Stephen Gerald Breyer ( ; born August 15, 1938) is an American lawyer, jurist, and legal scholar who is serving as an associate justice of the Supreme Court of the United States. He was nominated by President Bill Clinton on May 17, 1994, and has served since August 3, 1994. After attending Stanford University, Breyer attended the University of Oxford as a Marshall Scholar and then studied law at Harvard Law School. After a clerkship with Supreme Court Associate Justice Arthur Goldberg in 1964, Breyer became well known as a law professor and lecturer at Harvard Law School, starting in 1967. There he specialized in administrative law, writing a number of influential textbooks that remain in use today. He held other prominent positions before being nominated for the Supreme Court, including special assistant to the United States Assistant Attorney General for Antitrust and assistant special prosecutor on the Watergate Special Prosecution Force in 1973. He also served on the First Circuit Court of Appeals from 1980 to 1994. In his 2005 book ''Active Liberty'', Breyer made his first attempt to systematically communicate his views on legal theory, arguing that the judiciary should seek to resolve issues in a manner that encourages popular participation in governmental decisions. The last Clinton nominee active on the court, he is generally associated with the Supreme Court's more liberal side.

Early life and education

Breyer was born on August 15, 1938, in San Francisco, California, the son of Anne A. (née Roberts) and Irving Gerald Breyer, and raised in a middle-class Jewish family. Irving Breyer was legal counsel for the San Francisco Board of Education. Stephen Breyer and his younger brother, Charles, a federal district judge, are both Eagle Scouts of San Francisco's Troop 14. Breyer's paternal great-grandfather emigrated from Romania to the United States, settling in Cleveland, where Breyer's grandfather was born. Breyer graduated from Lowell High School in 1955. At Lowell, he was a member of the Lowell Forensic Society and debated regularly in high school tournaments, including against future California governor Jerry Brown and future Harvard Law School professor Laurence Tribe.Oyez Bio
Retrieved March 21, 2007 (For Brown; need cite for Tribe)
After high school, Breyer attended Stanford University, where he majored in philosophy, was inducted into Phi Beta Kappa and graduated in 1959 with a Bachelor of Arts degree with highest honors. He was awarded a Marshall Scholarship which he used to study philosophy, politics, and economics at Magdalen College, Oxford. He then returned to the United States to attend Harvard Law School, where he was a member of the ''Harvard Law Review'' and graduated in 1964 with a Bachelor of Laws degree ''magna cum laude''. Breyer spent 8 years in the United States Army Reserve including 6 months on active duty in the Army Strategic Intelligence. He reached the rank of corporal and was honorably discharged in 1965. In 1967, Breyer married Joanna Freda Hare, a psychologist and member of the British aristocracy, the youngest daughter of John Hare, 1st Viscount Blakenham. They have three adult children: Chloe, an Episcopal priest and author of ''The Close''; Nell; and Michael.The Justices of the Supreme Court Retrieved April 6, 2012

Legal career

Breyer served as a law clerk to Associate Justice Arthur Goldberg during the 1964 term (list), and served briefly as a fact-checker for the Warren Commission. He worked in the U.S. Department of Justice's Antitrust Division as a special assistant to its Assistant Attorney General from 1965 to 1967, and an assistant special prosecutor on the Watergate Special Prosecution Force in 1973. Breyer was a special counsel to the U.S. Senate Committee on the Judiciary from 1974 to 1975 and served as chief counsel of the committee from 1979 to 1980. He worked closely with the chairman of the committee, Senator Edward M. Kennedy, to pass the Airline Deregulation Act that closed the Civil Aeronautics Board. Breyer was a lecturer, assistant professor, and law professor at Harvard Law School starting in 1967. He was a professor at Harvard Law until 1980, and held a joint appointment at Harvard's Kennedy School of Government from 1977 to 1980. At Harvard, Breyer was known as a leading expert on administrative law. While there, he wrote two highly influential books on deregulation: ''Breaking the Vicious Circle: Toward Effective Risk Regulation'' and ''Regulation and Its Reform''. In 1970, Breyer wrote "The Uneasy Case for Copyright", one of the most widely cited skeptical examinations of copyright. Breyer was a visiting professor at the College of Law in Sydney, Australia, the University of Rome, and the Tulane University Law School.

Judicial career

U.S. Court of Appeals (1980–1994)

In the last days of President Jimmy Carter's administration, on November 13, 1980, after he had been defeated for reelection, Carter nominated Breyer to the First Circuit, to a new seat established by , and the United States Senate confirmed him on December 9, 1980, by an 80–10 vote. He received his commission on December 10, 1980. From 1980 to 1994, Breyer was a judge on the U.S. Court of Appeals for the First Circuit; he was the court's Chief Judge from 1990 to 1994. One of his duties as chief judge was to oversee the design and construction of a new federal courthouse for Boston, beginning an avocational interest in architecture and the Pritzker Architecture Prize. Breyer served as a member of the Judicial Conference of the United States between 1990 and 1994 and the United States Sentencing Commission between 1985 and 1989. On the sentencing commission he played a key role in reforming federal criminal sentencing procedures, producing the Federal Sentencing Guidelines, which were formulated to increase uniformity in sentencing. Breyer's service on the First Circuit terminated on August 2, 1994, upon his elevation to the Supreme Court.

Supreme Court (1994–present)

In 1993, President Bill Clinton considered him for the seat vacated by Byron White that ultimately went to Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg. Breyer's appointment came shortly thereafter, however, following the retirement of Harry Blackmun in 1994, when Clinton nominated Breyer as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court on May 17, 1994. Breyer was confirmed by the Senate on July 29, 1994, by an 87 to 9 vote, and received his commission on August 3. He was the second-longest-serving junior justice in the history of the Court, close to surpassing the record set by Justice Joseph Story of 4,228 days (from February 3, 1812, to September 1, 1823); Breyer fell 29 days short of tying this record, which he would have reached on March 1, 2006, had Justice Samuel Alito not joined the Court on January 31, 2006. Since Ginsburg's death in September 2020, Breyer has been the oldest incumbent Supreme Court Justice.

Notable rulings


On June 29, 2020, Breyer wrote the plurality opinion in June Medical Services v. Russo. The ruling struck down Louisiana's abortion law requiring any doctor who performed abortions to have admitting privileges at a hospital within 30 miles. Breyer reaffirmed the "benefits and burdens" test he had created in Whole Woman's Health v. Hellerstedt, which struck down a nearly identical abortion law in Texas.

Death penalty

In 2015, Breyer dissented in ''Glossip v. Gross'', which held by a 5–4 vote that prisoners challenging their executions must provide a "known and available" execution method before challenging their method of execution. In a dissent joined by Ginsburg, Breyer questioned the constitutionality of the death penalty itself. He wrote, "For the reasons I have set forth in this opinion, I believe it highly likely that the death penalty violates the Eighth Amendment. At the very least, the Court should call for full briefing on the basic question." In July 2020, Breyer reiterated this position, writing, "As I have previously written, the solution may be for this Court to directly examine the question whether the death penalty violates the Constitution."


In ''Friends of the Earth, Inc. v. Laidlaw Environmental Services, Inc.'' (2000), Breyer was in the 7–2 majority that held that people who use the North Tyger River for recreational purposes but could not do so due to pollution had standing to sue industrial polluters. On April 23, 2020, Breyer wrote the majority opinion in ''County of Maui v. Hawaii Wildlife Fund''. The Court ruled that the County of Maui must have a permit under the Clean Water Act in order to release groundwater pollution into the ocean. Although the ruling was less broad than the 9th circuit's ruling, environmentalist groups saw the ruling as a win and an affirmation of the Clean Water Act. On July 31, 2020, Breyer dissented when the Supreme Court, in a 5–4 decision, refused to lift a stay on the 9th circuit ruling that halted construction of the wall at the U.S.-Mexico border. The Sierra Club argued that the wall would harm the environment unduly, including threatening wildlife and changing the flow of water in the Sonoran Desert. Breyer wrote, "The Court’s decision to let construction continue nevertheless, I fear, may 'operat in effect, as a final judgment.'" Ginsburg, Sotomayor, and Kagan joined his dissent. On March 4, 2021, Breyer dissented in United States Fish and Wildlife Serv. v. Sierra Club, Inc., joined only by Sotomayor. The case concerned the Sierra Club's request under the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) for "draft opinions" concerning rules governing underwater structures that are used to cool industrial equipment. The Sierra Club argued that it had the right to access the documents. The majority opinion limits environmental groups' ability to obtain government documents under FOIA. Breyer wrote in his dissent, "Agency practice shows that the Draft Biological Opinion, not the Final Biological Opinion, is the document that informs the EPA of the Services’ conclusions about jeopardy and alternatives and triggers within the EPA the process of deciding what to do about those conclusions. If a Final Biological Opinion is discoverable under FOIA, as all seem to agree it is, why would a Draft Biological Opinion, embodying the same Service conclusions (and leaving the EPA with the same four choices), not be?”

Partisan gerrymandering

On April 28, 2004, Breyer dissented in ''Vieth v. Jubelirer'', in which the Court held that partisan gerrymandering is a non-justiciable claim. Breyer wrote in his dissent, "Sometimes purely political 'gerrymandering' will fail to advance any plausible democratic objective while simultaneously threatening serious democratic harm. And sometimes when that is so, courts can identify an equal protection violation and provide a remedy." In 2006, Breyer was in a 5–4 majority holding that District 23 of the 2003 Texas redistricting violated the Voting Rights Act due to vote dilution. Along with Justice John Paul Stevens, Breyer would also have ruled in favor of plaintiffs' claims that Texas's statewide plan was an unconstitutional partisan gerrymander. In June 2019, Breyer dissented in ''Rucho v. Common Cause'', in which the Supreme Court decided 5–4 that gerrymandering is a non-justiciable claim.

Voting rights

Breyer joined Ginsburg's dissent in ''Shelby County v. Holder''. A 5–4 majority ruled that Section 4(b) of the Voting Rights Act is unconstitutional. Breyer joined another dissent by Ginsburg in ''RNC v. DNC'', which overturned a lower court's extension of a voting deadline in the Wisconsin primary elections. The lower court had extended the deadline so that people who had not yet received mail-in ballots by April 7 could vote by mail in the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic. Breyer dissented in a similar Wisconsin case in October; the petitioners had asked the court to require Wisconsin to count mail-in ballots received up to six days after Election Day, and the court, with Breyer, Sotomayor, and Kagan dissenting, refused the petitioners' request to extend the deadline.

Judicial philosophy

In general

Breyer's pragmatic approach to the law "will tend to make the law more sensible", according to Cass Sunstein, who added that Breyer's "attack on originalism is powerful and convincing". In 2006, Breyer said that in assessing a law's constitutionality, while some of his colleagues "emphasize language, a more literal reading of the onstitution'stext, history and tradition", he looks more closely to the "purpose and consequences". Breyer has consistently voted in favor of abortion rights, one of the most controversial areas of the Supreme Court's docket. He has also defended the Court's use of foreign law and international law as persuasive (but not binding) authority in its decisions. Breyer is also recognized to be deferential to the interests of law enforcement and to legislative judgments in the Court's First Amendment rulings. He has demonstrated a consistent pattern of deference to Congress, voting to overturn congressional legislation at a lower rate than any other Justice since 1994. Breyer's extensive experience in administrative law is accompanied by his staunch defense of the Federal Sentencing Guidelines. Breyer rejects the strict interpretation of the Sixth Amendment espoused by Justice Scalia that all facts necessary to criminal punishment must be submitted to a jury and proved beyond a reasonable doubt. In many other areas on the Court, too, Breyer's pragmatism was considered the intellectual counterweight to Scalia's textualist philosophy. In describing his interpretive philosophy, Breyer has sometimes noted his use of six interpretive tools: text, history, tradition, precedent, the purpose of a statute, and the consequences of competing interpretations. He has noted that only the last two differentiate him from textualists such as Scalia. Breyer argues that these sources are necessary, however, and in the former case (purpose), can in fact provide greater objectivity in legal interpretation than looking merely at what is often ambiguous statutory text. With the latter (consequences), Breyer argues that considering the impact of legal interpretations is a further way of ensuring consistency with a law's intended purpose. Court clerks described him as the "most effective emissary to the Court's right wing".

''Active Liberty''

Breyer expounded his judicial philosophy in 2005 in ''Active Liberty: Interpreting Our Democratic Constitution''. In it, Breyer urges judges to interpret legal provisions (of the Constitution or of statutes) in light of the purpose of the text and how well the consequences of specific rulings fit those purposes. The book is considered a response to the 1997 book ''A Matter of Interpretation'', in which Antonin Scalia emphasized adherence to the original meaning of the text alone. In ''Active Liberty'', Breyer argues that the Framers of the Constitution sought to establish a democratic government involving the maximum liberty for its citizens. Breyer refers to Isaiah Berlin’s ''Two Concepts of Liberty''. The first Berlinian concept, being what most people understand by liberty, is "freedom from government coercion". Berlin termed this "negative liberty" and warned against its diminution; Breyer calls this "modern liberty". The second Berlinian concept – "positive liberty" – is the "freedom to participate in the government". In Breyer's terminology, this is the "active liberty" the judge should champion. Having established what "active liberty" is, and positing the primary importance (to the Framers) of this concept over the competing idea of "negative liberty", Breyer makes a predominantly utilitarian case for rulings that give effect to the democratic intentions of the Constitution. The book's historical premises and practical prescriptions have been challenged. For example, according to Peter Berkowitz, the reason that "e primarily democratic nature of the Constitution's governmental structure has not always seemed obvious", as Breyer puts it, is "because it's not true, at least in Breyer's sense, that the Constitution elevates active liberty above modern egativeliberty". Breyer's position "demonstrates not fidelity to the Constitution", Berkowitz argues, "but rather a determination to rewrite the Constitution's priorities". Berkowitz suggests that Breyer is also inconsistent in failing to apply this standard to the issue of abortion, instead preferring decisions "that protect women's modern liberty, which remove controversial issues from democratic discourse". Failing to answer the textualist charge that the Living Documentarian judge is a law unto himself, Berkowitz argues that ''Active Liberty'' "suggests that when necessary, instead of choosing the consequence that serves what he regards as the Constitution's leading purpose, Breyer will determine the Constitution’s leading purpose on the basis of the consequence that he prefers to vindicate". Against the last charge, Cass Sunstein has defended Breyer, noting that of the nine justices on the Rehnquist Court, Breyer had the highest percentage of votes to uphold acts of Congress and also to defer to the decision of the executive branch. However, according to Jeffrey Toobin in ''The New Yorker'', "Breyer concedes that a judicial approach based on 'active liberty' will not yield solutions to every constitutional debate", and that, in Breyer's words, "respecting the democratic process does not mean you abdicate your role of enforcing the limits in the Constitution, whether in the Bill of Rights or in separation of powers." To this point, and from a discussion at the New York Historical Society in March 2006, Breyer has noted that "democratic means" did not bring about an end to slavery, or the concept of "one man, one vote", which allowed corrupt and discriminatory (but democratically inspired) state laws to be overturned in favor of civil rights.

Other books

In 2010, Breyer published a second book, ''Making Our Democracy Work: A Judge's View''. There, Breyer argued that judges have six tools they can use to determine a legal provision's proper meaning: (1) its text; (2) its historical context; (3) precedent; (4) tradition; (5) its purpose; and (6) the consequences of potential interpretations. Textualists, like Scalia, only feel comfortable using the first four of these tools; while pragmatists, like Breyer, believe that "purpose" and "consequences" are ''particularly'' important interpretative tools. Breyer cites several watershed moments in Supreme Court history to show why the consequences of a particular ruling should always be in a judge's mind. He notes that President Jackson ignored the Court's ruling in ''Worcester v. Georgia'', which led to the Trail of Tears and severely weakened the Court's authority.Jeff Shesol.
Evolving Circumstances, Enduring Values
', N.Y. Times, September 17, 2010.
He also cites the ''Dred Scott'' decision, an important precursor to the American Civil War. When the Court ignores the consequences of its decisions, Breyer argues, it can lead to devastating and destabilizing outcomes. In 2015, Breyer released a third book, ''The Court and the World: American Law and the New Global Realities'', examining the interplay between U.S. and international law and how the realities of a globalized world need to be considered in U.S. cases.

Other views

In an interview on ''Fox News Sunday'' on December 12, 2010, Breyer said that based on the values and the historical record, the Founding Fathers of the United States never intended guns to go unregulated and that history supports his and the other dissenters' views in ''District of Columbia v. Heller''. He summarized: In the wake of the controversy over Justice Samuel Alito's reaction to President Barack Obama's criticism of the Court's ''Citizens United v. FEC'' ruling in his 2010 State of the Union Address, Breyer said he would continue to attend the address:


In 2007, Breyer was honored with the Distinguished Eagle Scout Award by the Boy Scouts of America. In 2018, he was named to chair of the Pritzker Architecture Prize jury, succeeding previous chair Glenn Murcutt.

See also

* Bill Clinton Supreme Court candidates * Demographics of the Supreme Court of the United States * List of Justices of the Supreme Court of the United States * List of law clerks of the Supreme Court of the United States * List of U.S. Supreme Court Justices by time in office * United States Supreme Court cases during the Rehnquist Court * United States Supreme Court cases during the Roberts Court


Further reading

* * Stephen Breyer,
The Federal Sentencing Guidelines and Key Compromises on Which They Rest
', 17 Hofstra L. Rev. 1 (1988) * Ronald Collins,

(Concurring Opinions Blog, February 28, 2014

External links

* *

at OnTheIssues *
Review of Stephen Breyer's Active Liberty: Interpreting our Democratic Constitution

'Stephen Breyer, the court's necromancer'
a book review of ''Active Liberty: Interpreting Our Democratic Constitution'' in the New English Review
"'Active Liberty' from Justice Stephen Breyer"
October 20, 2005 NPR's ''Fresh Air''
"Supreme Court Justice Breyer on 'Active Liberty'" Part 1 of Interview
September 29, 2005 NPR's ''Morning Edition''
"Justice Breyer: The Case Against 'Originalists'" Part 2 of Interview
September 30, 2005 NPR's ''Morning Edition''
Justice Breyer's appearance
on NPR's quiz show ''Wait Wait... Don't Tell Me'', March 24, 2007 * WGBH Forum Network: one and a half hours with US Supreme Court Justice of Law Stephen Breyer, September 8, 2003
Description (archived)

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Supreme Court Associate Justice Nomination Hearings on Stephen Gerald Breyer in July 1994
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