HOME

TheInfoList



OR:

''Star Trek'' is an American
science fiction Science fiction (sometimes shortened to Sci-Fi or SF) is a genre of speculative fiction which typically deals with imagination, imaginative and futuristic concepts such as advanced science and technology, space exploration, time travel, Paral ...

science fiction
media franchise A media franchise, also known as a multimedia franchise, is a collection of related Media (communication), media in which several derivative works have been produced from an original creative work of fiction, such as a film, a work of literature, a ...
created by
Gene Roddenberry Eugene Wesley Roddenberry Sr. (August 19, 1921 – October 24, 1991) was an American television screenwriter, producer, and creator of ''Star Trek: The Original Series'', its sequel spin-off series ''Star Trek: The Animated Series,'' and ''Sta ...
, which began with the eponymous 1960s television series and quickly became a worldwide pop-culture
phenomenon A phenomenon (plural, : phenomena) is an observable event. The term came into its modern Philosophy, philosophical usage through Immanuel Kant, who contrasted it with the noumenon, which ''cannot'' be directly observed. Kant was heavily influe ...
. The franchise has expanded into various films,
television series A television show – or simply TV show – is any content produced for viewing on a television set which can be broadcast via over-the-air, satellite television, satellite, or cable television, cable, excluding breaking news, television adverti ...
,
video games Video games, also known as computer games, are electronic games that involves interaction with a user interface or input device such as a joystick, game controller, controller, computer keyboard, keyboard, or motion sensing device to gener ...
,
novels A novel is a relatively long work of narrative fiction, typically written in prose and published as a book. The present English word for a long work of prose fiction derives from the for "new", "news", or "short story of something new", itself ...
, and comic books. With an estimated $10.6 billion in revenue, it is one of the most recognizable and highest-grossing media franchises of all time. The franchise began with '' Star Trek: The Original Series'', which debuted in the US on September 8, 1966 and aired for three seasons on NBC. It was first broadcast on September 6, 1966 on Canada's CTV network. It followed the voyages of the crew of the starship USS ''Enterprise'', a space exploration vessel built by the
United Federation of Planets In the fictional universe of ''Star Trek'' the United Federation of Planets (UFP) is the interstellar government with which, as part of its space force Starfleet, most of the characters and starships of the franchise are affiliated. Commonly refe ...
in the 23rd century, on a mission "to explore strange new worlds, to seek out new life and new civilizations, to boldly go where no man has gone before". In creating ''Star Trek'', Roddenberry was inspired by C. S. Forester's Horatio Hornblower series of novels,
Jonathan Swift Jonathan Swift (30 November 1667 – 19 October 1745) was an Anglo-Irish Satire, satirist, author, essayist, political pamphleteer (first for the Whig (British political party), Whigs, then for the Tories (British political party), Tories), poe ...
1726 novel ''
Gulliver's Travels
Gulliver's Travels
'', the 1956 film '' Forbidden Planet'', and television westerns such as '' Wagon Train''. The ''Star Trek'' canon includes the ''Original Series'', nine spin-off television series, and a film franchise; further adaptations also exist in several media. After the conclusion of the ''Original Series'', the adventures of its characters continued in the 22-episode '' Star Trek: The Animated Series'' and six feature films. A television revival beginning in the 1980s saw three sequel series and a prequel: '' The Next Generation'', following the crew of a new starship ''Enterprise'' a century after the original series; '' Deep Space Nine'' and '' Voyager'', set in the same era as the ''Next Generation''; and '' Enterprise'', set before the original series in the early days of human interstellar travel. The adventures of the ''Next Generation'' crew continued in four additional feature films. In 2009, the film franchise underwent a reboot, creating an alternate continuity known as the ''Kelvin'' timeline; three films have been set in this continuity. The newest ''Star Trek'' television revival, beginning in 2017, includes the series '' Discovery'', '' Picard'', '' Short Treks'', '' Lower Decks'', '' Prodigy'', and '' Strange New Worlds'', streaming exclusively on digital platforms. ''Star Trek'' has been a cult phenomenon for decades. Fans of the franchise are called " Trekkies" or "Trekkers". The franchise spans a wide range of spin-offs including games, figurines,
novels A novel is a relatively long work of narrative fiction, typically written in prose and published as a book. The present English word for a long work of prose fiction derives from the for "new", "news", or "short story of something new", itself ...
, toys, and
comics a Media (communication), medium used to express ideas with images, often combined with text or other visual information. It typically the form of a sequence of Panel (comics), panels of images. Textual devices such as speech balloons, Glo ...
. From 1998 to 2008, there was a ''Star Trek''–themed attraction in
Las Vegas Las Vegas (; Spanish language, Spanish for "The Meadows"), often known simply as Vegas, is the List of United States cities by population, 25th-most populous city in the United States, the most populous city in the U.S. state, state of Neva ...
. At least two museum exhibits of props travel the world. The
constructed language A constructed language (sometimes called a conlang) is a language whose phonology, grammar, and vocabulary, instead of having developed natural language, naturally, are consciously devised for some purpose, which may include being devised for a ...
Klingon The Klingons ( ; Klingon language, Klingon: ''tlhIngan'' ) are a fictional species in the science fiction franchise ''Star Trek''. Developed by screenwriter Gene L. Coon in 1967 for the Star Trek: The Original Series, original ''Star Trek'' ('' ...
was created for the franchise. Several ''Star Trek'' parodies have been made, and viewers have produced several fan productions. ''Star Trek'' is noted for its cultural influence beyond works of science fiction. The franchise is also notable for its progressive civil-rights stances. ''The Original Series'' included one of the first multiracial casts on US television.


Conception and setting

As early as 1964,
Gene Roddenberry Eugene Wesley Roddenberry Sr. (August 19, 1921 – October 24, 1991) was an American television screenwriter, producer, and creator of ''Star Trek: The Original Series'', its sequel spin-off series ''Star Trek: The Animated Series,'' and ''Sta ...
drafted a proposal for the science fiction series that would become ''Star Trek''. Although he publicly marketed it as a Western in outer space—a so-called "'' Wagon Train'' to the stars"—he privately told friends that he was modeling it on
Jonathan Swift Jonathan Swift (30 November 1667 – 19 October 1745) was an Anglo-Irish Satire, satirist, author, essayist, political pamphleteer (first for the Whig (British political party), Whigs, then for the Tories (British political party), Tories), poe ...
's ''
Gulliver's Travels
Gulliver's Travels
'', intending each episode to act on two levels: as a suspenseful adventure story and as a morality tale. Most ''Star Trek'' stories depict the adventures of humans and aliens who serve in
Starfleet Starfleet is a fictional organization in the ''Star Trek'' media franchise. Within this fictional universe, Starfleet is a uniformed space force maintained by the United Federation of Planets ("the Federation") as the principal means for conduc ...
, the space-borne humanitarian and peacekeeping armada of the
United Federation of Planets In the fictional universe of ''Star Trek'' the United Federation of Planets (UFP) is the interstellar government with which, as part of its space force Starfleet, most of the characters and starships of the franchise are affiliated. Commonly refe ...
. The protagonists have
altruistic Altruism is the moral principle, principle and moral courage, moral practice of concern for the welfare and/or happiness of other human kind, human beings or animals, resulting in a quality of life both material and spirituality, spiritual. It ...
values, and must apply these ideals to difficult dilemmas. Many of the conflicts and political dimensions of ''Star Trek'' are allegories of contemporary cultural realities. ''The Original Series'' addressed issues of the 1960s, just as later spin-offs have tackled issues of their respective decades. Issues depicted in the various series include war and peace, the value of personal loyalty,
authoritarianism Authoritarianism is a political system characterized by the rejection of political plurality, the use of strong central power to preserve the political ''status quo'', and reductions in the rule of law, separation of powers, and democratic votin ...
,
imperialism Imperialism is the state policy, practice, or advocacy of extending power and dominion, especially by direct territorial acquisition or by gaining political and economic control of other areas, often through employing hard power (economic powe ...
, class warfare, economics, racism, religion, human rights,
sexism Sexism is prejudice or discrimination based on one's sex or gender. Sexism can affect anyone, but it primarily affects women and girls.There is a clear and broad consensus among academic scholars in multiple fields that sexism refers primaril ...
, feminism, and the role of technology. Roddenberry stated: " y creatinga new world with new rules, I could make statements about sex, religion,
Vietnam Vietnam or Viet Nam ( vi, Việt Nam, ), officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam,., group="n" is a country in Southeast Asia, at the eastern edge of mainland Southeast Asia, with an area of and population of 96 million, making it ...
, politics, and intercontinental missiles. Indeed, we did make them on ''Star Trek'': we were sending messages and fortunately they all got by the network. If you talked about purple people on a far off planet, they (the television network) never really caught on. They were more concerned about cleavage. They actually would send a censor down to the set to measure a woman's cleavage to make sure too much of her breast wasn't showing." Roddenberry intended the show to have a progressive political agenda reflective of the emerging counter-culture of the youth movement, though he was not fully forthcoming to the networks about this. He wanted ''Star Trek'' to show what humanity might develop into, if it would learn from the lessons of the past, most specifically by ending violence. An extreme example is the alien species known as the Vulcans, who had a violent past but learned to control their emotions. Roddenberry also gave ''Star Trek'' an anti-war message and depicted the United Federation of Planets as an ideal, optimistic version of the United Nations. His efforts were opposed by the network because of concerns over marketability, e.g., they opposed Roddenberry's insistence that ''Enterprise'' have a racially diverse crew.


History and production


Timeline


The ''Original Series'' era (1965–1969)

In early 1964, Roddenberry presented a brief treatment for a television series to
Desilu Productions Desilu Productions () was an American television production company founded and co-owned by husband and wife Desi Arnaz and Lucille Ball. The company is best known for shows such as ''I Love Lucy'', ''The Lucy Show'', ''Mannix'', ''The Untouchabl ...
, calling it "a '' Wagon Train'' to the stars." Desilu studio head
Lucille Ball Lucille Désirée Ball (August 6, 1911 – April 26, 1989) was an American actress, comedienne and producer. She was nominated for 13 Primetime Emmy Awards, winning five times, and was the recipient of several other accolades, such as the Golden ...
was instrumental in approving production of the series. The studio worked with Roddenberry to develop the treatment into a script, which was then pitched to NBC. NBC paid to make a pilot, " The Cage", starring
Jeffrey Hunter Jeffrey Hunter (born Henry Herman McKinnies Jr.; November 25, 1926 – May 27, 1969) was an American film and television actor and producer known for his roles in films such as '' The Searchers'' and ''King of Kings King of Kings; ...
as ''Enterprise'' Captain Christopher Pike. NBC rejected "The Cage", but the executives were still impressed with the concept, and made the unusual decision to commission a second pilot: "
Where No Man Has Gone Before "Where No Man Has Gone Before" is the third episode of the Star Trek: The Original Series (season 1), first season of the American science fiction television series, ''Star Trek: The Original Series, Star Trek''. Written by Samuel A. Peeples and ...
". While the show initially enjoyed high ratings, the average rating of the show at the end of its first season dropped to 52nd out of 94 programs. Unhappy with the show's ratings, NBC threatened to cancel the show during its second season. The show's fan base, led by Bjo Trimble, conducted an unprecedented letter-writing campaign, petitioning the network to keep the show on the air. NBC renewed the show, but moved it from primetime to the " Friday night death slot", and substantially reduced its budget. In protest, Roddenberry resigned as producer and reduced his direct involvement in ''Star Trek'', which led to Fred Freiberger becoming producer for the show's third and final season. Despite another letter-writing campaign, NBC canceled the series after three seasons and 79 episodes.


Post–''Original Series'' rebirth (1969–1991)

After the original series was canceled, Desilu, which by then had been renamed
Paramount Television The original incarnation of Paramount Television was the name of the television production division of the American film studio Paramount Pictures, that was responsible for the production of Viacom (2005–2019), Viacom television programs, unti ...
, licensed the
broadcast syndication Broadcast syndication is the practice of leasing the right to broadcasting television shows and radio programs to multiple television stations and radio stations, without going through a broadcast network. It is common in the United States where ...
rights to help recoup the production losses. Reruns began in late 1969, and by the late 1970s the series aired in over 150 domestic and 60 international markets. This helped ''Star Trek'' develop a
cult following A cult following refers to a group of Fan (person), fans who are highly dedicated to some person, idea, object, movement, or work, often an artist, in particular a performing artist, or an artwork in some List of art media, medium. The lattermost ...
greater than its popularity during its original run. One sign of the series' growing popularity was the first ''Star Trek'' convention, which occurred on January 21–23, 1972 in New York City. Although the original expectation was that only a few hundred fans would attend, several thousand turned up. ''Star Trek'' fans continue to attend similar conventions worldwide. The series' newfound success led to the idea of reviving the franchise.
Filmation Filmation Associates was an American production company that produced animated series, animation and live-action programming for television from 1963 until 1989. Located in Reseda, Los Angeles, Reseda, California, the animation studio was founde ...
with
Paramount Television The original incarnation of Paramount Television was the name of the television production division of the American film studio Paramount Pictures, that was responsible for the production of Viacom (2005–2019), Viacom television programs, unti ...
produced the first post–original series show, '' Star Trek: The Animated Series'', featuring the cast of the original series reprising their roles. It ran on NBC for 22 half-hour episodes over two seasons on Saturday mornings from 1973 to 1974. Although short-lived, typical for animated productions in that time slot during that period, the series garnered the franchise's only
Emmy Award The Emmy Awards, or Emmys, are an extensive range of awards for artistic and technical merit for the American and international television industry. A number of annual Emmy Award ceremonies are held throughout the calendar year, each with the ...
in a "Best Series" category—specifically Outstanding Entertainment Children's Series; later Emmy awards for the franchise would be in technical categories.
Paramount Pictures Paramount Pictures Corporation is an American film and television production company, production and Distribution (marketing), distribution company and the main namesake division of Paramount Global (formerly ViacomCBS). It is the fifth-oldes ...
and Roddenberry began developing a new series, '' Star Trek: Phase II'', in May 1975 in response to the franchise's newfound popularity. Work on the series ended when the proposed Paramount Television Service folded. Following the success of the science fiction movies ''
Star Wars ''Star Wars'' is an American epic film, epic space opera multimedia franchise created by George Lucas, which began with the Star Wars (film), eponymous 1977 film and quickly became a worldwide popular culture, pop-culture Cultural impact of S ...
'' and ''
Close Encounters of the Third Kind ''Close Encounters of the Third Kind'' is a 1977 American science fiction film written and directed by Steven Spielberg, starring Richard Dreyfuss, Melinda Dillon, Teri Garr, Bob Balaban, Cary Guffey, and François Truffaut. It tells the story ...
'', Paramount adapted the planned pilot episode of ''Phase II'' into the feature film '' Star Trek: The Motion Picture''. The film opened in North America on December 7, 1979, with mixed reviews from critics. The film earned $139 million worldwide, below expectations but enough for Paramount to create a sequel. The studio forced Roddenberry to relinquish creative control of future sequels. The success of the sequel, '' Star Trek II: The Wrath of Khan'', reversed the fortunes of the franchise. While the sequel grossed less than the first movie, ''The Wrath of Khan''s lower production costs made it net more profit. Paramount produced six ''Star Trek'' feature films between 1979 and 1991, each featuring the ''Original Series'' cast in their original roles. In response to the popularity of ''Star Trek'' feature films, the franchise returned to television with '' Star Trek: The Next Generation'' in 1987. Paramount chose to distribute it as a
first-run syndication Broadcast syndication is the practice of leasing the right to broadcasting television shows and radio programs to multiple television stations and radio stations, without going through a broadcast network. It is common in the United States where ...
show rather than a network show. ''The Next Generation'' was set a century after the original series, following the adventures of a new starship ''Enterprise'' with a new crew.


Post-Roddenberry television era (1991–2005)

Following ''Star Trek: The Motion Picture'', Roddenberry's role was changed from producer to creative consultant with minimal input to the films while being heavily involved with the creation of '' The Next Generation''. Roddenberry died on October 24, 1991, giving executive producer
Rick Berman Richard Keith Berman (born December 25, 1945) is an American television producer A television producer is a person who oversees one or more aspects of video production on a television show, television program. Some producers take more of an ex ...
control of the franchise. ''Star Trek'' had become known to those within Paramount as "the franchise", because of its great success and recurring role as a tent pole for the studio when other projects failed. ''The Next Generation'' had the highest ratings of any ''Star Trek'' series and became the most syndicated show during the last years of its original seven-season run. In response to the ''Next Generation'' success, Paramount released a spin-off series, '' Deep Space Nine'', in 1993. While never as popular as the ''Next Generation'', the series had sufficient ratings for it to last seven seasons. In January 1995, a few months after the ''Next Generation'' ended, Paramount released a fourth television series, '' Voyager''. ''Star Trek'' production reached a peak in the mid-1990s with ''Deep Space Nine'' and ''Voyager'' airing concurrently and three of the four ''Next Generation''-based feature films released in 1994, 1996, and 1998. By 1998, ''Star Trek'' was Paramount's most important property and the profits of "the franchise" funded a significant portion of the studio's operations. ''Voyager'' became the flagship show of the new United Paramount Network (UPN) and thus the first major network ''Star Trek'' series since the original. After ''Voyager'' ended, UPN produced '' Enterprise'', a prequel series. ''Enterprise'' did not enjoy the high ratings of its predecessors and UPN threatened to cancel it after the series' third season. Fans launched a campaign reminiscent of the one that saved the third season of the ''Original Series''. Paramount renewed ''Enterprise'' for a fourth season, but moved it to the Friday night death slot. Like the ''Original Series'', ''Enterprise''s ratings dropped during this time slot, and UPN cancelled ''Enterprise'' at the end of its fourth season. ''Enterprise'' aired its final episode on May 13, 2005. A fan group, "Save ''Enterprise''", attempted to save the series and tried to raise $30 million to privately finance a fifth season of ''Enterprise''. Though the effort garnered considerable press, the fan drive failed to save the series. The cancellation of ''Enterprise'' ended an eighteen-year continuous production run of ''Star Trek'' programming on television. The poor box office performance in 2002 of the film ''
Nemesis In ancient Greek religion Religious practices in ancient Greece encompassed a collection of beliefs, Ritual, rituals, and Greek mythology, mythology, in the form of both popular public religion and Cult (religious practice), cult practices. ...
'' cast an uncertain light upon the future of the franchise. Paramount relieved Berman, the franchise producer, of control of ''Star Trek''.


Reboot (''Kelvin timeline'') film series (2009–2016)

Paramount hired a new creative team, in 2007, to reinvigorate the franchise on the big screen. Writers
Roberto Orci Roberto Gaston Orcí (born July 20, 1973) is a Mexican-American film and television screenwriter and producer. He began his longtime collaboration with Alex Kurtzman while at school in California. Together they have been employed on television ...
and
Alex Kurtzman Alexander Hilary Kurtzman (born September 7, 1973) is an American filmmaker. He is best known for his work on the ''Star Trek'' franchise since 2009, co-writing the scripts to ''Transformers (film), Transformers'' (2007), ''Transformers: Revenge ...
and producer J. J. Abrams had the freedom to reinvent the feel of the franchise. The team created the franchise's eleventh film, ''
Star Trek ''Star Trek'' is an American science fiction media franchise created by Gene Roddenberry, which began with the Star Trek: The Original Series, eponymous 1960s television series and quickly became a worldwide Popular culture, pop-culture Cul ...
'', releasing it in May 2009. The film featured a new cast portraying the crew of the original show. ''Star Trek'' was a prequel of the original series set in an
alternate timeline Alternate history (also alternative history, althist, AH) is a genre of speculative fiction of stories in which one or more historical events occur and are resolved differently than in real life. As conjecture based upon historical fact, altern ...
, later named the ''Kelvin'' Timeline. This gave the film and sequels freedom from the need to conform to the franchise's canonical timeline and minimized the impact these films would have on CBS's portion of the franchise. The eleventh ''Star Trek'' film's marketing campaign targeted non-fans, stating in the film's advertisements that "this is not your father's ''Star Trek''". The film earned considerable critical and financial success, grossing (in inflation-adjusted dollars) more box office sales than any previous ''Star Trek'' film. The plaudits include the franchise's first
Academy Award The Academy Awards, better known as the Oscars, are awards for artistic and technical merit for the American and international film industry. The awards are regarded by many as the most prestigious, significant awards in the entertainment ind ...
(for
makeup The asterisk ( ), from Late Latin , from Ancient Greek , ''asteriskos'', "little star", is a Typography, typographical symbol. It is so called because it resembles a conventional image of a star (heraldry), heraldic star. Computer scientists ...
). Two sequels were released. The first sequel, ''
Star Trek Into Darkness ''Star Trek Into Darkness'' is a 2013 American science fiction film, science fiction action film directed by J. J. Abrams and written by Roberto Orci, Alex Kurtzman, and Damon Lindelof. It is the 12th installment in the ''Star Trek'' franchise a ...
'', premiered in the spring of 2013. While the film did not earn as much in the North American box office as its predecessor, internationally, in terms of box office receipts, ''Into Darkness'' is the most successful of the franchise. The thirteenth film, ''
Star Trek Beyond ''Star Trek Beyond'' is a 2016 American science fiction film, science fiction action film directed by Justin Lin, written by Simon Pegg and Doug Jung, and based on the television series ''Star Trek'' created by Gene Roddenberry. It is the 13th ...
'', was released on July 22, 2016. The film had many pre-production problems and its script went through several rewrites. While receiving positive reviews, ''Star Trek Beyond'' disappointed in the box office.


Expansion of the Star Trek Universe (2017–present)

CBS CBS Broadcasting Inc., commonly shortened to CBS, the abbreviation of its former legal name Columbia Broadcasting System, is an American commercial broadcast television Television, sometimes shortened to TV, is a telecommunication m ...
turned down several proposals in the mid-2000s to restart the franchise on the small screen. Proposals included pitches from film director
Bryan Singer Bryan Jay Singer (born September 17, 1965) is an American filmmaker. He is the founder of Bad Hat Harry Productions and has produced almost all of the films he has directed. After graduating from the University of Southern California, Singer d ...
, ''
Babylon 5 ''Babylon 5'' is an American space opera television series created by writer and producer J. Michael Straczynski, under the Babylonian Productions label, in association with Straczynski's Synthetic Worlds Ltd. and Warner Bros. Television, War ...
'' creator J. Michael Straczynski, and ''Trek'' actors Jonathan Frakes and William Shatner. While CBS was not creating new ''Star Trek'' for network television, the ease of access to ''Star Trek'' content on new streaming services such as
Netflix Netflix, Inc. is an American video on demand#Subscription models, subscription video on-demand Over-the-top media service, over-the-top Streaming media, streaming service and production company based in Los Gatos, California. Founded in 1997 b ...
and
Amazon Prime Video Amazon Prime Video, also known simply as Prime Video, is an American Video on demand#Subscription models, subscription video on-demand Over-the-top media service, over-the-top Streaming media, streaming and Renting, rental service of Amazon (c ...
introduced a new set of fans to the franchise. CBS eventually sought to capitalize on this trend, and brought the franchise back to the small screen with the series '' Star Trek: Discovery'' to help launch and draw subscribers to its streaming service
CBS All Access Paramount+ is an American subscription video on-demand service owned by Paramount Global Paramount Global (Trade name, doing business as Paramount) is an American Multinational corporation, multinational mass media and entertainment Conglo ...
. ''Discovery's'' first season premiered on September 24, 2017. While ''Discovery'' is shown in the United States exclusively on
Paramount+ Paramount+ is an American Video on demand#Subscription models, subscription video on-demand service owned by Paramount Global. The service's content is drawn primarily from the libraries of CBS Media Ventures (including CBS Studios), Paramount Me ...
(formerly CBS All Access), for its first three seasons, Netflix, in exchange for funding the production costs of the show, owned the international screening rights for the show. This Netflix distribution and production deal ended right before the fourth season premiere of ''Discovery'' in November 2021. ''Discovery'' has since been exclusive to Paramount Global owned platforms. In June 2018, after becoming sole showrunner of ''Discovery'', Kurtzman signed a five-year overall deal with CBS Television Studios to expand the ''Star Trek'' franchise beyond ''Discovery'' to several new series, miniseries, and animated series. Kurtzman wanted to "open this world up" and create multiple series set in the same universe but with their own "unique storytelling and distinct cinematic feel", an approach that he compared to the
Marvel Cinematic Universe The Marvel Cinematic Universe (MCU) is an American media franchise and shared universe centered on a series of superhero films produced by Marvel Studios. The films are based on characters that appear in American comic books published by Ma ...
. However, the franchise would not tell a single story across multiple series, allowing audiences to watch each series without having to see all of the others. CBS and Kurtzman refer to this expanded franchise as the ''Star Trek'' Universe. In October 2020, Kurtzman stated that ''Star Trek'' series have been planned through 2027. Kurtzman cautioned that this was a preliminary plan, but it was necessary to plan so far out due to the long production schedules for each series. The second series of the expansion of the ''Star Trek'' Universe, '' Star Trek: Picard'', features
Patrick Stewart Sir Patrick Stewart (born 13 July 1940) is an English actor who has a career spanning seven decades in various stage productions, television, film and video games. He has been nominated for Laurence Olivier Award, Olivier, Tony Award, Tony, Go ...
reprising the character
Jean-Luc Picard Jean-Luc Picard is a character (arts), fictional character in the ''Star Trek'' franchise, most often seen as the captain of the United Federation of Planets, Federation starship . Played by Patrick Stewart, Picard has appeared in the television ...
from ''The Next Generation''. ''Picard'' premiered on CBS All Access on January 23, 2020. Unlike ''Discovery'', Amazon Prime Video streams ''Picard'' internationally. CBS has also released two seasons of '' Star Trek: Short Treks'', a series of standalone mini-episodes which air between ''Discovery'' and ''Picard'' seasons. A new live-action series, '' Star Trek: Strange New Worlds'', a spinoff of the second season of ''Discovery'' and prequel to the original series, premiered on May 5, 2022. '' Lower Decks'', an animated adult comedy series, was released on August 6, 2020 on CBS All Access. Another animated series, '' Star Trek: Prodigy'', premiered on the rebranded service
Paramount+ Paramount+ is an American Video on demand#Subscription models, subscription video on-demand service owned by Paramount Global. The service's content is drawn primarily from the libraries of CBS Media Ventures (including CBS Studios), Paramount Me ...
first on October 28, 2021, and on December 17, 2021 on
Nickelodeon Nickelodeon (often shortened to Nick) is an American pay television television channel, channel which launched on April 1, 1979, as the first cable channel for children. It is run by Paramount Global through its List of assets owned by Param ...
. ''Prodigy'' is the first Star Trek series to specifically target younger audiences, and is the franchise's first fully
computer animated Computer animation is the process used for digitally generating animations. The more general term computer-generated imagery (CGI) encompasses both static scenes (still images) and dynamic images (moving images), while computer animation refer ...
series.
Paramount Global Paramount Global (Trade name, doing business as Paramount) is an American Multinational corporation, multinational mass media and entertainment Conglomerate (company), conglomerate owned and operated by National Amusements (79.4%) and headquar ...
announced in February 2021 that the ''Star Trek'' Universe would be available on Paramount+, including ''Discovery'', ''Picard'', ''Lower Decks'', ''Prodigy'', and ''Strange New Worlds''. The service's Executive Vice President of Development and Programming, Julie McNamara, said they were unlikely to expand the slate of Star Trek series until one of these five shows ended, which could happen when a series' story runs its course or a lead actor's contract expires. McNamara hoped to release a new season of ''Star Trek'' each quarter. Discussing the next phase of the franchise, Kurtzman said several projects were in development and the success of ''Prodigy'' could lead to more young audience-focused series. He added that future live-action series would likely explore new parts of the ''Star Trek'' franchise's timeline in a similar way to ''Discovery''s jump to the far future in its third season. Kurtzman also felt there would be opportunities for future series to be associated to other Paramount Global brands such as
BET Black Entertainment Television (acronym BET) is an American basic cable channel targeting African-American audiences. It is owned by the CBS Entertainment Group unit of Paramount Global via BET Networks and has offices in New York City ...
and Showtime, similar to ''Prodigy'' being developed for Nickelodeon. Monthly meetings with the showrunners of each new series are held to allow coordination between the different series and ensure that "they're not stepping on each other's toes" by using the same elements of the universe, according to Kurtzman.


Television

Eight live-action television series, three animated series and one short-form companion series make up the bulk of the ''Star Trek'' mythos: ''The Original Series'', ''The Animated Series'', ''The Next Generation'', ''Deep Space Nine'', ''Voyager'', ''Enterprise'', ''Discovery'', ''Short Treks'', ''Picard'', ''Lower Decks'', ''Prodigy'' and ''Strange New Worlds''. All the series in total amount to episodes across seasons of television.


''The Original Series'' (1966–1969)

''Star Trek: The Original Series'', frequently abbreviated as ''TOS'', debuted on NBC on September 8, 1966. The show tells the tale of the crew of the
starship A starship, starcraft, or interstellar spacecraft is a theoretical spacecraft designed for interstellar travel, traveling between planetary systems. The term is mostly found in science fiction. Reference to a "star-ship" appears as early as 188 ...
and its five-year mission "to boldly go where no man has gone before", under the command of Captain James T. Kirk. During the series's initial run, it was nominated for
Hugo Award for Best Dramatic Presentation The Hugo Award for Best Dramatic Presentation is given each year for theatrical films, television episodes, or other dramatized works related to science fiction or fantasy released in the previous calendar year. Originally the award covered both ...
multiple times, and won twice. Cast included: NBC canceled the show after three seasons; the last original episode aired on June 3, 1969. A petition near the end of the second season to save the show signed by many
Caltech The California Institute of Technology (branded as Caltech or CIT)The university itself only spells its short form as "Caltech"; the institution considers other spellings such a"Cal Tech" and "CalTech" incorrect. The institute is also occasional ...
students and its multiple Hugo nominations would, however, indicate that despite low
Nielsen ratings Nielsen Media Research (NMR) is an American firm that measures media audiences, including television, radio, theatre, films (via the AMC Theatres MAP program), and newspapers. Headquartered in New York City, it is best known for the #Nielsen TV ...
, it was highly popular with science fiction fans and engineering students. The series later became popular in reruns and found a
cult following A cult following refers to a group of Fan (person), fans who are highly dedicated to some person, idea, object, movement, or work, often an artist, in particular a performing artist, or an artwork in some List of art media, medium. The lattermost ...
.


''The Animated Series'' (1973–1974)

''Star Trek: The Animated Series'', produced by
Filmation Filmation Associates was an American production company that produced animated series, animation and live-action programming for television from 1963 until 1989. Located in Reseda, Los Angeles, Reseda, California, the animation studio was founde ...
, ran for two seasons from 1973 to 1974. Most of the original cast performed the voices of their characters from the ''Original Series'', and some of the writers who worked on the ''Original Series'' returned. While the animated format allowed the producers to create more exotic alien landscapes and life forms, animation errors and liberal reuse of shots and musical cues have tarnished the series' reputation. Gene Roddenberry often spoke of it as non-canon, though more recent productions have treated it as canonical. The cast included: ''The Animated Series'' won ''Star Trek''s first
Emmy Award The Emmy Awards, or Emmys, are an extensive range of awards for artistic and technical merit for the American and international television industry. A number of annual Emmy Award ceremonies are held throughout the calendar year, each with the ...
on May 15, 1975. The series briefly returned to television in the mid-1980s on the children's cable network
Nickelodeon Nickelodeon (often shortened to Nick) is an American pay television television channel, channel which launched on April 1, 1979, as the first cable channel for children. It is run by Paramount Global through its List of assets owned by Param ...
, and again on Sci-Fi Channel in the mid-90s. The complete series was released on
LaserDisc The LaserDisc (LD) is a home video format and the first commercial optical disc storage medium, initially licensed, sold and marketed as DiscoVision, MCA DiscoVision (also known simply as "DiscoVision") in the United States in 1978. Its diam ...
during the 1980s. The complete series was first released in the U.S. on eleven volumes of VHS tapes in 1989. All 22 episodes were released on DVD in 2006.


''The Next Generation'' (1987–1994)

''Star Trek: The Next Generation'', frequently abbreviated as ''TNG'', takes place about a century after the ''Original Series'' (2364–2370). It features a new starship, , and a new crew: The series premiered on September 28, 1987, and ran for seven seasons. It had the highest ratings of any of the ''Star Trek'' series and became the highest rated syndicated show near the end of its run, allowing it to act as a springboard for other series. Many relationships and races introduced in the ''Next Generation'' became the basis for episodes in ''Deep Space Nine'' and ''Voyager''. The series earned several
Emmy The Emmy Awards, or Emmys, are an extensive range of awards for artistic and technical merit for the American and international television industry. A number of annual Emmy Award ceremonies are held throughout the calendar year, each with the ...
awards and nominations—including Best Dramatic Series for its final season—two
Hugo Award The Hugo Award is an annual literary award for the best science fiction Science fiction (sometimes shortened to Sci-Fi or SF) is a genre of speculative fiction which typically deals with imagination, imaginative and futuristic concepts s ...
s, and a
Peabody Award The George Foster Peabody Awards (or simply Peabody Awards or the Peabodys) program, named for the American businessman and philanthropist George Peabody, honor the most powerful, enlightening, and invigorating stories in television, radio, and ...
for Outstanding Television Programming for one episode.


''Deep Space Nine'' (1993–1999)

''Star Trek: Deep Space Nine'', frequently abbreviated as ''DS9'', takes place during the last years of and immediately after the ''Next Generation'' (2369–2375). It debuted the week of January 3, 1993, and ran for seven seasons. Unlike the other ''Star Trek'' series, ''Deep Space Nine'' was set primarily on a
space station A space station is a spacecraft capable of human spaceflight, supporting a human crew in orbit for an extended period of time, and is therefore a type of space habitat (facility), space habitat. It lacks major spacecraft propulsion, propulsion or ...
of the same name rather than aboard a starship. The cast included: The show begins after the conclusion of the brutal Cardassian occupation of the planet Bajor, introduced in ''The Next Generation''. The liberated Bajoran people ask the United Federation of Planets to help run a space station near Bajor. After the Federation takes control of the station, the protagonists of the show discover a uniquely stable
wormhole A wormhole (Einstein-Rosen bridge) is a hypothetical structure connecting disparate points in spacetime, and is based on a special Solutions of the Einstein field equations, solution of the Einstein field equations. A wormhole can be visualize ...
that provides immediate access to the distant
Gamma Quadrant Several films and episodes of the science fiction Science fiction (sometimes shortened to Sci-Fi or SF) is a genre of speculative fiction which typically deals with imagination, imaginative and futuristic concepts such as advanced science ...
, making Bajor and the station a strategically important location. The show chronicles the events of the station's crew, led by Commander
Benjamin Sisko Benjamin Lafayette Sisko is a fictional character in the ''Star Trek'' franchise portrayed by Avery Brooks. He first appeared in the television series ''Star Trek: Deep Space Nine'' (''DS9'') and became prominent on the TV show in the United S ...
( Avery Brooks), and Major
Kira Nerys Kira Nerys is a fictional character in the American science fiction television series ''Star Trek: Deep Space Nine'' (1993–1999). She was played by actress Nana Visitor. The character is from the fictional planet Bajoran, Bajor, a world which ...
(
Nana Visitor Nana Tucker ( ; born July 26, 1957), known professionally as Nana Visitor, is an American actress, best known for playing Kira Nerys in the television series ''Star Trek: Deep Space Nine'' and Jean Ritter in the television series ''Wildfire (200 ...
). ''Deep Space Nine'' stands apart from earlier ''Trek'' series for its lengthy serialized storytelling, character conflicts, and religious themes—all elements praised by critics and audiences, but which Roddenberry had forbidden as a producer of the original series and the ''Next Generation''.


''Voyager'' (1995–2001)

''Star Trek: Voyager'' ran for seven seasons, airing from January 16, 1995 to May 23, 2001. It features Kate Mulgrew as Captain Kathryn Janeway, the first female commanding officer in a leading role of a ''Star Trek'' series. Cast included: ''Voyager'' takes place during the same time period as ''Deep Space Nine'' and the years immediately following (2371–2378). The militant renegade movement known as the Maquis, introduced on ''Deep Space Nine'', is part of the premise of ''Voyager''. The premiere episode has the USS ''Voyager'' and its crew pursuing a Maquis ship; both ships become stranded in the Delta Quadrant about 70,000
light-year A light-year, alternatively spelled light year, is a large unit of length used to express astronomical distances and is equivalent to about 9.46  trillion kilometers (), or 5.88 trillion miles ().One trillion here is taken to be 101 ...
s from Earth. Faced with a 75-year voyage to Earth, the crews must work together to overcome challenges and shorten the voyage on their long and perilous journey home. Like ''Deep Space Nine'', early seasons of ''Voyager'' feature more conflict between its crew members than seen in ''The Next Generation''. Such conflict often arose from friction between "by-the-book" Starfleet crew and rebellious Maquis fugitives forced by circumstance to work together. The starship ''Voyager'', isolated from its home, faced new cultures and dilemmas not possible in shows based in the Alpha Quadrant. Later seasons brought in an influx of characters and cultures from prior shows, such as the Borg, Q, the
Ferengi The Ferengi () are a fictional extraterrestrials in fiction, extraterrestrial species in the American science fiction franchise ''Star Trek''. They were devised in 1987 for the series ''Star Trek: The Next Generation'', played a prominent role i ...
, Romulans,
Klingon The Klingons ( ; Klingon language, Klingon: ''tlhIngan'' ) are a fictional species in the science fiction franchise ''Star Trek''. Developed by screenwriter Gene L. Coon in 1967 for the Star Trek: The Original Series, original ''Star Trek'' ('' ...
s, Cardassians and cast members of the ''Next Generation''.


''Enterprise'' (2001–2005)

''Star Trek: Enterprise'', originally titled ''Enterprise'', is a prequel to the original ''Star Trek'' series. It aired from September 26, 2001 to May 13, 2005 on UPN. ''Enterprise'' is set about a century earlier than ''The Original Series'', early in the fictional history of humanity's space exploration and shortly before the creation of the United Federation of Planets. The show follows the crew of an earlier starship on Earth's first deep-space exploration mission. The cast included: Initially, ''Enterprise'' featured self-contained episodes, much like the ''Original Series'', ''Next Generation'' and ''Voyager''. The third season comprised a single narrative arc. The fourth and final season consisted of several three- and four-episode arcs, which explored the origins of some elements of previous series, and resolved some continuity errors with ''The Original Series''. Ratings for ''Enterprise'' started strong but declined rapidly. Although critics received the fourth season well, both fans and the cast reviled the series finale, partly because of the episode's focus on the guest appearance of members of the ''Next Generation'' cast. The cancellation of ''Enterprise'' ended an 18-year run of new ''Star Trek'' series, which began with the ''Next Generation'' in 1987.


''Discovery'' (2017–present)

''Star Trek: Discovery'' is the first series of the
streaming television Streaming television is the digital distribution of television content, such as TV shows, as streaming media delivered over the Internet. Streaming television stands in contrast to dedicated terrestrial television delivered by Broadcast televis ...
''Star Trek'' revival; it begins as a prequel to the ''Original Series'', set roughly ten years prior. It premiered September 24, 2017 in the United States and Canada on
CBS CBS Broadcasting Inc., commonly shortened to CBS, the abbreviation of its former legal name Columbia Broadcasting System, is an American commercial broadcast television Television, sometimes shortened to TV, is a telecommunication m ...
. The series is shown on
Paramount+ Paramount+ is an American Video on demand#Subscription models, subscription video on-demand service owned by Paramount Global. The service's content is drawn primarily from the libraries of CBS Media Ventures (including CBS Studios), Paramount Me ...
in the United States; elsewhere, Netflix distributes the series worldwide, except for Canada. The cast includes: ''Discovery'' is a serialized drama in which each season follows a single overarching narrative. In a departure from previous ''Star Trek'' series, the primary protagonist,
Michael Burnham Michael Burnham is the fictional protagonist on '' Star Trek: Discovery'' portrayed by American actress Sonequa Martin-Green. She originally appears as the First Officer of USS ''Shenzhou'' under Philippa Georgiou ( Michelle Yeoh) until she c ...
(portrayed by Martin-Green), is not the captain of the titular ship for the first few seasons. The first season follows a war between the
United Federation of Planets In the fictional universe of ''Star Trek'' the United Federation of Planets (UFP) is the interstellar government with which, as part of its space force Starfleet, most of the characters and starships of the franchise are affiliated. Commonly refe ...
and the
Klingon The Klingons ( ; Klingon language, Klingon: ''tlhIngan'' ) are a fictional species in the science fiction franchise ''Star Trek''. Developed by screenwriter Gene L. Coon in 1967 for the Star Trek: The Original Series, original ''Star Trek'' ('' ...
Empire, instigated by Burnham, who is court-martialed, demoted, and assigned to the starship ''Discovery''; later seasons follow the crew of ''Discovery'' on other adventures.


''Short Treks'' (2018–2020)

''Star Trek: Short Treks'' is a short film anthology companion series initially exploring settings and characters from ''Discovery''. Later episodes feature the crew of the ''Enterprise'' under the command of Christopher Pike. The final episode of the second season serves as a teaser for '' Picard.''


''Picard'' (2020–present)

''Star Trek: Picard'', like ''Discovery'', is a serialized drama created for CBS All Access; it premiered on January 23, 2020. Set about 30 years after ''The Next Generation'', the series sees
Patrick Stewart Sir Patrick Stewart (born 13 July 1940) is an English actor who has a career spanning seven decades in various stage productions, television, film and video games. He has been nominated for Laurence Olivier Award, Olivier, Tony Award, Tony, Go ...
reprise his ''TNG'' role of
Jean-Luc Picard Jean-Luc Picard is a character (arts), fictional character in the ''Star Trek'' franchise, most often seen as the captain of the United Federation of Planets, Federation starship . Played by Patrick Stewart, Picard has appeared in the television ...
. The first season follows Picard in his retirement, seeking redemption for what he sees as his past failings, as he goes on an adventure to save the daughter of his late crewmate
Data In the pursuit of knowledge, data (; ) is a collection of discrete values that convey information, describing quantity, quality, fact, statistics, other basic units of meaning, or simply sequences of symbols that may be further interp ...
. The cast includes:


''Lower Decks'' (2020–present)

''Star Trek: Lower Decks'' is an animated adult comedy series created by the ''
Rick and Morty {{Infobox television , image = Rick and Morty title card (cropped).png , alt = , caption = , genre = {{Plainlist, * Animated sitcom An animated sitcom is a subgenre of the sitcom that ...
'' writer Mike McMahan. The series follows the support crew of "one of Starfleet's least important ships." The series premiered on August 6, 2020 on CBS All Access. The cast includes:


''Prodigy'' (2021–present)

''Star Trek: Prodigy'' is an animated series created by Kevin and Dan Hageman for Paramount+, and the cable channel
Nickelodeon Nickelodeon (often shortened to Nick) is an American pay television television channel, channel which launched on April 1, 1979, as the first cable channel for children. It is run by Paramount Global through its List of assets owned by Param ...
. The series follows a group of teenagers who use an abandoned starship to search for adventure. The series premiered on October 28, 2021. The cast includes:


''Strange New Worlds'' (2022–present)

''Star Trek: Strange New Worlds'' is a spinoff of ''Discovery'' and a
prequel A prequel is a literary, dramatic or cinematic work whose story precedes that of a previous work, by focusing on events that occur before the original narrative. A prequel is a work that forms part of a backstory to the preceding work. The term " ...
to the Original Series, created by Akiva Goldsman, Alex Kurtzman, and Jenny Lumet for Paramount+. It premiered in May 2022. It portrays the adventures of the U.S.S. ''Enterprise'' prior to James Kirk's captaincy, and focuses on episodic storytelling in contrast to the serialized narratives of ''Discovery''. The ''Enterprises crew in this series features several characters who were first introduced in the Original Series, now played by new actors, including
Ethan Peck Ethan Gregory Peck (born March 2, 1986) is an American actor. He is the grandson of actor Gregory Peck Eldred Gregory Peck (April 5, 1916 – June 12, 2003) was an Actor, American actor and one of the most popular film stars from the 1940s in ...
, Anson Mount and
Rebecca Romijn Rebecca Alie O'Connell (née Romijn ; born November 6, 1972) is an American actress and former model (person), model. She is known for her role as Mystique (comics), Mystique in the original trilogy (2000–2006) of the X-Men (film series), ...
reprising their ''Discovery'' season 2 roles as Spock, Captain Pike and Number One respectively. The cast includes:


In development

CBS and ''Star Trek'' producers Alex Kurtzman and Heather Kadin have announced that further animated and live-action television series are currently in development. In February 2021, it was announced that further series would only move forward once at least one of the current slate of series (''Discovery'', ''Picard'', ''Lower Decks'', ''Prodigy'', and ''Strange New Worlds'') concludes its run. One such series includes Michelle Yeoh reprising her role as the mirror universe's Philippa Georgiou of Section 31 from ''Discovery''. The expanded franchise reportedly also includes several series, including a series being developed by Stephanie Savage and Josh Schwartz that is set at
Starfleet Academy In the fictional universe A fictional universe, or fictional world, is a self-consistent setting with events, and often other elements, that differ from the real world. It may also be called an imagined, constructed, or fictional realm ...
, as well as ''Ceti Alpha V'', a limited series based on the character Khan Noonien Singh and his ''The Wrath of Khan'' storyline, written by Nicholas Meyer.


Film

Paramount Pictures has produced thirteen ''Star Trek'' feature films, the most recent being released in July 2016. The first six films continue the adventures of the cast of the ''Original Series''; the seventh film, ''Generations'', was intended as a transition from original cast to the cast of the ''Next Generation''; the next three films focused completely on the ''Next Generation'' cast. The eleventh film and its sequels occur in an alternate timeline with a new cast portraying the ''Original Series'' characters. Leonard Nimoy portrayed an elderly Spock in the films, providing a narrative link to what became known as the Prime Timeline. The alternate timeline was named "The ''Kelvin'' Timeline" by '' Star Trek Encyclopedia'' writers Michael and Denise Okuda, in honor of the starship USS ''Kelvin'' which was first seen in the 2009 film.


Films in development

Though initially reported as being placed on hold, Paramount confirmed in September 2020 that they haven't cancelled any of the ''Star Trek'' films that are currently in development. This includes the Tarantino film, ''Star Trek 4'' with the ''Kelvin'' Timeline cast, and Noah Hawley's film * Untitled Mark L. Smith film: In December 2017, an R-rated ''Star Trek'' film was announced as in-development with a script written by Mark L. Smith, from an original story pitch by
Quentin Tarantino Quentin Jerome Tarantino (; born March 27, 1963) is an American film director, writer, producer, and actor. His films are characterized by stylized violence, extended dialogue, profanity, Black comedy, dark humor, Nonlinear narrative, non-lin ...
and J. J. Abrams. Though the studio was courting Tarantino to serve as director, the filmmaker decided to pass on the project. The plot takes place primarily on Earth during the '30s in a
mobster A gangster is a crime, criminal who is a member of a gang. Most gangs are considered to be part of organized crime. Gangsters are also called mobsters, a term derived from ''Organized crime, mob'' and the suffix ''wikt:-ster, -ster''. Gangs pr ...
setting, and was based on an episode from the original ''Star Trek'' television series. The studio is open to adapting the script with another director. * ''Star Trek 4'': In April 2018, a fourth film in ''The Kelvin Timeline'' was announced to be in development with S. J. Clarkson hired as director. The script co-written by J. D. Payne and Patrick McKay, focused on Captain Kirk and his deceased father, George Kirk. The project was delayed due to scheduling conflicts and additional work on the script was required. In July 2021, it was announced that the next film would be directed by Matt Shakman, using a script by Lindsey Beer and Geneva Robertson-Dworet. In February 2022, at the Paramount Global Investors' Day event, it was officially announced that ''Star Trek 4'' will begin production in Spring of 2022. The main cast is in negotiations to return in their respective roles. Josh Friedman and Cameron Squires were hired to do a rewrite of the previous draft of the script. The project will be a joint-venture production between Paramount Pictures and Bad Robot Productions, with J. J. Abrams and Lindsey Weber signed on as producers. * Untitled Noah Hawley film: In November 2019, an additional film was announced as being in-development with
Noah Hawley Noah ''Nukh''; am, ኖህ, ''Noḥ''; ar, نُوح '; grc, Νῶε ''Nôe'' () is the tenth and last of the pre-Flood patriarchs The highest-ranking bishops in Eastern Orthodoxy, Oriental Orthodoxy, the Catholic Church (above major arch ...
signed onto the project as writer/director. By August 2020, the project was placed on hold, while studio executives decide which project will be
green-lit To green-light is to give permission to proceed with a project. The term is a reference to the green traffic signal, indicating "go ahead". Film industry In the context of the Film industry, film and Television programs#Development, televi ...
first. * Untitled Kalinda Vasquez film: In March 2021, it was announced that another film is in development. Kalinda Vasquez, who previously worked on ''Star Trek: Discovery'', will serve as screenwriter. The project will be a joint-venture production between Paramount Pictures and Bad Robot Productions, with J. J. Abrams serving as producer. * Untitled Nicholas Meyer film project: In March 2021, Nicholas Meyer announced that he and Steven Charles-Jaffe had written a treatment for a ''Star Trek'' film that takes place between ''The Motion Picture'' and ''Wrath of Khan''. The duo had proposed the project within the prior year to Alex Kurtzman, J. J. Abrams, and Paramount Pictures' Emma Watts.


Merchandise

Many licensed products are based on the ''Star Trek'' franchise. Merchandising is very lucrative for both studio and actors; by 1986 Nimoy had earned more than $500,000 from royalties. Products include novels, comic books, video games, and other materials, which are generally considered non-canon. ''Star Trek'' merchandise generated $4 billion for Paramount by 2002.


Books

Since 1967, hundreds of original novels, short stories, and television and movie adaptations have been published. The first original ''Star Trek'' novel was '' Mission to Horatius'' by Mack Reynolds, which was published in hardcover by Whitman Books in 1968. In 1968, Gene Roddenberry cooperated with Stephen Edward Poe, writing as Stephen Whitfield, on the nonfiction book ''The Making of Star Trek'' for
Ballantine Books Ballantine Books is a major book publisher located in the United States, founded in 1952 by Ian Ballantine with his wife, Betty Ballantine. It was acquired by Random House in 1973, which in turn was acquired by Bertelsmann in 1998 and remains p ...
. Among the most recent is th
Star Trek Collection of Little Golden Books
Three titles were published by Random House in 2019, a fourth is scheduled for July 2020. The first publisher of ''Star Trek'' fiction aimed at adult readers was
Bantam Books Bantam Books is an American publishing house owned entirely by parent company Random House, a subsidiary of Penguin Random House; it is an imprint of the Random House Publishing Group. It was formed in 1945 by Walter B. Pitkin, Jr., Sidney B. K ...
.
James Blish James Benjamin Blish () was an American science fiction and fantasy writer. He is best known for his ''Cities in Flight'' novels and his series of ''Star Trek'' novelizations written with his wife, J. A. Lawrence. His novel ''A Case of Conscienc ...
wrote
adaptations In biology, adaptation has three related meanings. Firstly, it is the dynamic evolutionary process of natural selection that fits organisms to their environment, enhancing their Fitness (biology), evolutionary fitness. Secondly, it is a stat ...
of episodes of the original series in twelve volumes from 1967 to 1977; in 1970, he wrote the first original Star Trek novel published by Bantam, '' Spock Must Die!''.
Pocket Books Pocket Books is a division of Simon & Schuster that primarily publishes paperback books. History Pocket Books produced the first Paperback#Mass market paperback, mass-market, pocket-sized paperback books in the United States in early 1939 and ...
published subsequent ''Star Trek'' novels. Prolific ''Star Trek'' novelists include
Peter David Peter Allen David (born September 23, 1956), often abbreviated PAD, is an American writer of comic books, novels, television, films and video games.Buxton, Marc (March 29, 2014)"From 'Future Imperfect' to '2099': Peter David's Greatest Hits" Co ...
, Diane Carey, Keith DeCandido, J.M. Dillard, Diane Duane, Michael Jan Friedman, and Judith and Garfield Reeves-Stevens. Several actors from the television series have also written or co-written books featuring their respective characters:
William Shatner William Shatner (born March 22, 1931) is a Canadian actor. In a career spanning seven decades, he is best known for his portrayal of James T. Kirk in the ''Star Trek'' franchise, from his 1965 debut as the captain of the starship USS Enterpri ...
,
John de Lancie John Sherwood de Lancie, Jr. (born March 20, 1948) is an American actor, director, producer, writer, and comedian, best known for his role as Q in various ''Star Trek ''Star Trek'' is an American science fiction media franchise creat ...
, Andrew J. Robinson, J. G. Hertzler and Armin Shimerman. ''Voyager'' producer
Jeri Taylor Jeri Taylor (born June 30, 1938) is a television screenwriter, scriptwriter and television producer, producer, who wrote many episodes of the ''Star Trek: The Next Generation and Star Trek: Voyager'' series. Early life She is an Alumnus, alumna ...
wrote two novels detailing the personal histories of ''Voyager'' characters. Screenplay writers
David Gerrold David Gerrold (born Jerrold David Friedman; January 24, 1944)Reginald, R. (September 12, 2010)''Science Fiction and Fantasy Literature, Volume 2'' Borgo Press p. 911. Archived at Google Books. Retrieved June 23, 2013. is an American science fic ...
, D. C. Fontana, and Melinda Snodgrass have also penned books. A 2014 scholarly work Newton Lee discussed the actualization of ''Star Trek's'' holodeck in the future by making extensive use of artificial intelligence and cyborgs.


Comics

''Star Trek''-based comics have been issued almost continuously since 1967, published by Marvel, DC, Malibu,
Wildstorm Wildstorm Productions, (stylized as WildStorm), is an American comic book imprint. Originally founded as an independent company established by Jim Lee under the name "Aegis Entertainment" and expanded in subsequent years by other creators, Wildst ...
, and Gold Key, among others. In 2009,
Tokyopop Tokyopop (styled TOKYOPOP; formerly known as Mixx Entertainment) is an American distributor, licensor and publisher of anime, manga, manhwa and Western manga-style works. The German publishing division produces German language, German translati ...
produced an anthology of ''Next Generation''-based stories presented in the style of Japanese
manga Manga (Japanese language, Japanese: 漫画 ) are comics or graphic novels originating from Japan. Most manga conform to a style developed in Japan in the late 19th century, and the form has a long prehistory in earlier Japanese art. The term ...
. In 2006,
IDW Publishing IDW Publishing is an American publisher of comic books, graphic novels, art books, and comic strip A comic strip is a Comics, sequence of drawings, often cartoons, arranged in interrelated panels to display brief humor or form a narrati ...
secured publishing rights to ''Star Trek'' comics and issued a prequel to the 2009 film, '' Star Trek: Countdown''. In 2012, IDW published the first volume of ''Star Trek – The Newspaper Strip'', featuring the work of Thomas Warkentin. As of 2020, IDS continues to produce new titles.


Games

The ''Star Trek'' franchise has numerous games in many formats. Beginning in 1967 with a
board game Board games are tabletop games that typically use . These pieces are moved or placed on a pre-marked board (playing surface) and often include elements of Tabletop game, table, Card game, card, Role-playing game, role-playing, and miniatures ga ...
based on the original series and continuing through today with online and DVD games, ''Star Trek'' games continue to be popular among fans. Video games based on the series include '' Star Trek: Legacy'' and '' Star Trek: Conquest''. An MMORPG based on ''Star Trek'' called ''
Star Trek Online ''Star Trek Online'' is a massively multiplayer online role-playing game (MMORPG) developed by Cryptic Studios based on the ''Star Trek'' franchise. The game is set in the 25th century, 30 years after the events of ''Star Trek: Nemesis''. ''Star ...
'' was developed by
Cryptic Studios Cryptic Studios is an American video game developer specializing in MMORPG, massively multiplayer online role-playing games. It is headquartered in Los Gatos, California and was a wholly owned Perfect World (company), Perfect World subsidiary, a ...
and published by Perfect World. It is set during the ''Next Generation'' era, about 30 years after the events of '' Star Trek: Nemesis''. The most recent video game was set in the alternate timeline from Abrams's ''Star Trek''. On June 8, 2010, WizKids announced the development of a ''Star Trek'' collectible miniatures game using the
HeroClix HeroClix is a collectible miniatures game that uses the Clix system that centers on the world of superhero comic books, especially the DC Comics and Marvel Comics, Marvel universes like Superman, Batman, Wonder Woman, Spider-Man, Hulk, the Incredi ...
game system. On December 9, 2021, ''Star Trek: Resurgence'', a narrative adventure video game set in the ''Next Generation'' era, was announced by Dramatic Labs.


Magazines

''Star Trek'' has led directly or indirectly to the creation of a number of magazines which focus either on science fiction or specifically on ''Star Trek''. ''
Starlog ''Starlog'' was a monthly science fiction magazine that was created in 1976 and focused primarily on ''Star Trek'' at its inception. Kerry O'Quinn and Norman Jacobs were its creators and it was published by Starlog Group, Inc. in August 1976. ' ...
'' was a magazine which was founded in the 1970s. Initially, its focus was on ''Star Trek'' actors, but then it expanded its scope. '' Star Trek: The Magazine'' was a magazine published in the U.S. that ceased publication in 2003. '' Star Trek Magazine'', originally published as ''Star Trek Monthly'' by
Titan Magazines Titan Magazines is the magazine-publishing division of Titan Publishing Group. Titan Magazines' publishing directors are Ricky Claydon and John Dziewiatkowski. History Titan Magazines launched in 1995 with ''Star Trek Magazine'' with John Fr ...
for the United Kingdom market, began in February 1995. The magazine has since expanded to worldwide distribution. Other magazines through the years included professional, as well as magazines published by fans, or
fanzine A fanzine (blend word, blend of ''fan (person), fan'' and ''magazine'' or ''-zine'') is a non-professional and non-official publication produced by fan (person), enthusiasts of a particular cultural phenomenon (such as a literary or musical genre) ...
s.


Cultural impact

The ''Star Trek'' media franchise is a multibillion-dollar industry, owned by Paramount Global. Gene Roddenberry sold ''Star Trek'' to NBC as a classic adventure drama; he pitched the show as "''Wagon Train'' to the Stars" and as '' Horatio Hornblower in Space''. The opening line, "to boldly go where no man has gone before," was taken almost verbatim from a U.S.
White House The White House is the official residence and workplace of the president of the United States. It is located at 1600 Pennsylvania Avenue Northwest, Washington, D.C., NW in Washington, D.C., and has been the residence of every U.S. preside ...
booklet on space produced after the
Sputnik Sputnik 1 (; see #Etymology, § Etymology) was the first artificial Earth satellite. It was launched into an elliptical low Earth orbit by the Soviet Union on 4 October 1957 as part of the Soviet space program. It sent a radio signal back to ...
flight in 1957. ''Star Trek'' and its spin-offs have proven highly popular in syndication and was broadcast worldwide. The show's cultural impact goes far beyond its longevity and profitability. ''Star Trek'' conventions have become popular among its fans, who call themselves " trekkie or "trekkers". An entire subculture has grown up around the franchise, which was documented in the film ''
Trekkies A Trekkie or Trekker is a fan (person), fan of the ''Star Trek'' franchise, or of specific television series or films within that franchise. History Many early Trekkies were also fans of ''The Man from U.N.C.L.E.'' (1964–1968), another show ...
''. ''Star Trek'' was ranked most popular cult show by ''
TV Guide TV Guide is an American digital media company that provides television program listings information as well as entertainment and television-related news. The company sold its print magazine division, TV Guide Magazine LLC, in 2008. Corpora ...
''. The franchise has also garnered many comparisons of the ''
Star Wars ''Star Wars'' is an American epic film, epic space opera multimedia franchise created by George Lucas, which began with the Star Wars (film), eponymous 1977 film and quickly became a worldwide popular culture, pop-culture Cultural impact of S ...
'' franchise being rivals in the science fiction genre with many fans and scholars. The ''Star Trek'' franchise inspired some designers of technologies, the Palm PDA and the handheld mobile phone. Michael Jones, Chief technologist of
Google Earth Google Earth is a computer program that renders a 3D computer graphics, 3D representation of Earth based primarily on satellite imagery. The program maps the Earth by superimposition, superimposing satellite images, aerial photography, and geog ...
, has cited the
tricorder A tricorder is a fictional handheld sensor that exists in the ''Star Trek ''Star Trek'' is an American science fiction media franchise created by Gene Roddenberry, which began with the Star Trek: The Original Series, eponymous 1960s tele ...
's mapping capability as one inspiration in the development of Keyhole/Google Earth. The Tricorder X Prize, a contest to build a medical tricorder device was announced in 2012. Ten finalists were selected in 2014, and the winner was to be selected in January 2016. However, no team managed to reach the required criteria. ''Star Trek'' also brought
teleportation Teleportation is the hypothetical transfer of matter or energy from one point to another without traversing the physical space between them. It is a common subject in science fiction Teleportation in fiction, literature and in other popular cul ...
to popular attention with its depiction of "matter-energy transport", with the famously misquoted phrase "
Beam me up, Scotty "Beam me up, Scotty" is a catchphrase and misquotation that made its way into popular culture Popular culture (also called mass culture or pop culture) is generally recognized by members of a society as a set of cultural practice, practi ...
" entering the vernacular. The ''Star Trek'' replicator is credited in the scientific literature with inspiring the field of
diatom A diatom (New Latin, Neo-Latin ''diatoma''), "a cutting through, a severance", from el, διάτομος, diátomos, "cut in half, divided equally" from el, διατέμνω, diatémno, "to cut in twain". is any member of a large group com ...
nanotechnology Nanotechnology, also shortened to nanotech, is the use of matter on an atomic, molecular, and Supramolecular complex, supramolecular scale for industrial purposes. The earliest, widespread description of nanotechnology referred to the particul ...
. In 1976, following a letter-writing campaign,
NASA The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA ) is an independent agencies of the United States government, independent agency of the US federal government responsible for the civil List of government space agencies, space program ...
named its prototype
space shuttle The Space Shuttle is a retired, partially reusable launch system, reusable low Earth orbital spacecraft system operated from 1981 to 2011 by the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) as part of the Space Shuttle program. I ...
''Enterprise'', after the fictional starship. Later, the introductory sequence to ''Star Trek: Enterprise'' included footage of this shuttle which, along with images of a naval sailing vessel called '' Enterprise'', depicted the advancement of human transportation technology. Beyond ''Star Trek'' fictional innovations, its contributions to television history included a multicultural and multiracial cast. While more common in subsequent years, in the 1960s it was controversial to feature an Enterprise crew that included a Japanese helmsman, a Russian navigator, and a black female communications officer. Captain Kirk's and Lt. Uhura's kiss, in the episode " Plato's Stepchildren", was also daring, and is often mis-cited as being American television's first scripted, interracial kiss, even though several other interracial kisses predated this one. Nichelle Nichols, who played the communications officer, said that the day after she told Roddenberry of her plan to leave the series, she was told a big fan wanted to meet her while attending a
NAACP The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) is a civil rights organization in the United States, formed in 1909 as an interracial endeavor to advance justice for African Americans by a group including W. E.&nb ...
dinner party: After the show, Nichols used this public standing to speak for women and
people of color The term "person of color" (plural, : people of color or persons of color; abbreviated POC) is primarily used to describe any person who is not considered "White people, white". In its current meaning, the term originated in, and is primarily a ...
and against their exclusion from the US human space program; NASA reacted by asking her to find people for its future Space Shuttle program. Nichols proceeded and successfully brought the first non-white people and women into the US space program, working in this quality for NASA from the late 1970s until the late 1980s. In 2020, the US effort to develop a vaccine to protect against
COVID-19 Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a contagious disease caused by a virus, the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The first known case was COVID-19 pandemic in Hubei, identified in Wuhan, China, in December ...
was named
Operation Warp Speed Operation Warp Speed (OWS) was a public–private partnership initiated by the United States government to facilitate and accelerate the development, manufacturing, and distribution of COVID-19 vaccines, therapeutics, and diagnostics. The firs ...
, which was suggested by a ''Star Trek'' fan, Dr. Peter Marks. Dr. Peters leads the unit at the
Food and Drug Administration The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA or US FDA) is a List of United States federal agencies, federal agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, Department of Health and Human Services. The FDA is respon ...
which approves vaccines and therapies.


Parodies

Early parodies of ''Star Trek'' included a famous sketch on ''
Saturday Night Live ''Saturday Night Live'' (often abbreviated to ''SNL'') is an American late-night live television sketch comedy and variety show created by Lorne Michaels and developed by Dick Ebersol that airs on NBC and Peacock (streaming service), Peacock. ...
'' titled " The Last Voyage of the Starship ''Enterprise''", with
John Belushi John Adam Belushi (January 24, 1949 – March 5, 1982) was an American comedian, actor, and musician, best known for being one of the seven Saturday Night Live cast members, original cast members of the NBC sketch comedy show ''Saturday Night Li ...
as Kirk,
Chevy Chase Cornelius Crane "Chevy" Chase (; born October 8, 1943) is an American comedian, actor and writer. He became a key cast member in the first season of ''Saturday Night Live'', where his recurring ''Weekend Update'' segment became a staple of the ...
as Spock and
Dan Aykroyd Daniel Edward Aykroyd ( ; born July 1, 1952) is a Canadian actor, comedian, producer, musician and writer. He was an original member of the "Not Ready for Prime Time Players" on ''Saturday Night Live'' (1975–1979). During his tenure on ''SNL'' ...
as McCoy. In the 1980s, ''Saturday Night Live'' did a sketch with William Shatner reprising his Captain Kirk role in ''The Restaurant Enterprise'', preceded by a sketch in which he played himself at a ''Trek'' convention angrily telling fans to "Get a Life", a phrase that has become part of ''Trek'' folklore. ''
In Living Color ''In Living Color'' is an American sketch comedy television series that originally ran on Fox Broadcasting Company, Fox from April 15, 1990 to May 19, 1994. Keenen Ivory Wayans created, wrote and starred in the program. The show was produced by ...
'' continued the tradition in a sketch where Captain Kirk is played by a fellow Canadian
Jim Carrey James Eugene Carrey (; born January 17, 1962) is a Canadian-American actor, comedian and artist. Known for his energetic slapstick performances, Carrey first gained recognition in 1990, after landing a role in the American sketch comedy tel ...
. A feature-length film that indirectly parodies ''Star Trek'' is ''
Galaxy Quest ''Galaxy Quest'' is a 1999 American science fiction comedy film directed by Dean Parisot and written by David Howard and Robert Gordon (screenwriter), Robert Gordon. A parody of and homage to science fiction film, science-fiction films and Scie ...
''. This film is based on the premise that aliens monitoring the broadcast of an Earth-based television series called ''Galaxy Quest'', modeled heavily on ''Star Trek'', believe that what they are seeing is real. Many ''Star Trek'' actors have been quoted saying that ''Galaxy Quest'' was a brilliant parody. ''Star Trek'' has been blended with
Gilbert and Sullivan Gilbert and Sullivan was a Victorian era, Victorian-era theatrical partnership of the dramatist W. S. Gilbert (1836–1911) and the composer Arthur Sullivan (1842–1900), who jointly created fourteen comic operas between 1871 and 1896, of which ...
at least twice. The North Toronto Players presented a ''Star Trek'' adaptation of Gilbert & Sullivan titled ''H.M.S. Starship Pinafore: The Next Generation'' in 1991 and an adaptation by Jon Mullich of Gilbert and Sullivan's '' H.M.S. Pinafore'' that sets the operetta in the world of ''Star Trek'' has played in Los Angeles and was attended by series luminaries Nichelle Nichols, D.C. Fontana and David Gerrold. A similar blend of Gilbert and Sullivan and ''Star Trek'' was presented as a benefit concert in San Francisco by the Lamplighters in 2009. The show was titled ''Star Drek: The Generation After That''. It presented an original story with Gilbert and Sullivan melodies. ''
The Simpsons ''The Simpsons'' is an American animated sitcom created by Matt Groening for the Fox Broadcasting Company. The series is a satirical depiction of American life, epitomized by the Simpson family, which consists of Homer Simpson, Homer, Marge ...
'' and ''
Futurama ''Futurama'' is an American animated science fiction animated sitcom, sitcom created by Matt Groening for the Fox Broadcasting Company. The series follows the adventures of the professional slacker Philip J. Fry, who is cryonics, cryogenically ...
'' television series and others have had many individual episodes parodying ''Star Trek'' or with ''Trek'' allusions. ''
Black Mirror ''Black Mirror'' is a British anthology series, anthology television series created by Charlie Brooker. Individual episodes explore a diversity of genres, but most are set in near-future dystopias with science fiction technology—a type of s ...
's'' ''Star Trek'' parody episode, " USS Callister", won four
Emmy Award The Emmy Awards, or Emmys, are an extensive range of awards for artistic and technical merit for the American and international television industry. A number of annual Emmy Award ceremonies are held throughout the calendar year, each with the ...
s, including the Outstanding Television Movie and Writing for a Limited Series, Movie or Drama, and was nominated for three more. In August 2010, the members of the
Internal Revenue Service The Internal Revenue Service (IRS) is the revenue service for the Federal government of the United States, United States federal government, which is responsible for collecting Taxation in the United States, U.S. federal taxes and administerin ...
created a ''Star Trek'' themed training video for a conference. Revealed to the public in 2013, the spoof along with parodies of other media franchises was cited as an example of the misuse of taxpayer funds in a congressional investigation. ''Star Trek'' has been parodied in several non-English movies, including the German '' Traumschiff Surprise – Periode 1'' which features a gay version of the ''Original Series'' bridge crew and a Turkish film that spoofs that same series' episode " The Man Trap" in one of the series of films based on the character Turist Ömer. An entire series of films and novel parodies titled '' Star Wreck'' has been created in Finnish. '' The Orville'' is a comedy-drama science fiction television series created by
Seth MacFarlane Seth Woodbury MacFarlane (; born October 26, 1973) is an American actor, animator, filmmaker, comedian, and singer. He is the creator and star of the television series '' Family Guy'' (since 1999) and '' The Orville'' (since 2017), and co-creat ...
that premiered on September 10, 2017, on
Fox Foxes are small to medium-sized, omnivorous mammals belonging to several genera of the family Canidae. They have a flattened skull, upright, triangular ears, a pointed, slightly upturned snout, and a long bushy tail (or ''brush''). Twelve sp ...
. MacFarlane, a longtime fan of the franchise who previously guest-starred on an episode of ''Enterprise'', created the series with a similar look and feel as the ''Star Trek'' series. MacFarlane has made references to ''Star Trek'' on his animated series ''
Family Guy ''Family Guy'' is an American animated sitcom originally conceived and created by Seth MacFarlane for the Fox Broadcasting Company. The show centers around the Griffin family, Griffins, a dysfunctional family consisting of parents Peter Griff ...
'', where the ''Next Generation'' cast guest-starred in the episode " Not All Dogs Go to Heaven". ''
Other Space ''Other Space'' is an American science fiction comedy streaming television Streaming television is the digital distribution of television content, such as TV shows, as streaming media delivered over the Internet. Streaming television stan ...
'' is a science fiction comedy streaming series which premiered on Yahoo! Screen on April 14, 2015. Created by
Paul Feig Paul Samuel Feig (; born September 17, 1962) is an American actor, comedian and filmmaker. He is known for directing films starring frequent collaborator Melissa McCarthy, including ''Bridesmaids (2011 film), Bridesmaids'' (2011), ''The Heat ...
, it is set in the 22nd century and follows the dysfunctional crew of an exploratory spaceship who become trapped in an unknown universe.


Fan productions

Until 2016, Paramount Pictures and CBS permitted fan-produced films and episode-like clips to be produced. Several veteran ''Star Trek'' actors and writers participated in many of these productions. Several producers turned to
crowdfunding Crowdfunding is the practice of funding a project or venture by raising money from a large number of people, typically via the internet. Crowdfunding is a form of crowdsourcing and Alternative Finance, alternative finance. In 2015, over was rais ...
, such as
Kickstarter Kickstarter is an American public benefit corporation based in Brooklyn Brooklyn () is a Boroughs of New York City, borough of New York City, coextensive with Kings County, in the U.S. state of New York (state), New York. Kings County is the ...
, to help with production and other costs. Popular productions include: ''New Voyages'' (2004–2016) and '' Star Trek Continues'' (2013–2017). Additional productions include: ''Of Gods and Men'' (2008), originally released as a three-part web series, and '' Prelude to Axanar''. Audio dramatizations such as ''The Continuing Mission'' (2007–2016) have also been published by fans. In 2016, CBS published guidelines which restricted the scope of fan productions, such as limiting the length of episodes or films to fifteen minutes, limiting production budgets to $50,000, and preventing actors and technicians from previous ''Star Trek'' productions from participating. A number of highly publicized productions have since been cancelled or have gone abeyant.


Documentaries

Star Trek has been a popular subject for
documentaries A documentary film or documentary is a non-fictional film, motion-picture intended to "document reality, primarily for the purposes of instruction, education or maintaining a Recorded history, historical record". Bill Nichols (film critic), Bil ...
reviewing the history of the franchise. Some examples include: * ''Journey’s End: Saga of Star Trek Next Generation,'' hosted by Jonathon Frakes, it reviewed the final season of the series and the upcoming ''Generations.'' *''
Trekkies A Trekkie or Trekker is a fan (person), fan of the ''Star Trek'' franchise, or of specific television series or films within that franchise. History Many early Trekkies were also fans of ''The Man from U.N.C.L.E.'' (1964–1968), another show ...
'' (1997), exploring the subculture of Star Trek fandom. * '' Star Trek: Beyond the Final Frontier'' (2007), exploring a giant
Christie's Christie's is a British auction house founded in 1766 by James Christie (auctioneer), James Christie. Its main premises are on King Street, St James's in London, at Rockefeller Center in New York City and at Alexandra House in Hong Kong. It is ...
auction of tens of thousand of ''Star Trek'' props, hosted by actor Leonard Nimoy. * ''The Center Seat'' (2016), an 85-minute special on ''Star Trek'' for its 50th anniversary, aired by the
History History (derived ) is the systematic study and the documentation of the human activity. The time period of event before the invention of writing systems is considered prehistory. "History" is an umbrella term comprising past events as we ...
network. * ''
For the Love of Spock ''For the Love of Spock'' is a 2016 American documentary film about actor Leonard Nimoy produced by 455 Films and directed by his son Adam Nimoy, who started it before his father's death on February 27, 2015. The documentary deals with the story ...
'' (2016), focusing on the history and impact of the character
Spock Spock is a Character (arts), fictional character in the ''Star Trek'' media franchise. He first appeared in the Star Trek: The Original Series, original ''Star Trek'' series serving aboard the starship USS Enterprise (NCC-1701), USS ''Enterprise ...
. * ''What We Left Behind'' (2019), about the production and legacy of ''Star Trek: Deep Space Nine''. * '' The Center Seat: 55 Years of Star Trek'' (2021), an eight-episode documentary series ordered by the cable network
History History (derived ) is the systematic study and the documentation of the human activity. The time period of event before the invention of writing systems is considered prehistory. "History" is an umbrella term comprising past events as we ...
covering the franchise's decades-long history. It was narrated by Gates McFadden, who was also one of the
executive producers Executive producer (EP) is one of the top positions in the making of a commercial entertainment product. Depending on the medium, the executive producer may be concerned with management accounting In management accounting or managerial accountin ...
. Some documentaries have been funded by the community by money raised by
crowdfunding Crowdfunding is the practice of funding a project or venture by raising money from a large number of people, typically via the internet. Crowdfunding is a form of crowdsourcing and Alternative Finance, alternative finance. In 2015, over was rais ...
. ''What We Left Behind'' raised nearly $650,000 in this way, and a planned Voyager documentary raised $450,000 in 24 hours.


Awards and honors

Of the various science fiction awards for drama, only the
Hugo Award The Hugo Award is an annual literary award for the best science fiction Science fiction (sometimes shortened to Sci-Fi or SF) is a genre of speculative fiction which typically deals with imagination, imaginative and futuristic concepts s ...
dates back as far as the original series. In 1968, all five nominees for a Hugo Award were individual episodes of ''Star Trek'', as were three of the five nominees in 1967. The only ''Star Trek'' series not to receive a Hugo Award nomination are the ''Animated Series'' and ''Voyager'', though only the ''Original Series'' and ''Next Generation'' won in any nominated category. No ''Star Trek'' feature film has ever won a Hugo Award. In 2008, the fan-made '' Star Trek: New Voyages'' episode "World Enough and Time" was nominated for the Hugo Award for Best Short Drama. One of the most successful films was ''Star Trek IV: The Voyage Home'', which grossed a global total of $133 million against a $21 million budget.''The Voyage Home'' garnered 11 nominations at the 14th annual
Saturn Award The Saturn Awards are American awards presented annually by the Academy of Science Fiction, Fantasy and Horror Films. The awards were created to honor science fiction, fantasy, and Horror fiction, horror in film, but have since grown to reward ...
s, tying '' Aliens'' for number of nominations. Nimoy and Shatner were nominated for best actor for their roles, and Catherine Hicks was nominated for best supporting actress. At the
59th Academy Awards The 59th Academy Awards ceremony, organized by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences The Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS, often pronounced ; also known as simply the Academy or the Motion Picture Academy) is a ...
, ''The Voyage Home'' was nominated for Best Cinematography, Sound (
Terry Porter Terry Porter (born April 8, 1963) is an American former college basketball coach and former player in the National Basketball Association (NBA). He was most recently the head men's basketball coach at the Portland Pilots, University of Portland. ...
, David J. Hudson, Mel Metcalfe and Gene Cantamessa), Sound Effects Editing, and Original Score. The episode " The Big Goodbye" in the first season of ''Star Trek: The Next Generation'', in recognition of its "new standard of quality for first-run syndication", the episode was honored with a
Peabody Award The George Foster Peabody Awards (or simply Peabody Awards or the Peabodys) program, named for the American businessman and philanthropist George Peabody, honor the most powerful, enlightening, and invigorating stories in television, radio, and ...
in 1987. "The Big Goodbye" was also nominated for two
Emmy Awards The Emmy Awards, or Emmys, are an extensive range of awards for artistic and technical merit for the American and international television industry. A number of annual Emmy Award ceremonies are held throughout the calendar year, each with the ...
in the categories of Outstanding Cinematography for a Series and Outstanding Costumes for a Series, with costume designer William Ware Theiss winning the award in the latter category. ''
Star Trek ''Star Trek'' is an American science fiction media franchise created by Gene Roddenberry, which began with the Star Trek: The Original Series, eponymous 1960s television series and quickly became a worldwide Popular culture, pop-culture Cul ...
'' (2009) won the Academy Award for Best Makeup and Hairstyling, the franchise's first Academy Award. In 2016, the franchise was listed in the
Guinness World Records ''Guinness World Records'', known from its inception in 1955 until 1999 as ''The Guinness Book of Records'' and in previous United States editions as ''The Guinness Book of World Records'', is a reference book published annually, listing world ...
as the most successful science fiction television franchise in the world. Examples: * List of awards and nominations received by ''Star Trek: Deep Space Nine'' * List of awards and nominations received by ''Star Trek: Enterprise'' * List of awards and nominations received by ''Star Trek: The Next Generation'' * List of awards and nominations received by ''Star Trek: The Original Series'' * List of awards and nominations received by ''Star Trek: Voyager''


Episode rankings


''TV Guide'' (1996)

In 1996, ''
TV Guide TV Guide is an American digital media company that provides television program listings information as well as entertainment and television-related news. The company sold its print magazine division, TV Guide Magazine LLC, in 2008. Corpora ...
'' published the following as the ten best ''Star Trek'' episodes for the franchise's 30th anniversary: # " The City on the Edge of Forever" (''The Original Series'') # "
Amok Time "Amok Time" is the Star Trek: The Original Series (season 2), second season premiere episode of the American science fiction television series ''Star Trek: The Original Series, Star Trek''. Written by science fiction author Theodore Sturgeon, s ...
" (''The Original Series'') # " Mirror, Mirror" (''The Original Series'') # " The Doomsday Machine" (''The Original Series'') # " Journey to Babel" (''The Original Series'') # " 11001001" (''The Next Generation'') # " Yesterday's Enterprise" (''The Next Generation'') # " The Best of Both Worlds" (Part I) (''The Next Generation'') # "
Tapestry Tapestry is a form of textile arts, textile art, traditionally Weaving, woven by hand on a loom. Tapestry is weft-faced weaving, in which all the warp (weaving), warp threads are hidden in the completed work, unlike most woven textiles, where b ...
" (''The Next Generation'') # " The Visitor" (''Deep Space Nine'')


50th Anniversary Convention (2016)

At the 50th Anniversary ''Star Trek'' Las Vegas (STLV) convention, in 2016, the following were voted by fans as the best episodes: #" The City on the Edge of Forever" (''The Original Series'') # " In the Pale Moonlight" (''Deep Space Nine'') # " The Inner Light" (''The Next Generation'') # "
Amok Time "Amok Time" is the Star Trek: The Original Series (season 2), second season premiere episode of the American science fiction television series ''Star Trek: The Original Series, Star Trek''. Written by science fiction author Theodore Sturgeon, s ...
" (''The Original Series'') # " Yesterday's Enterprise" (''The Next Generation'') # " The Visitor" (''Deep Space Nine'') # "
Chain of Command A command hierarchy is a group of people who carry out orders based on others' authority within the group. It can be viewed as part of a power structure, in which it is usually seen as the most vulnerable and also the most powerful part. Milit ...
" (''The Next Generation'') # " Balance of Terror" (''The Original Series'') # " In a Mirror, Darkly" (''Enterprise'') # " The Magnificent Ferengi" (''Deep Space Nine'') Additionally, fans voted the following as the worst episodes: #" These Are the Voyages..." (''Enterprise'') # " Code of Honor" (''The Next Generation'') # " Threshold" (''Voyager'') # " Turnabout Intruder" (''The Original Series'') # "
Shades of Gray Variations of gray or grey include achromatic grayscale shades, which lie exactly between white and black, and nearby colors with low colorfulness. A selection of a number of these various colors is shown below. Chart of computer web color ...
" (''The Next Generation'') # "
Sub Rosa ''Sub rosa'' (New Latin New Latin (also called Neo-Latin or Modern Latin) is the List of revived languages, revival of Literary Latin used in original, scholarly, and scientific works since about 1500. Modern scholarly and technical nomenc ...
" (''The Next Generation'') # "
And the Children Shall Lead "And the Children Shall Lead" is the fourth episode of the Star Trek: The Original Series (season 3), third season of the American science fiction television series ''Star Trek: The Original Series, Star Trek''. Written by Edward J. Lakso and dir ...
" (''The Original Series'') # " Move Along Home" (''Deep Space Nine'') # " The Alternative Factor" (''The Original Series'') # " Precious Cargo" (''Enterprise'')


Washington Post (2016)

In 2016, ''
The Washington Post ''The Washington Post'' (also known as the ''Post'' and, informally, ''WaPo'') is an American daily newspaper published in Washington, D.C. It is the most widely circulated newspaper within the Washington metropolitan area and has a large nati ...
'' ranked the best live-action television episodes: # " The Best of Both Worlds" (''The Next Generation'') # " Darmok" (''The Next Generation'') # " Balance of Terror" (''The Original Series'') # " In the Pale Moonlight" (''Deep Space Nine'') # "
Chain of Command A command hierarchy is a group of people who carry out orders based on others' authority within the group. It can be viewed as part of a power structure, in which it is usually seen as the most vulnerable and also the most powerful part. Milit ...
" (''The Next Generation'') # " Yesterday's Enterprise" (''The Next Generation'') # " The Doomsday Machine" (''The Original Series'') # " The Measure of a Man" (''The Next Generation'') # " Journey to Babel" (''The Original Series'') # " First Contact" (''The Next Generation'')


Corporate ownership

''Star Trek'' began as a joint-production of Norway Productions, owned by Roddenberry, and
Desilu Desilu Productions () was an American television production company founded and co-owned by husband and wife Desi Arnaz and Lucille Ball. The company is best known for shows such as ''I Love Lucy'', ''The Lucy Show'', ''Mannix'', ''The Untouchabl ...
, owned by
Desi Arnaz Desiderio Alberto Arnaz y de Acha III (March 2, 1917 – December 2, 1986) was a Cuban-born American actor, bandleader, and film and television producer. He played Lucy and Ricky Ricardo, Ricky Ricardo on the American television sitcom ''I Lov ...
. The profit-sharing agreement for the series split proceeds between Norway, Desilu (later
Paramount Television The original incarnation of Paramount Television was the name of the television production division of the American film studio Paramount Pictures, that was responsible for the production of Viacom (2005–2019), Viacom television programs, unti ...
), William Shatner's production company, and the broadcast network, NBC. However, ''Star Trek'' lost money during its initial broadcast, and NBC did not expect to recoup its losses by selling the series into syndication, nor did Paramount. With NBC's approval, Paramount offered its share of the series to Roddenberry sometime in 1970. However, Roddenberry could not raise the $150,000 () offered by the studio. Paramount would go on to license the series to television syndicators worldwide. NBC's remaining broadcast and distribution rights eventually returned to Paramount and Roddenberry sometime before 1986, which coincided with the development of what would become '' The Next Generation''. As for Desilu, the studio was acquired by Gulf+Western. It was then reorganized as the television production division of
Paramount Pictures Paramount Pictures Corporation is an American film and television production company, production and Distribution (marketing), distribution company and the main namesake division of Paramount Global (formerly ViacomCBS). It is the fifth-oldes ...
, which Gulf+Western had acquired in 1966. Gulf+Western sold its remaining industrial assets in 1989, renaming itself Paramount Communications. Sometime before 1986, Sumner Redstone had acquired a controlling stake of Viacom via his family's theater chain,
National Amusements National Amusements, Inc. is an American privately owned movie theater operator and mass media holding company incorporated in Maryland and based in Norwood, Massachusetts. It is the controlling shareholder of Paramount Global. History The co ...
. Viacom was established in 1952 as a division of
CBS CBS Broadcasting Inc., commonly shortened to CBS, the abbreviation of its former legal name Columbia Broadcasting System, is an American commercial broadcast television Television, sometimes shortened to TV, is a telecommunication m ...
responsible for syndicating the network's in-house productions, originally called
CBS Films CBS Films Inc. was an American film production and distribution company founded in 2007 as a subsidiary of CBS Corporation and was considered a Major film studio#Mini-majors, mini-major studio up until 2019. CBS Films originally was planned t ...
. In 1994, Viacom and Paramount Communications were merged. Viacom then merged with its former parent,
CBS Corporation The second incarnation of CBS Corporation (the first being a short-lived rename of the Westinghouse Electric Corporation The Westinghouse Electric Corporation was an American manufacturing company founded in 1886 by George Westinghouse. ...
, in 1999. National Amusements and the Redstone family increased their stake in the combined company between 1999 and 2005.


Split ownership (2005–2019)

In 2005, the Redstone family reorganized Viacom, spinning off the conglomerate's assets as two independent groups: the new Viacom, and the new
CBS Corporation The second incarnation of CBS Corporation (the first being a short-lived rename of the Westinghouse Electric Corporation The Westinghouse Electric Corporation was an American manufacturing company founded in 1886 by George Westinghouse. ...
. National Amusements and the Redstone family retained approximately 80% ownership of both CBS and Viacom. ''Star Trek'' was split between the two entities. The terms of this split were not known. However, CBS held all copyrights, marks, production assets, and film negatives, to all ''Star Trek'' television series. CBS also retained the rights to all likenesses, characters, names and settings, and stories, and the right to license ''Star Trek'', and its spin-offs, to merchandisers, and publishers, etc. The rights were exercised via the new
CBS Television Studios CBS Studios, Inc. is an American television production company A production company, production house, production studio, or a production team is a studio that creates works in the fields of performing arts, new media art, film, television s ...
, which was carved out of the former
Paramount Television The original incarnation of Paramount Television was the name of the television production division of the American film studio Paramount Pictures, that was responsible for the production of Viacom (2005–2019), Viacom television programs, unti ...
. Viacom, which housed
Paramount Pictures Paramount Pictures Corporation is an American film and television production company, production and Distribution (marketing), distribution company and the main namesake division of Paramount Global (formerly ViacomCBS). It is the fifth-oldes ...
, retained the feature film library, and exclusive rights to produce new feature films for a limited time. Viacom also retained home video distribution rights for all television series produced before 2005. However, home video editions of the various television series released after the split, as well as streaming video versions of episodes available worldwide, carried variants of the new CBS Television Studios livery in addition to the original Paramount Television Studios livery. It was unclear who retained the
synchronization Synchronization is the coordination of events to operate a system in unison. For example, the Conductor (music), conductor of an orchestra keeps the orchestra synchronized or ''in time''. Systems that operate with all parts in synchrony are sai ...
or
streaming Streaming media is multimedia Multimedia is a form of communication that uses a combination of different content forms such as Text (literary theory), text, Sound, audio, Image, images, Animation ...
rights. Rights and distribution issues, and the fraught relationship between the leadership at CBS, Viacom, and the National Amusements' board of directors, resulted in a number of delayed and or cancelled ''Star Trek'' productions between 2005 and 2019. Additionally, the development and release of the new ''
Star Trek ''Star Trek'' is an American science fiction media franchise created by Gene Roddenberry, which began with the Star Trek: The Original Series, eponymous 1960s television series and quickly became a worldwide Popular culture, pop-culture Cul ...
'' film, in 2009, was met with resistance by executives at CBS, as was '' Into Darkness'' (2013) and '' Beyond'' (2016), which affected merchandising, tie-in media, and promotion for the new films. During this period, both CBS and Viacom continued to list ''Star Trek'' as an important asset in their prospectus to investors, and in corporate filings made to the
Securities and Exchange Commission The U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) is an independent agencies of the United States government, independent agency of the United States federal government, created in the aftermath of the Wall Street Crash of 1929. The primary pu ...
.


Current ownership

While several attempts were made to merge Viacom and CBS, power struggles between the major stakeholders of the companies prevented this from happening. In 2019, after the resignation of CBS CEO Leslie Moonves, negotiations to merge CBS and Viacom began in earnest. These negotiations were led by
Shari Redstone Shari Ellin Redstone (born April 14, 1954) is an American media executive with a background in numerous aspects of the entertainment industry and related ventures. She currently serves as the non-executive chairwoman of Paramount Global (formerly ...
, chairman of the National Amusements, and Joe Ianniello, then CEO of Viacom. On August 13, 2019, CBS and Viacom boards of directors reached an agreement to reunite the conglomerates as a single entity called
ViacomCBS Paramount Global ( doing business as Paramount) is an American multinational mass media and entertainment conglomerate owned and operated by National Amusements (79.4%) and headquartered at One Astor Plaza in Midtown Manhattan Manha ...
. National Amusements' board of directors approved the merger on October 28, 2019, which was finalized on December 4. This entity would be renamed Paramount Global on February 15, 2022.


See also

* List of space science fiction franchises * Outline of ''Star Trek'' * Timeline of science fiction * Comparison of Star Wars and Star Trek


Notes


References


Further reading


External links

* *
''Star Trek''
at
NASA The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA ) is an independent agencies of the United States government, independent agency of the US federal government responsible for the civil List of government space agencies, space program ...
– Enterprising
Nebulae A nebula ('cloud' or 'fog' in Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally a dialect spoken in the lower Tiber area (then known as Lat ...
{{DEFAULTSORT:Star Trek American science fiction television series Mass media franchises introduced in 1966 Paramount Global franchises Science fantasy Science fiction Soft science fiction Fiction about outer space Space opera Television franchises Television shows adapted into comics Television shows adapted into films Television shows adapted into novels Television shows adapted into video games