
Queen Elizabeth I Elizabeth I (7 September 153324 March 1603) was Queen of England and Ireland Ireland ( ; ga, Éire ; Ulster Scots dialect, Ulster-Scots: ) is an island in the Atlantic Ocean, North Atlantic. It is separated from Great Britain to i ...
there in 1601. A few decades later, the married lady of the manor,
Frances Coke, Viscountess Purbeck Frances Coke, Viscountess Purbeck (August 1602 – 4 June 1645) was the sister-in-law of George Villiers, 1st Duke of Buckingham, and the central figure in a notable sex scandal within the English aristocracy of the early 17th century that was know ...

Frances Coke, Viscountess Purbeck
, the daughter of Sir Edward Coke, had a love affair with Robert Howard, a member of parliament. The affair's discovery was received as a scandal upon the three people involved, and in 1635 Lady Frances was imprisoned for adultery. She later escaped from prison to France, and eventually returned and lived at Stoke Poges Manor for a time. She died at
Oxford Oxford () is a city in England. It is the county town In the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' u ...

Oxford
in 1645 at the court of
King Charles I of the King of the Romans (variant used in the early modern period) File:Nezahualpiltzintli.jpg, Aztec King Nezahualpiltzintli of Texcoco King is the title given to a male monarch in a variety of contexts. The female equivalent is queen re ...

King Charles I
. Charles I himself was imprisoned at Stoke Poges Manor in 1647 before his
execution Capital punishment, also known as the death penalty, is the state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ' ...
. Later the manor came into the possession of
Thomas Penn Thomas Penn (March 20, 1702 – March 21, 1775) was a hereditary proprietor of the Province of Pennsylvania The Province of Pennsylvania, also known as the Pennsylvania Colony, was a British North American colony founded by William Penn ...
, a son of
William Penn William Penn (14 October 1644 – 30 July 1718) was an English writer A writer is a person who uses written words in different styles and techniques to communicate ideas. Writers produce different forms of literary art and creative wri ...

William Penn
who founded
Pennsylvania Pennsylvania ( , elsewhere ; pdc, Pennsilfaani), officially the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a landlocked A landlocked country is a country that does not have territory connected to an ocean or whose coastlines lie on endorheic basi ...

Pennsylvania
and was its first proprietor. Thomas Penn held three-fourths of the proprietorship. The manor property remained in his family for at least two generations, as his son John Penn "of Stoke" also lived there.
Thomas Gray Thomas Gray (26 December 1716 – 30 July 1771) was an English poet, letter-writer, classical Classical may refer to: European antiquity *Classical antiquity, a period of history from roughly the 7th or 8th century B.C.E. to the 5th century ...

Thomas Gray
's 1750 poem "A Long Story" describes the house and its occupants. Sir
Edwin Henry Landseer Sir Edwin Henry Landseer (7 March 1802 – 1 October 1873) was an English art, English painter and sculptor, well known for his animal art, paintings of animals – particularly horses, dogs, and stags. However, his best-known works are the li ...
was a frequent visitor to the house and rented it as a studio for some time. His most famous painting, '' The Monarch of the Glen'' (1851), is said to have been created at Stoke Poges, with the deer in the park used as models.


Education

Stoke Poges has a
primary school A primary school (in Ireland, the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, Jamaica, and South Africa), junior school (in Australia), elementary school or grade school (in North America and the Philippines) is a school A school is ...

primary school
called The Stoke Poges School. It was rated 'Good' by
Ofsted The Office for Standards in Education, Children's Services and Skills (Ofsted) is a non-ministerial department Non-ministerial government departments (NMGDs) are a type of department of the Government of the United Kingdom that deal with matte ...
in 2017. There is also a Sikh faith
secondary school A secondary school describes an institution that provides secondary education and also usually includes the building where this takes place. Some secondary schools provide both lower secondary education (ages 11 to 14) and upper secondary educat ...
, Khalsa Secondary Academy. It was rated 'Inadequate ' by
Ofsted The Office for Standards in Education, Children's Services and Skills (Ofsted) is a non-ministerial department Non-ministerial government departments (NMGDs) are a type of department of the Government of the United Kingdom that deal with matte ...
in 2019. Larchmoor School in Gerrards Cross Road was a major school in England for deaf children which was opened in 1967 by
Elizabeth II Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of the United Kingdom The monarchy of the United Kingdom, commonly referred to as the British monarchy, is the constitutional monarchy A constitutional mo ...

Elizabeth II
and ran by the
Royal National Institute for Deaf People The Royal National Institute for Deaf People (RNID), known as Action on Hearing Loss from 2011 to 2020, is a charitable organization working on behalf of the United Kingdom, UK's 9 million people who are Deafness, deaf or have hearing loss. Hist ...
. It closed in the late 20th century. Halidon House School was founded 1865, based in Slough and then in 1948 moved to Framewood Manor, Framewood Road. It was a girls school which closed in 1983. Stoke House School in Stoke Green was a preparatory school from 1841 to 1913. In 1913 Ted Parry, the headmaster relocated the school to Seaford, East Sussex, Seaford and later it was renamed Stoke Brunswick School.


St Giles' Church

Gray's "Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard" is believed to have been written in the churchyard Parish Church of Saint Giles in Stoke Poges, also known as the Stoke Poges Church Other churches have claimed the honour, including St Laurence's Church, Upton-cum-Chalvey and Everdon#St. Mary's Church, St Mary's in Everdon, Northamptonshire. Thomas Gray, Gray is buried at St Giles'. John Penn "of Stoke" had a large monument built by James Wyatt, displaying verses from the Elegy. It is adjacent to St Giles' church and owned by the National Trust for Places of Historic Interest or Natural Beauty, National Trust. A lychgate which is now located in the middle of the churchyard was designed by John Oldrid Scott, J.Oldrin Scott and completed in 1887. A gothic style rectory having a battlemented parapet was built by James Wyatt, 1802–1804 for John Penn (writer), John Penn of Stoke Park, Buckinghamshire, Stoke Park. It is now a private residence called Elegy House.


In media

*Stoke Poges is mentioned in the book ''Brave New World'' by Aldous Huxley, where it is the location of a frequently-visited golf course. *1990 'Inspector Lynley' crime novel ''Well-Schooled in Murder'' by Elizabeth George, and its television adaptation, are set in Stoke Poges. *The golf course at Stoke Park was the setting of a golf match in the James Bond film ''Goldfinger (film), Goldfinger'' (1964), played between the principal characters. *Stoke Park is also featured in the films ''Layer Cake (film), Layer Cake'', ''Wimbledon (film), Wimbledon'', ''Bride and Prejudice'', and ''Bridget Jones's Diary (film), Bridget Jones's Diary''. *In the film ''I Could Go On Singing'' (1963), Judy Garland's character visits St. Giles' parish church with her son. * In 1969, Pinewood Studios, Pinewood film studios hired a chemistry laboratory at Fulmer Research Institute for use as a film set for the film The Chairman (1969 film), ''"The Chairman"'' (also known as ''"The Most Dangerous Man in the World"''), starring Gregory Peck. *The 1981 James Bond film ''For Your Eyes Only (film), For Your Eyes Only'' filmed its opening sequence, when Bond visits his wife's grave, in the graveyard at St Giles' Church. *Part of the 2007 series ''Jekyll (TV series), Jekyll'' was filmed on the boardwalk and surrounding area. *In ''Nick Hancock's Football Nightmares'' Nick Hancock is trying to Hitchhiking, hitchhike to the Victoria Ground in Stoke-on-Trent, but keeps getting dropped off in, or just outside, Stoke Poges. *In 2010, the BBC drama series Vexed (Series 1, Ep.2, TX 22Aug2010 – with Toby Stephens and Lucy Punch) was largely filmed in the grounds and inside Stoke Court – which had earlier been Bayer Group UK's conference centre. *In the novel Sharpe's Triumph by Bernard Cornwell, Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington's dragoon orderly Daniel Fletcher mentions that he is from Stoke Poges: Sharpe (novel series), Sharpe replies- “Never heard of it.” *In 2017 the British media caused a furor after the National Galleries of Scotland had bought The Monarch of the Glen (painting), The Monarch of the Glen painting by Edwin Landseer, Sir Edwin Landseer for £4 million and the view by some that it may have been painted at Stoke Park, Buckinghamshire, Stoke Park. *In 2021, the lease of Stoke Park, Buckinghamshire, Stoke Park was bought by Reliance Industries, Reliance Industries (RIL) for £57million from the International Group. Later in the year Stoke Park closed for refurbishment. *In 2021, Stoke Poges Memorial Gardens featured in the BBC programme Great British Railway Journeys presented by Michael Portillo, Michael Portillio *In 2021, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, Prime Minister, Boris Johnson in his keynote speech at the Conservative Party Conference (UK), Conservative Party Conference referred to
Thomas Gray Thomas Gray (26 December 1716 – 30 July 1771) was an English poet, letter-writer, classical Classical may refer to: European antiquity *Classical antiquity, a period of history from roughly the 7th or 8th century B.C.E. to the 5th century ...

Thomas Gray
and Stoke Poges, about a Levelling up policy of the Boris Johnson government, levelling up vision in terms of an imbalanced society.


Notable natives and residents

* Augustus Henry Eden Allhusen (1867–1925), English politician, resident at Stoke Court, Rogers Lane (1867–1925) * Christian Allhusen (1884–1895), Danish-English chemical manufacturer, resident at Stoke Court, Rogers Lane. *John Charles Bell (1844–1924), Lord Mayor of London and businessman, resident at Framewood Manor, Framewood Road (1905–1924). *John Beresford, 5th Baron Decies, John Beresford (1866–1944), Army officer, civil servant and baron, resident at Sefton Park (1905–1917) *Robert Brooke-Popham (1878–1953), Air Chief Marshal in the Royal Air Force and Governor of Kenya, resident at The Woodlands, Hollybush Hill. * Wilberforce Bryant (1837–1906), English businessman, owner of Bryant & May match manufacturer and Quakers, Quaker, resident at Stoke Park, Buckinghamshire, Stoke Park (1887-1906). * Edward Coke (1552–1634), Lord Chief Justice of England and politician, resident at the Manor House (1598-1634). * Abraham Darby IV (1804–1878), English ironmaster, resident at Stoke Court, Rogers Lane (1851–1872). * Wallace Charles Devereux (1893–1952), English businessman and engineer, founder of Fulmer Research Institute in Stoke Poges and resident at The Meads, Park Road. * Sir John Duckworth, 1st Baronet, John Thomas Duckworth (1748–1817), Admiral in the Royal Navy and baronet spent his childhood at the Vicarage, Park Road, where his father lived, being the Vicar of Stoke Poges (1754–1748). *Francis Hastings, 2nd Earl of Huntingdon, Francis Hastings (1514–1561), 2nd Earl of Huntingdon, politician, 1555 completed building of the Manor house. *George Howard (British Army officer), George Howard (1718–1796), Field marshal (United Kingdom), Field Marshal in British Army and politician, resident at Stoke Place, Stoke Green (c.1764–1796). * Richard Howard-Vyse (1883–1962), Major General and Honorary Colonel of the Royal Horse Guards, resident at Stoke Place, Stoke Green (1883–1962) * Howard Vyse, Richard William Howard Howard Vyse (1784–1853), Major General and Egyptology, Egyptologist, born in Stoke Poges and resident at Stoke Place, Stoke Greens. * Nicholas Lane Jackson, Nick 'Pa' Lane Jackson (1849–1937), founder of Stoke Park, Buckinghamshire, Stoke Park, sports administrator and author, resident Stoke Park (1908–1928). * Henry Labouchere, 1st Baron Taunton, Henry Labouchere (1798–1869), 1st Baron Taunton, British Whig Party (British political party), Whig politician, resident at Stoke Park, Buckinghamshire, Stoke Park (1848–1863). * Jacques Laffite (born 1943) the French Formula One racing driver who won six Grands Prix for Equipe Ligier, Ligier during the late 1970s and early 1980s, lived in Stoke Poges during some of his racing career. * Henry Marten (politician), Henry Martin (Marten) (c.1562–1641), King's Advocate for James I and Judge of Admiralty Court is reported to have been born at Stoke Poges. * Noel Mobbs (1878–1959), businessman, founder of Segro, Slough Estates, resident at Stoke Park, Buckinghamshire, Stoke Park (1928–1959). * William Moleyns (died 1425), William Moleyns (1378–1425), politician, administrator, knight to Henry V of England, Henry V, resident at the Manor House. * William Molyneux, 2nd Earl of Sefton, William Molyneux (1772–1838), sportsman and gambler, resident at Stoke Farm, now known as Sefton Park (1795–1838). * Bernard Oppenheimer (1866–1921), diamond merchant and philanthropist, resident at Sefton Park, Bells Hill (1917-1921). * Sydney Godolphin Osborne (1808–1889), Lord, cleric, writer, philanthropist, vicar of Stoke Poges (1832–1841). *Edward Hagarty Parry (1855–1931), International footballer & school headmaster, resident at Stoke House School, Stoke Green, (1855-1913). * Granville Penn (1761–1844), Author, scriptural geologist and civil servant, resident at Stoke Park, Buckinghamshire, Stoke Park (1761-1844). * John Penn (writer), John Penn (1760–1834), Chief Proprietor of Province of Pennsylvania, politician and writer, resident at Stoke Park, Buckinghamshire, Stoke Park (1760–1834). *
Thomas Penn Thomas Penn (March 20, 1702 – March 21, 1775) was a hereditary proprietor of the Province of Pennsylvania The Province of Pennsylvania, also known as the Pennsylvania Colony, was a British North American colony founded by William Penn ...
(1702–1775), son of
William Penn William Penn (14 October 1644 – 30 July 1718) was an English writer A writer is a person who uses written words in different styles and techniques to communicate ideas. Writers produce different forms of literary art and creative wri ...

William Penn
and proprietor of Province of Pennsylvania, with three-fourths holding, resident at the Manor House, Stoke Park (1760–1775). * Borradaile Savory (1855–1906), English clergyman and baronet, resident at The Woodlands, Hollybush Hill (1855–1906). * William Scovell Savory (1826–1895), British Surgeon and baronet, resident at The Woodlands, Hollybush Hill (1884–1895). * Vesta Tilley (Matilda Alice Powles) (1864–1952), music hall performer, resident at Sefton Park in the 1920s with her husband Walter de Frece. (British Pathé filmed here, in 1957, 'The Vital Vaccine', as it was in both Tilley's former house and garden that 'Polyvirin', Britain's Polio vaccine, was created).


Notable organisations

*Comer Group, is a real estate company which c.2010 became the owner of Stoke Court for part of its residential portfolio. *Hitachi Vantara, Hitachi Data Systems, is a subsidiary of Hitachi. It provides technology and services relating to digital data. UK Headquarters at Sefton Park, Bells Hill, Stoke Poges. *International Group operates a group of companies in the leisure, sales, marketing, management, healthcare services and property development and ownership. Registered at Stoke Park, Buckinghamshire, Stoke Park until 2021, when the lease was sold to Reliance Industries *Reliance Industries, Reliance Industries Limited (RIL), an Indian multinational conglomerate, on the Fortune Global 500, Global 500 list, bought the lease of Stoke Park in 2021 *Laboratoires Servier, Servier Laboratories Ltd, is part of a French centric international pharmaceutical group. UK Headquarters at Sefton Park, Bells Hill, Stoke Poges. *Urenco Group, Urenco Ltd, a nuclear fuel company, operating internationally running uranium enrichment plants. Headquarters at Sefton Park, Bells Hill, Stoke Poges. *Fulmer Research Institute, a pioneer contract research and development organisation. Its Headquarters was in Hollybush Hill, Stoke Poges from 1946 to 1990. *Glaxo Laboratories Ltd, now part of GlaxoSmithKline, GSK, a fermentation and vaccine research laboratory at Sefton Park, Bells Hill, Stoke Poges from 1948 to 1982: (NB: see above reference to 'Polyvirin', under 'Notable Natives', Vesta Tilley) *Miles Laboratories, a USA pharmaceutical and life sciences company. UK headquarters in Stoke Court, Rogers Lane, Stoke Poges from 1959 to 1978 when Bayer acquired it.


Demography

At the 2001 UK census, the Stoke Poges electoral ward had a population of 4,839. The ethnicity was 93.3% white, 1.3% mixed race, 4.8% Asian, 0.3% black and 0.3% other. The place of birth of residents was 88.1% United Kingdom, 1.6% Republic of Ireland, 2.5% other Western European countries, and 7.8% elsewhere. Religion was recorded as 76.5% Christian, 0.2% Buddhist, 0.7% Hindu, 2.7% Sikh, 0.5% Jewish, and 1.1% Muslim. 10.6% were recorded as having no religion, 0.2% had an alternative religion and 7.6% did not state their religion. The economic activity of residents aged 16–74 was 40.8% in full-time employment, 11.6% in part-time employment, 12.6% self-employed, 1.8% unemployed, 1.5% students with jobs, 3.1% students without jobs, 16.8% retired, 6.7% looking after home or family, 2.5% permanently sick or disabled and 2.5% economically inactive for other reasons. The industry of employment of residents was 15.4% retail, 13.4% manufacturing, 6.9% construction, 21.1% real estate, 9.2% health and social work, 7.3% education, 8.8% transport and communications, 3.5% public administration, 3.4% hotels and restaurants, 2.8% finance, 0.8% agriculture and 7.4% other. Compared with national figures, the ward had a relatively high proportion of workers in real estate, transport and communications. According to Office for National Statistics estimates, during the period of April 2001 to March 2002 the average gross weekly income of households was £870, compared with an average of £660 in South East England. Of the ward's residents aged 16–74, 28.4% had a higher education qualification or the equivalent, compared with 19.9% nationwide. In 2011, ''The Daily Telegraph'' deemed Stoke Poges as Britain's eighth richest village and the third richest village in Buckinghamshire.


Geography

Hamlet (place), Hamlets within Stoke Poges parish include: * Hollybush Hill * Stoke Green * Wexham Street


References


External links

*
Stoke Poges Parish Council

Stoke Poges Village Centre

Stoke Poges Parish Church of St Andrew and St Giles

The Stoke Poges Society
{{authority control Villages in Buckinghamshire Civil parishes in Buckinghamshire