In political science
, statism is the doctrine that the political authority
of the state
to some degree.
This may include economic
and social policy
, especially in regard to taxation
and the means of production
While in use since the 1850s, the term statism gained significant usage in American political
discourse throughout the 1930s and 1940s. Opposition to statism is termed anti-statism
. The latter is characterized by a complete rejection of all hierarchical
Statism can take many forms from small government
to big government
is a political philosophy that prefers a minimal state such as a night-watchman state
to protect people from aggression
, breach of contract
. This may also include fire department
s and other functions. The welfare state
is another form within the spectrum of statism.
philosophies view a strong, authoritative state as required to legislate or enforce morality and cultural practices. Totalitarianism
is that which prefers a maximum, all-encompassing state.
has long questioned the nature and rights
of the state. Some forms of corporatism
extol the moral position that the corporate group, usually the state, is greater than the sum of its parts and that individuals have a moral obligation to serve the state. Skepticism towards statism in Western culture
s is largely rooted in Enlightenment
philosophy. John Locke
notably influenced modern thinking in his writings published before and after the English Revolution of 1688
, especially ''A Letter Concerning Toleration
'' (1667), ''Two Treatises of Government
'' (1689) and ''An Essay Concerning Human Understanding
'' (1690). In the text of 1689, he established the basis of liberal
political theory, i.e. that people's rights existed before government; that the purpose of government is to protect personal and property rights; that people may dissolve governments that do not do so; and that representative government is the best form to protect rights.
promotes the view that the state has a major, necessary and legitimate role in directing the major aspects of the economy
, either directly through state-owned enterprises
and economic planning
of production, or indirectly through economic interventionism
and macro-economic regulation.
State capitalism is a form of capitalism that features high concentrations of state-owned commercial enterprises or state direction of an economy based on the accumulation of capital, wage labor and market allocation.
In some cases, state capitalism refers to economic policies such as dirigisme
, which existed in France during the second half of the 20th century and to the present-day economies of the People's Republic of China and Singapore, where the government owns controlling shares in publicly traded companies
[Musacchio, Aldo (2012). ''Leviathan in Business: Varieties of State Capitalism and Their Implications for Economic Performance''.]
Some authors also define the former economies of the Eastern Bloc
as constituting a form of state capitalism.
The term statism is sometimes used to refer to market economies
with large amounts of government intervention, regulation or influence over markets. Market economies that feature high degrees of intervention are sometimes referred to as "mixed economies
". Economic interventionism
asserts that the state has a legitimate or necessary role within the framework of a capitalist economy
by intervening in markets, regulating against overreaches of private sector
industry and either providing or subsidizing goods and services not adequately produced by the market.
State socialism broadly refers to forms of socialism
based on state ownership
of the means of production and state-directed allocation of resources. It is often used in reference to Soviet-type economic systems
of former communist state
In some cases, when used in reference to Soviet-type economies, state socialism is used interchangeably with state capitalism
on the basis that the Soviet model of economics was actually based upon a process of state-directed capital accumulation
and social hierarchy.
Politically, state socialism is often used to designate any socialist political ideology or movement that advocates for the use of state power for the construction of socialism, or to the belief that the state must be appropriated and used to ensure the success of a socialist revolution
. It is usually used in reference to Marxist–Leninist
socialists who champion a single-party state
* Big government
and small government
* Stateless society
Category:Controversies within libertarianism
Category:Political science terminology