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A star catalogue (
Commonwealth English The use of the English language English is a of the , originally spoken by the inhabitants of . It is named after the , one of the ancient that migrated from , a peninsula on the (not to be confused with ), to the area of later nam ...
) or star catalog (
American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English language native to the United States. Currently, American English is the most influential form of ...
) is an
astronomical catalog Astronomy (from el, ἀστρονομία, literally meaning the science that studies the laws of the stars) is a natural science that studies celestial objects and phenomena. It uses mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Gr ...
ue that lists
star A star is an astronomical object consisting of a luminous spheroid of plasma Plasma or plasm may refer to: Science * Plasma (physics), one of the four fundamental states of matter * Plasma (mineral) or heliotrope, a mineral aggregate * Quark ...

star
s. In
astronomy Astronomy (from el, ἀστρονομία, literally meaning the science that studies the laws of the stars) is a natural science that studies astronomical object, celestial objects and celestial event, phenomena. It uses mathematics, phys ...
, many stars are referred to simply by catalogue numbers. There are a great many different star catalogues which have been produced for different purposes over the years, and this article covers only some of the more frequently quoted ones. Star catalogues were compiled by many different ancient people, including the
Babylonia Babylonia () was an and based in central-southern which was part of Ancient Persia (present-day and ). A small -ruled state emerged in 1894 BCE, which contained the minor administrative town of . It was merely a small provincial town dur ...
ns,
Greeks The Greeks or Hellenes (; el, Έλληνες, ''Éllines'' ) are an ethnic group An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people A people is any plurality of person A person (plural people or persons) is a being that has cer ...
,
Chinese Chinese can refer to: * Something related to China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, world's most populous country, with a populat ...

Chinese
,
Persians The Persians are an Iranian ethnic group An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people who identify with each other on the basis of shared attributes that distinguish them from other groups such as a common set of traditions, ancestr ...

Persians
, and
Arab The Arabs (singular Arab ; singular ar, عَرَبِيٌّ, : , Arabic pronunciation: , plural ar, عَرَبٌ, : , Arabic pronunciation: ) are an mainly inhabiting the . In modern usage the term refers to those who originate from an Arab co ...

Arab
s. They were sometimes accompanied by a
star chart A star chart or star map, also called a sky chart or sky map, is a celestial cartography, map of the night sky. Astronomers divide these into grids to use them more easily. They are used to identify and locate constellations and astronomical obj ...
for illustration. Most modern catalogues are available in electronic format and can be freely downloaded from space agencies'
data centres
data centres
. The largest is being compiled from the spacecraft
Gaia In Greek mythology Greek mythology is the body of myth Myth is a folklore genre Folklore is the expressive body of culture shared by a particular group of people; it encompasses the tradition A tradition is a belief A be ...
and thus far has over a billion stars. Completeness and accuracy are described by the faintest
limiting magnitude In astronomy, limiting magnitude is the faintest apparent magnitude of a celestial body that is detectable or detected by a given instrument. In some cases, limiting magnitude refers to the upper threshold of detection. In more formal uses, limit ...
V (largest number) and the accuracy of the positions.


Historical catalogues


Ancient Near East

From their existing records, it is known that the
ancient Egyptians Ancient Egypt was a civilization  A civilization (or civilisation) is a complex society A complex society is a concept that is shared by a range of disciplines including anthropology, archaeology, history and sociology to descri ...
recorded the names of only a few identifiable
constellation A constellation is an area on the celestial sphere in which a group of visible stars forms a perceived outline or pattern, typically representing an animal, mythological person or creature, or an inanimate object. The origins of the earliest ...

constellation
s and a list of thirty-six
decans The decans (; Egyptian ''bꜣktw'' or ''baktiu'', "hose A hose is a flexible hollow tube (fluid conveyance), tube designed to carry fluids from one location to another. Hoses are also sometimes called ''Pipe (fluid conveyance), pipes'' (the wo ...
that were used as a
star clockA star clock (or nocturnal Nocturnality is an ethology, animal behavior characterized by being active during the night and sleeping during the day. The common adjective is "nocturnal", versus diurnality, diurnal meaning the opposite. Nocturnal ...
. The Egyptians called the
circumpolar star 300px, Circumpolar star trails in a long-exposure photo of several hours. Note that the stars near the celestial pole leave shorter trails with the long exposure. A circumpolar star is a star, as viewed from a given latitude on Earth, that neve ...
"the star that cannot perish" and, although they made no known formal star catalogues, they nonetheless created extensive
star chart A star chart or star map, also called a sky chart or sky map, is a celestial cartography, map of the night sky. Astronomers divide these into grids to use them more easily. They are used to identify and locate constellations and astronomical obj ...
s of the night sky which adorn the coffins and ceilings of tomb chambers. Although the ancient
Sumer Sumer ()The name is from Akkadian language, Akkadian '; Sumerian language, Sumerian ''kig̃ir'', written and ,approximately "land of the civilized kings" or "native land". means "native, local", iĝir NATIVE (7x: Old Babylonian)from ''The ...

Sumer
ians were the first to record the names of constellations on
clay tablet In the Ancient Near East The ancient Near East was the home of early civilization A civilization (or civilisation) is any complex society that is characterized by urban development, social stratification, a form of government, and sym ...
s, the earliest known star catalogues were compiled by the ancient Babylonians of
Mesopotamia Mesopotamia ( grc, Μεσοποταμία ''Mesopotamíā''; ar, بِلَاد ٱلرَّافِدَيْن ; syc, ܐܪܡ ܢܗܪ̈ܝܢ, or , ) is a historical region of Western Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in th ...

Mesopotamia
in the late 2nd millennium BC, during the Kassite Period (c. 1531 BC to c. 1155 BC). They are better known by their
Assyrian-era name
Assyrian-era name
'Three Stars Each'. These star catalogues, written on
clay tablets In the Ancient Near East, clay tablets (Akkadian language, Akkadian ''ṭuppu(m)'' ) were used as a writing medium, especially for writing in cuneiform, throughout the Bronze Age and well into the Iron Age. Cuneiform characters were imprinted on ...
, listed thirty-six stars: twelve for "
Anu , image=File:Cuneiform sumer dingir.svg , caption=Ur III Sumerian cuneiform Cuneiform is a Logogram, logo-Syllabary, syllabic writing system, script that was used to write several languages of the Ancient Near East. The script was in active u ...

Anu
" along the
celestial equator The celestial equator is the great circle A great circle, also known as an orthodrome, of a sphere of a sphere A sphere (from Greek language, Greek —, "globe, ball") is a Geometry, geometrical object in solid geometry, three-dimensiona ...
, twelve for " Ea" south of that, and twelve for "
Enlil Enlil, , "Lord Wind" later known as Elil, is an ancient Mesopotamian god associated with wind, air, earth, and storms. He is first attested as the chief deity of the Sumerian pantheon Sumerian religion was the religion Religion is a ...
" to the north. The
Mul.Apin MUL.APIN () is the conventional title given to a Babylonian literature, Babylonian compendium that deals with many diverse aspects of Babylonian astronomy and Babylonian astrology, astrology. It is in the tradition of earlier Babylonian star cat ...
lists, dated to sometime before the
Neo-Babylonian Empire The Neo-Babylonian Empire, also known as the Second Babylonian Empire and historically known as the Chaldean Empire, was the last of the Mesopotamian empires to be ruled by monarchs native to Mesopotamia. Beginning with Nabopolassar's coronation as ...

Neo-Babylonian Empire
(626–539 BC), are direct textual descendants of the "Three Stars Each" lists and their constellation patterns show similarities to those of later
Greek civilization The culture of Greece has evolved over thousands of years, beginning in Minoan and later in Mycenaean Greece, continuing most notably into Classical Greece Classical Greece was a period of around 200 years (5th and 4th centuries BC) in Gree ...
.


Hellenistic world and Roman Empire

In
Ancient Greece Ancient Greece ( el, Ἑλλάς, Hellás) was a civilization belonging to a period of History of Greece, Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 12th–9th centuries BC to the end of Classical Antiquity, antiquity ( AD 600). This era wa ...
, the astronomer and mathematician Eudoxus laid down a full set of the classical
constellation A constellation is an area on the celestial sphere in which a group of visible stars forms a perceived outline or pattern, typically representing an animal, mythological person or creature, or an inanimate object. The origins of the earliest ...

constellation
s around 370 BC. His catalogue '''', rewritten by Aratus of Soli between 275 and 250 BC as a didactic poem, became one of the most consulted astronomical texts in
antiquity Antiquity or Antiquities may refer to Historical objects or periods Artifacts * Antiquities, objects or artifacts surviving from ancient cultures Eras Any period before the European Middle Ages In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages ...
and beyond. It contained descriptions of the positions of the stars and the shapes of the constellations, and provided information on their relative times of rising and setting. Approximately in the 3rd century BC, the Greek astronomers Timocharis of Alexandria and
Aristillus Aristyllus ( el, Ἀρίστυλλος; fl. c. 261 BC) was a Greek astronomy, astronomer, presumably of the school of Timocharis (c. 300 BC). He was among the earliest meridian-astronomy observers. Six of his stellar declinations are pres ...
created another star catalogue.
Hipparchus Hipparchus of Nicaea (; el, Ἵππαρχος, ''Hipparkhos'';  BC) was a Ancient Greek astronomy, Greek astronomer, geographer, and mathematician. He is considered the founder of trigonometry, but is most famous for his incidental discov ...
(c. 190 – c. 120 BC) completed his star catalogue in 129 BC, which he compared to
Timocharis Timocharis of Alexandria ( grc-gre, Τιμόχαρις or Τιμοχάρης, ''gen.'' Τιμοχάρους; c. 320–260 BC) was a Greeks, Greek astronomer and philosopher. Likely born in Alexandria, he was a contemporary of Euclid. Work What litt ...
' and discovered that the
longitude Longitude (, ) is a geographic coordinate A geographic coordinate system (GCS) is a coordinate system associated with position (geometry), positions on Earth (geographic position). A GCS can give positions: *as Geodetic coordinates, ...

longitude
of the stars had changed over time. This led him to determine the first value of the
precession of the equinoxes In astronomy Astronomy (from el, ἀστρονομία, literally meaning the science that studies the laws of the stars) is a natural science that studies astronomical object, celestial objects and celestial event, phenomena. It uses ...
. In the 2nd century,
Ptolemy Claudius Ptolemy (; grc-koi, Κλαύδιος Πτολεμαῖος, , ; la, Claudius Ptolemaeus; AD) was a mathematician A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes ...
(c. 90 – c. 186 AD) of
Roman Egypt , conventional_long_name = Roman Egypt , common_name = Egypt , subdivision = Roman province, Province , nation = the Roman Empire , era = Late antiquity , capital = Alexandria , title_leader = Praefectus Augustalis , image_ ...
published a star catalogue as part of his ''
Almagest The ''Almagest'' is a 2nd-century Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its po ...
'', which listed 1,022 stars visible from
Alexandria Alexandria ( or ; ar, الإسكندرية ; arz, اسكندرية ; Coptic language, Coptic: Rakodī; el, Αλεξάνδρεια ''Alexandria'') is the List of cities and towns in Egypt, third-largest city in Egypt after Cairo and Giza, ...

Alexandria
. Ptolemy's catalogue was based almost entirely on an earlier one by Hipparchus. It remained the standard star catalogue in the Western and
Arab The Arabs (singular Arab ; singular ar, عَرَبِيٌّ, : , Arabic pronunciation: , plural ar, عَرَبٌ, : , Arabic pronunciation: ) are an mainly inhabiting the . In modern usage the term refers to those who originate from an Arab co ...

Arab
worlds for over eight centuries. The Islamic astronomer
al-Sufi 'Abd al-Rahman al-Sufi ( fa, عبدالرحمن صوفی (December 7, 903 in Rey, Iran Shahr-e Rey ( fa, شهر ری, "City of Ray") or simply Ray (Rey; ) is the capital of Ray County, Iran, Ray County in Tehran Province, Iran. Formerly a dist ...
updated it in 964, and the star positions were redetermined by
Ulugh Beg Mīrzā Muhammad Tāraghay bin Shāhrukh ( chg, میرزا محمد طارق بن شاہ رخ, fa, میرزا محمد تراغای بن شاہ رخ), better known as Ulugh Beg () (22 March 1394 – 27 October 1449), was a TimuridTimurid refe ...
in 1437, but it was not fully superseded until the appearance of the thousand-star catalogue of
Tycho Brahe Tycho Brahe ( ; born Tyge Ottesen Brahe; 14 December 154624 October 1601) was a Danish astronomer An astronomer is a scientist in the field of astronomy who focuses their studies on a specific question or field outside the scope of Earth. T ...

Tycho Brahe
in 1598. The ancient
Vedic upright=1.2, The Vedas are ancient Sanskrit texts of Hinduism. Above: A page from the ''Atharvaveda''. The Vedas (, , ) are a large body of religious texts originating in ancient India. Composed in Vedic Sanskrit, the texts constitute the ol ...

Vedic
and other scriptures of
India India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi Hindi (Devanagari: , हिंदी, ISO 15919, ISO: ), or more precisely Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: , ISO 15919, ISO: ), is an Indo-Aryan language spoken chiefly in Hindi Belt, ...
were very well aware of the astronomical positions and constellations. Both Mahabharata and Ramayana provide references to various events in terms of the planetary positions and constellations of that time. The Planetary positions at the time of Mahabharata war has been given comprehensively. A very interesting and exhaustive discussion about the planetary positions along with specific name of constellations appears in a paper by R N Iyengar in the scientific journal of 'Indian journal of History of Science'


Ancient China

The earliest known inscriptions for
Chinese star namesChinese star names ( Chinese: , ''xīng míng'') are named according to ancient Chinese astronomy and astrology Astrology is a pseudoscience that claims to divination, divine information about human affairs and terrestrial events by study ...
were written on
oracle bone Oracle bones () are pieces of ox scapula In anatomy, the scapula (plural scapulae or scapulas), also known as the shoulder bone, shoulder blade, wing bone, speal bone or blade bone, is the bone that connects the humerus (upper arm bone) with t ...

oracle bone
s and date to the
Shang Dynasty The Shang dynasty (), also historically known as the Yin dynasty (), was a Chinese dynasty Dynasties in Chinese history, or Chinese dynasties, were hereditary monarchical regimes that ruled over China during much of its history. From ...

Shang Dynasty
(c. 1600 – c. 1050 BC). Sources dating from the
Zhou Dynasty The Zhou dynasty ( ; Old Chinese Old Chinese, also called Archaic Chinese in older works, is the oldest attested stage of Chinese Chinese can refer to: * Something related to China China, officially the People's Republic of China ...
(c. 1050 – 256 BC) which provide star names include the ''
Zuo Zhuan The ''Zuo Zhuan'' (; ), generally translated ''The Zuo Tradition'' or ''The Commentary of Zuo'', is an ancient Chinese narrative history that is traditionally regarded as a commentary on the ancient Chinese chronicle ''Spring and Autumn Annals ...

Zuo Zhuan
'', the ''
Shi Jing The ''Classic of Poetry'', also ''Shijing'' or ''Shih-ching'' (), translated variously as the ''Book of Songs'', ''Book of Odes'' or simply known as the ''Odes'' or ''Poetry'' (), is the oldest existing collection of Chinese poetry Chinese po ...

Shi Jing
'', and the " Canon of Yao" (堯典) in the ''
Book of Documents The ''Book of Documents'' (''Shūjīng'', earlier ''Shu King'') or ''Classic of History'', also known as the ''Shangshu'' ("Esteemed Documents"), is one of the Five Classics The Four Books and Five Classics () are the authoritative books of ...
''. The ''
Lüshi Chunqiu The ''Lüshi Chunqiu'', also known in English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which h ...
'' written by the
QinQin may refer to: Dynasties and states * Qin (state) (秦), a major state during the Zhou Dynasty of ancient China * Qin dynasty (秦), founded by the Qin state in 221 BC and ended in 206 BC * Daqin (大秦), ancient Chinese name for the Roman Empi ...
statesman
Lü Buwei Lü Buwei (291–235 BC) was a Chinese merchant and politician of the Qin state during the Warring States period The Warring States period () was an era in ancient Chinese history characterized by warfare, as well as bureaucratic and milit ...
(d. 235 BC) provides most of the names for the
twenty-eight mansions The Twenty-Eight Mansions (), , or are part of the Chinese constellations Traditional Chinese astronomy Astronomy in China has a long history stretching from the Shang Dynasty The Shang dynasty (), also historically known as the Yin ...

twenty-eight mansions
(i.e. asterisms across the
ecliptic The ecliptic is the plane (geometry), plane of Earth's orbit around the Sun. From the perspective of an observer on Earth, the Sun's movement around the celestial sphere over the course of a year traces out a path along the ecliptic against the ...

ecliptic
belt of the
celestial sphere In astronomy Astronomy (from el, ἀστρονομία, literally meaning the science that studies the laws of the stars) is a natural science that studies astronomical object, celestial objects and celestial event, phenomena. It uses ...

celestial sphere
used for constructing the
calendar A calendar is a system of organizing days. This is done by giving names to periods of time, typically days, weeks, months and years. A calendar date, date is the designation of a single, specific day within such a system. A calendar is also ...
). An earlier
lacquerware Lacquerware are objects decoratively covered with lacquer. Lacquerware includes small or large containers, tableware, a variety of small objects carried by people, and larger objects such as furniture and even coffins painted with lacquer. Befo ...

lacquerware
chest found in the
Tomb of Marquis Yi of Zeng 400px, Top view of the '' Bianzhong of Marquis Yi of Zeng'' The Tomb of Marquis Yi of Zeng () is an archaeological site in Leigudun Community (), Nanjiao Subdistrict (), Zengdu District, Suizhou (during the Spring and Autumn period The Spring ...
(interred in 433 BC) contains a complete list of the names of the twenty-eight mansions. Star catalogues are traditionally attributed to
Shi ShenShi Shen (, fl. 4th century BC) was a Chinese astronomer An astronomer is a scientist in the field of astronomy who focuses their studies on a specific question or field outside the scope of Earth. They observe astronomical objects such as stars, ...

Shi Shen
and
Gan De Gan De (; fl. 4th century BC), also known as the Lord Gan (Gan Gong), was an ancient Chinese astronomer An astronomer is a scientist in the field of astronomy who focuses their studies on a specific question or field outside the scope of Eart ...
, two rather obscure
Chinese astronomer Astronomy in China has a long history stretching from the Shang Dynasty, being refined over a period of more than 3,000 years. The Ancient China, Ancient Chinese people have identified stars from 1300BCE, as Chinese star names later categorized in ...
s who may have been active in the 4th century BC of the
Warring States period The Warring States period () was an era in ancient Chinese history characterized by warfare, as well as bureaucratic and military reforms and consolidation. It followed the Spring and Autumn period#REDIRECT Spring and Autumn period The Spri ...
(403–221 BC). The ''Shi Shen astronomy'' (石申天文, Shi Shen tienwen) is attributed to Shi Shen, and the ''Astronomic star observation'' (天文星占, Tianwen xingzhan) to Gan De. It was not until the
Han Dynasty#REDIRECT Han dynasty The Han dynasty () was the second Dynasties in Chinese history, imperial dynasty of China (202 BC – 220 AD), established by the rebel leader Liu Bang and ruled by the House of Liu. Preceded by the short-lived Qin dynas ...

Han Dynasty
(202 BC – 220 AD) that astronomers started to observe and record names for all the stars that were apparent (to the
naked eye Naked eye, also called bare eye or unaided eye, is the practice of engaging in visual perception unaided by a magnification, magnifying, Optical telescope#Light-gathering power, light-collecting optical instrument, such as a telescope or micr ...
) in the night sky, not just those around the ecliptic. A star catalogue is featured in one of the chapters of the late 2nd-century-BC history work ''
Records of the Grand Historian The ''Records of the Grand Historian'', also known by its Chinese Chinese can refer to: * Something related to China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of countries and dep ...

Records of the Grand Historian
'' by
Sima Qian Sima Qian (; ; ) was a Chinese historian of the early Han dynasty#REDIRECT Han dynasty The Han dynasty () was the second Dynasties in Chinese history, imperial dynasty of China (202 BC – 220 AD), established by the rebel leader Liu B ...

Sima Qian
(145–86 BC) and contains the "schools" of Shi Shen and Gan De's work (i.e. the different constellations they allegedly focused on for astrological purposes). Sima's catalogue—the ''Book of Celestial Offices'' (天官書 Tianguan shu)—includes some 90 constellations, the stars therein named after
temples A temple (from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of t ...
, ideas in
philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about Metaphysics, existence, reason, Epistemology, knowledge, Ethics, values, Philosophy of mind, mind, and Philosophy of language, language. Such questio ...
, locations such as markets and shops, and different people such as farmers and soldiers. For his ''Spiritual Constitution of the Universe'' (靈憲, Ling Xian) of 120 AD, the astronomer
Zhang Heng Zhang Heng (; AD 78–139), formerly romanized Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech ...

Zhang Heng
(78–139 AD) compiled a star catalogue comprising 124 constellations.
Chinese constellation Chinese can refer to: * Something related to China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in . It is the world's , with a of more than 1.4 billion. China spans five geographical and 14 different count ...
names were later adopted by the
Korea Korea is a region In geography, regions are areas that are broadly divided by physical characteristics (physical geography), human impact characteristics (human geography), and the interaction of humanity and the environment (environmental ...

Korea
ns and
Japan Japan ( ja, 日本, or , and formally ) is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an in ...

Japan
ese.


Islamic world

A large number of star catalogues were published by Muslim astronomers in the medieval Islamic world. These were mainly ''
Zij A zij ( fa, زيج, zīj) is an astronomy in medieval Islam, Islamic astronomical book that tabulates ephemeris, parameters used for astronomy, astronomical calculations of the apparent place, positions of the Sun, Moon, stars, and planets. Etym ...
'' treatises, including Arzachel's ''
Tables of Toledo Table may refer to: * Table (information) A table is an arrangement of data Data are units of information Information can be thought of as the resolution of uncertainty; it answers the question of "What an entity is" and thus define ...
'' (1087), the
Maragheh observatory Maragheh observatory ( fa, رصدخانه مراغه) was an astronomical observatory established in 1259 CE under the patronage of the Ilkhanid Hulagu and the directorship of Nasir al-Din al-Tusi, a Persian people, Persian Islamic science, scie ...

Maragheh observatory
's ''
Zij-i Ilkhani ''Zīj-i Īlkhānī'' ( fa, زیجِ ایلخانی) or ''Ilkhanic Tables'' (literal translation: "The Ilkhan Stars", after ilkhan Hulagu Hulagu Khan, also known as Hülegü or Hulegu ( mn, Хүлэгү/ , lit=Surplus, translit=Hu’legu’/Q ...
'' (1272) and
Ulugh Beg Mīrzā Muhammad Tāraghay bin Shāhrukh ( chg, میرزا محمد طارق بن شاہ رخ, fa, میرزا محمد تراغای بن شاہ رخ), better known as Ulugh Beg () (22 March 1394 – 27 October 1449), was a TimuridTimurid refe ...
's ''
Zij-i-Sultani ''Zīj-i Sulṭānī'' ( fa, زیجِ سلطانی) is a Zij astronomical table and star catalogue that was published by Ulugh Beg Mīrzā Muhammad Tāraghay bin Shāhrukh ( chg, میرزا محمد طارق بن شاہ رخ, fa, میرزا م ...
'' (1437). Other famous
Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East The Middle East is a list of transcontinental countries, transcontinental region ...

Arabic
star catalogues include
Alfraganus Abū al-ʿAbbās Aḥmad ibn Muḥammad ibn Kathīr al-Farghānī ( ar, أبو العبّاس أحمد بن محمد بن كثير الفرغاني; 800/805–870), also known as Alfraganus in the West, was an astronomer in the Abbasid court in Ba ...
' ''A compendium of the science of stars'' (850) which corrected Ptolemy's ''Almagest''; and
al-Sufi 'Abd al-Rahman al-Sufi ( fa, عبدالرحمن صوفی (December 7, 903 in Rey, Iran Shahr-e Rey ( fa, شهر ری, "City of Ray") or simply Ray (Rey; ) is the capital of Ray County, Iran, Ray County in Tehran Province, Iran. Formerly a dist ...
's ''
Book of Fixed Stars The ''Book of Fixed Stars'' ( ar, كتاب صور الكواكب ', literally ''The Book of the Shapes of Stars'') is an Astronomy, astronomical text written by Abd al-Rahman al-Sufi (Azophi) around 964. Following Graeco-Arabic translation moveme ...
'' (964) which described observations of the
star A star is an astronomical object consisting of a luminous spheroid of plasma Plasma or plasm may refer to: Science * Plasma (physics), one of the four fundamental states of matter * Plasma (mineral) or heliotrope, a mineral aggregate * Quark ...

star
s, their positions, , brightness and
colour Color (American English) or colour (Commonwealth English) is the visual perception, visual perceptual Physical property, property corresponding in humans to the categories called ''blue'', ''green'', ''red'', etc. Color derives from the sp ...

colour
, drawings for each
constellation A constellation is an area on the celestial sphere in which a group of visible stars forms a perceived outline or pattern, typically representing an animal, mythological person or creature, or an inanimate object. The origins of the earliest ...

constellation
, and the first known description of the
Andromeda Galaxy The Andromeda Galaxy (IPA: ), also known as Messier 31, M31, or NGC 224 and originally the Andromeda Nebula (see below), is a barred spiral galaxy Image:Hubble2005-01-barred-spiral-galaxy-NGC1300.jpg, 350px, NGC 1300, viewed nearly face-on; Hubbl ...

Andromeda Galaxy
. Many stars are still known by their Arabic names (see
List of Arabic star names This is a list of Arabic star names. In Western astronomy Astronomy (from el, ἀστρονομία, literally meaning the science that studies the laws of the stars) is a natural science that studies astronomical object, celestial objects ...
).


Pre-Columbian Americas

The ''Motul Dictionary'', compiled in the 16th century by an anonymous author (although attributed to Fray Antonio de Ciudad Real), contains a list of stars originally observed by the ancient Mayas. The Maya
Paris Codex The ''Paris Codex'' (also known as the ''Codex Peresianus'' and ''Codex Pérez'') is one of four surviving generally accepted pre-Columbian Maya books dating to the Postclassic Period of Mesoamerican chronology Mesoamerican chronology divides ...
also contain symbols for different constellations which were represented by mythological beings.


Bayer and Flamsteed catalogues

Two systems introduced in historical catalogues remain in use to the present day. The first system comes from the
German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citizens of Germany, see also German nationality law * German language The German la ...
astronomer
Johann Bayer Johann Bayer (1572 – 7 March 1625) was a German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citizens of Germany, see also Ger ...
's ''
Uranometria ''Uranometria'' is a star atlas Celestial cartography, uranography, astrography or star cartography is the fringe of astronomy Astronomy (from el, ἀστρονομία, literally meaning the science that studies the laws of the ...

Uranometria
'', published in 1603 and regarding bright stars. These are given a
Greek letter The Greek alphabet has been used to write the Greek language Greek (modern , romanized: ''Elliniká'', Ancient Greek, ancient , ''Hellēnikḗ'') is an independent branch of the Indo-European languages, Indo-European family of languages, nat ...

Greek letter
followed by the
genitive case In grammar In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language, meaning that it is a comprehensive, systematic, objective, and precise study of language. Linguistics encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, a ...
of the
constellation A constellation is an area on the celestial sphere in which a group of visible stars forms a perceived outline or pattern, typically representing an animal, mythological person or creature, or an inanimate object. The origins of the earliest ...

constellation
in which they are located; examples are
Alpha Centauri Alpha Centauri is the List of nearest stars and brown dwarfs, closest star system and closest planetary system to Earth's Solar System at 4.37 light-years (1.34 parsecs) from the Sun. The name is Latinisation of names, Latinized from ...

Alpha Centauri
or
Gamma Cygni Gamma Cygni (γ Cygni, abbreviated Gamma Cyg, γ Cyg), officially named Sadr , is a star A star is an astronomical object consisting of a luminous spheroid of plasma (physics), plasma held together by its own gravity. The List of nea ...
. The major problem with Bayer's naming system was the number of letters in the
Greek alphabet The Greek alphabet has been used to write the Greek language since the late ninth or early eighth century BC. It is derived from the earlier Phoenician alphabet, and was the first alphabetic script in history to have distinct letters for vowels ...

Greek alphabet
(24). It was easy to run out of letters before running out of stars needing names, particularly for large constellations such as
Argo Navis Argo Navis (the Ship Argo), or simply Argo, was a large constellation A constellation is an area on the celestial sphere in which a group of visible stars forms a perceived outline or pattern, typically representing an animal, mythological p ...

Argo Navis
. Bayer extended his lists up to 67 stars by using lower-case Roman letters ("a" through "z") then upper-case ones ("A" through "Q"). Few of those designations have survived. It is worth mentioning, however, as it served as the starting point for variable star designations, which start with "R" through "Z", then "RR", "RS", "RT"..."RZ", "SS", "ST"..."ZZ" and beyond. The second system comes from the English astronomer
John Flamsteed John Flamsteed FRS (19 August 1646 – 31 December 1719) was an English astronomer An astronomer is a scientist in the field of astronomy who focuses their studies on a specific question or field outside the scope of Earth. They observe astr ...

John Flamsteed
's '' Historia coelestis Britannica'' (1725). It kept the genitive-of-the-constellation rule for the back end of his catalogue names, but used numbers instead of the Greek alphabet for the front half. Examples include
61 Cygni 61 Cygni is a binary star system in the constellation Cygnus (constellation), Cygnus, consisting of a pair of Stellar classification, K-type dwarf stars that orbit each other in a period of about 659 years. Of apparent magnitude 5 ...
and .


Full-sky catalogues (in chronological order)

Bayer and Flamsteed covered only a few thousand stars between them. In theory, full-sky catalogues try to list every star in the sky. There are, however, billions of stars resolvable by 21st century
telescope A telescope is an optical instrument An optical instrument (or "optic" for short) is a device that processes light waves (or photons), either to enhance an image for viewing or to analyze and determine their characteristic properties. Common ...

telescope
s, so this is an impossible goal; with this kind of catalog, an attempt is generally made to get every star brighter than a given
magnitude Magnitude may refer to: Mathematics *Euclidean vector, a quantity defined by both its magnitude and its direction *Magnitude (mathematics), the relative size of an object *Norm (mathematics), a term for the size or length of a vector *Order of ...

magnitude
.


LAL

Jérôme Lalande Joseph Jérôme Lefrançois de Lalande (; 11 July 1732 – 4 April 1807) was a French astronomer An astronomer is a scientist in the field of astronomy who focuses their studies on a specific question or field outside the scope of Earth. They o ...

Jérôme Lalande
published the '' Histoire céleste française'' in 1801, which contained an extensive star catalog, among other things. The observations made were made from the
Paris Observatory #REDIRECT Paris Observatory #REDIRECT Paris Observatory The Paris Observatory (french: Observatoire de Paris ), a research institution of the Paris Sciences et Lettres University, is the foremost astronomy, astronomical observatory of France, a ...

Paris Observatory
and so it describes mostly northern stars. This catalogue contained the positions and magnitudes of 47,390 stars, out to magnitude 9, and was the most complete catalogue up to that time. A significant reworking of this catalogue by followers of Lalande in 1846 added reference numbers to the stars that are used to refer to some of these stars to this day. The decent accuracy of this catalogue kept it in common use as a reference by observatories around the world throughout the 19th century.


BD/CD/CPD

The ''
Bonner Durchmusterung In astronomy, Durchmusterung or Bonner Durchmusterung (BD), is an astrometric star catalogue of the whole sky, compiled by the Bonn Observatory in Germany from 1859 to 1903. The name comes from ('run-through examination'), a German word used for a ...
'' (''German'':
Bonn The Federal city The term federal city is a title for certain cities in Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px , capital = Berlin , coordinates = , largest_city = capital , languages_type = Official langua ...

Bonn
sampling) and follow-ups were the most complete of the pre-photographic star catalogues. The ''Bonner Durchmusterung'' itself was published by
Friedrich Wilhelm Argelander Friedrich Wilhelm August Argelander (22 March 1799 – 17 February 1875) was a German astronomer An astronomer is a scientist in the field of astronomy who focuses their studies on a specific question or field outside the scope of Earth. They ...
, , and Eduard Schönfeld between 1852 and 1859. It covered 320,000 stars in epoch 1855.0. As it covered only the northern sky and some of the south (being compiled from the
Bonn The Federal city The term federal city is a title for certain cities in Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px , capital = Berlin , coordinates = , largest_city = capital , languages_type = Official langua ...

Bonn
observatory), this was then supplemented by the ''Südliche Durchmusterung '' (SD), which covers stars between declinations −1 and −23 degrees (1886, 120,000 stars). It was further supplemented by the ''Cordoba Durchmusterung'' (580,000 stars), which began to be compiled at Córdoba, Argentina in 1892 under the initiative of John M. Thome and covers declinations −22 to −90. Lastly, the ''Cape Photographic Durchmusterung'' (450,000 stars, 1896), compiled at the Cape, South Africa, covers declinations −18 to −90. Astronomers preferentially use the HD designation (see next entry) of a star, as that catalogue also gives spectroscopy, spectroscopic information, but as the Durchmusterungs cover more stars they occasionally fall back on the older designations when dealing with one not found in Draper. Unfortunately, a lot of catalogues cross-reference the Durchmusterungs without specifying which one is used in the zones of overlap, so some confusion often remains. Star names from these catalogues include the initials of which of the four catalogues they are from (though the ''Southern'' follows the example of the ''Bonner'' and uses BD; CPD is often shortened to CP), followed by the angle of declination of the star (rounded towards zero, and thus ranging from +00 to +89 and −00 to −89), followed by an arbitrary number as there are always thousands of stars at each angle. Examples include BD+50°1725 or CD−45°13677.


HD/HDE

The Henry Draper Catalogue was published in the period 1918–1924. It covers the whole sky down to about ninth or tenth magnitude, and is notable as the first large-scale attempt to catalogue spectral types of stars. The catalogue was compiled by Annie Jump Cannon and her co-workers at Harvard College Observatory under the supervision of Edward Charles Pickering, and was named in honour of Henry Draper, whose widow donated the money required to finance it. HD numbers are widely used today for stars which have no Bayer or Flamsteed designation. Stars numbered 1–225300 are from the original catalogue and are numbered in order of right ascension for the 1900.0 epoch (astronomy), epoch. Stars in the range 225301–359083 are from the 1949 extension of the catalogue. The notation HDE can be used for stars in this extension, but they are usually denoted HD as the numbering ensures that there can be no ambiguity.


AC

The ''Catalogue astrographique'' (Astrographic Catalogue) was part of the international ''Carte du Ciel'' programme designed to photograph and measure the positions of all stars brighter than magnitude 11.0. In total, over 4.6 million stars were observed, many as faint as 13th magnitude. This project was started in the late 19th century. The observations were made between 1891 and 1950. To observe the entire celestial sphere without burdening too many institutions, the sky was divided among 20 observatories, by declination zones. Each observatory exposed and measured the plates of its zone, using a standardized telescope (a "normal astrograph") so each plate photographed had a similar scale of approximately 60 arcsecs/mm. The U.S. Naval Observatory took over custody of the catalogue, now in its 2000.2 edition.


BS, BSC, HR

First published in 1930 as the ''Yale University, Yale Catalog of Bright Stars'', this catalogue contained information on all stars brighter than apparent magnitude, visual magnitude 6.5 in the ''Harvard Revised Photometry Catalogue''. The list was revised in 1983 with the publication of a supplement that listed additional stars down to magnitude 7.1. The catalogue detailed each star's coordinates, proper motions, Photometry (astronomy), photometric data, spectral types, and other useful information. The last printed version of the Bright Star Catalogue was the 4th revised edition, released in 1982. The 5th edition is in electronic form and is available online.


SAO

The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory catalogue was compiled in 1966 from various previous astrometry, astrometric catalogues, and contains only the stars to about ninth magnitude for which accurate proper motions were known. There is considerable overlap with the Henry Draper catalogue, but any star lacking motion data at that time is omitted. The epoch (astronomy), epoch for the position measurements in the latest edition is J2000.0. The SAO catalogue contains this major piece of information not in Draper, the proper motion of the stars, so it is often used when that fact is of importance. The cross-references with the Draper and Durchmusterung catalogue numbers in the latest edition are also useful. Names in the SAO catalogue start with the letters SAO, followed by a number. The numbers are assigned following 18 ten-degree bands in the sky, with stars sorted by right ascension within each band.


USNO-B1.0

USNO-B1.0 is an all-sky catalogue created by research and operations astrophysicists at the U.S. Naval Observatory (as developed at the United States Naval Observatory Flagstaff Station), that presents positions, proper motions, magnitudes in various optical passbands, and star/galaxy estimators for 1,042,618,261 objects derived from 3,643,201,733 separate observations. The data was obtained from scans of 7,435 Schmidt camera, Schmidt plates taken for the various sky surveys during the last 50 years. USNO-B1.0 is believed to provide all-sky coverage, completeness down to V = 21, 0.2 arcsecond astrometric accuracy at J2000.0, 0.3 magnitude photometric accuracy in up to five colors, and 85% accuracy for distinguishing stars from non-stellar objects. USNO-B is now followed by NOMAD; both can be found on the Naval Observatory server. The United States Naval Observatory Flagstaff Station, Naval Observatory is currently working on B2 and C variants of the USNO catalogue series.


GSC

The ''Guide Star Catalog'' is an online catalogue of stars produced for the purpose of accurately positioning and identifying stars satisfactory for use as guide stars by the Hubble Space Telescope program. The first version of the catalogue was produced in the late 1980s by digitizing photographic plates and contained about 20 million stars, out to about magnitude 15. The latest version of this catalogue contains information for 945,592,683 stars, out to magnitude 21. The latest version continues to be used to accurately position the Hubble Space Telescope.


PPM

The PPM Star Catalogue (1991) is one of the best, both in the proper motion and star position till 1999. Not as precise as the Hipparcos catalogue but with many more stars. The PPM was built from BD, SAO, HD and more, with sophisticated algorithm and is an extension for the Fifth Fundamental Catalogue, "Catalogues of Fundamental Stars".


HIP

The Hipparcos catalogue was compiled from the data gathered by the European Space Agency's astrometric satellite ''Hipparcos'', which was operational from 1989 to 1993. The catalogue was published in June 1997 and contains 118,218 stars; an updated version with re-processed data was published in 2007. It is particularly notable for its Stellar parallax, parallax measurements, which are considerably more accurate than those produced by ground-based observations.


Gaia Catalogue

The Gaia catalogue is released in stages that will contain increasing amounts of information; the early releases also miss some stars, especially fainter stars located in dense star fields. Data from every data release can be accessed at the Gaia Archive, ''Gaia'' archive. Gaia DR1, the first data release of the spacecraft Gaia (spacecraft), ''Gaia'' mission, based on 14 months of observations made through September 2015, took place on 13 September 2016. The data release includes positions and magnitudes in a single photometric band for 1.1 billion stars using only ''Gaia'' data, positions, parallaxes and proper motions for more than 2 million stars based on a combination of ''Gaia'' and Tycho-2 Catalogue, Tycho-2 data for those objects in both catalogues, light curves and characteristics for about 3000 variable stars, and positions and magnitudes for more than 2000 extragalactic sources used to define the celestial reference frame. The second data release (DR2), which occurred on 25 April 2018, is based on 22 months of observations made between 25 July 2014 and 23 May 2016. It includes positions, parallaxes and proper motions for about 1.3 billion stars and positions of an additional 300 million stars, red and blue photometric data for about 1.1 billion stars and single colour photometry for an additional 400 million stars, and median radial velocities for about 7 million stars between magnitude 4 and 13. It also contains data for over 14,000 selected Solar System objects. The first part of the third data release, EDR3 (Early Data Release 3) was released on 3 December 2020. It is based on 34 months of observations and consists of improved positions, parallaxes and proper motions of over 1.8 billion objects The full DR3, expected in Early 2022, will include the EDR3 data plus Solar System data; variability information; results for non-single stars, for quasars, and for extended objects; astrophysical parameters; and a special data set, the Gaia Andromeda Photometric Survey (GAPS). The release date of the full ''Gaia'' catalogue is to be determined.


Specialized catalogues

Specialized catalogues make no effort to list all the stars in the sky, working instead to highlight a particular type of star, such as variable star, variables or list of nearest stars, nearby stars.


ADS

Robert Grant Aitken, Aitken's double star catalogue (1932) lists 17,180 double stars north of declination −30 degrees.


Carbon stars

Stephenson's General Catalogue of galactic Carbon stars is a catalogue of 7000+ carbon stars.


Gl, GJ, Wo

The Wilhelm Gliese, Gliese (later Gliese-Hartmut Jahreiß, Jahreiß) catalogue attempts to list all star systems within of Earth ordered by right ascension (see the List of nearest stars). Later editions expanded the coverage to . Numbers in the range 1.0–915.0 (Gl numbers) are from the second edition, which was :''Catalogue of Nearby Stars'' (1969, W. Gliese). The integers up to 915 represent systems which were in the first edition. Numbers with a decimal point were used to insert new star systems for the second edition without destroying the desired order (by right ascension). This catalogue is referred to as CNS2, although this name is never used in catalogue numbers. Numbers in the range 9001–9850 (Wo numbers) are from the supplement :''Extension of the Gliese catalogue'' (1970, Richard van der Riet Woolley, R. Woolley, E. A. Epps, M. J. Penston and S. B. Pocock). Numbers in the ranges 1000–1294 and 2001–2159 (GJ numbers) are from the supplement :''Nearby Star Data Published 1969–1978'' (1979, W. Gliese and H. Jahreiß). The range 1000–1294 represents nearby stars, while 2001–2159 represents suspected nearby stars. In the literature, the GJ numbers are sometimes retroactively extended to the Gl numbers (since there is no overlap). For example, Gliese 436 can be interchangeably referred to as either Gl 436 or GJ 436. Numbers in the range 3001–4388 are from :''Preliminary Version of the Third Catalogue of Nearby Stars'' (1991, W. Gliese and H. Jahreiß). Although this version of the catalogue was termed "preliminary", it is still the current one , and is referred to as CNS3. It lists a total of 3,803 stars. Most of these stars already had GJ numbers, but there were also 1,388 which were not numbered. The need to give these 1,388 ''some'' name has resulted in them being numbered 3001–4388 (NN numbers, for "no name"), and data files of this catalogue now usually include these numbers. An example of a star which is often referred to by one of these unofficial GJ numbers is GJ 3021.


GCTP

The General Catalogue of Trigonometric Parallaxes, first published in 1952 and later superseded by the New GCTP (now in its fourth edition), covers nearly 9,000 stars. Unlike the Gliese, it does not cut off at a given distance from the Sun; rather it attempts to catalogue all known measured parallaxes. It gives the co-ordinates in 1900 epoch, the secular variation, the proper motion, the weighted average absolute parallax and its standard error, the number of parallax observations, quality of interagreement of the different values, the visual magnitude and various cross-identifications with other catalogues. Auxiliary information, including UBV photometry, MK spectral types, data on the variability and binary nature of the stars, orbits when available, and miscellaneous information to aid in determining the reliability of the data are also listed.
1952 edition and 1962 supplement.
Louise Freeland Jenkins, Louise F. Jenkins, Yale University Observatory. :William F. van Altena, John Truen-liang Lee and Ellen Dorrit Hoffleit, Yale University Observatory, 1995.


Proper motion catalogues

A common way of detecting nearby stars is to look for relatively high proper motions. Several catalogues exist, of which we'll mention a few. The Frank Elmore Ross, Ross and Maximilian Franz Joseph Cornelius Wolf, Wolf catalogues pioneered the domain: :Frank Elmore Ross, Ross, Frank Elmore, ''New Proper Motion Stars'', eight successive lists, ''The Astronomical Journal'', Vol. 36 to 48, 1925–1939 :Max Wolf, Wolf, Max, "Katalog von 1053 stärker bewegten Fixsternen", Veröff. d. Badischen Sternwarte zu Heidelberg (Königstuhl), Bd. 7, No. 10, 1919; and numerous lists in ''Astronomische Nachrichten'', 209 to 236, 1919–1929 Willem Jacob Luyten later produced a series of catalogues: L – Luyten, Proper motion stars and White dwarfs :Luyten, W. J., ''Proper Motion Survey with the forty-eight inch Schmidt Telescope'', University of Minnesota, 1941
''General Catalogue of the Bruce Proper-Motion Survey''
LFT – Luyten Five-Tenths catalogue :Luyten, W. J., ''A Catalog of 1849 Stars with Proper Motion exceeding 0.5" annually'', Lund Press, Minneapolis (Mn), 1955

LHS – Luyten Half-Second catalogue :Luyten, W. J., ''Catalogue of stars with proper motions exceeding 0"5 annually'', University of Minnesota, 1979

LTT – Luyten Two-Tenths catalogue :Luyten, W. J. ''Luyten's Two Tenths. A catalogue of 9867 stars in the Southern Hemisphere with proper motions exceeding 0".2 annually'', Minneapolis, 1957; ''A catalogue of 7127 stars in the Northern Hemisphere with proper motions exceeding 0".2 annually``, Minneapolis, 1961; also supplements 1961–1962.

http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1961POMin...3h...1

http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1962LTTS1.C......0L]) NLTT – New Luyten Two-Tenths catalogue :Luyten, W. J., ''New Luyten Catalogue of stars with proper motions larger than two tenths of an arcsecond (NLTT)'', Univ. of Minnesota, 1979, supplement 1980

http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/Cat?I/98A]) LPM – Luyten Proper-Motion catalogue : Luyten, W. J., ''Proper Motion Survey with the 48 inch Schmidt Telescope'', University of Minnesota, 1963–1981 ::LP numbers: L in zones −45 to −89 deg.; LP in zones +89 to −44 deg. Around the same time period, Henry Lee Giclas worked on a similar series of catalogues: :Giclas, H. L., et al., ''Lowell Proper Motion Survey'', ''Lowell Observatory Bulletin'', 1971–1979


Struve Double Star Catalog

Friedrich Georg Wilhelm von Struve discovered a very large number of double stars and in 1827 published his Friedrich Georg Wilhelm von Struve#Works, double star catalogue ''Catalogus novus stellarum duplicium''. For example, binary star
61 Cygni 61 Cygni is a binary star system in the constellation Cygnus (constellation), Cygnus, consisting of a pair of Stellar classification, K-type dwarf stars that orbit each other in a period of about 659 years. Of apparent magnitude 5 ...
is designated "Struve 2758" or "STF 2758". Stars of his catalogue are sometimes indicated by the Greek letter sigma, Σ. Thus, 61 Cygni is also designated as Σ2758.


uvby98

The ''ubvyβ Photoelectric Photometric Catalogue'' is a compilation of previously published photometric data. Published in 1998, the catalogue includes 63,316 stars surveyed through 1996.


ZC catalogue

The Robertson's ''Zodiacal Catalogue'', collected by the astronomer James Robertson (astronomer), James Robertson, is a catalogue of 3539 zodiacal stars brighter than 9th magnitude. It is mainly used for Occultation, Star Occultations by the Moon.


Successors to USNO-A, etc

Stars evolve and move over time, making catalogues evolving, impermanent databases at even the most rigorous levels of production. The USNO catalogues are the most current and widely used astrometric catalogues available at present, and include USNO products such as Star catalogue#USNO-B1.0, USNO-B (the successor to USNO-A), NOMAD, UCAC and others in production or narrowly released. Some users may see specialized catalogues (more recent versions of the above), tailored catalogues, interferometrically-produced catalogues, dynamic catalogues, and those with updated positions, motions, colors, and improved errors. Catalogue data is continually collected at the Naval Observatory dark-sky facility, United States Naval Observatory Flagstaff Station, NOFS; and the latest refined, updated catalogues are reduced and produced by NOFS and the United States Naval Observatory, USNO. See the United States Naval Observatory, USNO Catalog and Image Servers for more information and access.


See also

*Gaia (spacecraft), ''Gaia'' spacecraft *List of astronomical catalogues *Messier object *New General Catalogue of Nebulae and Clusters of Stars


References


Bibliography

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * *


Further reading

* *


External links


Current Public, High-Metric Accuracy Star Catalogues produced by USNO



NASA Astronomy Data Center

Centre de Données astronomiques de Strasbourg

Sloan Digital Sky Survey

IAU FAQ on "Naming Stars"
{{DEFAULTSORT:Star Catalogue Astrometry Astronomical catalogues of stars, * Astronomical catalogues, * Stellar astronomy, Catalogue