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''Star Wars'' is an American
epic Epic commonly refers to: * Epic poetry, a long narrative poem celebrating heroic deeds and events significant to a culture or nation * Epic film, a genre of film with heroic elements Epic or EPIC may also refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media ...
space opera Space opera is a subgenre Genre () is any form or type of communication in any mode (written, spoken, digital, artistic, etc.) with socially-agreed-upon conventions developed over time. In popular usage, it normally describes a Category of b ...
multimedia franchise A media franchise, also known as a multimedia franchise, is a collection of related media Media may refer to: Physical means Communication * Media (communication), tools used to deliver information or data ** Advertising media, various me ...
created by
George Lucas George Walton Lucas Jr. (born May 14, 1944) is an American film director, producer, screenwriter, and entrepreneur. Lucas is best known for creating the ''Star Wars ''Star Wars'' is an American epic film, epic space opera multimedia fr ...

George Lucas
, which began with the eponymous 1977 film and quickly became a worldwide pop-culture
phenomenon A phenomenon (; plural phenomena) is an observable In physics Physics (from grc, φυσική (ἐπιστήμη), physikḗ (epistḗmē), knowledge of nature, from ''phýsis'' 'nature'), , is the natural science that studies ma ...
. The franchise has been expanded into various films and
other media Other most often refers to: * Other (philosophy), a concept in psychology and philosophy Other or The Other may also refer to: Books * The Other (Tryon novel), ''The Other'' (Tryon novel), a 1971 horror novel by Tom Tryon * The Other (short story ...
, including
television series upright=1.35, A live television show set and cameras A television show – or simply TV show – is any content produced for viewing on a television set A Sony Wega CRT television set A television set or television receiver, more commonly c ...
,
video games#REDIRECT Video game#REDIRECT Video game A video game is an electronic game that involves interaction with a user interface or input device such as a joystick, game controller, controller, computer keyboard, keyboard, or motion sensing device ...
,
novels A novel is a relatively long work of narrative A narrative, story or tale is any account of a series of related events or experiences, whether nonfictional ( memoir, biography, news report, documentary, Travel literature, travelogue, etc.) ...
,
comic books A comic book, also called comic book, comic magazine or (in the United Kingdom and Ireland) simply comic, is a publication that consists of comics a medium Medium may refer to: Science and technology Aviation *Medium bomber, a c ...
, theme park attractions, and themed areas, comprising an all-encompassing
fictional universe A fictional universe, or fictional world, is a Consistency, self-consistent Setting (narrative), setting with events, and often other elements, that differ from the real world. It may also be called an imagined, constructed, or fictional realm ...
. In 2020, its total value was estimated at billion, and it is currently the fifth-highest-grossing media franchise of all time. The original film (''Star Wars''), retroactively subtitled ''Episode IV: A New Hope'' (1977), was followed by the sequels '' Episode V: The Empire Strikes Back'' (1980) and '' Episode VI: Return of the Jedi'' (1983), forming the original ''Star Wars'' trilogy. Lucas later returned to filmmaking to direct a
prequel trilogy The ''Star Wars'' prequel trilogy, colloquially referred to as the prequels, is a series of Epic film, epic space-opera films written and directed by George Lucas. It was produced by Lucasfilm Ltd. and distributed by 20th Century Fox. The trilo ...

prequel trilogy
, consisting of '' Episode I: The Phantom Menace'' (1999), '' Episode II: Attack of the Clones'' (2002), and '' Episode III: Revenge of the Sith'' (2005). In 2012, Lucas sold his production company to
Disney The Walt Disney Company, commonly just Disney (), is an American multinational entertainment and media conglomerate headquartered at the Walt Disney Studios (Burbank), Walt Disney Studios complex in Burbank, California. Disney was originall ...
, relinquishing his ownership of the franchise. This led to a sequel trilogy, consisting of '' Episode VII: The Force Awakens'' (2015), '' Episode VIII: The Last Jedi'' (2017), and '' Episode IX: The Rise of Skywalker'' (2019). All nine films of the "
Skywalker saga The ''Star Wars ''Star Wars'' is an American epic film, epic space opera multimedia franchise created by George Lucas, which began with the Star Wars (film), eponymous 1977 film and quickly became a worldwide popular culture, pop-culture ...
" were
nominated A candidate, or nominee, is the prospective recipient of an award or honor, or a person seeking or being considered for some kind of position; for example: * to be election, elected to an official, office — in this case a Preselection, candidate ...

nominated
for
Academy Awards The Academy Awards, popularly known as the Oscars, are awards for artistic and technical merit in the film industry The film industry or motion picture industry comprises the technological and commercial institutions of filmmaking, i.e., ...

Academy Awards
, with wins going to the first two releases. Together with the theatrical live action "anthology" films ''
Rogue One ''Rogue One: A Star Wars Story'' (or simply ''Rogue One'') is a 2016 American epic film, epic space opera film directed by Gareth Edwards (director), Gareth Edwards. The screenplay by Chris Weitz and Tony Gilroy is from a story by John Knoll an ...
'' (2016) and ''
Solo Solo or SOLO may refer to: Arts and entertainment Comics * ''Solo'' (DC Comics), a DC comics series * Solo, a 1996 mini-series from Dark Horse Comics Dark Horse Comics is an American comic book and manga publisher. It was founded in 1986 by Mike ...
'' (2018), the combined box office revenue of the films equated to over  billion, which makes it the second-highest-grossing film franchise of all time. An additional film, ''Rogue Squadron'', is planned for release. A number of other films, including an independent trilogy, are suggested to be in development.


Premise

The ''Star Wars'' franchise depicts the adventures of characters "A long time ago in a galaxy far, far away", in which
human Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most abundant and widespread species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodiversity. A speci ...

human
s and many species of aliens (often
humanoid A humanoid (; from English ''human'' and ''-oid In linguistics, a suffix (sometimes termed postfix ) is an affix which is placed after the Stem (linguistics), stem of a word. Common examples are case endings, which indicate the grammatical ...

humanoid
) co-exist with
robot A robot is a machine—especially one Computer program, programmable by a computer—capable of carrying out a complex series of actions automatically. A robot can be guided by an external control device, or the robot control, control may be ...

robot
s, or ' droids', who may assist them in their daily routines; space travel between planets is common due to
lightspeed The speed of light in vacuum A vacuum is space devoid of matter In classical physics and general chemistry, matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by having volume. All everyday objects that can be touched are ult ...
hyperspace Hyperspace is a concept from science fiction File:Imagination 195808.jpg, Space exploration, as predicted in August 1958 in the science fiction magazine ''Imagination (magazine), Imagination.'' Science fiction (sometimes shortened to sci-fi or ...

hyperspace
technology. Spacecraft range from small starfighters, to huge capital ships such as the
Star DestroyerStar Destroyers are capital ships in the fictional ''Star Wars ''Star Wars'' is an American epic space opera media franchise created by George Lucas, which began with the eponymous 1977 film and quickly became a worldwide pop-culture phe ...
s, to
space station A space station, also known as an orbital station or an orbital space station, is a spacecraft File:Space Shuttle Columbia launching.jpg, 275px, The US Space Shuttle flew 135 times from 1981 to 2011, supporting Spacelab, ''Mir'', the Hubble S ...

space station
s such as the moon-sized
Death Star The Death Star is a fictional mobile space station and galactic Weapon of mass destruction, superweapon featured in the ''Star Wars'' Space opera, space-opera franchise. The first version, which appears in the original 1977 film Star Wars (film) ...
s.
Telecommunication Telecommunication is the transmission of information by various types of technologies over wire A wire is a single usually cylindrical A cylinder (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Gr ...
includes two-way audio and
audiovisual Audiovisual (AV) is electronic media Electronic media are media Media may refer to: Physical means Communication * Media (communication), tools used to deliver information or data ** Advertising media, various media, content, buy ...

audiovisual
screens, and
holographic Holography is the science and practice of making holograms. A hologram, also known as a holograph, (from the Greek for "whole description" or "whole picture") is a recording of an interference pattern which uses diffraction to reproduce a 3 ...

holographic
projections. A mystical power known as
the Force The Force is a metaphysical Metaphysics is the branch of philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about reason, Metaphysics, existence, Epistemology, knowledge, Ethics, values, ...

the Force
is described in the original film as "an energy field created by all living things ...
hat A collection of 18th and 19th century men's beaver felt hats A hat is a head covering which is worn for various reasons, including protection against weather conditions, ceremonial reasons such as university graduation, religious reasons, safet ...

hat
binds the galaxy together". Through training and meditation, those whom "the Force is strong with" are able to perform various
superpowers A superpower is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper in Co ...
(such as
telekinesis Psychokinesis (from Ancient Greek, Greek ψυχή "soul" and κίνησις "movement"), or telekinesis (from τηλε- "far off" and κίνησις "movement"), is a claimed psychic ability allowing a person to influence a physical system wit ...
,
precognition Precognition (from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of t ...
,
telepathy Telepathy (from the Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is ap ...
, and manipulation of physical energy). The Force is wielded by two major knightly orders at conflict with each other: the
Jedi The Jedi (), Jedi Knights, or the Knights of the Jedi Order are the main protagonists of many works of the ''Star Wars ''Star Wars'' is an American epic film, epic space opera multimedia franchise created by George Lucas, which began with ...

Jedi
, peacekeepers of the
Galactic Republic The Galactic Republic, often referred to as simply the Republic, is an interstellar state depicted in the fictional ''Star Wars'' universe, where it existed prior to the establishment of the Galactic Empire. The Republic is most prominently ...

Galactic Republic
who act on the light side of the Force through
non-attachment Detachment, also expressed as non-attachment, is a state in which a person overcomes their attachment to desire for things, people or concepts of the world and thus attains a heightened perspective. It is considered a wise virtue Virtue ...
and
arbitration upright=1.5, The London Court of International Arbitration Arbitration, a form of alternative dispute resolution Alternative dispute resolution (ADR), or external dispute resolution (EDR), typically denotes a wide range of dispute resolu ...
, and the
Sith The Sith are the main antagonists of many works in the fictional universe of the ''Star Wars ''Star Wars'' is an American epic film, epic space opera multimedia franchise created by George Lucas, which began with the Star Wars (film), epo ...
, who use the dark side by manipulating fear and aggression. While Jedi Knights can be numerous, the Dark Lords of the Sith (or 'Darths') are intended to be limited to two: a master and their apprentice. Force-wielders are very limited in numbers in comparison to the population. The Jedi and Sith prefer the use of a weapon called a
lightsaber A lightsaber (also referred to as a laser sword or a ren) is a fictional energy sword featured throughout the ''Star Wars ''Star Wars'' is an American epic film, epic space opera multimedia franchise created by George Lucas, which began w ...
, a blade of energy that can cut through virtually any surface and deflect energy bolts. The rest of the population, as well as renegades and soldiers, use laser-powered blaster
firearm A firearm is any type of gun A gun is a ranged weapon designed to use a shooting tube ( gun barrel) to launch typically solid projectiles, but can also project pressurized liquid (e.g. water guns/ cannons, spray guns for painting ...
s. In the outer reaches of the galaxy, crime syndicates such as the Hutt cartel are dominant.
Bounty hunter A bounty hunter is a professional person who captures fugitives or criminals for a commission or bounty (reward), bounty. The occupation, officially known as bail agency enforcer, bail enforcement agent, bail agent, recovery agent, bail recover ...
s are often employed by both
gangsters A gangster is a crime, criminal who is a member of a gang. Most gangs are considered to be part of organized crime. Gangsters are also called mobsters, a term derived from ''Criminal organization, mob'' and the suffix ''wikt:-ster, -ster''. Gan ...
and governments. Illicit activities include
smuggling Smuggling is the illegal transportation of objects, substances, information or people, such as out of a house or buildings, into a prison A prison, also known as a jail or gaol (dated, English language in England, standard English, Austr ...
and
slavery Slavery and enslavement are both the state and the condition of being a slave, who is someone forbidden to quit their service for an enslaver, and who is treated by the enslaver as their property Property is a system of rights that give ...
.


Film

The ''Star Wars'' film series centers around three sets of trilogies, the nine films of which are collectively referred to as the "
Skywalker saga The ''Star Wars ''Star Wars'' is an American epic film, epic space opera multimedia franchise created by George Lucas, which began with the Star Wars (film), eponymous 1977 film and quickly became a worldwide popular culture, pop-culture ...
". They were produced non-chronologically, with ''Episode''s ''IV''–''VI'' (the original trilogy) being released between 1977 and 1983, ''Episode''s ''I''–''III'' (the prequel trilogy) being released between 1999 and 2005, and ''Episode''s ''VII''–''IX'' (the sequel trilogy), being released between 2015 and 2019. Each trilogy focuses on a generation of the Force-sensitive
Skywalker family The Skywalker family is a fictional legendary family in the ''Star Wars ''Star Wars'' is an American epic space opera media franchise created by George Lucas, which began with the eponymous 1977 film and quickly became a worldwide pop-c ...
. The original trilogy depicts the heroic development of
Luke Skywalker Luke Skywalker is a fictional Character (arts), character and the main protagonist of the Star Wars Trilogy, original film trilogy of the ''Star Wars'' franchise created by George Lucas. Portrayed by Mark Hamill, Luke first appeared in ''Star Wa ...
, the prequels tell the backstory of his father
Anakin
Anakin
, while the sequels feature Luke's nephew,
Ben Solo Kylo Ren is a fictional character and a major antagonist in the ''Star Wars ''Star Wars'' is an American epic space opera media franchise created by George Lucas, which began with the eponymous 1977 film and quickly became a worldwide ...
. An anthology series set between the main episodes entered development in parallel to the production of the sequel trilogy, described by
Disney The Walt Disney Company, commonly just Disney (), is an American multinational entertainment and media conglomerate headquartered at the Walt Disney Studios (Burbank), Walt Disney Studios complex in Burbank, California. Disney was originall ...

Disney
chief financial officer
Jay Rasulo James A. "Jay" Rasulo was the Senior Executive VP and CFO The chief financial officer (CFO) is the officer An officer is a person who has a position of authority In the fields of sociology Sociology is the study of society, human socia ...
as origin stories. The first entry, ''
Rogue One ''Rogue One: A Star Wars Story'' (or simply ''Rogue One'') is a 2016 American epic film, epic space opera film directed by Gareth Edwards (director), Gareth Edwards. The screenplay by Chris Weitz and Tony Gilroy is from a story by John Knoll an ...
'' (2016), tells the story of the rebels who steal the Death Star plans just before ''Episode IV''. ''
Solo Solo or SOLO may refer to: Arts and entertainment Comics * ''Solo'' (DC Comics), a DC comics series * Solo, a 1996 mini-series from Dark Horse Comics Dark Horse Comics is an American comic book and manga publisher. It was founded in 1986 by Mike ...
'' (2018) focuses on
Han Solo Han Solo is a fictional character in the ''Star Wars ''Star Wars'' is an American epic Epic commonly refers to: * Epic poetry, a long narrative poem celebrating heroic deeds and events significant to a culture or nation * Epic film, a ge ...
's backstory, also featuring original trilogy co-protagonists
Chewbacca Chewbacca (), nicknamed "Chewie", is a fictional character in the ''Star Wars'' franchise. He is a wookiee, a tall, hirsute, bipedal, intelligent species originating from the fictional planet of Kashyyyk. Chewbacca is the loyal friend and first ...
and
Lando Calrissian Baron Landonis Balthazar "Lando" Calrissian III is a fictional character in the ''Star Wars ''Star Wars'' is an American epic space opera media franchise created by George Lucas, which began with the eponymous 1977 film and quickly beca ...
and involving prequel trilogy villain
Darth Maul Maul, known as Darth Maul during his time as a Sith, is a fictional character and a major antagonist in the Star Wars, ''Star Wars'' franchise. He was originally introduced in the 1999 film ''Star Wars: Episode I – The Phantom Menace'' (played ...
.
Lucasfilm Lucasfilm Ltd. LLC is an American film and television production company A production company, production house, production studio, or a production team is a business that provides the physical basis for works in the fields of performing arts, ...
has a number of ''Star Wars'' films in development, two of which were confirmed during Disney Investor Day 2020. The first will be a film titled ''Rogue Squadron'', which is being directed by
Patty Jenkins Patricia Lea Jenkins (born July 24, 1971) is an American film director, producer, and screenwriter. She has directed the feature films ''Monster (2003 film), Monster'' (2003), ''Wonder Woman (2017 film), Wonder Woman'' (2017), and ''Wonder Woman ...
. The second is an unspecified film from
Taika Waititi Taika David Cohen (born 16 August 1975), known professionally as Taika Waititi , is a New Zealand filmmaker, actor, and comedian. He is a recipient of an Academy Award The Academy Awards, popularly known as the Oscars, are awards for ar ...
, who in May 2020 was announced to be directing a ''Star Wars'' film he was co-writing with
Krysty Wilson-Cairns Krysty Wilson-Cairns (born 26 May 1987) is a Scottish screenwriter. Born and raised in Glasgow, she studied at the Royal Conservatoire of Scotland, and the National Film and Television School. During her teenage years, she was a runner on televi ...
. Additionally, a trilogy independent from the Skywalker saga is being written by ''
The Last Jedi ''Star Wars: The Last Jedi'' (also known as ''Star Wars: Episode VIII – The Last Jedi'') is a 2017 American epic space opera Space opera is a subgenre of science fiction File:Imagination 195808.jpg, Space exploration, as predicted i ...
'' writer/director
Rian Johnson Rian Craig Johnson (born December 17, 1973) is an American filmmaker. He made his directorial debut with the neo-noir mystery film ''Brick A brick is a type of block used to build walls, pavements and other elements in masonry construct ...
. In September 2019, it was announced that Kathleen Kennedy and
Kevin Feige Kevin Feige ( ; born June 2, 1973) is an American film and television producer who has been the president of Marvel Studios Marvel Studios, LLC (originally known as Marvel Films from 1993 to 1996) is an American film and television studio t ...

Kevin Feige
would collaborate to develop a ''Star Wars'' film. In February 2020, a film was announced to be in development from director J. D. Dillard and writer Matt Owens.


The Skywalker saga


Original trilogy

In 1971,
George Lucas George Walton Lucas Jr. (born May 14, 1944) is an American film director, producer, screenwriter, and entrepreneur. Lucas is best known for creating the ''Star Wars ''Star Wars'' is an American epic film, epic space opera multimedia fr ...

George Lucas
wanted to film an adaptation of the
''Flash Gordon'' serial
''Flash Gordon'' serial
, but could not obtain the rights, so he began developing his own
space opera Space opera is a subgenre Genre () is any form or type of communication in any mode (written, spoken, digital, artistic, etc.) with socially-agreed-upon conventions developed over time. In popular usage, it normally describes a Category of b ...
. After directing ''
American Graffiti ''American Graffiti'' is a 1973 American coming-of-age Coming of age is a young person's transition from being a child to being an adult. It continues through adolescence. The specific age at which this transition takes place varies bet ...
'' (1973), he wrote a two-page synopsis, which
20th Century Fox 20th Century Studios, Inc. (also known as 20th Century for short, and nicknamed 20th Pictures, formerly Twentieth Century Fox Film Corporation) is an American film studio A film studio (also known as movie studio or simply studio) is a maj ...
decided to invest in. By 1974, he had expanded the story into the first draft of a screenplay. The 1977 movie's success led Lucas to make it the basis of an elaborate
film serial A serial film, film serial (or just serial), movie serial, or chapter play, is a motion picture A film, also called a movie, motion picture or moving picture, is a work of visual art used to simulate experiences that communicate ideas ...
. With the backstory he created for the sequel, Lucas decided that the series would be a trilogy of trilogies.Steranko, "George Lucas", ''Prevue'' #42, September–October 1980. Most of the main cast would return for the two additional installments of the original trilogy, which were self-financed by Lucasfilm. ''Star Wars'' was released on May 25, 1977, and first subtitled ''Episode IV: A New Hope'' in the 1979 book ''
The Art of Star Wars ''The Art of Star Wars'' is a series of books A book series is a sequence of books having certain characteristics in common that are formally identified together as a group. Book series can be organized in different ways, such as written by the ...
''. ''Episode V: The Empire Strikes Back'' was released on May 21, 1980, also achieving wide financial and critical success. The final film in the trilogy, ''Episode VI: Return of the Jedi'' was released on May 25, 1983. The story of the original trilogy focuses on Luke Skywalker's quest to become a Jedi, his struggle with the evil Imperial agent
Darth Vader Darth Vader is a fictional character in the ''Star Wars'' franchise. The character is the primary antagonist in the Star Wars Trilogy, original trilogy and, as Anakin Skywalker, is a primary protagonist in the Star Wars prequel trilogy, preque ...
, and the struggle of the Rebel Alliance to free the galaxy from the clutches of the Galactic Empire.


Prequel trilogy

According to producer Gary Kurtz, loose plans for a prequel trilogy were developed during the outlining of the original two films. In 1980, Lucas confirmed that he had the nine-film series plotted, but due to the stress of producing the original trilogy, he had decided to cancel further sequels by 1981. In 1983, Lucas explained that "There was never a script completed that had the entire story as it exists now ... As the stories unfolded, I would take certain ideas and save them ... I kept taking out all the good parts, and I just kept telling myself I would make other movies someday." Technical advances in the late 1980s and early 1990s, including the ability to create computer-generated imagery (CGI), inspired Lucas to consider that it might be possible to revisit his saga. In 1989, Lucas stated that the prequels would be "unbelievably expensive." In 1992, he acknowledged that he had plans to create the prequel trilogy. A theatrical rerelease of the original trilogy in 1997 " updated" the 20-year-old films with the style of CGI envisioned for the new trilogy. ''Episode I: The Phantom Menace'' was released on May 19, 1999, and ''Episode II: Attack of the Clones'' on May 16, 2002. ''Episode III: Revenge of the Sith'', the first film in the franchise, was released on May 19, 2005. The first two movies were met with mixed reviews, with the third being received somewhat more positively. The trilogy begins 32 years before ''Episode IV'' and follows the Jedi training of Anakin Skywalker, Luke's father, and his eventual fall from grace and transformation into the Sith lord Darth Vader, as well as the corruption of the Galactic Republic and rise of the Empire led by Darth Sidious. Together with the original trilogy, Lucas has collectively referred to the first six episodic films of the franchise as "the tragedy of Darth Vader".


Sequel trilogy

Prior to releasing the original film, and made possible by its success, Lucas planned "three trilogies of nine films." He announced this to ''
Time Time is the continued sequence of existence and event (philosophy), events that occurs in an apparently irreversible process, irreversible succession from the past, through the present, into the future. It is a component quantity of various me ...
'' in 1978, and confirmed that he had outlined them in 1981. Kerry O'Quinn. "The George Lucas Saga Chapter 3: 'The Revenge of the Box Office. ''Starlog'' #50, September 1981. At various stages of development, the sequel trilogy was to focus on the rebuilding of the Republic, the return of Luke in a role similar to that of Obi-Wan in the original trilogy, Luke's sister (not yet determined to be Leia), Han, Leia, and . However, after beginning work on the prequel trilogy, Lucas insisted that ''Star Wars'' was meant to be a six-part series and that there would be no sequel trilogy. Lucas decided to leave the franchise in the hands of other filmmakers, announcing in January 2012 that he would make no more ''Star Wars'' films. In October of that year, the Walt Disney Company agreed to buy Lucasfilm and announced that ''Episode VII'' would be released in 2015. The co-chairman of Lucasfilm, Kathleen Kennedy, became president of the company and served as executive producer of new ''Star Wars'' feature films. Lucas provided Kennedy his story treatments for the sequels during the 2012 sale, but in 2015 it was revealed Lucas's sequel outline had been discarded. The sequel trilogy also meant the end of the existing ''Star Wars'' Expanded Universe, which was discarded from canon to give "maximum creative freedom to the filmmakers and also preserve an element of surprise and discovery for the audience." '' Episode VII: The Force Awakens'' was released on December 16, 2015, '' Episode VIII: The Last Jedi'' on December 13, 2017, and '' Episode IX: The Rise of Skywalker'' on December 18, 2019, in many countries. ''The Force Awakens'' and ''The Last Jedi'' were both critical and box office successes. ''Episode IX'' received a mixed reception from critics and audiences. The sequel trilogy starts 30 years after ''Episode VI'' and focuses on the journey of the Force-sensitive orphan Rey (Star Wars), Rey, guided by Luke Skywalker. Along with ex-stormtrooper Finn (Star Wars), Finn and ace X-Wing pilot Poe Dameron, Rey helps the Resistance (Star Wars), Resistance, led by Leia, fight the First Order (Star Wars), First Order, commanded by Han and Leia's son (and Luke's nephew), Kylo Ren.


Anthology films

Lucasfilm and Kennedy have stated that the standalone films would be referred to as the ''Star Wars'' anthology series (though the word ''anthology'' has not been used in any of the titles, instead carrying the promotional ''"A Star Wars Story"'' subtitle). Focused on how the Rebels obtained the Death Star plans introduced in the 1977 film, the first anthology film, ''Rogue One, Rogue One: A Star Wars Story'', was released on December 16, 2016, to favorable reviews and box office success. The second, ''Solo: A Star Wars Story'', centered on a young Han Solo with Chewbacca and Lando as supporting characters, was released on May 25, 2018, to generally favorable reviews and underperformance at the box office. Despite this, more anthology films are expected to be released, following a hiatus after 2019's ''The Rise of Skywalker''.


Television

The ''Star Wars'' franchise has been spun off to various television productions, including two animated series released in the mid-1980s. Further animated series began to be released in the 2000s, the first two of which focused on the Clone Wars (Star Wars), Clone Wars. After Disney's acquisition of Lucasfilm, only the later one remained canon. Eight live-action ''Star Wars'' series will be released on Disney+. The first, ''The Mandalorian'', premiered on November 12, 2019. Star Wars won the 2020 Webby Award for Television & Film in the category Social. Disney+ later released the ''Ewoks'' movies and animated series, along the animated first appearance of Boba Fett, and the Clone Wars animated micro-series in a section called ''Star Wars Vintage'', that section will also include the ''Droids'' animated series in the future. Certain aspects of the original ''Clone Wars'' micro-series are considered to not contradict the canon, while others do. A live-action spinoff of The Mandalorian, titled ''The Book of Boba Fett'', was announced in December 2020 and is set to be released on December 29, 2021.


Series

Many ''Star Wars'' series have been produced, both animated and live-action. The first being ''Star Wars: Droids'' in 1985, and the next being ''The Book of Boba Fett'', which will air until February 2022. ''The Mandalorian'', the first live-action series to take place in the ''Star Wars'' universe, has spawned multiple spinoffs and inspired other live-action series to be created. Confirmed upcoming series include ''Star Wars: Andor, Andor'', ''Star Wars: Ahsoka#Ahsoka, Ahsoka'', ''Obi-Wan Kenobi (TV series), Obi-Wan Kenobi'', ''Star Wars: The Acolyte, The Acolyte'', and ''Lando Calrissian#Television series, Lando''.


Films


Television specials


Fictional timeline

The ''Star Wars'' canon
fictional universe A fictional universe, or fictional world, is a Consistency, self-consistent Setting (narrative), setting with events, and often other elements, that differ from the real world. It may also be called an imagined, constructed, or fictional realm ...
spans multiple eras, of which three are focused around each of the film trilogies. The following eras were defined in January 2021: * The High Republic: The era of the "Galactic Republic, High Republic", set 200 years before the prequel trilogy. It includes the media released in ''Star Wars: The High Republic, The High Republic'' and the upcoming ''The Acolyte (TV series), The Acolyte''. * Fall of the Jedi: The era of the prequel trilogy, in which the democratic Galactic Republic is corrupted by its ruler, Palpatine—secretly the Sith lord Darth Sidious. After orchestrating the Clone Wars (Star Wars), Clone Wars between the Republic and a Separatist confederation, Palpatine exterminates the Jedi Order, Coup d'état, overthrows the Republic, and establishes the totalitarian Galactic Empire (Star Wars), Galactic Empire. It includes the prequel trilogy films and the animated ''Star Wars: The Clone Wars (2008 TV series), The Clone Wars''. * Reign of the Empire: The era after the prequel trilogy, exploring the reign of the Empire. It includes the animated ''Star Wars: The Bad Batch, The Bad Batch'' and ''Solo: A Star Wars Story''. * Age of Rebellion: The era of the original trilogy, in which the Empire is fought by the Rebel Alliance in a Galactic Civil War that spans several years, climaxing with the death of the emperor and fall of the Empire. It includes the animated ''Star Wars Rebels'', ''
Rogue One ''Rogue One: A Star Wars Story'' (or simply ''Rogue One'') is a 2016 American epic film, epic space opera film directed by Gareth Edwards (director), Gareth Edwards. The screenplay by Chris Weitz and Tony Gilroy is from a story by John Knoll an ...
'', and the original trilogy films. * The New Republic: The era after the original trilogy, set during the formative years of the New Republic (Star Wars), New Republic following the fall of the Empire. It includes ''The Mandalorian'' and its spin-off series, ''The Book of Boba Fett'', and ''Ahsoka (TV series), Ahsoka''. * Rise of the First Order: The era of the sequel trilogy, in which the remnants of the Empire have reformed as the First Order (Star Wars), First Order. Heroes of the former Rebellion, aided by the New Republic, lead the Resistance (Star Wars), Resistance against the oppressive regime and its rulers—the mysterious being known as Supreme Leader Snoke, Snoke and the revived Palpatine. It includes the animated ''Star Wars Resistance'' and the sequel trilogy films. The Star Wars expanded to other media, Expanded Universe of spin-off media depicts different levels of continuity, which were deemed non-canonical and rebranded as ''Legends'' on April 25, 2014, to make most subsequent works align to the episodic films, Star Wars: The Clone Wars (film), ''The Clone Wars'' film, and Star Wars: The Clone Wars (2008 TV series), television series.


Other media

From 1976 to 2014, the term ''Expanded Universe'' (EU) was an umbrella term for all officially licensed ''Star Wars'' storytelling material set outside the events depicted within the theatrical films, including novels, comics, and video games. Lucasfilm maintained internal continuity between the films and television content and the EU material until April 25, 2014, when the company announced all of the EU works would cease production. Existing works would no longer be considered canon to the franchise and subsequent reprints would be rebranded under the ''Star Wars Legends'' label, with downloadable content for the massively multiplayer online game ''Star Wars: The Old Republic, The Old Republic'' the only ''Legends'' material to still be produced. The ''Star Wars'' canon was subsequently restructured to only include the existing six feature films, the animated film ''Star Wars: The Clone Wars (film), The Clone Wars'' (2008), and its companion animated series. All future projects and creative developments across all types of media would be overseen and coordinated by the story group, announced as a division of Lucasfilm created to maintain continuity and a cohesive vision on the storytelling of the franchise. Multiple comics series from Marvel Comics, Marvel and novels published by Del Rey Books, Del Rey were produced after the announcement.


Print media

''Star Wars'' in print predates the release of the first film, with the November 1976 novelization of ''Star Wars'', initially subtitled "''Star Wars: From the Adventures of Luke Skywalker, From the Adventures of Luke Skywalker''". Credited to Lucas, it was Ghostwriter, ghostwritten by Alan Dean Foster. The first "Expanded Universe" story appeared in Marvel Comics' ''Star Wars'' #7 in January 1978 (the first six issues being an adaptation of the film), followed by Foster's sequel novel ''Splinter of the Mind's Eye'' the following month.


Novels

After penning the novelization of the original film, Foster followed it with the sequel ''Splinter of the Mind's Eye'' (1978). The novelizations of ''The Empire Strikes Back'' (1980) by Donald F. Glut and ''Return of the Jedi'' (1983) by James Kahn followed, as well as ''The Han Solo Adventures'' trilogy (1979–1980) by Brian Daley, and ''The Adventures of Lando Calrissian'' trilogy (1983) by L. Neil Smith. Timothy Zahn's bestselling ''Thrawn trilogy, Thrawn'' trilogy (1991–1993) reignited interest in the franchise and introduced the popular characters Grand Admiral Thrawn, Mara Jade, Talon Karrde, and Gilad Pellaeon. The first novel, ''Heir to the Empire'', reached #1 on the The New York Times Best Seller list, ''New York Times'' Best Seller list, and the series finds Luke, Leia, and Han facing off against tactical genius Thrawn, who is plotting to retake the galaxy for the Empire. In ''The Courtship of Princess Leia'' (1994) by Dave Wolverton, set immediately before the ''Thrawn'' trilogy, Leia considers an advantageous political marriage to Prince Isolder of the planet Hapes, but she and Han ultimately marry. Steve Perry (author), Steve Perry's ''Star Wars: Shadows of the Empire#Novel, Shadows of the Empire'' (1996), set between ''The Empire Strikes Back'' and ''Return of the Jedi'', was part of a multimedia campaign that included a comic book series and video game. The novel introduced the crime lord Prince Xizor, another popular character who would appear in multiple other works. Other notable series from Bantam Books, Bantam include the Jedi Academy trilogy, ''Jedi Academy'' trilogy (1994) by Kevin J. Anderson, the 14-book ''Young Jedi Knights'' series (1995–1998) by Anderson and Rebecca Moesta, and the ''Star Wars: X-wing (book series), X-wing'' series (1996–2012) by Michael Stackpole, Michael A. Stackpole and Aaron Allston. Del Rey took over ''Star Wars'' book publishing in 1999, releasing what would become a 19-installment novel series called ''The New Jedi Order'' (1999–2003). Written by multiple authors, the series was set 25 to 30 years after the original films and introduced the Yuuzhan Vong, a powerful alien race attempting to invade and conquer the entire galaxy. The bestselling multi-author series ''Legacy of the Force'' (2006–2008) chronicles the crossover of Han and Leia's son Jacen Solo to the dark side of the Force; among his evil deeds, he kills Luke's wife Mara Jade as a sacrifice to join the
Sith The Sith are the main antagonists of many works in the fictional universe of the ''Star Wars ''Star Wars'' is an American epic film, epic space opera multimedia franchise created by George Lucas, which began with the Star Wars (film), epo ...
. Although no longer canon, the story is paralleled in ''The Force Awakens'' with Han and Leia's son
Ben Solo Kylo Ren is a fictional character and a major antagonist in the ''Star Wars ''Star Wars'' is an American epic space opera media franchise created by George Lucas, which began with the eponymous 1977 film and quickly became a worldwide ...
, who has become the dark Kylo Ren. Three series set in the prequel era were introduced for younger audiences: the 18-book ''Star Wars: Jedi Apprentice, Jedi Apprentice'' (1999–2002) chronicles the adventures of Obi-Wan Kenobi and his master Qui-Gon Jinn in the years before ''The Phantom Menace''; the 11-book ''Jedi Quest'' (2001–2004) follows Obi-Wan and his own apprentice, Darth Vader, Anakin Skywalker in between ''The Phantom Menace'' and ''Attack of the Clones''; and the 10-book ''Star Wars: The Last of the Jedi, The Last of the Jedi'' (2005–2008), set almost immediately after ''Revenge of the Sith'', features Obi-Wan and the last few surviving Jedi. In 2019, a new prequel era story, featuring Qui-Gon and young Obi-Wan, was published under the title ''Claudia Gray#Publications, Star Wars: Master and Apprentice''. Although Thrawn had been designated a ''Legends'' character in 2014, he was reintroduced into the canon in the 2016 third season of ''Rebels'', with Zahn returning to write more novels based in the character, and set in the new canon.


Comics

Marvel Comics published a Star Wars (1977 comic book), ''Star Wars'' comic book series from 1977 to 1986. Original ''Star Wars'' comics were serialized in the Marvel magazine ''Pizzazz (magazine), Pizzazz'' between 1977 and 1979. The 1977 installments were the first original ''Star Wars'' stories not directly adapted from the films to appear in print form, as they preceded those of the ''Star Wars'' comic series. From 1985 to 1987, the animated children's series ''Star Wars: Ewoks, Ewoks'' and ''Star Wars: Droids, Droids'' inspired comic series from Marvel's Star Comics line. According to Marvel comics former Editor-In-Chief Jim Shooter, the strong sales of ''Star Wars'' comics saved Marvel financially in 1977 and 1978. Marvel's ''Star Wars'' series was one of the industry's top selling titles in 1979 and 1980. The only downside for Marvel was that the 100,000 copy sales quota was surpassed quickly, allowing Lippincott to renegotiate the royalty arrangements from a position of strength. In the late 1980s, Marvel dropped a new ''Star Wars'' comic it had in development, which was picked up by Dark Horse Comics and published as the popular ''Dark Empire'' series (1991–1995). Dark Horse subsequently launched dozens of series set after the original film trilogy, including ''Tales of the Jedi'' (1993–1998), ''Star Wars: X-wing Rogue Squadron (comics), X-wing Rogue Squadron'' (1995–1998), ''Star Wars: Republic'' (1998–2006), ''Star Wars Tales'' (1999–2005), ''Star Wars: Empire'' (2002–2006), and ''Star Wars: Knights of the Old Republic (comics), Knights of the Old Republic'' (2006–2010). After Disney's acquisition of Lucasfilm, it was announced in January 2014 that in 2015 the ''Star Wars'' comics license would return to Marvel Comics, whose parent company, Marvel Entertainment, Disney had purchased in 2009. Launched in 2015, the first three publications were titled ''Star Wars (2015 comic book), Star Wars'', ''Star Wars: Darth Vader, Darth Vader'', and the limited series ''Star Wars: Princess Leia, Princess Leia''. First announced as ''Project Luminous'' at Star Wars Celebration in April 2019, full details of a publishing initiative called ''Star Wars: The High Republic'' were revealed in a press conference in February 2020. Involving the majority of the current officially licensed publishers, a new era set 200 years before the Skywalker Saga will be explored in various books and comics. These include ongoing titles by Marvel and IDW Publishing, written by Cavan Scott and Daniel José Older respectively, that will both premiere in August 2020.


Audio


Soundtracks and singles

John Williams composed the soundtracks for the nine episodic films; he has stated that he will retire from the franchise with ''The Rise of Skywalker''. He also composed Han Solo's theme for ''Solo: A Star Wars Story''; John Powell (film composer), John Powell adapted and composed the rest of the score. Michael Giacchino composed the score of ''Rogue One''. Ludwig Göransson scored and composed the music of ''The Mandalorian''. Williams also created the main theme for ''Star Wars: Galaxy's Edge, Galaxy's Edge''.


Audio novels

The first ''Star Wars'' audio work is ''The Story of Star Wars'', an LP record, LP using audio samples from the original film and a new narration to retell the story, released in 1977. Most later printed novels were adapted into audio novels, usually released on cassette tape and re-released on Compact disc, CD. As of 2019, audio-only novels have been released not directly based on printed media.


Radio

Radio adaptations of the films were also produced. Lucas, a fan of the NPR-affiliated campus radio station of his alma mater the University of Southern California, licensed the ''Star Wars'' radio rights to KUSC-FM for . The production used John Williams's original film score, along with Ben Burtt's sound effects. The first was written by science-fiction author Brian Daley and directed by John Madden (director), John Madden. It was broadcast on NPR, National Public Radio in 1981, adapting Star Wars (radio), the original 1977 film into 13 episodes. Mark Hamill and Anthony Daniels reprised their film roles. The overwhelming success, led to a 10-episode adaptation of ''The Empire Strikes Back'' debuted in 1983. Billy Dee Williams joined the other two stars, reprising his role as Lando Calrissian. In 1983, Buena Vista Records released an original, 30-minute ''Star Wars'' audio drama titled ''Rebel Mission to Ord Mantell'', written by Daley. In the 1990s, Time Warner, Time Warner Audio Publishing adapted several ''Star Wars'' series from Dark Horse Comics into audio dramas: the three-part ''Dark Empire'' saga, ''Tales of the Jedi'', ''Tales of the Jedi: Dark Lords of the Sith, Dark Lords of the Sith'', the ''Dark Forces (comic), Dark Forces'' trilogy, and ''Crimson Empire'' (1998). ''Return of the Jedi'' was adapted into 6-episodes in 1996, featuring Daniels.


Video games

The ''Star Wars'' franchise has spawned over one hundred computer, video, and board games, dating back to some of the earliest home consoles. Some are based directly on the movie material, while others rely heavily on the non-canonical Expanded Universe (rebranded as ''Star Wars Legends'' and removed from the canon in 2014). ''Star Wars'' games have gone through three significant development eras, marked by a change in leadership among the developers: the early licensed games, those developed after the creation of LucasArts, and those created after the closure of the Lucasfilm division by Disney and the transfer of the license to Electronic Arts.


Early licensed games (1979–1993)

The first officially licensed electronic ''Star Wars'' game was Kenner Products, Kenner's 1979 table-top ''Star Wars Electronic Battle Command''. In 1982, Parker Brothers published the first ''Star Wars'' video game for the Atari 2600, ''Star Wars: The Empire Strikes Back (1982 video game), Star Wars: The Empire Strikes Back'', followed soon the year later by ''Star Wars: Jedi Arena'', the first video game to depict lightsaber combat. They were followed in 1983 by Atari's rail shooter arcade game ''Star Wars (1983 video game), Star Wars'', with vector graphics to replicate the Death Star trench run scene from the 1977 film. The next game, ''Star Wars: Return of the Jedi (1984 video game), Star Wars: Return of the Jedi'' (1984), has more traditional raster graphics, while the following ''Star Wars: The Empire Strikes Back (1985 video game), Star Wars: The Empire Strikes Back'' (1985) has vector graphics. Platform games were made for the Nintendo Entertainment System, including the Japan-exclusive ''Star Wars (1987 video game), Star Wars'' (1987), an international ''Star Wars (1991 video game), Star Wars'' (1991), and ''Star Wars: The Empire Strikes Back (1992 video game), Star Wars: The Empire Strikes Back'' (1992). ''Super Star Wars'' (1992) was released for the Super Nintendo Entertainment System, with two sequels over the next two years.


LucasArts and modern self-published games (1993–2014)

Lucasfilm founded its own video game company in 1982, becoming best known for adventure games and World War II flight combat games, but as George Lucas took more interest in the increasing success of the video game market, he wanted to have more creative control over the games and founded his own development company, LucasArts. Improved graphics allowed games to tell complex narratives, which allowed for the retelling of the films, and eventually original narratives set in the same continuity, with voice-overs and CGI cutscenes. In 1993, LucasArts released ''Star Wars: X-Wing'', the first self-published ''Star Wars'' video game and the first space simulator, space flight simulator based on the franchise. It was one of the best-selling video games of 1993 and established its own Star Wars: X-Wing (video game series), series of games. The Star Wars: Rogue Squadron (series), ''Rogue Squadron'' series was released between 1998 and 2003, also focusing on space battles set during the films. ''Star Wars: Dark Forces, Dark Forces'' (1995), a hybrid adventure game incorporating puzzles and strategy, was the first ''Star Wars'' first-person shooter. It featured gameplay and graphical features not then common in other games, made possible by LucasArts' custom-designed game engine, the Jedi (game engine), Jedi. The game was well received, and it was followed by Star Wars: Jedi Knight (series), four sequels. The series introduced Kyle Katarn, who would appear in multiple games, novels, and comics. Katarn is a former stormtrooper (Star Wars), stormtrooper who joins the Rebellion and becomes a Jedi, a plot arc similar to that of Finn in the sequel trilogy films. A massively multiplayer online role-playing game, ''Star Wars Galaxies'', was in operation from 2003 until 2011. After Disney bought Lucasfilm, LucasArts ceased its role as a developer in 2013, although it still operates as a Brand licensing, licensor.


''EA Star Wars'' (2014–present)

Following its acquisition of the franchise, Disney reassigned video game rights to Electronic Arts. Games made during this era are considered canonical, and feature more influence from the ''Star Wars'' filmmakers. Disney partnered with Lenovo to create the augmented reality video game ''Jedi Challenges'', released in November 2017. In August 2018, it was announced that Zynga would publish free-to-play ''Star Wars'' mobile games. The ''Battlefront'' games received a canonical reboot with ''Star Wars Battlefront (2015 video game), Star Wars: Battlefront'' in November 2015, which was followed by a sequel, ''Star Wars Battlefront II (2017 video game), Battlefront II'', in November 2017. A single-player action-adventure game, ''Star Wars Jedi: Fallen Order'', with an original story and cast of characters, was released in November 2019. A Space flight simulation game, space combat game titled ''Star Wars: Squadrons'', which builds upon the space battles from ''Battlefront'', was released in October 2020.


Theme park attractions

In addition to the Disneyland ride Star Tours (1987) and its successor, Star Tours: The Adventures Continue (2011), many live attractions have been held at Disney parks, including the travelling exhibition Star Wars: Where Science Meets Imagination, Where Science Meets Imagination, the Space Mountain spin-off Star Wars Hyperspace Mountain, Hyperspace Mountain, a walkthrough Star Wars Launch Bay, Launch Bay, and the night-time ''Star Wars: A Galactic Spectacular, A Galactic Spectacular''. An immersive themed area called Star Wars: Galaxy's Edge, Galaxy's Edge (2019) opened at Disneyland and opened at Walt Disney World in mid-2019. A themed hotel, Star Wars: Galactic Starcruiser, ''Star Wars'': Galactic Starcruiser, is currently under construction at Walt Disney World.


Multimedia projects

A multimedia project involves works released across multiple types of media. ''Star Wars: Shadows of the Empire, Shadows of the Empire'' (1996) was a multimedia project set between ''The Empire Strikes Back'' and ''Return of the Jedi'' that included a novel by Steve Perry (author), Steve Perry, a comic book series, Star Wars: Shadows of the Empire (video game), a video game, and action figures. ''Star Wars: The Force Unleashed (project), The Force Unleashed'' (2008–2010) was a similar project set between ''Revenge of the Sith'' and ''A New Hope'' that included a novel, a Star Wars: The Force Unleashed, 2008 video game and its Star Wars: The Force Unleashed II, 2010 sequel, a graphic novel, a Star Wars Roleplaying Game (Wizards of the Coast)#Saga Edition, role-playing game supplement, and toys.


Merchandising

The success of the ''Star Wars'' films led the franchise to become one of the most merchandised franchises in the world. While filming the original 1977 film, George Lucas decided to take a $500,000 pay cut to his salary as director in exchange for full ownership of the franchise's merchandising rights. By 1987, the first three films have made billion in merchandising revenue. By 2012, the first six films produced approximately billion in merchandising revenue. Kenner made the first Kenner Star Wars action figures, ''Star Wars'' action figures to coincide with the release of the original film, and today the original figures are highly valuable. Since the 1990s, Hasbro holds the rights to create action figures based on the saga. Star Wars Pez, Pez dispensers began to be produced in 1997. ''Star Wars'' was the first intellectual property to be licensed in Lego history. Lego has produced animated parody short films and mini-series to promote their Lego Star Wars, ''Star Wars'' sets. The Lego Star Wars (video game series), Lego ''Star Wars'' video games are critically acclaimed bestsellers. In 1977, the board game ''Star Wars: Escape from the Death Star'' was released. A ''Monopoly Star Wars, Star Wars Monopoly'' and themed versions of ''Trivial Pursuit'' and Battleship (game), Battleship were released in 1997, with updated versions released in subsequent years. The board game ''Risk (game), Risk'' has been adapted in two editions by Hasbro: ''Star Wars Risk: The Clone Wars Edition, The Clone Wars Edition'' (2005) and the ''Risk: Star Wars Original Trilogy Edition, Original Trilogy Edition'' (2006). Three ''Star Wars'' tabletop role-playing games have been developed: Star Wars: The Roleplaying Game, a version by West End Games in the 1980s and 1990s, Star Wars Roleplaying Game (Wizards of the Coast), one by Wizards of the Coast in the 2000s, and Star Wars Roleplaying Game (Fantasy Flight Games), one by Fantasy Flight Games in the 2010s. Star Wars Trading Cards, ''Star Wars'' Trading Cards have been published since the first "blue" series, by Topps, in 1977. Dozens of series have been produced, with Topps being the licensed creator in the United States. Each card series are of film stills or original art. Many of the cards have become highly collectible with some very rare "promos", such as the 1993 Galaxy Series II "floating Yoda" P3 card often commanding US$1,000 or more. While most "base" or "common card" sets are plentiful, many "insert" or "Trading card, chase cards" are very rare. From 1995 until 2001, Decipher, Inc. had the license for, created, and produced the ''Star Wars Customizable Card Game''.


Themes

''Star Wars'' features elements such as knighthood, chivalry, and Jungian archetypes such as "Shadow (psychology), the shadow". There are also many references to Christianity, such as in the appearance of
Darth Maul Maul, known as Darth Maul during his time as a Sith, is a fictional character and a major antagonist in the Star Wars, ''Star Wars'' franchise. He was originally introduced in the 1999 film ''Star Wars: Episode I – The Phantom Menace'' (played ...
, whose design draws heavily from traditional depictions of the Devil in Christianity, devil. Anakin was conceived of a Miraculous birth, virgin birth, and is assumed to be the "Chosen One (Star Wars), Chosen One", a Messiah, messianic individual. However, unlike Jesus, Anakin falls from grace, remaining evil as Darth Vader until ''Return of the Jedi''. According to Adam Driver, sequel trilogy villain Kylo Ren, who idolizes Vader, believes he is "doing what he thinks is right". George Lucas has said that the theme of the saga is redemption. The saga draws heavily from the hero's journey, an archetypical template developed by comparative mythologist Joseph Campbell. Each character—primarily Anakin, Luke, and Rey—follows the steps of the cycle or undergoes its reversal, becoming the villain. A defining step of the journey is "Atonement with the Father". Obi-Wan's loss of a father figure could have impacted his relationship with Anakin, whom both Obi-Wan and Palpatine are fatherlike mentors to. Luke's discovery that Vader is his father has strong repercussions on the saga and is regarded as one of the most influential plot twists in cinema. Supreme Leader Snoke encourages Kylo Ren to kill his father, Han Solo. Kylo uses the fact that Rey is an orphan to tempt her into joining the dark side. According to ''Inverse (website), Inverse'', the final scene in ''The Last Jedi'', which depicts servant children playing with a toy of Luke and one boy using the Force, symbolizes that "the Force can be found in people with humble beginnings."


Historical influences

Political science has been an important element of ''Star Wars'' since the franchise launched in 1977, focusing on a struggle between democracy and dictatorship. Battles featuring the Ewoks and Gungans against the Empire and Trade Federation, respectively, represent the clash between a primitive society and a more advanced one, similar to the Vietnam-American War. Darth Vader's design was initially inspired by Japanese armour, Samurai armor, and also incorporated a Stahlhelm, German military helmet. Originally, Lucas conceived of the Sith as a group that served the Emperor in the same way that the ''Schutzstaffel'' served Adolf Hitler; this was condensed into one character in the form of Vader. Stormtrooper (Star Wars), Stormtroopers borrow the name of World War I German Stormtroopers (Imperial Germany), "shock" troopers. Imperial officers wear uniforms resembling Uniforms of the Heer (1935–45), those of German forces during World War II, and political and security officers resemble the black-clad SS down to the stylized silver Totenkopf, death's head on their caps. World War II terms were used for names in the films; ''e.g.'' the planets Kessel (Star Wars), Kessel (a term that refers to a group of Kessel (cauldron), encircled forces) and Hoth (after Hermann Hoth, a German general who served on the snow-laden Eastern Front). Shots of the commanders looking through AT-AT walker viewscreens in ''The Empire Strikes Back'' resemble tank interiors, and space battles in the original film were based on World War I and World War II dogfights. Palpatine being a chancellor before becoming the Emperor in the prequel trilogy alludes to Hitler's role before appointing himself ''Führer''. Lucas has also drawn parallels to historical dictators such as Julius Caesar, Napoleon Bonaparte, and politicians like Richard Nixon. The Great Jedi Purge mirrors the events of the Night of the Long Knives. The corruption of the Galactic Republic is modeled after the fall of the democratic Roman Republic and the formation of Roman Empire, an empire. On the inspiration for the First Order (Star Wars), First Order formed "from the ashes of the Empire", ''The Force Awakens'' director J. J. Abrams spoke of conversations the writers had about how the Nazis could have Ratlines (World War II aftermath), escaped to Argentina after WWII and "started working together again." File:Luftkampf im Pazifik Juni 1942.jpg, The aerial warfare of WWII inspired the space fights. File:Flag of the First Galactic Empire.svg, The flag and iconography of the Empire resembles those of the Nazi Party and Nazi Germany, Germany during its rule.


Cultural impact

The ''Star Wars'' saga has had a significant impact on popular culture, with references to its fictional universe deeply embedded in everyday life. Phrases like "evil empire" and "May the Force be with you" have become part of the popular lexicon. The first ''Star Wars'' film in 1977 was a cultural unifier, enjoyed by a wide spectrum of people. The film can be said to have helped launch the science-fiction boom of the late 1970s and early 1980s, making science-fiction films a mainstream genre. The widespread impact made it a prime target for parody works and homages, with popular examples including ''Hardware Wars'', ''Spaceballs'', ''Laugh It Up, Fuzzball: The Family Guy Trilogy, The Family Guy Trilogy'' and ''Robot Chicken: Star Wars''. In 1989, the Library of Congress selected the original ''Star Wars'' film for preservation in the U.S. National Film Registry, as being "culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant." ''The Empire Strikes Back'' was selected in 2010, and ''Return of the Jedi'' was selected in 2021. 35mm reels of the 1997 Special Editions were the versions initially presented for preservation because of the difficulty of transferring from the original prints, but it was later revealed that the Library possesses a copyright deposit print of the original theatrical releases.


Industry

The original ''Star Wars'' film was a huge success for
20th Century Fox 20th Century Studios, Inc. (also known as 20th Century for short, and nicknamed 20th Pictures, formerly Twentieth Century Fox Film Corporation) is an American film studio A film studio (also known as movie studio or simply studio) is a maj ...
, and was credited for reinvigorating the company. Within three weeks of the film's release, the studio's stock price doubled to a record high. Prior to 1977, 20th Century Fox's greatest annual profits were $37 million, while in 1977, the company broke that record by posting a profit of $79 million. The franchise helped Fox to change from an almost bankrupt production company to a thriving media conglomerate. ''Star Wars'' fundamentally changed the aesthetics and narratives of Cinema of the United States, Hollywood films, switching the focus of Hollywood-made films from deep, meaningful stories based on dramatic conflict, themes and irony to sprawling special-effects-laden blockbuster (entertainment), blockbusters, as well as changing the Hollywood film industry in fundamental ways. Before ''Star Wars'', special effects in films had not appreciably advanced since the 1950s. The commercial success of ''Star Wars'' created a boom in state-of-the-art special effects in the late 1970s. Along with ''Jaws (film), Jaws'', ''Star Wars'' started the tradition of the summer Blockbuster (entertainment), blockbuster film in the entertainment industry, where films open on many screens at the same time and profitable Media franchise, franchises are important. It created the model for the major film trilogy and showed that merchandising rights on a film could generate more money than the film itself did. Film critic Roger Ebert wrote in his book ''The Great Movies'', "Like ''The Birth of a Nation'' and ''Citizen Kane'', ''Star Wars'' was a technical watershed that influenced many of the movies that came after." It began a new generation of special effects and high-energy motion pictures. The film was one of the first films to link genres together to invent a new, high-concept genre for filmmakers to build upon. Finally, along with Steven Spielberg's ''Jaws (film), Jaws'', it shifted the film industry's focus away from personal filmmaking of the 1970s and towards fast-paced, big-budget blockbuster (entertainment), blockbusters for younger audiences.Tom Shone, Shone, Tom (2004). ''Blockbuster (2004 book), Blockbuster: How Hollywood Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the Summer''. London: Simon & Schuster. p. 64. . Some critics have blamed ''Star Wars'' and ''Jaws'' for "ruining" Hollywood by shifting its focus from "sophisticated" films such as ''The Godfather'', ''Taxi Driver'', and ''Annie Hall'' to films about spectacle and juvenile fantasy, and for the industry shift from stand-alone, one and done films, towards blockbuster franchises with multiple sequels and prequels. One such critic, Peter Biskind, complained, "When all was said and done, Lucas and Spielberg returned the 1970s audience, grown sophisticated on a diet of European and New Hollywood films, to the simplicities of the pre-1960s Classical Hollywood cinema, Golden Age of movies... They marched backward through the looking-glass."Peter Biskind, Biskind, Peter (1998). "Star Bucks". ''Easy Riders, Raging Bulls: How the Sex-Drugs-and-Rock 'N' Roll Generation Saved Hollywood''. New York: Simon & Schuster. pp. 336–337, 343. . In an opposing view, Tom Shone wrote that through ''Star Wars'' and ''Jaws'', Lucas and Spielberg "didn't betray cinema at all: they plugged it back into the grid, returning the medium to its roots as a carnival sideshow, a magic act, one big special effect", which was "a kind of rebirth". The original ''Star Wars'' trilogy is widely considered one of the best film trilogies in history. Numerous filmmakers have been influenced by ''Star Wars'', including Damon Lindelof, Dean Devlin, Roland Emmerich, John Lasseter, David Fincher, Joss Whedon, John Singleton, Kevin Smith, and later ''Star Wars'' directors J. J. Abrams and Gareth Edwards (director), Gareth Edwards. Lucas's concept of a "used universe" particularly influenced Ridley Scott's ''Blade Runner'' (1982) and ''Alien (film), Alien'' (1979), James Cameron's ''Aliens (film), Aliens'' (1986) as well as ''The Terminator'' (1984), George Miller (director), George Miller's ''Mad Max 2'' (1981), and Peter Jackson's The Lord of the Rings (film series), ''The Lord of the Rings'' trilogy (2001–2003). Christopher Nolan cited ''Star Wars'' as an influence when making the 2010 blockbuster film ''Inception''.


Fan works

The ''Star Wars'' saga has inspired many fans to create their own non-canon material set in the ''Star Wars'' galaxy. In recent years, this has ranged from writing fan fiction to creating fan films. In 2002, Lucasfilm sponsored the first annual The Official Star Wars Fan Film Awards, Official ''Star Wars'' Fan Film Awards, officially recognizing filmmakers and the genre. Because of concerns over potential copyright and trademark issues, however, the contest was initially open only to parody, parodies, mockumentary, mockumentaries, and documentaries. Fan fiction films set in the ''Star Wars'' universe were originally ineligible, but in 2007, Lucasfilm changed the submission standards to allow in-universe fiction entries. Lucasfilm has allowed but not endorsed the creation of fan fiction, as long as it does not attempt to make a profit.


Academia

As the characters and the storyline of the original trilogy are so well known, educators have used the films in the classroom as a learning resource. For example, a project in Western Australia honed elementary school students storytelling skills by role-playing action scenes from the movies and later creating props and audio/visual scenery to enhance their performance. Others have used the films to encourage second-level students to integrate technology in the science classroom by making prototype lightsabers. Similarly, psychiatrists in New Zealand and the US have advocated their use in the university classroom to explain different types of psychopathology.


See also

* 501st Legion * Architecture of Star Wars, Architecture of ''Star Wars'' * Comparison of Star Trek and Star Wars * Jedi census phenomenon * Jediism * List of space science fiction franchises * List of Star Wars characters, List of ''Star Wars'' characters * List of Star Wars creatures, List of ''Star Wars'' creatures * List of Star Wars planets and moons, List of ''Star Wars'' planets and moons * Music of Star Wars, Music of ''Star Wars'' * Physics and Star Wars, Physics and ''Star Wars'' * Star Wars Celebration * Star Wars Day, ''Star Wars'' Day * Star Wars documentaries, ''Star Wars'' documentaries * Star Wars: The High Republic *The Force * ''The Story of Star Wars'' * Technology in Star Wars, Technology in ''Star Wars'' * Wookieepedia, the Star Wars Wiki


Notes


References


Works cited

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Further reading

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External links

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''Star Wars'' Map - 2020 officialHiRezWebSite
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