HOME

TheInfoList




Ignatius of Loyola, S.J. (born Iñigo López de Oñaz y Loyola; eu, Ignazio Loiolakoa; es, Ignacio de Loyola; la, Ignatius de Loyola; – 31 July 1556), venerated as Saint Ignatius of Loyola, was a Spanish Catholic priest and
theologian Theology is the systematic study of the nature of the divine Divinity or the divine are things that are either related to, devoted to, or proceeding from a deity A deity or god is a supernatural The supernatural encompasses supposed ...
, who, with
Peter Faber Peter Faber (french: Pierre Lefevre or Favre, la, Petrus Faver) (13 April 1506 – 1 August 1546) was the first Jesuit , image = Ihs-logo.svg , caption = Christogram A Christogram (Latin ') is a monogram or c ...

Peter Faber
and
Francis Xavier Francis Xavier (born Francisco de Jasso y Azpilicueta; Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, ...
, founded the religious order of the
Society of Jesus , image = Ihs-logo.svg , caption = Christogram A Christogram (Latin ') is a monogram or combination of letters that forms an abbreviation for the name of Jesus Christ, traditionally used as a Christian symbolism ...
(The Jesuits), and became the first
Superior General of the Society of Jesus The Superior General of the Society of Jesus is the official title of the leader of the Society of Jesus , image = Ihs-logo.svg , caption = Christogram A Christogram (Latin ') is a monogram or combination o ...
, at Paris, in 1541.
Teaching Education is the process of facilitating learning Learning is the process of acquiring new understanding, knowledge, behaviors, skills, value (personal and cultural), values, attitudes, and preferences. The ability to learn is possessed ...

Teaching
and
missionary work
missionary work
are the purposes of the Society of Jesus, who, as priests, are bound by a fourth (special) vow of obedience to the sovereign
pontiff A pontiff (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman R ...
, to be ever-ready to fulfill the special missions of the papacy; thus the Jesuits were instrumental in realizing the
Counter-Reformation The Counter-Reformation (), also called the Catholic Reformation () or the Catholic Revival, was the period of Catholic Church, Catholic resurgence that was initiated in response to the Protestant Reformation, also known as the Protestant Revo ...
. As the spiritual director of the Jesuits, Ignatius recorded his method in the ''
Spiritual Exercises The ''Spiritual Exercises of Ignatius of Loyola'' (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Lati ...
'' (1548) by way of
meditation Meditation is a practice where an individual uses a technique – such as mindfulness Mindfulness is the practice of purposely bringing one's attention in the present moment without evaluation,Mindfulness Training as a Clinical Interventio ...

meditation
s,
contemplation Image:solitude.jpg, Nature contemplation Whilst in the life of the intellect 'contemplation' refers to thinking profoundly about something, in the religious life contemplation is a kind of inner vision or seeing, transcendence (philosophy), trans ...
, and prayers, which later were known as
Ignatian spiritualityIgnatian spirituality, also known as Jesuit spirituality, is a Catholic The Catholic Church, often referred to as the Roman Catholic Church, is the List of Christian denominations by number of members, largest Christian church, with approxima ...
. Ignatius was
beatified Beatification (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power o ...
in 1609 and
canonized Canonization is the declaration of a deceased person as an officially recognized saint, specifically, the official act of a Christianity, Christian communion declaring a person worthy of Cult (religious practice), public cult and entering his ...
, receiving the title of Saint, on 12 March 1622. His feast day is celebrated on 31 July. He is the
patron saint A patron saint, patroness saint, patron hallow or heavenly protector is a saint who in Catholic Church, Catholicism, Anglicanism, or Eastern Orthodoxy is regarded as the heavenly advocacy, advocate of a nation, place, craft, activity, class, c ...
of the
Basque Basque may refer to: * Basques The Basques ( or ; eu, euskaldunak ; es, vascos ; french: basques ) are a Southern European ethnic group, characterised by the Basque language, a Basque culture, common culture and shared genetic ancestry to th ...
provinces of
Gipuzkoa Gipuzkoa (, , ; es, Guipúzcoa ; french: Guipuscoa) is a Provinces of Spain, province of Spain and a historical territory of the Basque Country (autonomous community), autonomous community of the Basque Country. Its capital city is San Sebasti ...

Gipuzkoa
and
Biscay Biscay (; eu, Bizkaia ; es, Vizcaya ) is a Provinces of Spain, province of Spain, lying on the south shore of the Bay of Biscay, eponymous bay. The name also refers to a historical territory of the Basque Country (autonomous community), Basque ...
as well as of the Society of Jesus. He was declared patron saint of all spiritual retreats by
Pope Pius XI Pope Pius XI ( it, Pio XI), born Ambrogio Damiano Achille Ratti (; 31 May 1857 – 10 February 1939), was head of the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian c ...
in 1922.


Early life

Ignatius of Loyola was born Íñigo López de Loyola in the castle at Loyola, in the municipality of
Azpeitia Azpeitia (meaning 'down the rock' in Basque language, Basque) is a town and municipality within the Provinces of Spain, province of Gipuzkoa, in the Basque Country (autonomous community), Basque Country, Spain, located on the Urola river a few kilo ...
, Gipuzkoa, in the
Basque Country Image:Euskal Herriaren terminologia.png, Map showing the geographical and political divisions of the Basque Country Basque Country may refer to: *Basque Country (autonomous community) (''Euskal Autonomia Erkidegoa'' in Basque; ''Comunidad Autónoma ...
of Spain. His parents, Don Beltrán and Doña Marina, were of the minor nobility; and Íñigo was the youngest of their thirteen children. Their eldest son, Juan Pérez, had soldiered in forces commanded by
Gonzalo Fernández de Córdoba Gonzalo Fernández de Córdoba, 1st Duke of Santángelo (1 September 1453 – 2 December 1515) was a Spanish general and statesman who led successful military campaigns during the Conquest of Granada and the Italian Wars. His military vict ...

Gonzalo Fernández de Córdoba
, but died fighting the
Italian Wars The Italian Wars, often referred to as the Great Wars of Italy and sometimes as the Habsburg–Valois Wars, were a long series of wars fought between 1494 and 1559 in Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Rep ...
(1494–1559).Brodrick SJ, James. ''Saint Ignatius Loyola: The Pilgrim Years'', New York. Farrar, Straus and Cudahy, 1956, p. 28
/ref> He was baptized “Íñigo” on honour of Íñigo of Oña, Abbot of Oña; the name also is a medieval Basque diminutive for "My little one". It is not clear when he began using the Latin name "Ignatius" instead of his baptismal name "Íñigo". Historian Gabriel María Verd says that Íñigo did not intend to change his name, but rather adopted a name which he believed was a simple variant of his own, for use in France and Italy where it was better understood. Íñigo adopted the surname "de Loyola" in reference to the Basque village of Loyola where he was born. Because doña Marina died soon after the birth of Íñigo, his maternal care fell to María de Garín, the wife of the local blacksmith. In 1498, his second eldest brother, Martin, heir to the estate, took his new wife to live at the castle, and she became the mistress of the household; subsequently, the seven-year-old boy Íñigo returned to Casa Loyola. Anticipating the boy's possible ecclesiastic career, Don Beltrán had Íñigo's hair cut into a
tonsure Tonsure () is the practice of cutting or shaving some or all of the hair Hair is a protein filament In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Bioch ...

tonsure
.


Military career

Instead, Íñigo became a
page Page most commonly refers to: * Page (paper) A page is one side of a leaf A leaf (plural leaves) is the principal lateral appendage of the , usually borne above ground and specialized for . The leaves, stem, flower and fruit togethe ...
in the service of a relative, Juan Velázquez de Cuéllar, treasurer (''contador mayor'') of the kingdom of . During his time in the household of Don Velázquez, Íñigo took up dancing, fencing, gambling, the pursuit of the young ladies, and duelling. Íñigo was keen on military exercises and was driven by a desire for fame. He framed his life around the stories of
El Cid Rodrigo Díaz de Vivar (c. 1043 – 10 July 1099) was a Castilian knight and warlord in medieval Spain In many ways, the history of Spain is marked by waves of conquerors who brought their distinct cultures to the peninsula. After the passage ...

El Cid
, the , and the ''
Song of Roland ''The Song of Roland'' (french: La Chanson de Roland) is an 11th-century epic poem (chanson de geste The ''chanson de geste'' (, from Latin 'deeds, actions accomplished') is a medieval narrative, a type of epic poem An epic poem is a l ...
'', and other tales of romantic chivalry. He joined the army at seventeen, and according to one biographer, he strutted about "with his cape flying open to reveal his tight-fitting hose and boots; a sword and dagger at his waist". According to another he was "a fancy dresser, an expert dancer, a womanizer, sensitive to insult, and a rough punkish swordsman who used his privileged status to escape prosecution for violent crimes committed with his priest brother at carnival time."Traub, S.J., George and Mooney, Ph.D., Debra. ''A Biography of St. Ignatius Loyola'', Xavier University
/ref> In 1509, aged 18, Íñigo took up arms for Antonio Manrique de Lara, 2nd Duke of Nájera. His diplomacy and leadership qualities earned him the title "servant of the court", and made him very useful to the Duke. Under the Duke's leadership, Íñigo participated in many battles without injury. However at the Battle of Pamplona on 20 May 1521 he was gravely injured when a French-Navarrese expedition force stormed the fortress of Pamplona, and a
cannonball Mons Meg with its , cannonballs A round shot (also called solid shot or simply ball) is a solid spherical projectile A projectile is any object thrown by the exertion of a force In physics Physics (from grc, φυσική (ἐ ...
ricocheting off a nearby wall shattered his right leg. Íñigo was returned to his father's castle in Loyola, where, in an era before
anesthetic An anesthetic (American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of variety (linguistics), varieties of the English language native to the United States. ...
s, he underwent several surgical operations to repair the leg, with his bones set and rebroken. In the end, the operations left his right leg shorter than the other. He would limp for the rest of his life, with his military career over.


Religious conversion and visions

While recovering from surgery, Íñigo underwent a spiritual conversion and discerned a call to the religious life. In order to divert the weary hours of convalescence, he asked for the romances of chivalry, his favourite reading, but there were none in the castle, and instead his beloved sister-in-law, Magdalena de Araoz brought him the lives of Christ and of the saints. The religious work which most particularly struck him was the '''' of
Ludolph of Saxony Ludolph of Saxony (c. 1295 – 1378), also known as Ludolphus de Saxonia and Ludolph the Carthusian, was a German Roman Catholic Roman or Romans usually refers to: *Rome, the capital city of Italy *Ancient Rome, Roman civilization from 8th ...
. This book would influence his whole life, inspiring him to devote himself to God and follow the example of
Francis of Assisi Francis of Assisi (born Giovanni di Pietro di Bernardone; it, Francesco d'Assisi; la, Franciscus Assisiensis; 1181 or 1182 – 3 October 1226), was an Italian , , and . He founded the men's , the women's , the and the . Francis is one of ...

Francis of Assisi
and other great monks. It also inspired his method of meditation, since Ludolph proposes that the reader place himself mentally at the scene of the Gospel story, visualising the crib at the Nativity, etc. This type of meditation, known as Simple Contemplation, was the basis for the method that St. Ignatius would promote in his ''
Spiritual Exercises The ''Spiritual Exercises of Ignatius of Loyola'' (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Lati ...
''. Aside from dreaming about imitating the saints in his readings, Íñigo was still wandering off in his mind about what "he would do in service to his king and in honour of the royal lady he was in love with". Cautiously he came to realize the after-effect of both kinds of his dreams. He experienced desolation and dissatisfaction when the romantic heroism dream was over, but, the saintly dream ended with much joy and peace. It was the first time he learned about
discernment Discernment is the ability to obtain sharp perceptions or to judge well (or the activity of so doing). In the case of judgement, discernment can be psychology, psychological, morality, moral or aesthetic in nature. Discernment has also been defin ...
. After he had recovered sufficiently to walk again, Íñigo resolved to begin a pilgrimage to the
Holy Land The Holy Land (: , la, Terra Sancta; : or ) is an area roughly located between the and the Eastern Bank of the . Traditionally, it is synonymous both with the biblical and with the . The term "Holy Land" usually refers to a territory ro ...

Holy Land
to "kiss the earth where our Lord had walked", and to do stricter
penance Penance is any act or a set of actions done out of repentance Repentance is reviewing one's actions and feeling contritionIn Christianity, contrition or contriteness (from the Latin ''contritus'' 'ground to pieces', i.e. crushed by guilt) is ...
s. He thought that his plan was confirmed by a vision of the Virgin Mary and the infant Jesus he experienced one night, which resulted in much consolation to him. In March 1522, he visited the Benedictine monastery of
Santa Maria de Montserrat Santa Maria de Montserrat () is an abbey of the Order of Saint Benedict located on the mountain of Montserrat in Monistrol de Montserrat, Catalonia, Spain. It is notable for enshrining the image of the Virgin of Montserrat. The monastery was ...
. There, he carefully examined his past
sins In a religion, religious context, sin is a transgression against divine law. Each culture has its own interpretation of what it means to commit a sin. While sins are generally actions, any thought, word, or act considered immoral, selfish, shame ...

sins
, confessed, gave his fine clothes to the poor he met, wore a "garment of sack-cloth", then hung his sword and dagger at the Virgin's altar during an overnight vigil at the shrine. From Montserrat he walked on to the nearby town of
Manresa Manresa () is the capital of the comarques of Catalonia, Comarca of Bages, located in the geographic centre of Catalonia, Spain, and crossed by the river Cardener. It is an industrial area with textile, metallurgy, metallurgical, and glass indust ...

Manresa
(
Catalonia Catalonia (; ca, Catalunya ; Aranese, Aranese Occitan: ''Catalonha'' ; es, Cataluña ) is an Autonomous communities of Spain, autonomous community in the northeastern corner of Spain, designated as a ''nationalities and regions of Spain, na ...

Catalonia
), where he lived for about a year, begging for his keep, and then eventually doing chores at a local hospital in exchange for food and lodging. For several months he spent much of his time praying in a cave nearby where he practised rigorous
asceticism Asceticism (; from the el, ἄσκησις ''áskesis'', "exercise, training") is a lifestyle characterized by abstinence from sensual pleasures, often for the purpose of pursuing spiritual goals. Ascetics may withdraw from the world for thei ...
, praying for seven hours a day, and formulating the fundamentals of his ''Spiritual Exercises''. Íñigo also experienced a series of visions in full daylight while at the hospital. These repetitive visions appeared as "a form in the air near him and this form gave him much consolation because it was exceedingly beautiful ... it somehow seemed to have the shape of a serpent and had many things that shone like eyes, but were not eyes. He received much delight and consolation from gazing upon this object ... but when the object vanished he became disconsolate". He came to interpret this vision as diabolical in nature.


Period of studies

In September 1523, Íñigo made a pilgrimage to the
Holy Land The Holy Land (: , la, Terra Sancta; : or ) is an area roughly located between the and the Eastern Bank of the . Traditionally, it is synonymous both with the biblical and with the . The term "Holy Land" usually refers to a territory ro ...

Holy Land
with the aim of settling there. He remained there from 3 to 23 September but was sent back to Europe by the
Franciscans , image = FrancescoCoA PioM.svg , image_size = 250px , caption = A cross, Christ's arm and Saint Francis's arm, a universal symbol of the Franciscans , abbreviation = OFM , predecessor = , ...
. He returned to Barcelona and at the age of thirty-three attended a free public grammar school in preparation for university entrance. He went on to the University of Alcalá, where he studied
theology Theology is the systematic study of the nature of the divine Divinity or the divine are things that are either related to, devoted to, or proceeding from a deity A deity or god is a supernatural The supernatural encompasses supposed ...
and
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became ...
from 1524 to 1534. There he encountered a number of devout women who had been called before the
Inquisition The Inquisition, in historical ecclesiastical terminology also referred to as the "Holy Inquisition", was a group of institutions within the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the , with 1. ...
. These women were considered ''
alumbradosThe alumbrados (, ''Illuminated'') was a term used to loosely describe practitioners of a mystical form of Christianity in Spain during the 15th-16th centuries. Some ''alumbrados'' were only mildly heterodox, but others held views that were clearly C ...
'' (Illuminati) – a group linked in their zeal and spirituality to Franciscan reforms, but they had incurred mounting suspicion from the administrators of the Inquisition. Once when Íñigo was preaching on the street, three of these devout women began to experience ecstatic states. "One fell senseless, another sometimes rolled about on the ground, another had been seen in the grip of convulsions or shuddering and sweating in anguish." The suspicious activity took place while Íñigo had preached without a degree in theology. As a result, he was singled out for interrogation by the Inquisition, but was later released. Following these risky activities, Íñigo (by this time, he had changed his name to Ignatius, probably to make it more acceptable to other Europeans adopted the surname "de Loyola" in reference to the Basque village of Loyola where he was born. moved to France to study at the
University of Paris , image_name = Coat of arms of the University of Paris.svg , image_size = 150px , caption = , latin_name = Universitas magistrorum et scholarium Parisiensis , motto = ''Hic et ubique terrarum'' (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical ...
. He attended first the ascetic Collège de Montaigu, moving on to the Collège Sainte-Barbe to study for a Master's degree. He arrived in France at a time of anti-Protestant turmoil which had forced
John Calvin John Calvin (; Middle French Middle French (french: moyen français) is a historical division of the French language French ( or ) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family The Indo-European languages are a language fami ...

John Calvin
to flee France. Very soon after, Ignatius had gathered around him six companions, all of them fellow students at the university. They were the Spaniards
Alfonso Salmeron Alfonso (Alphonsus) Salmerón (8 September 1515 – 13 February 1585) was a Spanish biblical scholar, a Catholic priest, and one of the first Society of Jesus, Jesuits. Biography He was born in Toledo, Spain on 8 September 1515. He studied liter ...

Alfonso Salmeron
,
Diego Laynez ''Several spellings of his names (James, Jacob; Laines, Laynez, Lainez) are in use and some of them can be found in other Wikipedia articles'' Diego Laynez, S.J. (sometimes spelled Laínez) (Spanish language, Spanish: ''Diego Laynez''), born in 1 ...
, and
Nicholas Bobadilla Nicholas Bobadilla (1511 – 23 September 1590) was one of the first Jesuits. Biography He was born in Palencia, Spain, and was educated in his own country and in France. He fell under the influence of Ignatius of Loyola while studying at the ...
, with the Portuguese
Simão Rodrigues Simão Rodrigues de Azevedo (1510, Vouzela, Portugal - 15 June 1579, Lisbon), was a Portuguese Society of Jesus, Jesuit Catholic priesthood, priest and one of the co-founders of the Society of Jesus. A Portuguese nobleman, Rodrigues was one of th ...
, the
Basque Basque may refer to: * Basques The Basques ( or ; eu, euskaldunak ; es, vascos ; french: basques ) are a Southern European ethnic group, characterised by the Basque language, a Basque culture, common culture and shared genetic ancestry to th ...
,
Francis Xavier Francis Xavier (born Francisco de Jasso y Azpilicueta; Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, ...
, and
Peter Faber Peter Faber (french: Pierre Lefevre or Favre, la, Petrus Faver) (13 April 1506 – 1 August 1546) was the first Jesuit , image = Ihs-logo.svg , caption = Christogram A Christogram (Latin ') is a monogram or c ...

Peter Faber
, a , the latter two becoming his first companions, and his closest associates in the foundation of the future Jesuit order. "On the morning of the 15th of August, 1534, in the chapel of
church of Saint Peter Image:Antioch_Saint_Pierre_Church_Front.JPG, 300px, Facade of the Church of St Peter, originally built ca. 1100 by Crusaders and rebuilt in the 19th century The Church of Saint Peter (Aramaic: ''Knisset Mar Semaan Kefa'', Turkish language, Turkish: ...
, at Montmartre, Loyola and his six companions, of whom only one was a priest, met and took upon themselves the solemn vows of their lifelong work." Ignatius gained a
Magisterium The magisterium of the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the , with 1.3 billion Catholics . As the world's oldest and largest continuously functioning international institution, it ...
from the University of Paris at the age of forty-three in 1535. In later life he would often be called "Master Ignatius" because of this.''History of The World'' by John Clarke Ridpath, Vol. V, pp. 238, New York: Merrill & Baker, 1899


Foundation of the Jesuit order

In 1539, with Peter Faber and Francis Xavier, Ignatius formed the Society of Jesus, which was approved in 1540 by
Pope Paul III Pope Paul III ( la, Paulus III; 29 February 1468 – 10 November 1549), born Alessandro Farnese, was head of the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the , with 1.3 billion Cathol ...

Pope Paul III
. He was chosen as the first
Superior General A Superior General or General Superior is the leader or head of a religious institute A religious institute is a type of Institute of consecrated life, institute of consecrated life in the Catholic Church where its members take Religious vows, re ...
of the order and invested with the title of "Father General" by the Jesuits. Ignatius sent his companions on missions across Europe to create schools, colleges, and seminaries.
Juan de VegaJuan de Vega y Enríquez, 1st Count of Grajal, ''6th Lord of Grajal'', ''Viceroy of Navarre'' (1542), ''Viceroy and Captain General of Sicily'' (1547–1557), ''presidente del Consejo de Castilla'', was an ambassador of Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor. ...
, then ambassador of
Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, french: Charles Quint, it, Carlo V, nl, Karel V, ca, Carles V, la, Carolus V (24 February 1500 – 21 September 1558) was Holy Roman Emperor The Holy Roman Emperor, originally and officially the Emperor of the Romans ( ...

Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor
in Rome, met Ignatius there and having formed a good impression of the Jesuits, invited them to travel with him to his new appointment as Viceroy of Sicily. As a result, a Jesuit college was opened in
Messina Messina (, also , ; scn, Missina ; lat, Messana; grc, Μεσσήνη, Messḗnē) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger ...

Messina
, which proved a success, so that its rules and methods were later copied in subsequent colleges. In a letter to Francis Xavier before his departure to India in 1541, Ignatius famously used the Latin phrase "Ite, inflammate omnia", meaning, "Go, set the world on fire", a phrase used in the Jesuit order to this day. With the assistance of his personal secretary, Juan Alfonso de Polanco, Ignatius wrote the Jesuit Constitutions, which were adopted in 1553. They created a centralised organisation of the order, and stressed absolute self-denial and obedience to the Pope and to superiors in the Church hierarchy. This was summarised in the motto ''perinde ac cadaver'' – "as if a dead body", meaning that a Jesuit should be as emptied of ego as is a corpse. However the overarching Jesuit principle became: ''
Ad maiorem Dei gloriam ''Ad maiorem Dei gloriam'' or ''Ad majórem Dei glóriam'', also rendered as the abbreviation AMDG, is the Latin language, Latin motto of the Society of Jesus (Jesuits), an order of the Catholic Church. It means "For the greater glory of God." M ...
'' ("for the greater glory of God"). File:Ignatius Loyola by Francisco Zurbaran.jpg, Ignatius as Superior General File:Ignatius of Loyola, Church of Gesù, Rome, Jan 2013.jpg, Statue of Saint Ignatius in the
Church of the Gesù , image = Church of the Gesù, Rome.jpg , imagesize = 300px , caption = Giacomo della Porta Giacomo della Porta (1532–1602) was an Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related ...

Church of the Gesù
, Rome


Death and canonization

Ignatius died in Rome on 31 July 1556, probably of the " Roman Fever", a severe variant of
malaria Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease that affects humans and other animals. Malaria causes symptoms Signs and symptoms are the observed or detectable signs, and experienced symptoms of an illness, injury, or condition. A sign fo ...

malaria
which was endemic in Rome throughout medieval history. An autopsy revealed that he also had kidney and bladder stones, a probable cause of the abdominal pains he suffered from in later life. His body was dressed in his priestly robes and placed in a wooden coffin and buried in the crypt of the Maria della Strada Church on 1 August 1556. In 1568 the church was demolished and replaced with the
Church of the Gesù , image = Church of the Gesù, Rome.jpg , imagesize = 300px , caption = Giacomo della Porta Giacomo della Porta (1532–1602) was an Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related ...

Church of the Gesù
. Ignatius' remains were reinterred in the new church in a new coffin. Ignatius was beatified by
Pope Paul V Pope Paul V ( la, Paulus V; it, Paolo V) (17 September 1550 – 28 January 1621), born Camillo Borghese, was head of the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the , with 1.3 billi ...

Pope Paul V
on 27 July 1609, and
canonized Canonization is the declaration of a deceased person as an officially recognized saint, specifically, the official act of a Christianity, Christian communion declaring a person worthy of Cult (religious practice), public cult and entering his ...
by
Pope Gregory XV Pope Gregory XV ( la, Gregorius XV; 9 January 15548 July 1623), born Alessandro Ludovisi, was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 9 February 1621 to his death in 1623. Biography Early life Alessandro Ludovisi was bor ...

Pope Gregory XV
on 12 March 1622. His feast day is celebrated annually on 31 July, the day he died. He is venerated as the patron saint of Catholic soldiers, the
Military Ordinariate of the Philippines The Military Ordinariate of the Philippines or MOP is the military ordinariate of the Philippines The Philippines (; fil, Pilipinas or ''Filipinas'' ), officially the Republic of the Philippines ( fil, Republika ng Pilipinas), * bik, R ...
, the
Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Baltimore The Metropolitan Archdiocese of Baltimore ( la, Archidiœcesis Baltimorensis) is the premier (or first) Episcopal see, see of the Roman Catholic (term), Roman Catholic Church in the United States. The archdiocese comprises the Baltimore, City of B ...

Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Baltimore
, in his native Basque Country,
Antwerp Antwerp (; nl, Antwerpen ; french: Anvers ) is a city in Belgium and the capital of Antwerp (province), Antwerp province in the Flemish Region. With a population of 520,504,
Antwerp
,
Belo Horizonte Belo Horizonte (, ; "Beautiful Horizon") is the List of largest cities in Brazil, sixth-largest city in Brazil, with a population around 2.7 million and with a metropolitan area of 12.7 million people. It is the List of cities in South Americ ...

Belo Horizonte
, Junín.


Legacy

Numerous institutions across the world are named for him, including many
educational institutions An educational institution is a place where people of different ages gain an education, including preschools, childcare, primary-elementary schools, secondary-high schools, and universities. They provide a large variety of learning environments and ...

educational institutions
. In 1852,
Loyola University Maryland Loyola University Maryland is a Private university, private Society of Jesus, Jesuit liberal arts university in Baltimore, Maryland. Established as Loyola College in Maryland by John Early (educator), John Early and eight other members of the So ...
was the first university in the United States to bear his name. In 1949 he was the subject of a Spanish biographical film '' Loyola, the Soldier Saint'' starring Rafael Durán in the role of Ignatius. In 2016, he was the subject of a Filipino film, ''
Ignacio de Loyola ''Ignacio de Loyola'' () is a 2016 Philippine historical biographical Religious films, religious Drama (film and television), drama film directed by Paolo Dy in his directorial debut. It is based on the memoirs of Ignatius of Loyola, founder of th ...

Ignacio de Loyola
'', in which he was portrayed by . Ignatius of Loyola is remembered in the
Church of England The Church of England (C of E) is a Christian church Christian Church is a Protestant Protestantism is a form of Christianity that originated with the 16th-century Reformation, a movement against what its followers perceived to be Critic ...
with a
commemoration Commemoration may refer to: *Commemoration (Anglicanism), a religious observance in Churches of the Anglican Communion *Commemoration (liturgy), insertion in one liturgy of portions of another *Memorialization See also

* Commemorative (disam ...
on 31 July.


Genealogy


Shield of Oñaz-Loyola

The Shield of Oñaz-Loyola is a symbol of Ignatius family's Oñaz lineage, and is used by many
Jesuit , image = Ihs-logo.svg , caption = Christogram A Christogram (Latin ') is a monogram or combination of letters that forms an abbreviation for the name of Jesus Christ, traditionally used as a Christian symbolism ...
institutions around the world. As the official colours of the Loyola family are
maroon Maroon ( US/ UK , Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continent), Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous ...
and
gold Gold is a chemical element In chemistry, an element is a pure Chemical substance, substance consisting only of atoms that all have the same numbers of protons in their atomic nucleus, nuclei. Unlike chemical compounds, chemical elemen ...
, the Oñaz shield consists of seven maroon bars going diagonally from the upper left to the lower right on a goldfield. The bands were granted by the King of Spain to each of the Oñaz brothers, in recognition of their bravery in battle. The Loyola shield features a pair of
rampant In heraldry Heraldry () is a broad term, encompassing the design, display and study of armorial bearings (known as armory), as well as related disciplines, such as vexillology, together with the study of ceremony, rank and genealogy, pedigree. Ar ...

rampant
flanking each side of a cooking pot. The wolf was a symbol of nobility, while the entire design represented the family's generosity towards their military followers. According to legend, wolves had enough to feast on after the soldiers had eaten. Both shields were combined as a result of the intermarriage of the two families in 1261. Former coat of arms of the Argentine city,
Junín, Buenos Aires Junín () is a city in the Buenos Aires Province, province of Buenos Aires, Argentina, and administrative seat of the ''Partidos of Buenos Aires, partido'' of Junín Partido, Junín. It has a population of 85,420 () and is located west of the city ...
used until 1941 bore Loyola shield under the
Sun of May The Sun of May ( es, Sol de Mayo) is a national emblem of Argentina Argentina (), officially the Argentine Republic ( es, link=no, República Argentina), is a country located mostly in the southern half of South America. Sharing the bulk of the ...

Sun of May
and surrounded by laurel wreath.


Lineage

Villoslada established the following detailed genealogy of Ignatius of Loyola: , - , style="text-align: left;", Notes: Martín García Óñez de Loyola, soldier and Governor of Chile killed by
Mapuche The Mapuche ( (Spanish: )) are a group of Indigenous peoples of the Americas, Indigenous inhabitants of present-day south-central Chile and southwestern Argentina, including parts of present-day Patagonia. The collective term refers to a wide-ra ...

Mapuche
s at the
Battle of Curalaba The Battle of Curalaba ( es, Batalla de Curalaba, links=no ) is a 1598 battle and ambush where Mapuche The Mapuche ( (Spanish: )) are a group of Indigenous peoples of the Americas, Indigenous inhabitants of present-day south-central Chile ...
, is likely Ignatius's nephew.


Gallery

File:Tomb of St. Ignatius.jpg, Tomb of Saint Ignatius, c. 1675 File:Apoteosis de San Ignacio 1675 20131224.jpg, Apotheosis of Saint Ignatius File:St Ignatius of Loyola (1491-1556) Founder of the Jesuits.jpg, Portrait by File:Peter Paul Rubens33.jpg, ''Visions of Ignatius'', 1617–18,
Peter Paul Rubens Sir Peter Paul Rubens (; ; 28 June 1577 – 30 May 1640) was a Flemish Flemish (''Vlaams'') is a Low Franconian Low Franconian, Low Frankish, NetherlandicSarah Grey Thomason, Terrence Kaufman: ''Language Contact, Creolization, and Geneti ...

Peter Paul Rubens
File:Podroze Loyoli.svg, The journeys of Ignatius of Loyola at different times File:St Ignatius Spiritual Exercises c 1600.jpg, A page from ''
Spiritual Exercises The ''Spiritual Exercises of Ignatius of Loyola'' (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Lati ...
''


Bibliography

* ''The Spiritual Exercises of St Ignatius'',
TAN Books TAN Books is a traditionalist Catholic American book distributor and publisher based in Gastonia, North Carolina. History TAN Books was founded in 1967, as "TAN Books and Publishers," in Rockford, Illinois Rockford is a U.S. city in Winneba ...
, 2010. * Ignatius of Loyola, ''
Spiritual Exercises The ''Spiritual Exercises of Ignatius of Loyola'' (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Lati ...
'', London, 2012. limovia.net * * For information on the O'Conner and other translations, see notes in ''A Pilgrim's Journey: The Autobiography of Ignatius of Loyola'
Page 11-12
*


See also

* List of Jesuits * Marie-Madeleine d'Houët foundress of the Sisters,
Faithful Companions of Jesus File:FCJ School Jersey.jpg, FCJ Primary School, Jersey The Faithful Companions of Jesus Sisters (FCJ Sisters, French: ''Fidèles compagnes de Jésus'') is a Christian religious institute of the Roman Catholic Church directly subject to the Pope. I ...
* Martín Ignacio de Loyola * The
Cave of Saint IgnatiusThe Cave of Saint Ignatius is a sanctuary declared as a Local Cultural Heritage that includes a baroque church and a Neoclassical architecture, neoclassical building in Manresa (Catalonia), which was created to honor the place where, according to tra ...
, a sanctuary built where Ignatius of Loyola reflected for 11 months in a grotto, in
Manresa Manresa () is the capital of the comarques of Catalonia, Comarca of Bages, located in the geographic centre of Catalonia, Spain, and crossed by the river Cardener. It is an industrial area with textile, metallurgy, metallurgical, and glass indust ...

Manresa
. * Isabella Roser and , wealthy Catalan women who were Loyola's benefactors from the 1520s onwards.


References


Further reading

* * *
August Derleth August William Derleth (February 24, 1909 – July 4, 1971) was an American writer and anthologist. Though best remembered as the first book publisher of the writings of H. P. Lovecraft, and for his own contributions to the Cthulhu Mythos and th ...
, ''St. Ignatius and the Company of Jesus'', Vision Books, 1956. * * * * * ''Life of St. Ignatius of Loyola'',
TAN Books TAN Books is a traditionalist Catholic American book distributor and publisher based in Gastonia, North Carolina. History TAN Books was founded in 1967, as "TAN Books and Publishers," in Rockford, Illinois Rockford is a U.S. city in Winneba ...
, 1997. . * ''St. Ignatius of Loyola'',
TAN Books TAN Books is a traditionalist Catholic American book distributor and publisher based in Gastonia, North Carolina. History TAN Books was founded in 1967, as "TAN Books and Publishers," in Rockford, Illinois Rockford is a U.S. city in Winneba ...
, 2008. .


External links


3D model of the St Ignatius sculpture of Santa Clara University (California), on Arskan SiloData
* * *

''Butler's Lives of the Saints''

Translation by Elder Mullan, S.J.
Letters of Saint Ignatius of Loyola







''The Book of Spiritual Exercises of St. Ignatius Loyola, the Founder of the Jesuit Monastic Order''
in Arabic, dating from 1773 {{DEFAULTSORT:Ignatius of Loyola 1491 births 1556 deaths 16th-century Christian mystics 16th-century Christian saints 16th-century Spanish Jesuits Anglican saints Basque Roman Catholic priests Canonizations by Pope Gregory XV Christian radicals Counter-Reformation Spanish duellists Founders of Catholic religious communities Ignatian spirituality Jesuit saints Marian visionaries People from Azpeitia Roman Catholic mystics Spanish Roman Catholic saints 16th-century Spanish Roman Catholic theologians Superiors General of the Society of Jesus University of Paris alumni Basque Jesuits