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Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI) is an international
institute An institute is an organisation An organization, or organisation (Commonwealth English The use of the English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon Engla ...

institute
based in
Stockholm Stockholm (; ) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and smalle ...

Stockholm
. It was founded in 1966 and provides data, analysis and recommendations for armed conflict, military expenditure and arms trade as well as disarmament and arms control. The research is based on open sources and is directed to decision-makers, researchers, media and the interested public. SIPRI's organizational purpose is to conduct scientific research in issues on conflict and cooperation of importance for international peace and security, with the goal of contributing to an understanding for the conditions for a peaceful solution of international conflicts and sustainable peace. SIPRI was ranked among the top three non-US world-wide think tanks in 2014 by the
University of Pennsylvania The University of Pennsylvania (Penn or UPenn) is a in , Pennsylvania. The university, established as the College of Philadelphia in 1740, is one of the nine chartered prior to the . , Penn's founder and first president, advocated an edu ...

University of Pennsylvania
Lauder Institute The Joseph H. Lauder Institute of Management & International Studies (The Lauder Institute) offers a joint degree program at the University of Pennsylvania, combining an MA in international studies from the School of Arts & Sciences with an MBA f ...
's ''Global Go To Think Tanks Report.'' In 2019, SIPRI ranked 31st amongst
think tank A think tank, or policy institute, is a research institute A research institute, research centre, or research center is an establishment founded for doing research Research is "creativity, creative and systematic work undertaken to inc ...
s globally.


History

In 1964,
Prime Minister of Sweden The prime minister ( sv, statsminister ; literally "Minister of State") is the head of government in Sweden. Before the creation of the office of a prime minister in 1876, Sweden did not have a head of government separate from its head of state ...
Tage Erlander Tage Fritjof Erlander (; 13 June 1901 – 21 June 1985) was a Swedes, Swedish politician who served as Prime Minister of Sweden from 1946 to 1969. He was the leader of the Swedish Social Democratic Party and led the government for an uninterrupt ...

Tage Erlander
put forward the idea of establishing a peace research institute to commemorate Sweden's 150 years of unbroken peace. A Swedish Royal Commission chaired by Ambassador
Alva Myrdal Alva Myrdal ( , ; née Reimer; 31 January 1902 – 1 February 1986) was a Swedish sociologist, diplomat and politician. She was a prominent leader of the disarmament Disarmament is the act of reducing, limiting, or abolishing weapons ...
proposed in its 1966 report to establish an institute, later named the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute, SIPRI. The institute's research should seek to contribute to "the understanding of the preconditions for a stable peace and for peaceful solutions of international conflicts" and the Commission recommended that research be concentrated on armaments, their limitation and reduction, and
arms control Arms control is a term for international restrictions upon the development, production, stockpiling, proliferation and usage of small arms A firearm is any type of gun designed to be readily carried and used by an individual. The term is leg ...
. The commission also recommended that SIPRI work is of "an applied research character directed towards practical-political questions
hich Ij ( fa, ايج, also Romanize Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), ge ...

hich
should be carried on in a constant interchange with research of a more theoretical kind". SIPRI has built its reputation and standing on competence, professional skills, and the collection of hard data and precise facts, rendering accessible impartial information on weapon developments, arms transfers and production, military expenditure, as well as on arms limitations, reductions and disarmament. The task of the institute is to conduct "scientific research on questions of conflict and cooperation of importance for international peace and security with the aim of contributing to an understanding of the conditions for peaceful solution of international conflicts and for a stable peace". The Swedish
Riksdag The Riksdag (, ; also sv, riksdagen or ''Sveriges riksdag'' ) is the national legislature A legislature is an deliberative assembly, assembly with the authority to make laws for a Polity, political entity such as a Sovereign state, cou ...

Riksdag
decided that the Institute be established on 1 July 1966 with the legal status of an independent foundation. All SIPRI research is based exclusively on
open source Open source is source code that is made freely available for possible modification and redistribution. Products include permission to use the source code, design documents, or content of the product. The open-source model is a decentralized softwa ...
s.


Organisation

SIPRI's organisation consists of a Governing Board, Director, Deputy Director, Research Staff Collegium and support staff. An Advisory Committee serves as a consultative body to the institute. The Governing Board takes decisions on important matters concerning the research agenda, activities, organisation and financial administration of the institute. Other matters are decided by the Director. The Research Staff Collegium advises the Director on research matters. The staff of about 70 employees is mainly international, with 25 different nationalities reported in 2019. The researchers are recruited for specific project periods and represent various academic disciplines. SIPRI also hosts guest researchers who work on issues related to research programmes as well as interns in relevant fields whose programmes of study can contribute to and benefit from SIPRI's research. The institute works in a global network, with partnerships and cooperation between other institutes and with individual scientists. SIPRI has close cooperation with many multilateral organisations, for example, the
United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization aiming to maintain international peace and international security, security, develop friendly relations among nations, achieve international cooperation, and be a centre for harm ...

United Nations
and the
European Union The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of member states that are located primarily in Europe Europe is a which is also recognised as part of , located entirely in the and mostly in the . It comprises the wester ...

European Union
. SIPRI is frequently visited by government delegations, parliamentarians as well as researchers from the academic sphere. The institute keeps close connections with the diplomatic body in Stockholm.


Governing board

Current members of the Governing Board: * Ambassador
Jan Eliasson Jan Kenneth Eliasson (born 17 September 1940) is a Sweden, Swedish diplomat who was Deputy Secretary-General of the United Nations from July 2012 to December 2016. A member of the Swedish Social Democratic Party, Eliasson served as Minister for ...

Jan Eliasson
(Sweden), retired Swedish diplomat and former Deputy Secretary-General of the United Nations, as of 1 June 2017, Chair of the SIPRI Governing Board * Vladimir Baranovsky (Russia), Director, Center for Situation Analysis (CSA) *
Jean-Marie Guéhenno Jean-Marie Guéhenno (; born 30 October 1949 in Paris Paris () is the Capital city, capital and List of communes in France with over 20,000 inhabitants, most populous city of France, with an estimated population of 2,175,601 residents as of 2 ...
(France), Senior Advisor,
Centre for Humanitarian Dialogue The Centre for Humanitarian Dialogue, otherwise known as the Henry Dunant Centre for Humanitarian Dialogue, or HD, is a private diplomacy organisation based in Switzerland that assists in mediation between conflicting parties to prevent or end arme ...
and a member of the UN Secretary General High-Level Advisory Board on Mediation * Dan Smith (United Kingdom), Director, SIPRI * Patricia Lewis (United Kingdom/Ireland), Research Director, International Security at
Chatham House Chatham House, also known as the Royal Institute of International Affairs, is an independent policy institute headquartered in London. Its mission is to provide authoritative commentary on world events and offer solutions to global challenges. I ...
*
Espen Barth Eide Espen Barth Eide (born 1 May 1964, in Oslo Oslo ( , , or ) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capital ...
(Norway), Member of the Norwegian Parliament and former United Nations Special Adviser on Cyprus *
Radha Kumar Radha Kumar is an Indian feminist, academic and author. Her work focuses on ethnic conflicts and peace processes from a strongly feminist perspective. Early life Kumar is the daughter of Lovraj Kumar, a former bureaucrat and member of the elite ...
(India), Chair
United Nations University Council
*
Jessica Tuchman Mathews Jessica Tuchman Mathews (born July 4, 1946) is an American international affairs expert with a focus on climate and energy, defense and security, nuclear weapons, and conflict and governance. She was President of the Carnegie Endowment for Intern ...
(United States), Former President of
Carnegie Endowment for International Peace The Carnegie Endowment for International Peace (CEIP) is a nonpartisan foreign-policy think tank A think tank, or policy institute, is a research institute A research institute, research centre, or research center is an establishment founded ...
and current Distinguished Fellow * Ambassador Ramtane Lamamra (Algeria), Member of the UN Secretary-General's High-level Advisory Board on Mediation and Minister of Foreign Affairs of Algeria Former Governing Board Chairpersons: *
Alva Myrdal Alva Myrdal ( , ; née Reimer; 31 January 1902 – 1 February 1986) was a Swedish sociologist, diplomat and politician. She was a prominent leader of the disarmament Disarmament is the act of reducing, limiting, or abolishing weapons ...
(1966–67) *
Gunnar Myrdal Karl Gunnar Myrdal ( ; ; 6 December 1898 – 17 May 1987) was a Swedish economist An economist is a professional and practitioner in the social science Social science is the branch The branches and leaves of a tree. A branch ( ...
(1967–73) * Rolf Edberg (1974–78) *
Hans Blix Hans Martin Blix (; born 28 June 1928) is a Sweden, Swedish diplomat and politician for the Liberal People's Party (Sweden), Liberal People's Party. He was Minister for Foreign Affairs (Sweden), Swedish Minister for Foreign Affairs (1978–1979 ...
(1978) *
Karin Söder
Karin Söder
(1978–79) * Rolf Björnerstedt (1979–85) * Ernst Michanek (1985–87) * Inga Thorsson (1987–91) *
Daniel Tarschys Nils Daniel Tarschys, (* July 21, 1943 in Stockholm, Sweden), is a professor of political science at Stockholm University. Tarschys was born into an academic family. Both his parents taught in Swedish universities. He is married and has two daug ...
(1992–2000) * Rolf Ekeus (2000–10) * Göran Lennmarker (2010–14) * Sven-Olof Petersson (2014–2017)


Director

The Director, who is appointed by the Swedish Government, has the main responsibility for SIPRI's work programme. Dr Bates Gill served as SIPRI Director from 2007–2012. In September 2012, the Swedish Government appointed the German economist Tilman Brück as his successor. Brück held the position of SIPRI Director from January 2013 to June 2014. In June 2014 the SIPRI Governing Board appointed Dr Ian Anthony as Director for an interim period. The current Director, Dan Smith, was appointed in September 2015. Former SIPRI Directors: *
Robert Neild Robert Ralph Neild (10 September 1924 – 18 December 2018) was a Professor of Economics Economics () is a social science that studies the Production (economics), production, distribution (economics), distribution, and Consumption (e ...
(United Kingdom, 1967–71) *
Frank Barnaby Frank Charles Barnaby (27 September 1927 – 1 August 2020) was the Nuclear Issues Consultant to the Oxford Research Group Oxford Research Group (ORG) was a London-based charity and think tank at 244-254 Cambridge Heath Road, London, E2 9DA, ...
(United Kingdom, 1971–81) * Frank Blackaby (United Kingdom, 1981–86) * Walther Stützle (Germany, 1986–91) *
Adam Daniel Rotfeld Image:Msc 2005-Sunday-IQ1Y9191.jpg, Adam Daniel Rotfeld with U.S. Senator Hillary Clinton and German Minister of Foreign Affairs Joschka Fischer Adam Daniel Rotfeld (Polish pronunciation: ; born 4 March 1938) is a Poles, Polish researcher, dipl ...

Adam Daniel Rotfeld
(Poland, 1991–2002) *
Alyson Bailes Alyson Judith Kirtley Bailes Order of St Michael and St George, CMG (6 April 1949 – 29 April 2016) was a British diplomat, political scientist, academic and polymath. Early life The eldest of three children of Barbara (née Martin) and John-Ll ...
(United Kingdom, 2002–07) *
Bates Gill Bates Gill (, ) is an expert on Chinese foreign policy and a former Director of the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI). Gill has a long record of research and publication on both international and regional security issues. ...
(United States, 2007–12) * Tilman Brück (Germany, 2013–14) * Ian Anthony (United Kingdom, interim 2014–15)


Research

Research is conducted at SIPRI by an international staff of about 50 researchers and research assistants. The institute's current research programme centres on the following major themes: * Armament and Disarmament * Conflict, Peace and Security * Peace and Development With the following research areas: * Arms and Military Expenditure * Nuclear disarmament, Arms Control and Non-proliferation * Dual-use and Arms Trade Control * Emerging Military and Security Technologies * Africa * Asia * Europe * Middle East and North Africa * Climate Change and Risk * Environment of Peace 2022 * Governance and Society * Sustainable Peace


Publications and information

SIPRI's publications and information material are distributed to a wide range of policy makers, researchers, journalists, organisations and the interested public. The results of the research are disseminated through the publication of books and reports by SIPRI and commissioned authors as well as through symposia and seminars. The institute has forged its profile by concentrating on present-day realities, providing unbiased facts to states and individuals. SIPRI's main publication, the SIPRI Yearbook, was first published on 12 November 1969. The Yearbook serves as a single authoritative and independent source to which politicians, diplomats and journalists can turn for an account of what has happened during the past year in armaments and arms control, armed conflicts and conflict resolution, security arrangements and disarmament. It is translated into a number of other languages, notably
Russian Russian refers to anything related to Russia, including: *Russians (, ''russkiye''), an ethnic group of the East Slavic peoples, primarily living in Russia and neighboring countries *Rossiyane (), Russian language term for all citizens and people ...
,
Ukrainian Ukrainian may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to Ukraine * Something relating to Ukrainians an East Slavic people from Eastern Europe * Something relating to Demographics of Ukraine, in terms of demography: population of Ukraine * Somethi ...
,
Chinese Chinese can refer to: * Something related to China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in . It is the world's , with a of more than 1.4 billion. China spans five geographical and 14 different count ...
and
Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East The Middle East is a list of transcontinental countries, transcontinental region ...

Arabic
. SIPRI series: * SIPRI Yearbook: Armaments, Disarmament and International Security * SIPRI Monographs * SIPRI Research Reports * SIPRI Chemical & Biological warfare Studies * SIPRI Policy Papers * SIPRI Insights on Peace and Security * SIPRI Fact Sheets and Policy Briefs * Multi-author volumes * Pocket-size summaries of the Yearbook in English and a number of other languages * SIPRI Arms Transfers Database, Iraq 1973-1990


Databases

SIPRI research projects maintain large databases on military expenditure, arms-producing industries, arms transfers, chemical and biological warfare, national and international export controls, arms control agreements, annual chronologies of major arms control events, military manoeuvres and nuclear explosions.


SIPRI Arms Transfers Database

Showing all international transfers of major conventional arms since 1950, The SIPRI Arms Transfers Database is the most extensive source of information on international arms transfers available to the public. The database is updated every spring and is useful for anyone seeking to monitor and measure the international flow of major conventional arms.


SIPRI Mapping ATT-Relevant Cooperation and Assistance Activities Database

The SIPRI Mapping ATT-relevant Cooperation and Assistance Activities Database covers cooperation and assistance activities in regards to arms transfer and small arms and light weapons (SALW) controls since 2012. The database supports state's implementation of two treaties - the 2001 UN Programme of Action on SALW and the 2013 Arms Trade Treaty.


SIPRI Arms Industry Database

The SIPRI Arms Industry Database reports on the top 100 largest arms-producing and military services companies.


SIPRI Multilateral Peace Operations Database

This database contains data on personnel, country contributions, fatalities and budgets for all multilateral peace operations from the year 2000 and onwards.


SIPRI Military Expenditure Database

The Military Expenditure Database reports on the annual military spending of most countries around the world.


Events and conferences

Within the fields of study, SIPRI arranges numerous workshops, conferences, seminars and lectures, bringing together an all-encompassing spectrum of expertise to exchange views on relevant themes. Among these events, the largest are the Stockholm Forum on Peace and Development, Stockholm Security Conference and SIPRI Lecture. In 2020, Stockholm Forum on Peace and Development was for the first time held online, convening 3700 registrants from 163 countries in virtual discussions on the theme of "Sustaining Peace in the Time of COVID-19".


Finances

SIPRI's financial support is primarily drawn from governments and independent
philanthropic Philanthropy consists of "private initiatives, for the Public good (economics), public good, focusing on quality of life". Philanthropy contrasts with business initiatives, which are private initiatives for private good, focusing on material gain ...

philanthropic
organisations around the world. SIPRI also receives annual support from the Swedish government in the form of a core grant approved by the Swedish parliament.


See also


Peace research institutes

*
Peace Research Institute Frankfurt The Peace Research Institute Frankfurt (acronym: PRIF, German: Leibniz-Institut Hessische Stiftung Friedens- und Konfliktforschung, short HSFK) is a research institute in Frankfurt am Main Frankfurt, officially Frankfurt am Main (; Hessia ...
*
Bonn International Center for Conversion The Bonn International Center for Conversion (BICC), established in 1994, is a research institute located in Bonn The Federal city The term federal city is a title for certain cities in Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map ...
*
International Peace Research Institute, Oslo The Peace Research Institute Oslo (PRIO; no, Institutt for fredsforskning) is a private research institution in peace and conflict studies, based in Oslo, Norway, with around 100 employees. It was founded in 1959 by a group of Norwegian researcher ...
* ''
Journal of Peace Research The ''Journal of Peace Research'' is a peer-reviewed Peer review is the evaluation of work by one or more people with similar competencies as the producers of the work ( peers). It functions as a form of self-regulation by qualified members of ...
'' *
Tami Steinmetz Center for Peace Research Tami Steinmetz Center For Peace Research is an academic research institution of Tel Aviv University which surveys public opinion regarding the Israeli–Palestinian peace process, the Israeli–Palestinian conflict, and the Arab–Israeli conflict. ...
*
Geneva International Peace Research Institute The Geneva International Peace Research Institute (GIPRI, French: ''Institut international de recherches pour la paix à Genève'') is a non-governmental organisation based in Geneva. It was founded in 1980 and its aim is to understand wars in o ...


Military budgets

*
List of countries by military expenditures This is a list of countries by military expenditure in a given year. Military expenditure A military budget (or military expenditure), also known as a defense budget, is the amount of finances, financial resources dedicated by a Sovereign state, ...
*
United Nations Security Council The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization An intergovernmental organization (IGO) is an organization composed ...

United Nations Security Council
: * Military budget of the People's Republic of China * Military budget of Russia *
Military budget of the United States The military budget A military budget (or military expenditure), also known as a defense budget A budget is a financial plan In general usage, a financial plan is a comprehensive evaluation of an individual's current pay and future fin ...


External links

*


Notes and reference

{{authority control 1966 establishments in Sweden Organizations established in 1966 Organizations based in Stockholm International organizations based in Sweden Peace and conflict studies Research institutes in Sweden Research institutes of international relations Arms control Weapons trade