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The State Historical Museum (
Russian Russian refers to anything related to Russia, including: *Russians (русские, ''russkiye''), an ethnic group of the East Slavic peoples, primarily living in Russia and neighboring countries *Rossiyane (россияне), Russian language term ...
: Государственный исторический музей, ''Gosudarstvenny istoricheskiy muzyey'') of Russia is a museum of
Russian history The history of Russia begins with the histories of the East Slavs The East Slavs are the most populous subgroup of the Slavs. They speak the East Slavic languages, and formed the majority of the population of the medieval state Kievan Rus' ...
located between
Red Square Red Square ( rus, Красная площадь, Krasnaya ploshchad', ˈkrasnəjə ˈploɕːətʲ) is one of the oldest and largest squares in Moscow, the capital of Russia. Owing to its historical significance and the adjacent historical build ...

Red Square
and Manege Square in Moscow. The museum's exhibitions range from relics of prehistoric tribes that lived in the territory of present-day Russia, to priceless artworks acquired by members of the
Romanov dynasty The House of Romanov (also transcribed Romanoff; rus, Рома́новы, Románovy, rɐˈmanəvɨ) was the reigning imperial house of Russia Russia ( rus, link=no, Россия, Rossiya, ), or the Russian Federation, is a country s ...
. The total number of objects in the museum's collection numbers in the millions.


Description

The place where the museum now stands was formerly occupied by the Principal Medicine Store, built by order of
Peter the Great Peter the Great ( rus, Пётр Вели́кий, Pyotr Velíkiy, ˈpʲɵtr vʲɪˈlʲikʲɪj), Peter I ( rus, Пётр Первый, Pyotr Pyervyy, ˈpʲɵtr ˈpʲɛrvɨj) or Pyotr Alekséyevich ( rus, Пётр Алексе́евич, p=ˈp ...

Peter the Great
in the Moscow baroque style. Several rooms in that building housed royal collections of antiquities. Other rooms were occupied by the
Moscow University Moscow State University (MSU; russian: Московский государственный университет имени М. В. Ломоносова, often abbreviated МГУ, ''MGU'') is a public In public relations Public relati ...

Moscow University
, founded by
Mikhail Lomonosov Mikhail Vasilyevich Lomonosov (; russian: Михаил (Михайло) Васильевич Ломоносов, p=mʲɪxɐˈil vɐˈsʲilʲjɪvʲɪtɕ , a=Ru-Mikhail Vasilyevich Lomonosov.ogg; – ) was a Russian polymath A polymath ( e ...

Mikhail Lomonosov
in 1755. The museum was founded in 1872 by
Ivan Zabelin Ivan Yegorovich Zabelin (Иван Егорович Забелин; 29 September 1820 – 13 January 1909) was a Russian historian and archaeologist with a Slavophile bent who helped establish the State Historical Museum, National History Museum on R ...
,
Aleksey Uvarov Count Aleksey Sergeyevich Uvarov (Russian: Алексей Сергеевич Уваров; 28 February 1825 – 29 December 1884) was a Russian archaeologist often considered to be the founder of the study of the prehistory of Russia. Biography ...
and several other
Slavophiles Slavophilia (russian: Славянофильство) was an intellectual movement originating from the 19th century that wanted the Russian Empire The Russian Empire, . was a historical empire that extended across Eurasia Eurasia () is t ...
interested in promoting Russian history and national self-awareness. The board of trustees, composed of Sergey Solovyov,
Vasily Klyuchevsky Vasily Osipovich Klyuchevsky (russian: Василий Осипович Ключевский; in Voskresnskoye Village, Penza Governorate, Russia – , Moscow) was a leading Russian Empire, Russian Imperial historian of the late imperial period. A ...

Vasily Klyuchevsky
, Uvarov, and other leading historians, presided over the construction of the museum building. After a prolonged competition, the project was handed over to Vladimir Osipovich Shervud (or Sherwood, 1833–97). The present structure was built based on Sherwood's neo-Russian design between 1875 and 1881. The first 11 exhibit halls officially opened in 1883 during a visit from the Tsar and his wife. Then in 1894 Tsar
Alexander III
Alexander III
became the honorary president of the museum and the following year, 1895, the museum was renamed the Tsar Alexander III Imperial Russian History Museum. Its interiors were intricately decorated in the
Russian Revival The Russian Revival style (historiographical names are: ''Russian style'', russian: русский стиль, ''Pseudo-Russian style'', russian: псевдорусский стиль, ''Neo-Russian style'', russian: нео-русский стил ...
style by such artists as
Viktor Vasnetsov Viktor Mikhaylovich Vasnetsov (russian: Ви́ктор Миха́йлович Васнецо́в; May 15 ( N.S.), 1848 – July 23, 1926) was a Russia Russia ( rus, link=no, Россия, Rossiya, ), or the Russian Federation, is a count ...
, Henrik Semiradsky, and
Ivan Aivazovsky Ivan Konstantinovich Aivazovsky (russian: Иван Константинович Айвазовский; 29 July 18172 May 1900) was a Russian Romanticism, Romantic painter who is considered one of the greatest masters of marine art. Baptized ...

Ivan Aivazovsky
. During the Soviet period, the murals were proclaimed gaudy and were plastered over. The museum went through a painstaking restoration of its original appearance between 1986 and 1997. Notable items include a
longboat A longboat is a type of ship's boat A Royal Navy Montagu whaler being manned with an armed boarding party going to check a neutral vessel stopped at sea. October 1941 A ship's boat is a utility boat carried by a larger vessel. Ship's boats h ...

longboat
excavated from the banks of the
Volga River The Volga (; russian: Во́лга, a=Ru-Волга.ogg, p=ˈvoɫɡə) is the longest river in Europe Europe is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention ra ...
, gold artifacts of the
Scythians The Scythians (from grc, Σκύθης , ) or Scyths, also known as Saka and Sakae ( ; egy, 𓋴𓎝𓎡𓈉 The ancient Egyptian Hill-country or "Foreign land" hieroglyph (𓈉) is a member of the sky, earth, and water hieroglyphs. A ...
, birch-bark scrolls of
Novgorod Veliky Novgorod ( rus, links=yes, Великий Новгород, p=vʲɪˈlʲikʲɪj ˈnovɡərət), also known as just Novgorod (russian: Новгород, lit=newtown, links=yes), is the largest city and administrative center of Novgorod O ...

Novgorod
, manuscripts going back to the sixth century, Russian folk
ceramic A ceramic is any of the various hard, brittle, heat-resistant and corrosion-resistant Corrosion is a Erosion, natural process that converts a refined metal into a more chemically stable form such as oxide, hydroxide, carbonate or sulfide. ...

ceramic
s, and wooden objects. The library boasts the manuscripts of the
Chludov Psalter Chludov Psalter (russian: Хлудовская псалтырь; Moscow, Hist. Mus. MS. D.129) is an illuminated marginal Psalter 330px, Folio 15b of the Utrecht Psalter illustrates Psalm 27 A psalter is a volume containing the Book of Psalms ...
(860s), Svyatoslav's Miscellanies (1073), Mstislav Gospel (1117), Yuriev Gospel (1119), and
Halych Gospel Halych ( uk, Га́лич, Halyč ; ro, Halici; pl, Halicz; russian: Га́лич, Galič; german: Halytsch, ''Halitsch'' or ''Galitsch'') is a historic city on the Dniester River in western Ukraine. The city gave its name to the Principality ...
(1144). The museum's
coin A coin is a small, flat, (usually, depending on the country or value) round piece of metal A metal (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hell ...

coin
collection alone includes 1.7 million coins, making it the largest in Russia. In 1996, the number of all articles in the museum's collection reached 4,373,757. A branch of the museum is housed in the Romanov Chambers
Zaryadye Zaryadye ( rus, Зарядье, p=zɐˈrʲædʲje) is a historical district in Moscow established in 12th or 13th century within Kitai-gorod, between Varvarka Street and Moskva River. The name means "the place behind the rows", i.e., behind the Mar ...
and
Moscow Kremlin The Moscow Kremlin ( rus, Московский Кремль, r=Moskovskiy Kreml', p=mɐˈskofskʲɪj krʲemlʲ), or simply the Kremlin, is a fortified complex in the center of Moscow Moscow (, ; rus, links=no, Москва, r=Moskva, p=m ...

Moscow Kremlin
. In 1934 The Museum of Women's Emancipation at the
Novodevichy Convent Novodevichy Convent, also known as Bogoroditse-Smolensky Monastery (russian: Новоде́вичий монасты́рь, Богоро́дице-Смоле́нский монасты́рь), is probably the best-known clois ...

Novodevichy Convent
became part of the State Historical Museum. Some of the churches and other monastic buildings are still affiliated with the State Historical Museum.


Current activities

Since spring 2007, for the first time in the history of The State Historical Museum, all 40 halls have been open to the public. The museum covers the period from ancient times to the early 20th century and over 1.2 million people visit its exhibitions. The museum is also a major centre for research, science and education. The department's host lectures and seminars, internships, and awards in research and restoration activities. Since the end of 2016, it has been possible to view the exhibition through a virtual tour, which is accessible on the museum's official website. The main innovation of 2017 was the creation of a new navigation system in the main building: a full map of the main exhibition can be obtained at the entrance or downloaded from the museum's website. About 30-40 exhibition projects are held annually based on exhibits from the museum's collection throughout Russia. For the 500th anniversary of the Novodevichy Convent, the museum plans to open an exhibition dedicated to the Russian Orthodox Church. For 2018-2023, a series of exhibitions of the project "National Museums of the World to the Historical Museum" is planned, in which European museums will take part. From March to July 2020, the museum was closed to the public due to quarantine amid the COVID-19 pandemic.


Gallery

File:Вид на Исторический музей в сторону Красной площади.jpg, Night View File:Moscow July 2011-13a.jpg, View from the northwest File:Государственный исторический музей 2018 01.jpg File:2014 Moscow State Historical Lenin Museum.JPG File:Moscow SHM asv2019-06 img11.jpg, One of the exposition halls File:Военный парад на Красной площади 9 мая 2016 г. (29).jpg, A
hammer and sickle The hammer and sickle (Unicode Unicode, formally the Unicode Standard, is an information technology standard Standard may refer to: Flags * Colours, standards and guidons * Standard (flag), a type of flag used for personal identifi ...

hammer and sickle
being displayed on the museum.


References


External links

* * WorldWalk.info: * Google Maps
State Historical Museum
{{Coord, 55, 45, 19, N, 37, 37, 04, E, type:landmark_region:RU, display=title Museums established in 1872 Cultural infrastructure completed in 1881 Museums in Moscow
Russia Russia ( rus, link=no, Россия, Rossiya, ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the eastern region of . There is no consistent definition of the precise area it covers, partly because th ...
History museums in Russia Red Square Russian Revival architecture 1872 establishments in the Russian Empire