HOME

TheInfoList




Stanford University, officially Leland Stanford Junior University, is a
private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, British singer Dusty Springfield, after an absence of nearly two decades from the charts. Both "In Pri ...
research university A research university is a university A university ( la, universitas, 'a whole') is an educational institution, institution of higher education, higher (or Tertiary education, tertiary) education and research which awards academic degrees in va ...
in
Stanford, California Stanford is a census-designated place A census-designated place (CDP) is a Place (United States Census Bureau), concentration of population defined by the United States Census Bureau for statistical purposes only. CDPs have been used in each ...
. The campus occupies , among the largest in the United States, and enrolls over 17,000 students. Stanford is ranked among the best universities in the world. Stanford was founded in 1885 by Leland and
Jane Stanford Jane Elizabeth Lathrop Stanford (August 25, 1828 – February 28, 1905) was a co-founder of Stanford University , mottoeng = "The wind of freedom blows" , type = Private university, Private research university , academic_affiliations = Assoc ...

Jane Stanford
in memory of their only child, Leland Stanford Jr., who had died of
typhoid fever Typhoid fever, also known as typhoid, is a disease caused by ''Salmonella'' serotype Typhi bacteria. Symptoms may vary from mild to severe, and usually begin 6 to 30 days after exposure. Often there is a gradual onset of a high fever over several ...
at age 15 the previous year. Leland Stanford was a
U.S. senator The United States Senate is the upper chamber of the United States Congress The United States Congress or U.S. Congress is the bicameral legislature of the federal government of the United States and consists of the House of Rep ...
and former
governor of California The governor of California is the head of government The head of government is either the highest or second highest official in the executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, or a self-governing colony, autonomous region, or ...
who made his fortune as a
railroad tycoon ''Railroad Tycoon'' is a business simulation game series. There are five versions; the original ''Railroad Tycoon (video game), Railroad Tycoon'' (1990), ''Railroad Tycoon Deluxe'' (1993), ''Railroad Tycoon II'' (1998), ''Railroad Tycoon 3'' (20 ...
. The school admitted its first students on October 1, 1891, as a
coeducational Mixed-sex education, also known as mixed-gender education, co-education, or coeducation (abbreviated to co-ed or coed), is a system of education Education is the process of facilitating , or the acquisition of , s, , morals, s, s, and ...
and
non-denominational A non-denominational person or organization that does not follow or is not restricted to any particular or specific religious denomination. Overview The term has been used in the context of various faiths including Jainism, Baháʼí Faith, Zoroast ...
institution. Stanford University struggled financially after the death of Leland Stanford in 1893 and again after much of the campus was damaged by the 1906 San Francisco earthquake. Following
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
,
provost Provost may refer to: People * Provost (name)Provost is a surname of French origin, deriving from a civil or military official responsible for maintaining order. It moved to England with its conquering by William of Normandy in 1066. It is stil ...
Frederick Terman Frederick Emmons Terman (; June 7, 1900 – December 19, 1982) was an American professor Professor (commonly abbreviated as Prof.) is an academic An academy (Attic Greek: Ἀκαδήμεια; Koine Greek Ἀκαδημία) is an institutio ...
supported faculty and graduates' entrepreneurialism to build self-sufficient local industry in what would later be known as
Silicon Valley Silicon Valley is a region in Northern California Northern California (colloquially known as NorCal) is a geographic and cultural region that generally comprises the northern portion of the U.S. state of California California is a U.S ...

Silicon Valley
. The university is organized around seven schools: three schools consisting of 40 academic departments at the undergraduate level as well as four professional schools that focus on
graduate programs Student receives degree from the Monterrey Institute of Technology and Higher Education, Mexico City, 2013 A graduate school (sometimes shortened to grad school) is a school A school is an educational institution designed to provide le ...
in law, medicine, education, and business. All schools are on the same campus. Students compete in 36 varsity sports, and the university is one of two private institutions in the
Division I FBS The NCAA Division I Football Bowl Subdivision (FBS), also known as Division I-A, is the top level of college football College football is gridiron football consisting of American football in the United States, American football played by te ...
Pac-12 Conference The Pac-12 Conference is a collegiate athletic conference An athletic conference is a collection of sports team A sports team is a group of individuals who play sport Sport pertains to any form of Competition, competitive physical ac ...
. Stanford has won 128
NCAA The National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) is a nonprofit organization that regulates student athletes from up to 1,268 North American institutions and conferences. It also organizes the athletic sports, athletic programs of colleges ...
team championships, more than any other university, and was awarded the
NACDA Directors' Cup The NACDA Learfield IMG College Directors' Cup, known informally by its original name of the Directors' Cup, is an award given annually by the National Association of Collegiate Directors of Athletics to the colleges and universities in the Unite ...
for 25 consecutive years, beginning in 1994–1995. In addition, as of 2021, Stanford students and alumni have won at least 296 Olympic medals including 150 gold medals. As of April 2021, 85
Nobel laureates The Nobel Prize The Nobel Prizes ( ; sv, Nobelpriset ; no, Nobelprisen ) are five separate prizes that, according to Alfred Nobel's Will and testament, will of 1895, are awarded to "those who, during the preceding year, have conferred th ...
, 29
Turing Award The ACM A. M. Turing Award is an annual prize given by the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) for contributions "of lasting and major technical importance to the computer field". It is generally recognized as the highest distinction in com ...
laureates, and eight
Fields Medal The Fields Medal is a prize awarded to two, three, or four mathematician A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as quantity ...
ists have been affiliated with Stanford as students, alumni, faculty, or staff. In addition, Stanford is particularly noted for its entrepreneurship and is one of the most successful universities in attracting funding for start-ups. Stanford alumni have founded
numerous companies Many may refer to: * plural *A Quantifier (linguistics), quantifier that can be used with count nouns - often preceded by "as" or "too" or "so" or "that"; amounting to a large but indefinite number; "many temptations"; "a good many"; "many directio ...
, which combined produce more than $2.7 trillion in annual revenue and have created 5.4 million jobs as of 2011, roughly equivalent to the 7th largest economy in the world (). Stanford is the alma mater of one
president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of the United States of America. The president directs the Federal government of the United States#Executive branch, executive branch of the Federal gover ...

president of the United States
(
Herbert Hoover Herbert Clark Hoover (August 10, 1874 – October 20, 1964) was an American politician and engineer who served as the 31st from 1929 to 1933 and a member of the , holding office during the onset of the . Before serving as president, Hoover l ...

Herbert Hoover
), 74 living billionaires, and 17 astronauts. It is also one of the leading producers of
Fulbright Scholars The Fulbright Program, including the Fulbright–Hays Program, is one of several United States Cultural Exchange Programs with the goal to improve intercultural relations, cultural diplomacy, and intercultural competence between the people of ...
,
Marshall Scholars The Marshall Scholarship is a postgraduate Postgraduate education (graduate education in North America) involves learning and studying for Academic degree, academic or professional degrees, academic or professional certificates, academic or ...
,
Rhodes Scholars 250px, Rhodes House in Oxford, designed by Sir Herbert Baker">Oxford.html" ;"title="Rhodes House in Oxford">Rhodes House in Oxford, designed by Sir Herbert Baker The Rhodes Scholarship is an international Postgraduate education, postgraduate a ...
, and members of the
United States Congress The United States Congress is the legislature of the federal government of the United States. It is Bicameralism, bicameral, comprising a lower body, the United States House of Representatives, House of Representatives, and an upper body, t ...

United States Congress
.


History

Stanford University was founded in 1885 by Leland and Jane Stanford, dedicated to the memory of Leland Stanford Jr, their only child. The institution opened in 1891 on Stanford's previous Palo Alto farm. Jane and Leland Stanford modeled their university after the great eastern universities, most specifically
Cornell University Cornell University is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, British singer Dusty Springfield, after an absence of nearly two ...
in
Ithaca, New York Ithaca is a city and college town A college town or university town is a community (often a separate town A town is a human settlement. Towns are generally larger than villages and smaller than city, cities, though the criter ...
. Stanford was referred to as the "Cornell of the West" in 1891 due to a majority of its faculty being former Cornell affiliates (professors, alumni, or both), including its first president,
David Starr Jordan David Starr Jordan (January 19, 1851 – September 19, 1931) was the founding president of Stanford University, serving from 1891 to 1913. He was an ichthyologist during his research career and then served as president of Indiana University ...

David Starr Jordan
, and second president,
John Casper Branner John Casper Branner (July 4, 1850 – March 1, 1922)Memorial Reso ...
. Both Cornell and Stanford were among the first to make higher education accessible, non-sectarian, and open to women as well as men. Cornell is credited as one of the first American universities to adopt that radical departure from traditional education, and Stanford became an early adopter as well. From an architectural point of view, the Stanfords, particularly Jane, wanted their university to look different from the eastern ones, which had often sought to emulate the style of English university buildings. They specified in the founding grant that the buildings should "be like the old adobe houses of the early Spanish days; they will be one-storied; they will have deep window seats and open fireplaces, and the roofs will be covered with the familiar dark red tiles". This guides the campus buildings to this day. The Lelands also hired renowned landscape architect
Frederick Law Olmsted Frederick Law Olmsted (April 26, 1822August 28, 1903) was an American landscape architect A landscape architect is a person who is educated in the field of landscape architecture. The practice of landscape architecture includes: site analysi ...

Frederick Law Olmsted
to design the campus who previously designed the Cornell campus. When Leland Stanford died in 1893, the continued existence of the university was in jeopardy due to a federal lawsuit against his estate, but Jane Stanford insisted the university remain in operation throughout the financial crisis. The university suffered major damage from the 1906 San Francisco earthquake; most of the damage was repaired, but a new library and gymnasium were demolished, and some original features of and the
Quad QUaD, an acronym for QUEST at DASI, was a ground-based cosmic microwave background (CMB) Polarization (waves), polarization experiment at the South Pole. QUEST (Q and U Extragalactic Sub-mm Telescope) was the original name attributed to the bolomete ...
were never restored. During the early 20th century, the university added four professional graduate schools.
Stanford University School of Medicine Stanford University School of Medicine is the medical school A medical school is a tertiary educational institution, or part of such an institution, that teaches medicine Medicine is the Art (skill), art, science, and Praxis (process) , p ...
was established in 1908 when the university acquired
Cooper Medical College Stanford University School of Medicine is the medical school of Stanford University and is located in Stanford, California. It traces its roots to the Medical Department of the University of the Pacific (United States), University of the Pacific, ...
in San Francisco; it moved to the Stanford campus in 1959. The university's law department, established as an undergraduate curriculum in 1893, was transitioned into a professional
law school A law school (also known as a law centre or college of law) is an institution specializing in legal education Legal education is the education of individuals in the principles, practices, and theory of law Law is a system A syste ...
starting in 1908, and received accreditation from the
American Bar Association The American Bar Association (ABA), founded August 21, 1878, is a voluntary Voluntary may refer to: * Voluntary (music)In music a voluntary is a piece of music, usually for an organ, that is played as part of a church service. In English-speak ...

American Bar Association
in 1923. The
Stanford Graduate School of Education The Stanford Graduate School of Education (also known as Stanford GSE, or GSE) is one of the seven schools of Stanford University Stanford University, officially Leland Stanford Junior University, is a private Private or privates may refer ...

Stanford Graduate School of Education
grew out of the Department of the History and Art of Education, one of the original 21 departments at Stanford, and became a professional graduate school in 1917. The
Stanford Graduate School of Business The Stanford Graduate School of Business (also known as Stanford GSB or the GSB) is the graduate business school A business school is a university-level institution that confers degrees in business administration or management. A business school ...
was founded in 1925 at the urging of then-trustee
Herbert Hoover Herbert Clark Hoover (August 10, 1874 – October 20, 1964) was an American politician and engineer who served as the 31st from 1929 to 1933 and a member of the , holding office during the onset of the . Before serving as president, Hoover l ...

Herbert Hoover
. In 1919, The Hoover Institution on War, Revolution and Peace was started by
Herbert Hoover Herbert Clark Hoover (August 10, 1874 – October 20, 1964) was an American politician and engineer who served as the 31st from 1929 to 1933 and a member of the , holding office during the onset of the . Before serving as president, Hoover l ...

Herbert Hoover
to preserve artifacts related to
World War I World War I, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war A world war is "a war engaged in by all or most of the principal nations of the world". The term is usually reserved for ...

World War I
. The
SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, originally named Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, is a United States Department of Energy The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is a cabinet-level department of the United States Governmen ...
(originally named the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center), established in 1962, performs research in particle physics. In the 1940s and 1950s, engineering professor and later provost
Frederick Terman Frederick Emmons Terman (; June 7, 1900 – December 19, 1982) was an American professor Professor (commonly abbreviated as Prof.) is an academic An academy (Attic Greek: Ἀκαδήμεια; Koine Greek Ἀκαδημία) is an institutio ...
encouraged Stanford engineering graduates to invent products and start their own companies. During the 1950s he established Stanford Industrial Park, a high-tech commercial campus on university land. Also in the 1950s
William Shockley William Bradford Shockley Jr. (February 13, 1910 – August 12, 1989) was an American physicist and inventor. He was the manager of a research group at Bell Labs Nokia Bell Labs (formerly named Bell Labs Innovations (1996–2007), AT&T Bell ...
, co-inventor of the silicon transistor, recipient of the 1956
Nobel Prize for Physics ) , image = Nobel Prize.png , alt = A golden medallion with an embossed image of a bearded man facing left in profile. To the left of the man is the text "ALFR•" then "NOBEL", and on the right, the text (smaller) "NAT•" then "M ...
, and later professor of physics at Stanford, moved to the Palo Alto area and founded a company,
Shockley Semiconductor Laboratory Shockley Semiconductor Laboratory was a pioneering semiconductor A semiconductor material has an Electrical resistivity and conductivity, electrical conductivity value falling between that of a Electrical conductor, conductor, such as metallic ...

Shockley Semiconductor Laboratory
. The next year eight of his employees resigned and formed a competing company,
Fairchild Semiconductor Fairchild Semiconductor International, Inc. was an American semiconductor A semiconductor material has an electrical conductivity Electrical resistivity (also called specific electrical resistance or volume resistivity) is a fundamental pr ...
. The presence of so many high-tech and semiconductor firms helped to establish Stanford and the mid-
Peninsula A peninsula ( la, paeninsula from 'almost' and 'island') is a landform A landform is a natural or artificial feature of the solid surface of the Earth or other planetary body A planet is an astronomical body Astronomy (from el ...
as a hotbed of innovation, eventually named
Silicon Valley Silicon Valley is a region in Northern California Northern California (colloquially known as NorCal) is a geographic and cultural region that generally comprises the northern portion of the U.S. state of California California is a U.S ...

Silicon Valley
after the key ingredient in transistors. Shockley and Terman are often described, separately or jointly, as the "fathers of Silicon Valley".


Land

Most of Stanford is on an campus, one of the largest in the
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...

United States
. It is on the
San Francisco Peninsula The San Francisco Peninsula is a peninsula A peninsula ( la, paeninsula from ' "almost" and ' "island") is a landform surrounded by water on most of its border while being connected to a mainland from which it extends. The surrounding water ...
, in the northwest part of the
Santa Clara Valley The Santa Clara Valley is a geologic trough in Northern California Northern California (colloquially known as NorCal) is a geographic and cultural region that generally comprises the northern portion of the U.S. state of California. Spanning ...
(
Silicon Valley Silicon Valley is a region in Northern California Northern California (colloquially known as NorCal) is a geographic and cultural region that generally comprises the northern portion of the U.S. state of California California is a U.S ...

Silicon Valley
) approximately southeast of
San Francisco San Francisco (; Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards, a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language **Spanish cuisine Other places * Spanish, Ontario, Canada * Spanish River (dis ...

San Francisco
and approximately northwest of San Jose. In 2008, 60% of this land remained undeveloped. Stanford's main campus includes a
census-designated place A census-designated place (CDP) is a concentration of population defined by the United States Census Bureau The United States Census Bureau (USCB), officially the Bureau of the Census, is a principal agency of the U.S. Federal Statistical S ...
within
unincorporatedUnincorporated may refer to: * Unincorporated area, land not governed by a local municipality * Unincorporated entity, a type of organization * Unincorporated territories of the United States, territories under U.S. jurisdiction, to which Congress h ...
Santa Clara County Santa Clara County, officially the County of Santa Clara, is California California is a U.S. state, state in the Western United States. With over 39.3million residents across a total area of approximately , it is the List of states and terri ...
, although some of the university land (such as the
Stanford Shopping Center Stanford Shopping Center is an upscale open air shopping mall located on Route 82 ( El Camino Real) at Sand Hill Road in Palo Alto, California Palo Alto () is a charter city located in the northwestern corner of Santa Clara County, Califor ...
and the
Stanford Research Park Stanford Research Park (SRP) is a technology park File:Technology Centre Teknia Ltd Microteknia area.jpg, 200px, Technology Centre Teknia (Kuopio Science Park), Kuopio Science Park in Finland A science park (also called a "university resear ...
) is within the city limits of
Palo Alto Palo Alto (; for "tall stick") is a located in the northwestern corner of , United States, in the . The city is named after a known as . The city was established by when he founded , following the death of his son, Palo Alto includes port ...

Palo Alto
. The campus also includes much land in unincorporated
San Mateo County San Mateo County ( ), officially the County of San Mateo, is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first published ...
(including the
SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, originally named Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, is a United States Department of Energy The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is a cabinet-level department of the United States Governmen ...
and the
Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve rises above Coast Live Oak ''Quercus agrifolia'', the California live oak coast live oak, or holm oak, is a highly variable, often shrubby evergreen oak tree, a type of live oak, native to the California Floristic Province. It grows Western Califo ...
), as well as in the city limits of Menlo Park (Stanford Hills neighborhood), Woodside, and
Portola Valley Portola Valley is an incorporated town in San Mateo County, California, United States, which was founded in 1964. It is one of the wealthiest towns in America, per the American Community Survey among U.S. communities with a population larger than ...
.


Central campus

The academic central campus is adjacent to Palo Alto, bounded by El Camino Real, Stanford Avenue, Jane Stanford Way, and
Sand Hill Road Sand Hill Road, often shortened to just "Sand Hill", is an arterial road in western Silicon Valley, California, running through Palo Alto, California, Palo Alto, Menlo Park, California, Menlo Park, and Woodside, California, Woodside, notable for i ...
. The
United States Postal Service The United States Postal Service (USPS; also known as the Post Office, U.S. Mail, or Postal Service) is an independent agency A regulatory agency or regulatory authority, is a Public benefit corporation Public-benefit corporation is a te ...
has assigned it two
ZIP Codes A ZIP Code is a postal code used by the United States Postal Service The United States Postal Service (USPS; also known as the Post Office, U.S. Mail, or Postal Service) is an Independent agencies of the United States government, independe ...
: 94305 for campus mail and 94309 for P.O. box mail. It lies within
area code 650 Area code 650 is a telephone area code in the North American Numbering Plan (NANP) for the San Francisco Bay Area in the U.S. state of California. It was split from area code 415 on August 2, 1997, and includes most of San Mateo County, California ...

area code 650
.


Non-central campus

Stanford currently operates in various locations outside of its central campus. On the founding grant: *
Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve rises above Coast Live Oak ''Quercus agrifolia'', the California live oak coast live oak, or holm oak, is a highly variable, often shrubby evergreen oak tree, a type of live oak, native to the California Floristic Province. It grows Western Califo ...
is a natural reserve south of the central campus owned by the university and used by wildlife biologists for research. *
SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, originally named Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, is a United States Department of Energy The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is a cabinet-level department of the United States Governmen ...
is a facility west of the central campus operated by the university for the Department of Energy. It contains the longest
linear particle accelerator uses radio waves from a series of RF cavities at the start of the linac to accelerate the electron beam in bunches to energies of 100 MeV. A linear particle accelerator (often shortened to linac) is a type of particle accelerator , a synch ...
in the world, on of land. * Golf course and a seasonal lake: The university also has its own golf course and a seasonal lake ( Lake Lagunita, actually an irrigation reservoir), both home to the vulnerable
California tiger salamander The California tiger salamander (''Ambystoma californiense'') is a Vulnerable species, vulnerable amphibian native to Northern California, California. It is a mole salamander. Previously considered to be a subspecies of the tiger salamander (''A. ...
. As of 2012 Lake Lagunita was often dry and the university had no plans to artificially fill it. Off the founding grant: *
Hopkins Marine StationHopkins Marine Station is the marine laboratory of Stanford University , mottoeng = "The wind of freedom blows" , type = Private university, Private research university , academic_affiliations = Association of American Universities, AAUNationa ...
, in Pacific Grove, California, is a
marine biology Marine biology is the scientific study of the biology of marine life Marine life, sea life, or ocean life is the plant Plants are predominantly photosynthetic Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to ...
research center owned by the university since 1892. * Study abroad locations: unlike typical
study abroad International students, or foreign students, according to the OECD The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD; french: Organisation de Coopération et de Développement Économiques, OCDE) is an intergovernmental organ ...
programs, Stanford itself operates in several locations around the world; thus, each location has Stanford faculty-in-residence and staff in addition to students, creating a "mini-Stanford." * Redwood City campus for many of the university's administrative offices in
Redwood City, California Redwood City is a city on the San Francisco Peninsula in Northern California's San Francisco Bay Area, Bay Area, approximately south of San Francisco, and northwest of San Jose, California, San Jose. Redwood City's history spans its earliest inh ...
, a few miles north of the main campus. In 2005, the university purchased a small, campus in Midpoint Technology Park intended for staff offices; development was delayed by The Great Recession. In 2015 the university announced a development plan and the Redwood City campus opened in March 2019. * The Bass Center in
Washington, D.C. ) , image_skyline = , image_caption = Clockwise from top left: the Washington Monument The Washington Monument is an obelisk within the National Mall The National Mall is a Landscape architecture, landscaped ...
provides a base, including housing, for the Stanford in Washington program for undergraduates. It includes a small art gallery open to the public. * China: Stanford Center at Peking University, housed in the Lee Jung Sen Building, is a small center for researchers and students in collaboration with
Peking University Peking University (abbreviation: PKU; ; Literal translation, lit. "Beijing University"), informally known as Beida (), is a major research university in Beijing, China, and a member of the elite C9 League of Chinese universities. Peking Univer ...

Peking University
.


Faculty residences

Many Stanford faculty members live in the "Faculty Ghetto," within walking or biking distance of campus. The Faculty Ghetto is composed of land owned by Stanford. Similar to a
condominium A condominium (or condo for short) is a building structure divided into several units that are each separately owned, surrounded by common areas that are jointly owned. Residential condominiums are frequently constructed as apartment buildings ...
, the houses can be bought and sold but the land under the houses is rented on a 99-year lease. Houses in the "Ghetto" appreciate and depreciate, but not as rapidly as overall
Silicon Valley Silicon Valley is a region in Northern California Northern California (colloquially known as NorCal) is a geographic and cultural region that generally comprises the northern portion of the U.S. state of California California is a U.S ...

Silicon Valley
values.


Other uses

Some of the land is managed to provide revenue for the university such as the
Stanford Shopping Center Stanford Shopping Center is an upscale open air shopping mall located on Route 82 ( El Camino Real) at Sand Hill Road in Palo Alto, California Palo Alto () is a charter city located in the northwestern corner of Santa Clara County, Califor ...
and the
Stanford Research Park Stanford Research Park (SRP) is a technology park File:Technology Centre Teknia Ltd Microteknia area.jpg, 200px, Technology Centre Teknia (Kuopio Science Park), Kuopio Science Park in Finland A science park (also called a "university resear ...
. Stanford land is also leased for a token rent by the
Palo Alto Unified School District The Palo Alto Unified School District is a public school district A school district is a special-purpose district that operates local public primary and secondary schools in various nations. North America United States In the U.S, most K ...
for several schools including
Palo Alto High School Palo Alto Senior High School, known locally as "Paly", is a public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing and disseminating information from an individual or an organization An organization, or org ...

Palo Alto High School
and
Gunn High School Henry M. Gunn Senior High School is one of two public high schools in Palo Alto, California, Palo Alto, California, along with its rival Palo Alto High School. Established in , Gunn High School was named after Henry Martin Gunn, who served as the ...
. El Camino Park, the oldest Palo Alto city park (established 1914), is also on Stanford land.


Landmarks

Contemporary campus landmarks include the Main Quad and , the
Cantor Center for Visual Arts The Iris & B. Gerald Cantor Center for Visual Arts at Stanford University, formerly the Stanford University Museum of Art, and commonly known as the Cantor Arts Center, is an art museum on the campus of Stanford University in Stanford, California. ...
and the
Bing Concert Hall Bing Concert Hall is a performing arts facility at Stanford University that opened in January 2013. The heart of the building is the oval-shaped concert hall, which has 842 seats arranged in a vineyard style surrounding the stage in terraces. All ...
, the
Stanford Mausoleum Image:Stanford Mausoleum Sphinx.jpg, Sphinx in front of the Mausoleum The Stanford Mausoleum, located in the Northwest of the Stanford University campus in the Stanford University Arboretum, holds the remains of the university's namesake Leland Sta ...

Stanford Mausoleum
with the nearby
Angel of Grief ''Angel of Grief'' or the ''Weeping Angel'' is an 1894 sculpture by William Wetmore Story for the grave of his wife Emelyn Story at the Protestant Cemetery in Rome. Its full title bestowed by the creator was ''The Angel of Grief Weeping Over the ...
,
Hoover Tower Hoover Tower, viewed from the west Hoover Tower is a structure on the campus of Stanford University , mottoeng = "The wind of freedom blows" , type = Private university, Private research university , academic_affiliations = Association of A ...

Hoover Tower
, the
Rodin François Auguste René Rodin (12 November 184017 November 1917) was a French sculptor Sculpture is the branch of the visual arts The visual arts are art forms such as painting, drawing, printmaking, sculpture Sculpture is the b ...

Rodin
sculpture garden, the Papua New Guinea Sculpture Garden, the Arizona Cactus Garden, the Stanford University Arboretum, Green Library and the Dish (landmark), the Dish. Frank Lloyd Wright's 1937 Hanna–Honeycomb House and the 1919 Lou Henry Hoover House are both listed on the National Register of Historic Places. White Memorial Fountain (also known as "The Claw") between the Stanford Bookstore and the Old Union is a popular place to meet and to engage in the Stanford custom of "fountain hopping"; it was installed in 1964 and designed by Aristides Demetrios after a national competition as a memorial for two brothers in the class of 1949, William N. White and John B. White II, one of whom died before graduating and one shortly after in 1952. Has information on the White brothers that slightly corrects some of the facts in other articles. File:Stanford Memorial Church Interior 2.jpg, Interior of the Stanford Memorial Church at the center of the Main Quad File:Stanford University Hoover Tower.JPG,
Hoover Tower Hoover Tower, viewed from the west Hoover Tower is a structure on the campus of Stanford University , mottoeng = "The wind of freedom blows" , type = Private university, Private research university , academic_affiliations = Association of A ...

Hoover Tower
, at , the tallest building on campus File:Stanstadium view.jpg, The new (2006) Stanford Stadium, site of home football games File:Stanford University Arches with Memorial Church in the background.jpg, Stanford Quad with Memorial Church in the background File:The Dish, Stanford University.jpg, The Dish (landmark), The Dish, a diameter radio telescope on the Stanford foothills overlooking the main campus File:Claw Fountain at Stanford Univerisity.JPG, White Memorial Fountain (The Claw)


Administration and organization

Stanford is a private, non-profit university administered as a corporate trust governed by a privately appointed board of trustees with a maximum membership of 38. Trustees serve five-year terms (not more than two consecutive terms) and meet five times annually. A new trustee is chosen by the current trustees by ballot. The Stanford trustees also oversee the
Stanford Research Park Stanford Research Park (SRP) is a technology park File:Technology Centre Teknia Ltd Microteknia area.jpg, 200px, Technology Centre Teknia (Kuopio Science Park), Kuopio Science Park in Finland A science park (also called a "university resear ...
, the
Stanford Shopping Center Stanford Shopping Center is an upscale open air shopping mall located on Route 82 ( El Camino Real) at Sand Hill Road in Palo Alto, California Palo Alto () is a charter city located in the northwestern corner of Santa Clara County, Califor ...
, the
Cantor Center for Visual Arts The Iris & B. Gerald Cantor Center for Visual Arts at Stanford University, formerly the Stanford University Museum of Art, and commonly known as the Cantor Arts Center, is an art museum on the campus of Stanford University in Stanford, California. ...
, Stanford University Medical Center, and many associated medical facilities (including the Lucile Packard Children's Hospital). The board appoints a president to serve as the chief executive officer of the university, to prescribe the duties of professors and course of study, to manage financial and business affairs, and to appoint nine vice presidents. The 11th and current president of Stanford University is Marc Trevor Tessier-Lavigne, a Canadian-born neuroscientist. The provost is the chief academic and budget officer, to whom the deans of each of the seven schools report. Persis Drell became the 13th provost in February 2017. As of 2018, the university was organized into seven academic schools. The schools of Stanford University School of Humanities and Sciences, Humanities and Sciences (27 departments), Stanford University School of Engineering, Engineering (nine departments), and Stanford University School of Earth, Energy & Environmental Sciences, Earth, Energy & Environmental Sciences (four departments) have both graduate and undergraduate programs while the Schools of Stanford Law School, Law, Stanford University School of Medicine, Medicine, Stanford Graduate School of Education, Education and Stanford University School of Business, Business have graduate programs only. The powers and authority of the faculty are vested in the Academic Council, which is made up of tenure and non-tenure line faculty, research faculty, senior fellows in some policy centers and institutes, the president of the university, and some other academic administrators, but most matters are handled by the Faculty Senate, made up of 55 elected representatives of the faculty. The Associated Students of Stanford University (ASSU) is the student government for Stanford and all registered students are members. Its elected leadership consists of the Undergraduate Senate elected by the undergraduate students, the Graduate Student Council elected by the graduate students, and the President and Vice President elected as a Ticket (election), ticket by the entire student body. Stanford is the beneficiary of a special clause in the California Constitution, which explicitly exempts Stanford property from taxation so long as the property is used for educational purposes.


Endowment and donations

The university's financial endowment, endowment, managed by the Stanford Management Company, was valued at $27.7 billion as of August 31, 2019. Payouts from the Stanford endowment covered approximately 21.8% of university expenses in the 2019 fiscal year. In the 2018 NACUBO-TIAA survey of colleges and universities in the United States and Canada, only Harvard University, the University of Texas System, and Yale University had larger endowments than Stanford. In 2006, President John L. Hennessy launched a five-year campaign called the Stanford Challenge, which reached its $4.3 billion fundraising goal in 2009, two years ahead of time, but continued fundraising for the duration of the campaign. It concluded on December 31, 2011, having raised $6.23 billion and breaking the previous campaign fundraising record of $3.88 billion held by Yale. Specifically, the campaign raised $253.7 million for undergraduate financial aid, as well as $2.33 billion for its initiative in "Seeking Solutions" to global problems, $1.61 billion for "Educating Leaders" by improving K-12 education, and $2.11 billion for "Foundation of Excellence" aimed at providing academic support for Stanford students and faculty. Funds supported 366 new fellowships for graduate students, 139 new endowed chairs for faculty, and 38 new or renovated buildings. The new funding also enabled the construction of a facility for stem cell research; a new campus for the business school; an expansion of the law school; a new Engineering Quad; a new art and art history building; an on-campus concert hall; the new Cantor Arts Center; and a planned expansion of the medical school, among other things. In 2012, the university raised $1.035 billion, becoming the first school to raise more than a billion dollars in a year.


Academics


Admissions

Stanford is considered by ''U.S. News & World Report, US News'' to be 'most selective', with an acceptance rate of 4%. Half of applicants accepted to Stanford have an SAT score between 1440 and 1570 or an ACT score of 32 and 35. Admissions officials consider a student's GPA to be an important academic factor, with emphasis on an applicant's high school class rank and letters of recommendation. In terms of non-academic materials as of 2019, Stanford ranks extracurricular activities, talent/ability and character/personal qualities as 'very important' in making first-time, first-year admission decisions, while ranking the interview, whether the applicant is a first-generation university applicant, legacy preferences, volunteer work and work experience as 'considered'.


Teaching and learning

Stanford follows a quarter system with the autumn quarter usually beginning in late September and the spring quarter ending in mid-June. The full-time, four-year undergraduate program has an arts and sciences focus with high graduate student coexistence. Stanford is accredited by the Western Association of Schools and Colleges. Stanford's admission process is need-blind for U.S. citizens and permanent residents; while it is not need-blind for international students, 64% are on need-based aid, with an average aid package of $31,411. In 2012–13, the university awarded $126 million in need-based financial aid to 3,485 students, with an average aid package of $40,460. Eighty percent of students receive some form of financial aid. Stanford has a no-loan policy. For undergraduates admitted starting in 2015, Stanford waives tuition, room, and board for most families with incomes below $65,000, and most families with incomes below $125,000 are not required to pay tuition; those with incomes up to $150,000 may have tuition significantly reduced. Seventeen percent of students receive Pell Grants, a common measure of low-income students at a college.


Research centers and institutes

Stanford is Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education, classified among "R1: Doctoral Universities – Very high research activity." The university's research expenditure in fiscal year 2018 was $1.157 billion. As of 2016 the Office of the Vice Provost and Dean of Research oversaw Stanford University centers and institutes, eighteen independent laboratories, centers, and institutes. Other Stanford-affiliated institutions include the
SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, originally named Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, is a United States Department of Energy The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is a cabinet-level department of the United States Governmen ...
(originally the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center), the Stanford Research Institute (an independent institution which originated at the university), the Hoover Institution (a conservative think tank) and the Hasso Plattner Institute of Design (a multidisciplinary design school in cooperation with the Hasso Plattner Institute of University of Potsdam that integrates product design, engineering, and business management education). Stanford is home to the Martin Luther King Jr. Research and Education Institute which grew out of and still contains the Martin Luther King Jr. Papers Project, a collaboration with the King Center for Nonviolent Social Change, King Center to publish the King papers held by the King Center. It also runs the John S. Knight Fellowships for Professional Journalists, John S. Knight Fellowship for Professional Journalists and the Center for Ocean Solutions, which brings together marine science and policy to address challenges facing the ocean. Together with UC Berkeley and UC San Francisco, Stanford is part of the Biohub, a new medical science research center founded in 2016 by a $600 million commitment from Facebook CEO and founder Mark Zuckerberg and pediatrician Priscilla Chan.


Libraries and digital resources

As of 2014, Stanford University Libraries (SUL) held a collection of more than 9.3 million volumes, nearly 300,000 rare or special books, 1.5 million e-books, 2.5 million audiovisual materials, 77,000 serials, nearly 6 million microform holdings, and thousands of other digital resources. The main library in the SU library system is Cecil H. Green Library, Green Library, which also contains various meeting and conference rooms, study spaces, and reading rooms. Lathrop Library (previously Meyer Library, demolished in 2015), holds various student-accessible media resources and houses one of the largest East Asia collections with 540,000 volumes.


Arts

Stanford is home to the
Cantor Center for Visual Arts The Iris & B. Gerald Cantor Center for Visual Arts at Stanford University, formerly the Stanford University Museum of Art, and commonly known as the Cantor Arts Center, is an art museum on the campus of Stanford University in Stanford, California. ...
, a museum with 24 galleries, sculpture gardens, terraces, and a courtyard first established in 1891 by Jane and Leland Stanford as a memorial to their only child. The center's collection of works by
Rodin François Auguste René Rodin (12 November 184017 November 1917) was a French sculptor Sculpture is the branch of the visual arts The visual arts are art forms such as painting, drawing, printmaking, sculpture Sculpture is the b ...

Rodin
is among the largest in the world. The Thomas Welton Stanford Gallery, which was built in 1917, serves as a teaching resource for the Department of Art & Art History as well as an exhibition venue. In 2014, Stanford opened the Anderson Collection, a new museum focused on postwar American art and founded by the donation of 121 works by food service moguls Mary and Harry W. Anderson, Harry Anderson. There are outdoor art installations throughout the campus, primarily sculptures, but some murals as well. The Papua New Guinea Sculpture Garden near Roble Hall features includes wood carvings and "totem poles." The Stanford music department sponsors many ensembles including five choirs, the Stanford Symphony Orchestra, Stanford Taiko, and the Stanford Wind Ensemble. Extracurricular activities include theater groups such as Ram's Head Theatrical Society, the Stanford Improvisors, the Stanford Shakespeare Society, and the Stanford Savoyards, a group dedicated to performing the works of Gilbert and Sullivan. Stanford is also host to List of Stanford University a cappella groups, ten ''a cappella'' groups, including the Stanford Mendicants, Mendicants (Stanford's first), Stanford Counterpoint, Counterpoint (the first all-female group on the West Coast of the United States, West Coast), the Stanford Fleet Street Singers, Stanford Harmonics, Harmonics, Talisman A Cappella, Talisman, Stanford Everyday People, Everyday People, Stanford Raagapella, Raagapella.


Reputation and rankings

In Rankings of universities in the United States, United States college ranking measures Stanford ranks high, sometimes first (see infoboxes above). ''Slate (magazine), Slate'' in 2014 dubbed Stanford as "the Harvard of the 21st century". ''The New York Times'' in the same year concluded "Stanford University has become America's 'it' school, by measures that Harvard once dominated." From polls of college applicants done by The Princeton Review, every year from 2013 to 2020 the most commonly named "dream college" for students was Stanford; separately, parents, too, most frequently named Stanford their "dream college." Globally Stanford is also ranked among the top universities in the world (see infoboxes above). The ''Academic Ranking of World Universities (ARWU)'' ranked Stanford second in the world (after Harvard) most years from 2003 to 2020. ''Times Higher Education'' recognizes Stanford as one of the world's "six super brands" on its ''World Reputation Rankings'', along with University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, Harvard University, Harvard, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, MIT, and University of Oxford, Oxford.


Discoveries and innovation


Natural sciences

* Biological synthesis of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) – Arthur Kornberg synthesized DNA material and won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1959 for his work at Stanford. * First Transgenic organism – Stanley Norman Cohen, Stanley Cohen and Herbert Boyer were the first scientists to transplant genes from one living organism to another, a fundamental discovery for genetic engineering. Thousands of products have been developed on the basis of their work, including human growth hormone and hepatitis B vaccine. * Laser – Arthur Leonard Schawlow shared the 1981 Nobel Prize in Physics with Nicolaas Bloembergen and Kai Siegbahn for his work on lasers. * Nuclear magnetic resonance – Felix Bloch developed new methods for nuclear magnetic precision measurements, which are the underlying principles of the magnetic resonance imaging, MRI.


Computer and applied sciences

* ARPANET – Stanford Research Institute, formerly part of Stanford but on a separate campus, was the site of one of the four original ARPANET nodes. * Internet—Stanford was the site where the original design of the Internet was undertaken. Vint Cerf led a research group to elaborate the design of the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP/IP) that he originally co-created with Robert E. Kahn (Bob Kahn) in 1973 and which formed the basis for the architecture of the Internet. * Frequency modulation synthesis – John Chowning of the Music department invented the FM music synthesis algorithm in 1967, and Stanford later licensed it to Yamaha Corporation. * Google – Google began in January 1996 as a research project by Larry Page and Sergey Brin when they were both PhD students at Stanford. They were working on the Stanford Digital Library Project (SDLP). The SDLP's goal was "to develop the enabling technologies for a single, integrated and universal digital library" and it was funded through the National Science Foundation, among other federal agencies. * Klystron tube – invented by the brothers Russell and Sigurd Varian at Stanford. Their prototype was completed and demonstrated successfully on August 30, 1937. Upon publication in 1939, news of the klystron immediately influenced the work of U.S. and UK researchers working on radar equipment. * RISC – DARPA, ARPA funded VLSI project of microprocessor design. Stanford and University of California, Berkeley, UC Berkeley are most associated with the popularization of this concept. The Stanford MIPS would go on to be commercialized as the successful MIPS architecture, while Berkeley RISC gave its name to the entire concept, commercialized as the SPARC. Another success from this era were IBM's efforts that eventually led to the IBM POWER instruction set architecture, PowerPC, and Power ISA. As these projects matured, a wide variety of similar designs flourished in the late 1980s and especially the early 1990s, representing a major force in the Unix workstation market as well as embedded processors in laser printers, router (computing), routers and similar products. * SUN workstation – Andy Bechtolsheim designed the SUN workstation for the Stanford University Network communications project as a personal Computer-aided design, CAD workstation, which led to Sun Microsystems.


Businesses and entrepreneurship

Stanford is one of the most successful universities in creating companies and licensing its inventions to existing companies; it is often held up as a model for technology transfer.Nigel Page
The Making of a Licensing Legend: Stanford University’s Office of Technology Licensing
Chapter 17.13 in Sharing the Art of IP Management. Globe White Page Ltd, London, U.K. 2007
Timothy Lenoir. Inventing the entrepreneurial university: Stanford and the co-evolution of Silicon Valley pp. 88–128 in Building Technology Transfer within Research Universities: An Entrepreneurial Approach Edited by Thomas J. Allen and Rory P. O'Shea. Cambridge University Press, 2014. Stanford's Office of Technology Licensing is responsible for commercializing university research, intellectual property, and university-developed projects. The university is described as having a strong venture culture in which students are encouraged, and often venture capital, funded, to launch their own companies. Companies founded by Stanford alumni generate more than $2.7 trillion in annual revenue, equivalent to the 10th-largest economy in the world. Some companies closely associated with Stanford and their connections include: * Hewlett-Packard, 1939, co-founders William Redington Hewlett, William R. Hewlett (B.S, PhD) and David Packard (M.S). * Silicon Graphics, 1981, co-founders James H. Clark (Associate Professor) and several of his grad students. * Sun Microsystems, 1982, co-founders Vinod Khosla (M.B.A), Andy Bechtolsheim (PhD) and Scott McNealy (M.B.A). * Cisco Systems, Cisco, 1984, founders Leonard Bosack (M.S) and Sandy Lerner (M.S) who were in charge of Stanford Computer Science and Graduate School of Business computer operations groups respectively when the hardware was developed. * Yahoo!, 1994, co-founders Jerry Yang (B.S, M.S) and David Filo (M.S). * Google, 1998, co-founders Larry Page (M.S) and Sergey Brin (M.S). * LinkedIn, 2002, co-founders Reid Hoffman (B.S), Konstantin Guericke (B.S, M.S), Eric Lee (B.S), and Alan Liu (B.S). * Instagram, 2010, co-founders Kevin Systrom (B.S) and Mike Krieger (B.S). * Snapchat, 2011, co-founders Evan Spiegel and Bobby Murphy (businessman), Bobby Murphy (B.S). * Coursera, 2012, co-founders Andrew Ng (Associate Professor) and Daphne Koller (Professor, PhD).


Student life


Student body

Stanford enrolled 6,996 undergraduate and 10,253 graduate students as of the 2019–2020 school year. Women comprised 50.4% of undergraduates and 41.5% of graduate students. In the same academic year, the freshman retention rate was 99%. Stanford awarded 1,819 undergraduate degrees, 2,393 master's degrees, 770 doctoral degrees, and 3270 professional degrees in the 2018–2019 school year. The four-year graduation rate for the class of 2017 cohort was 72.9%, and the six-year rate was 94.4%. The relatively low four-year graduation rate is a function of the university's coterminal degree (or "coterm") program, which allows students to earn a master's degree as a 1-to-2-year extension of their undergraduate program. As of 2010, fifteen percent of undergraduates were first-generation students.


Dormitories and student housing

As of 2013, 89% of undergraduate students lived in on-campus university housing. First-year undergraduates are required to live on campus, and all undergraduates are guaranteed housing for all four undergraduate years. Undergraduates live in 80 different houses, including dormitories, co-ops, Stanford Row House Program, row houses, and Stanford University#Greek life, fraternities and sororities. At Manzanita Park, 118 mobile homes were installed as "temporary" housing from 1969 to 1991, but as of 2015 was the site of newer dorms Castano, Kimball, Lantana, and the Humanities House, completed in 2015. Most student residences are just outside the campus core, within ten minutes (on foot or bike) of most classrooms and libraries. Some are reserved for freshman, sophomores, or upperclass students and some are open to all four classes. Most residences are co-ed; seven are all-male fraternity, fraternities, three are all-female sorority, sororities, and there is also one all-female non-sorority house, Roth House. In most residences, men and women live on the same floor, but a few dorms are configured for men and women to live on separate floors (single-gender floors). Several residences are considered theme houses. The Academic, Language and Culture Houses include EAST (Education and Society Themed House), Hammarskjöld (International Themed House), Haus Mitteleuropa (Central European Themed House), La Casa Italiana (Italian Language and Culture), La Maison Française (French Language and Culture House), Slavianskii Dom (Slavic/East European Themed House), Storey (Human Biology Themed House), and Yost (Spanish Language and Culture). Cross-Cultural Themed Houses include Casa Zapata (Chicano/Latino Theme in Stern Hall), Muwekma-tah-ruk (American Indian/Alaska Native, and Native Hawaiian Themed House), Okada (Asian-American Themed House in Wilbur Hall), and Ujamaa (Black/African-American Themed House in Lagunita Court). Focus Houses include Freshman-Sophomore College (Academic Focus), Branner Hall (Community Service), Kimball (Arts & Performing Arts), Crothers (Global Citizenship), and Toyon Hall, Toyon (Sophomore Priority). Theme houses predating the current "theme" classification system are Columbae (Social Change Through Nonviolence, since 1970), and Synergy (Exploring Alternatives, since 1972). housing cooperative, Co-ops or "Self-Ops" are another housing option. These houses feature cooperative living, where residents and eating associates each contribute work to keep the house running, such as cooking meals or cleaning shared spaces. These houses have unique themes around which their community is centered. Many co-ops are hubs of music, art and philosophy. The co-ops on campus are 576 Alvarado Row (formerly Chi Theta Chi), Columbae, Enchanted Broccoli Forest (EBF), Hammarskjöld, Kairos, Terra (the unofficial LGBT house), and Synergy. Phi Sigma, at 1018 Campus Drive was formerly Phi Sigma Kappa fraternity, but in 1973 became a Self-Op. As of 2015 around 55 percent of the graduate student population lived on campus. First-year graduate students are guaranteed on-campus housing. Stanford also subsidizes off-campus apartments in nearby Palo Alto, Menlo Park, and Mountain View, California, Mountain View for graduate students who are guaranteed on-campus housing but are unable to live on campus due to a lack of space.


Athletics

As of 2016 Stanford had 16 male varsity sports and 20 female varsity sports, 19 club sports and about 27 intramural sports In 1930, following a unanimous vote by the Executive Committee for the Associated Students, the athletic department adopted the mascot "Indian." The Indian symbol and name were dropped by President Richard Wall Lyman, Richard Lyman in 1972, after objections from Native Americans in the United States, Native American students and a vote by the student senate. The sports teams are now officially referred to as the "Stanford Cardinal," referring to the cardinal (color), deep red color, not the cardinal (bird), cardinal bird. Stanford is a member of the
Pac-12 Conference The Pac-12 Conference is a collegiate athletic conference An athletic conference is a collection of sports team A sports team is a group of individuals who play sport Sport pertains to any form of Competition, competitive physical ac ...
in most sports, the Mountain Pacific Sports Federation in several other sports, and the America East Conference in field hockey with the participation in the inter-collegiate National Collegiate Athletic Association, NCAA's NCAA Division I, Division I Football Bowl Subdivision, FBS. Its traditional sports rival is the University of California, Berkeley, the neighbor to the north in the East Bay. The winner of the annual "Big Game (American football), Big Game" between the California Golden Bears football, Cal and Stanford Cardinal football, Cardinal football teams gains custody of the Stanford Axe. Stanford has had at least one NCAA team champion every year since the 1976–77 school year and has earned 128 NCAA national team titles since its establishment, the most among universities, and Stanford has won 522 individual national championships, the most by any university. Stanford had won the award for the top-ranked Division 1 athletic program—the
NACDA Directors' Cup The NACDA Learfield IMG College Directors' Cup, known informally by its original name of the Directors' Cup, is an award given annually by the National Association of Collegiate Directors of Athletics to the colleges and universities in the Unite ...
, formerly known as the Sears Cup—annually for twenty-five straight years until 2021. Stanford athletes have won medals in every Olympic Games since 1912, winning 270 Olympic medals total, 139 of them gold. In the 2008 Summer Olympics, and 2016 Summer Olympics, Stanford won more Olympic medals than any other university in the United States. Stanford athletes won 16 medals at the 2012 Summer Olympics (12 gold, two silver and two bronze), and 27 medals at the 2016 Summer Olympics.


Traditions

* "Hail, Stanford, Hail!" is the Stanford hymn sometimes sung at ceremonies or adapted by the various university singing groups. It was written in 1892 by mechanical engineering professor Albert W. Smith and his wife, Mary Roberts Smith (in 1896 she earned the first Stanford doctorate in economics and later became associate professor of sociology), but was not officially adopted until after a performance on campus in March 1902 by the Mormon Tabernacle Choir. * Big Game (American football), Big Game: The central football rivalry between Stanford and California Golden Bears football, UC Berkeley. First played in 1892, and for a time played by the universities' rugby teams, it is one of the oldest college rivalries in the United States. * The Stanford Axe: A trophy earned by the winner of Big Game, exchanged only as necessary. The axe originated in 1899, when Stanford yell leader Billy Erb wielded a lumberman's axe to inspire the team. Stanford lost, and the Axe was stolen by Berkeley students following the game. In 1930, Stanford students staged an elaborate heist to recover the Axe. In 1933, the schools agreed to exchange it as a prize for winning Big Game. As of 2021, a restaurant centrally located on Stanford's campus is named "The Axe and Palm" in reference to the Axe. * Big Game Gaieties: In the week ahead of Big Game, a 90-minute original musical (written, composed, produced, and performed by the students of Ram's Head Theatrical Society) is performed in Memorial Auditorium. * Full Moon on the Quad: An annual event at Main Quad, where students gather to kiss one another starting at midnight. Typically organized by the junior class cabinet, the festivities include live entertainment, such as music and dance performances. * The Stanford Marriage Pact: An annual matchmaking event where thousands of students complete a questionnaire about their values and are subsequently matched with the best person for them to make a "marriage pact" with. * Fountain Hopping: At any time of year, students tour Stanford’s main campus fountains to dip their feet or swim in some of the university's 25 fountains. * Mausoleum Party: An annual Halloween party at the
Stanford Mausoleum Image:Stanford Mausoleum Sphinx.jpg, Sphinx in front of the Mausoleum The Stanford Mausoleum, located in the Northwest of the Stanford University campus in the Stanford University Arboretum, holds the remains of the university's namesake Leland Sta ...

Stanford Mausoleum
, the final resting place of Leland Stanford Jr. and his parents. A 20-year tradition, the Mausoleum party was on hiatus from 2002 to 2005 due to a lack of funding, but was revived in 2006. In 2008, it was hosted in Old Union rather than at the actual Mausoleum, because rain prohibited generators from being rented. In 2009, after fundraising efforts by the Junior Class Presidents and the ASSU Executive, the event was able to return to the Mausoleum despite facing budget cuts earlier in the year. * Wacky Walk: At commencement, graduates forgo a more traditional entrance and instead stride into Stanford Stadium in a large procession wearing wacky costumes. * Steam Tunneling: Stanford has a network of underground brick-lined tunnels that conduct central heating to more than 200 buildings via steam pipes. Students sometimes navigate the corridors, rooms, and locked gates, carrying flashlights and water bottles. Stanford Magazine named steam tunneling one of the "101 things you must do" before graduating from the Farm in 2000. * Band Run: An annual festivity at the beginning of the school year, where the band picks up freshmen from dorms across campus while stopping to perform at each location, culminating in a finale performance at Main Quad. *Viennese Ball: a formal Ball (dance), ball with waltzes that was initially started in the 1970s by students returning from the now-closed (since 1987) Stanford in Vienna overseas program. It is now open to all students. * The long-unofficial motto of Stanford, selected by President Jordan, is "''Die Luft der Freiheit weht.''" Translated from the German language, this quotation from Ulrich von Hutten means, "The wind of freedom blows." The motto was controversial during World War I, when anything in German was suspect; at that time the university disavowed that this motto was official. It was made official by way of incorporation into an official seal by the Board of Trustees in December 2002. * Degree of Uncommon Man/Uncommon Woman: Stanford does not award honorary degrees, but in 1953 the "degree of Uncommon Man/Uncommon Woman" was created by Stanford Associates, part of the Stanford alumni organization, to recognize alumni who give rare and extraordinary service to the university. It is awarded not at prescribed intervals, but instead only when the president of the university deems it appropriate to recognize extraordinary service. Recipients include
Herbert Hoover Herbert Clark Hoover (August 10, 1874 – October 20, 1964) was an American politician and engineer who served as the 31st from 1929 to 1933 and a member of the , holding office during the onset of the . Before serving as president, Hoover l ...

Herbert Hoover
, Bill Hewlett, Dave Packard, Lucile Packard Foundation for Children's Health#Lucile Packard, Lucile Packard, and John W. Gardner, John Gardner. * Former campus traditions include the Big Game bonfire on Lake Lagunita (a seasonal lake usually dry in the fall), which was formally ended in 1997 because of the presence of endangered salamanders in the lake bed.


Religious life

Students and staff at Stanford are of many different religions. The Stanford Office for Religious Life's mission is "to guide, nurture and enhance spiritual, religious and ethical life within the Stanford University community" by promoting enriching dialogue, meaningful ritual, and enduring friendships among people of all religious backgrounds. It is headed by a dean with the assistance of a senior associate dean and an associate dean. Stanford Memorial Church, in the center of campus, has a Sunday University Public Worship service (UPW) usually in the "Protestant Ecumenical Christian" tradition where the Memorial Church Choir sings and a sermon is preached usually by one of the Stanford deans for Religious Life. UPW sometimes has multifaith services. In addition, the church is used by the Catholic community and by some of the other Christian denominations at Stanford. Weddings happen most Saturdays and the university has for over 20 years allowed blessings of same-gender relationships and now legal weddings. In addition to the church, the Office for Religious Life has a Center for Inter-Religious Community, Learning and Experiences (CIRCLE) on the third floor of Old Union. It offers a common room, an interfaith sanctuary, a seminar room, a student lounge area, and a reading room, as well as offices housing a number of Stanford Associated Religions (SAR) member groups and the Senior Associate Dean and Associate Dean for Religious Life. Most though not all religious student groups belong to SAR. The SAR directory includes organizations that serve atheist, Bahá’í, Buddhist, Christian, Hindu, Islam, Jewish, and Sikh groups, though these groups vary year by year. The Windhover Contemplation Center was dedicated in October 2014, and was intended to provide spiritual sanctuary for students and staff in the midst of their course and work schedules; the center displays the "Windhover" paintings by Nathan Oliveira, the late Stanford professor and artist. Some religions have a larger and more formal presence on campus in addition to the student groups; these include the Catholic Community at Stanford and Hillel at Stanford.


Greek life

Fraternities and sororities have been active on the Stanford campus since 1891, when the university first opened. In 1944, University President Donald Tresidder banned all Stanford sororities due to extreme competition. However, following Title IX, the Board of Trustees lifted the 33-year ban on sororities in 1977. Students are not permitted to join a fraternity or sorority until spring quarter of their freshman year. As of 2016 Stanford had 31 Greek organizations, including 14 sororities and 16 fraternities. Nine of the Greek organizations were housed (eight in University-owned houses and one, Sigma Chi, in their own house, although the land is owned by the University). Six chapters were members of the African American Fraternal and Sororal Association, 11 chapters were members of the Interfraternity Council, seven chapters belonged to the Intersorority Council, and six chapters belonged to the Multicultural Greek Council. * Stanford is home to three unhoused historically National Pan-Hellenic Council (NPHC or "Divine Nine") sororities (Alpha Kappa Alpha, Delta Sigma Theta, and Sigma Gamma Rho) and three unhoused NPHC fraternities (Alpha Phi Alpha, Kappa Alpha Psi, and Phi Beta Sigma). These fraternities and sororities operate under the African American Fraternal Sororal Association (AAFSA) at Stanford. * Seven historically National Panhellenic Conference (NPC) sororities, four of which are unhoused (Alpha Phi, Alpha Epsilon Phi, Chi Omega, and Kappa Kappa Gamma) and three of which are housed (Delta Delta Delta, Kappa Alpha Theta, and Pi Beta Phi) call Stanford home. These sororities operate under the Stanford Inter-sorority Council (ISC). * Eleven historically National Interfraternity Conference (NIC) fraternities are also represented at Stanford, including five unhoused fraternities (Alpha Epsilon Pi, Delta Kappa Epsilon, Delta Tau Delta, Sigma Alpha Epsilon, and Sigma Phi Epsilon), and six housed fraternities (Kappa Alpha Order, Kappa Sigma, Phi Kappa Psi, Sigma Chi, Sigma Nu, and Theta Delta Chi). These fraternities operate under the Stanford Inter-fraternity Council (IFC). * There are also four unhoused Multicultural Greek Council (MGC) sororities on campus (alpha Kappa Delta Phi, Lambda Theta Nu, Sigma Psi Zeta, and Sigma Theta Psi), as well as two unhoused MGC fraternities (Gamma Zeta Alpha and Lambda Phi Epsilon). Lambda Phi Epsilon is recognized by the National Interfraternity Conference (NIC).


Student groups

As of 2020, Stanford had more than 600 student organizations. Groups are often, though not always, partially funded by the University via allocations directed by the student government organization, the ASSU. These funds include "special fees," which are decided by a Spring Quarter vote by the student body. Groups span athletics and recreation, careers/pre-professional, community service, ethnic/cultural, fraternities and sororities, health and counseling, media and publications, the arts, political and social awareness, and religious and philosophical organizations. In contrast to many other selective universities, Stanford policy mandates that all recognized student clubs be “broadly open” for all interested students to join. Stanford is home to a set of student journalism publications. ''The Stanford Daily'' is a student-run daily newspaper and has been published since the University was founded in 1892. The student-run radio station, KZSU Stanford 90.1 FM, features freeform music programming, sports commentary, and news segments; it started in 1947 as an AM radio station. The Stanford Review is a conservative student newspaper founded in 1987. ''The Fountain Hopper'' (''FoHo'') is a financially independent, anonymous student-run campus Tabloid journalism, rag publication, notable for having broken the Brock Turner story. Stanford is also home to a large number of pre-professional student organizations, organized around missions from startup incubation to paid consulting. The Business Association of Stanford Entrepreneurial Students (BASES) is one of the largest professional organizations in Silicon Valley, with over 5,000 members. Its goal is to support the next generation of entrepreneurs. StartX is a non-profit startup accelerator for student and faculty-led Startup company, startups. It is staffed primarily by students. Stanford Women In Business (SWIB) is an on-campus business organization, aimed at helping Stanford women find paths to success in the generally male-dominated technology industry. Stanford Marketing is a student group that provides students hands-on training through research and strategy consulting projects with Fortune 500 clients, as well as workshops led by people from industry and professors in the
Stanford Graduate School of Business The Stanford Graduate School of Business (also known as Stanford GSB or the GSB) is the graduate business school A business school is a university-level institution that confers degrees in business administration or management. A business school ...
. Stanford Finance provides mentoring and internships for students who want to enter a career in finance. Stanford Pre Business Association is intended to build connections among industry, alumni, and student communities. Other groups include: * The Stanford Axe Committee is the official guardian of the Stanford Axe and the rest of the time assists the Stanford Band as a supplementary spirit group. It has existed since 1982. * The Stanford solar car project, in which students build a solar-powered car every 2 years and race it in either the North American Solar Challenge or the World Solar Challenge. * Stanford American Indian Organization (SAIO) which hosts the annual Stanford Powwow started in 1971. This is the largest student run event on campus and the largest student run powwow in the country. * The Stanford Improvisors (SImps for short) teach and perform improvisational theatre on campus and in the surrounding community. In 2014 the group finished second in the Golden Gate Regional College Improv tournament and they've since been invited twice to perform at the annual San Francisco Improv Festival. * Asha for Education is a national student group founded in 1991. It focuses mainly on education in India and supporting nonprofit organizations that work mainly in the education sector. Asha's Stanford chapter organizes events like Holi as well as lectures by prominent leaders from India the university campus.


Safety

Stanford's Department of Public Safety is responsible for law enforcement and safety on the main campus. Its deputy sheriffs are peace officers by arrangement with the Santa Clara County Sheriff's Office. The department is also responsible for publishing an annual crime report covering the previous three years as required by the Clery Act. Fire protection has been provided by contract with the Palo Alto Fire Department since 1976. Murder is rare on the campus though a few of the cases have been notorious including the 1974 murder of Arlis Perry in Stanford Memorial Church not solved until 2018 and Theodore Streleski's murder of his professor in 1978. In 2014, Stanford was the tenth highest in the nation in "total of reports of rape" on their main campus, with 26 reports of rape. In Stanford's 2015 Campus Climate Survey, 4.7 percent of female undergraduates reported experiencing sexual assault as defined by the university and 32.9 percent reported experiencing sexual misconduct. According to the survey, 85% of perpetrators of misconduct were Stanford students and 80% were men. Perpetrators of sexual misconduct were frequently aided by alcohol or drugs, according to the survey: "Nearly three-fourths of the students whose responses were categorized as sexual assault indicated that the act was accomplished by a person or person taking advantage of them when they were drunk or high, according to the survey. Close to 70 percent of students who reported an experience of sexual misconduct involving nonconsensual penetration and/or oral sex indicated the same." Associated Students of Stanford and student and alumni activists with the anti-rape group Stand with Leah criticized the survey methodology for downgrading incidents involving alcohol if students did not check two separate boxes indicating they were both intoxicated and incapacity while sexually assaulted. Reporting on the Brock Turner rape case, a reporter from ''The Washington Post'' analyzed campus rape reports submitted by universities to the U.S. Department of Education, and found that Stanford was one of the top ten universities in campus rapes in 2014, with 26 reported that year, but when analyzed by rapes per 1000 students, Stanford was not among the top ten.


''People v. Turner''

On the night of January 17–18, 2015, 22-year-old Chanel Miller, who had visited campus to attend a party at the Kappa Alpha Order, Kappa Alpha fraternity, was sexually assaulted by Brock Turner, a freshman who had a swimming scholarship. Two graduate students witnessed the attack and intervened, catching Turner when he tried to flee and holding him down on the ground until police arrived.Liam Stack for ''The New York Times''. June 6, 201
Light Sentence for Brock Turner in Stanford Rape Case Draws Outrage
/ref> Stanford immediately referred the case to prosecutors and offered Miller counseling, and within two weeks had barred Turner from campus after conducting an investigation. Turner was convicted on three felony charges in March 2016 and in June 2016 he received a jail sentence of six months and was declared a sex offender, requiring him to register as such for the rest of his life; prosecutors had sought a six-year prison sentence out of the maximum 14 years that was possible. The case and the relatively lenient sentence drew nationwide attention. Two years later the judge in the case, Stanford graduate Aaron Persky, was recalled by the voters.


Joe Lonsdale

In February 2015, Elise Clougherty filed a sexual assault and harassment lawsuit against venture capitalist Joe Lonsdale.Katie Benner for Bloomberg News. February 2, 201
Benner on Tech: Parsing a Sexual Assault Suit
/ref>Emily Bazelon for ''The New York Times''. February 11, 201

/ref> Lonsdale and Clougherty entered into a relationship in the spring of 2012 when she was a junior and he was her mentor in a Stanford entrepreneurship course. By the spring of 2013 Clougherty had broken off the relationship and filed charges at Stanford that Lonsdale had broken the Stanford policy against consensual relationships between students and faculty and that he had sexually assaulted and harassed her, which resulted in Lonsdale being banned from Stanford for 10 years. Lonsdale challenged Stanford's finding that he had had sexually assaulted and harassed her and Stanford rescinded that finding and the campus ban in the fall of 2015. Clougherty withdrew her suit that fall as well.


People

As of late 2020, Stanford had 2,279 tenure-line faculty, senior fellows, center fellows, and medical center faculty.


Award laureates and scholars

Stanford's current community of scholars includes: * 19 Nobel Prize laureates (as of October 2020, 85 affiliates in total); * 167 members of the United States National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Sciences; * 109 members of National Academy of Engineering; * 78 members of National Academy of Medicine; * 300 members of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences; * 12 recipients of the National Medal of Science; * 1 recipient of the National Medal of Technology; * 4 recipients of the National Humanities Medal; * 47 members of American Philosophical Society; * 56 fellows of the American Physics Society (since 1995); * 4 Pulitzer Prize winners; * 33 MacArthur Fellows; * 6 Wolf Foundation Prize winners; * 2 Association for Computational Linguistics, ACL Lifetime Achievement Award winners; * 14 AAAI fellows; * 2 Presidential Medal of Freedom winners. Stanford's faculty and former faculty includes 48 Nobel laureates, 5 Fields Medalists, as well as 17 winners of the Turing Award, the so-called "Nobel Prize in computer science," comprising one third of the List of Stanford University people#Computer science, awards given in its 44-year history. The university has 27 ACM fellows. It is also affiliated with 4 Gödel Prize winners, 4 Knuth Prize recipients, 10 IJCAI Computers and Thought Award winners, and about 15 Grace Murray Hopper Award winners for their work in the foundations of computer science. Stanford alumni have started many companies and, according to ''Forbes'', has produced the second highest number of billionaires of all universities. As of 2020, 15 Stanford alumni have won the Nobel Prize. As of 2019, 122 Stanford students or alumni have been named
Rhodes Scholars 250px, Rhodes House in Oxford, designed by Sir Herbert Baker">Oxford.html" ;"title="Rhodes House in Oxford">Rhodes House in Oxford, designed by Sir Herbert Baker The Rhodes Scholarship is an international Postgraduate education, postgraduate a ...
.


See also

* List of universities by number of billionaire alumni * List of colleges and universities in California * S*, a collaboration between seven universities and the Karolinska Institute for training in bioinformatics and genomics * Stanford School


Explanatory notes


References


Further reading

* Lee Altenberg
''Beyond Capitalism: Leland Stanford's Forgotten Vision''
(Stanford Historical Society, 1990) * Ronald N. Bracewell, ''Trees of Stanford and Environs'' (Stanford Historical Society, 2005) * Ken Fenyo, ''The Stanford Daily 100 Years of Headlines'' (2003), * Jean Fetter, ''Questions and Admissions: Reflections on 100,000 Admissions Decisions at Stanford'' (1997), * Ricard Joncas, David Neumann, and Paul V. Turner. ''The Campus Guide: Stanford University''. Princeton Architectural Press, 2006. . (print); (online). * Stuart W. Leslie, ''The Cold War and American Science: The Military-Industrial-Academic Complex at MIT and Stanford'', Columbia University Press, 1994 * Rebecca S. Lowen, R. S. Lowen, ''Creating the Cold War University: The Transformation of Stanford'', University of California Press, 1997


External links

*
Stanford Athletics website
* {{Authority control Stanford University, 1891 establishments in California Educational institutions established in 1891 Private universities and colleges in California Romanesque Revival architecture in California Schools accredited by the Western Association of Schools and Colleges Universities and colleges in Santa Clara County, California