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Springer Science+Business Media, commonly known as Springer, is a German multinational
publishing Publishing is the activity of making information, literature, music, software and other content available to the public for sale or for free. Traditionally, the term refers to the creation and distribution of printed works, such as book A ...
company of books,
e-book An ebook (short for electronic book), also known as an e-book or eBook, is a book A book is a medium for recording information Information is processed, organised and structured data Data (; ) are individual facts, statistics, ...

e-book
s and peer-reviewed journals in science, humanities, technical and medical (STM) publishing. Originally founded in 1842 in
Berlin Berlin (; ) is the Capital city, capital and List of cities in Germany by population, largest city of Germany by both area and population. Its 3,769,495 inhabitants, as of 31 December 2019 makes it the List of cities in the European Union by ...

Berlin
, it expanded internationally in the 1960s, and through mergers in the 1990s and a sale to venture capitalists it fused with
Wolters Kluwer Wolters Kluwer N.V. () is a Dutch information services company. The company is headquartered in Alphen aan den Rijn 275px, ''Topographic map of Alphen aan den Rijn (town), Sept. 2014'' Alphen aan den Rijn (, en, Alphen upon Rhine or ''Alphen o ...
and eventually became part of
Springer Nature Springer Nature or the Springer Nature Group is a German-British academic publishing Academic publishing is the subfield of publishing which distributes academic research and scholarship. Most academic work is published in academic journal a ...

Springer Nature
in 2015. Springer has major offices in Berlin,
Heidelberg Heidelberg () is a university town in the German state The Federal Republic of Germany, as a federal state, consists of sixteen partly sovereign federated states (german: Land (state), plural (states); commonly informally / federated s ...

Heidelberg
,
Dordrecht Dordrecht (, , ), historically known in English as Dordt (still colloquially used in Dutch, ) or Dort, is a List of cities in the Netherlands by province, city and List of municipalities of the Netherlands, municipality in the Western Netherland ...

Dordrecht
, and
New York City New York, often called New York City to distinguish it from New York State New York is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of ...

New York City
.


History

Julius Springer Julius Springer (10 May 1817 – 17 April 1877) was a German publisher who founded the academic publishing house Springer Science+Business Media Springer Science+Business Media, commonly known as Springer, is a German multinational publishing com ...
founded Springer-Verlag in Berlin in 1842 and his son Ferdinand Springer grew it from a small firm of 4 employees into Germany's then second largest academic publisher with 65 staff in 1872.Chronology
. Springer Science+Business Media.
In 1964, Springer expanded its business internationally, opening an office in New York City. Offices in Tokyo, Paris, Milan, Hong Kong, and Delhi soon followed. In 1999, the academic publishing company BertelsmannSpringer was formed after media and entertainment company
Bertelsmann Bertelsmann is a German private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, British singer Dusty Springfield, after an absence of nearly two ...
bought a majority stake in Springer-Verlag. In 2003, the British investment groups
Cinven Cinven is a global private equity firm A private-equity firm is an investment management company that provides financial backing and makes investments in the private equity Private equity (PE) typically refers to investment funds, genera ...
and
Candover Candover Investments plc. is a British-based, private equity firm, specialising in arranging and leading large buyouts and buyins. Candover Investments is structured as an investment trust. On 31 August 2010, Candover announced that it would un ...
bought BertelsmannSpringer from Bertelsmann .Poynder, Richard.
BertelsmannSpringer is Sold to Private Equity Firms
. ''Information Today''. May 27, 2003.
They merged the company in 2004 with the
Dutch Dutch commonly refers to: * Something of, from, or related to the Netherlands * Dutch people () * Dutch language () *Dutch language , spoken in Belgium (also referred as ''flemish'') Dutch may also refer to:" Castle * Dutch Castle Places * ...

Dutch
publisher Kluwer Academic Publishers which they bought from
Wolters Kluwer Wolters Kluwer N.V. () is a Dutch information services company. The company is headquartered in Alphen aan den Rijn 275px, ''Topographic map of Alphen aan den Rijn (town), Sept. 2014'' Alphen aan den Rijn (, en, Alphen upon Rhine or ''Alphen o ...
in 2002, to form Springer Science+Business Media. In 2006, Springer acquired
Humana Press Humana Press was an American Academic publishing, academic publisher of science, technology, and medical books and academic journal, journals founded in 1976. It was bought by Springer Science+Business Media in 2006. History Humana published mo ...
. Springer acquired the open-access publisher
BioMed Central BioMed Central (BMC) is a United Kingdom-based, for-profit scientific open access Open access (OA) is a set of principles and a range of practices through which research outputs are distributed online, free of cost or other access barriers. ...
in October 2008 for an undisclosed amount. In 2009, Cinven and Candover sold Springer to two private equity firms,
EQT Partners EQT is a global investment organization founded in 1994, dedicated to investing in, developing, and owning companies across multiple regions, sectors and business models. Together with a network of industrial advisors, the firm invests in privat ...
and
Government of Singapore Investment Corporation GIC Private Limited, formerly known as Government of Singapore Investment Corporation, is a sovereign wealth fund A sovereign wealth fund (SWF), sovereign investment fund, or social wealth fund is a state-owned investment fund that invests i ...
, confirmed in February 2010 after the competition authorities in the US and in Europe approved the transfer. In 2011, Springer acquired Pharma Marketing and Publishing Services (MPS) from Wolters Kluwer. In 2013, the London-based private equity firm
BC Partners BC Partners is a British international Investment company, investment firm with over $40 billion of assets under management across private equity, credit and real estate in Europe and North America. Its global headquarters are in London. The firm ...
acquired a majority stake in Springer from EQT and GIC for $4.4 billion. In January 2015,
Holtzbrinck Publishing Group Holtzbrinck Publishing Group () is a Privately held company, privately-held German company based in Stuttgart which Holding company, owns publishing companies worldwide. Through Macmillan Publishers, it is one of the Publishing#Book publishing, B ...
/
Nature Publishing Group Nature Portfolio (formerly known as Nature Publishing Group and Nature Research) is a division of the international scientific publishing Science (from the Latin word ''scientia'', meaning "knowledge") is a systematic enterprise that Scient ...
and Springer Science+Business Media announced a
merger In corporate finance, mergers and acquisitions (M&A) are transactions in which the ownership of Company, companies, other business organizations, or their operating units are transferred or Consolidation (business), consolidated with other entit ...
. in May 2015 they concluded the transaction and formed a new joint venture company,
Springer Nature Springer Nature or the Springer Nature Group is a German-British academic publishing Academic publishing is the subfield of publishing which distributes academic research and scholarship. Most academic work is published in academic journal a ...

Springer Nature
with Holtzbrinck in the majority 53% share and
BC Partners BC Partners is a British international Investment company, investment firm with over $40 billion of assets under management across private equity, credit and real estate in Europe and North America. Its global headquarters are in London. The firm ...
retaining 47% interest in the company.


Products

In 1996, Springer launched electronic book and journal content on its SpringerLink site. In 2008, SpringerImages was launched and offers a collection of currently 1.8 million images spanning science, technology, and medicine. In 2009, SpringerMaterials was launched and is a platform for accessing the Landolt-Börnstein database of research and information on materials and their properties. AuthorMapper is a free online tool for visualizing scientific research that enables document discovery based on author locations and geographic maps, helping users explore patterns in scientific research, identify literature trends, discover collaborative relationships, and locate experts in several scientific/medical fields.
Springer ProtocolsImage:Springer Protocols logo.jpg, 250px, right ''Springer Protocols'' was a database of life sciences protocol (natural sciences), protocols published by Springer Science+Business Media. It replaced ''BioMed Protocols'', a Humana Press database, in ...
contained a collection of laboratory protocols, recipes that provide step-by-step instructions for conducting experiments, which in 2018 was made available in SpringerLink instead. AS of 2014 Springer hosts a number of scientific databases, including SpringerLink, and SpringerImages. Book publications include major reference works, textbooks, monographs and book series; more than 168,000 titles are available as e-books in 24 subject collections.


Open access

Springer is a member of the
Open Access Scholarly Publishers Association The Open Access Scholarly Publishing Association (OASPA) is a non-profit trade association of open access Open access (OA) is a set of principles and a range of practices through which outputs are distributed online, free of cost or other a ...
. For some of its journals, Springer does not require its authors to transfer their copyrights, and allows them to decide whether their articles are published under an
open-access Open access (OA) is a set of principles and a range of practices through which research Research is "creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge". It involves the collection, organization and analysis o ...
licence or in the traditional restricted licence model. While open-access publishing typically requires the author to pay a fee for copyright retention, this fee is sometimes covered by a third party. For example, a national institution in Poland allows authors to publish in open-access journals without incurring any personal cost but using public funds.


Controversies

In 2014, it was revealed that sixteen papers in conference proceedings published by Springer had been computer-generated using
SCIgen SCIgen is a paper generator A paper generator is computer software that composes scholarly papers in the style of those that appear in academic journals or conference proceedings. Typically, the generator uses technical jargon from the field to ...
. Springer subsequently retracted all papers from these proceedings.
IEEE The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) is a professional association for electronic engineering and electrical engineering (and associated disciplines) with its corporate office in New York City and its operations center i ...
had removed more than 100 fake papers from its conference proceedings. In 2015, Springer retracted 64 papers from 10 of its journals it had published after a fraudulent
peer review Peer review is the evaluation of work by one or more people with similar competencies as the producers of the work ( peers). It functions as a form of self-regulation by qualified members of a profession within the relevant field Field may r ...
process could be proven.


Manipulation of bibliometrics

According to
Goodhart's law Goodhart's law is an adage An adage (; Latin: adagium) is a concise, memorable, and usually philosophical aphorism that communicates an important truth derived from experience, custom, or both, and that many people consider true and credible ...
and concerned academics like the signatories of the San Francisco Declaration on Research Assessment, commercial academic publishers benefit from manipulation of
bibliometrics Bibliometrics is the use of statistical methods to analyse books, articles and other publications. Bibliometric methods are frequently used in the field of library and information science. The sub-field of bibliometrics which concerns itself wit ...
and
scientometrics Scientometrics is the field of study which concerns itself with measuring and analysing scholarly literature. Scientometrics is a sub-field of bibliometrics Bibliometrics is the use of statistical methods to analyse books, articles and other publ ...
like the
journal impact factor The impact factor (IF) or journal impact factor (JIF) of an academic journal An academic or scholarly journal is a periodical publication in which Scholarly method, scholarship relating to a particular list of academic disciplines, academic discip ...
, which is often used as
proxy Proxy may refer to: * Proxy or agent (law), a substitute authorized to act for another entity or a document which authorizes the agent so to act * Proxy (climate), a measured variable used to infer the value of a variable of interest in climate r ...
of
prestige Prestige refers to a good reputation or high esteem; in earlier usage, ''prestige'' meant "showiness". (19th c.) Prestige may also refer to: Arts, entertainment and media Films *Prestige (film), ''Prestige'' (film), a 1932 American film directed ...
and can influence revenues, including in the form of subscriptions and free work from academics. Seven Springer Nature journals, which exhibited unusual levels of
self-citation Coercive citation is an academic publishing Academic publishing is the subfield of publishing Publishing is the activity of making information, literature, music, software and other content available to the public for sale or for free. Tradi ...
, had their
journal impact factor The impact factor (IF) or journal impact factor (JIF) of an academic journal An academic or scholarly journal is a periodical publication in which Scholarly method, scholarship relating to a particular list of academic disciplines, academic discip ...
of 2019 suspended from ''
Journal Citation Reports ''Journal Citation Reports'' (''JCR'') is an annual publicationby Clarivate Analytics (previously the intellectual property of Thomson Reuters). It has been integrated with the Web of Science and is accessed from the Web of Science-Core Collectio ...
'' in 2020, a sanction which hit 34 journals in total.


Selected imprints

*Adis International *
Apress Apress Media LLC is a publisher of information technology books, based in New York City. It is a division of Springer Nature. History Apress, Inc. , based in New York and founded in 1999. Apress was founded by authors Gary Cornell and Dan Apple ...
*
BioMed Central BioMed Central (BMC) is a United Kingdom-based, for-profit scientific open access Open access (OA) is a set of principles and a range of practices through which research outputs are distributed online, free of cost or other access barriers. ...
**
Chemistry Central Chemistry Central was a academic publishing, scientific publisher specializing in Open access (publishing), open access publications in chemistry. It was established on August 22, 2006 and was operated by BioMed Central. Along with BioMed Central an ...
(defunct) **
PhysMath Central PhysMath Central was an imprint of Springer Science+Business Media Springer Science+Business Media, commonly known as Springer, is a German multinational publishing company of books, e-books and peer-reviewed journals in science, humanities, t ...
(defunct) * Birkhäuser Verlag *Current Medicine Group *
Humana Press Humana Press was an American Academic publishing, academic publisher of science, technology, and medical books and academic journal, journals founded in 1976. It was bought by Springer Science+Business Media in 2006. History Humana published mo ...
*Infochem *Kluwer Academic Publishers ** D. Reidel (defunct) *Plenum Publishers *SpringerOpen *
Springer Gabler Springer Gabler (formerly Gabler Verlag) is a German publishing house in the fields of economy An economy (from Greek language, Greek οίκος – "household" and νέμoμαι – "manage") is an area of the Production (economics), produc ...
*Springer Praxis Books *Springer Spektrum * Springer Vieweg


Selected publications

*'' Encyclopaedia of Mathematics'' *''
Ergebnisse der Mathematik und ihrer Grenzgebiete ''Ergebnisse der Mathematik und ihrer Grenzgebiete''/''A Series of Modern Surveys in Mathematics'' is a series of scholarly monographs published by Springer Science+Business Media Springer Science+Business Media, commonly known as Springer, is a ...
'' (book series) *''
Graduate Texts in Mathematics Graduate Texts in Mathematics (GTM) (ISSN 0072-5285) is a series of graduate-level File:CCMDonation49.JPG, Student receives degree from the Monterrey Institute of Technology and Higher Education, Mexico City, 2013 A graduate school (sometimes sh ...
'' (book series) *'' Grothendieck's Séminaire de géométrie algébrique'' *'' The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology'' *''
Lecture Notes in Computer Science ''Lecture Notes in Computer Science'' is a series of computer science Computer science deals with the theoretical foundations of information, algorithms and the architectures of its computation as well as practical techniques for their appl ...
'' *''
Undergraduate Texts in Mathematics Undergraduate Texts in Mathematics (UTM) is a series of undergraduate-level textbooks A textbook is a book containing a comprehensive compilation of content in a branch of study with the intention of explaining it. Textbook are produced to meet t ...
'' (book series) *''
Zentralblatt MATH zbMATH, formerly Zentralblatt MATH, is a major reviewing service providing reviews and abstracts for articles in pure Pure may refer to: Computing * A pure function * A virtual function, pure virtual function * PureSystems, a family of compute ...
'' *'' MRS Bulletin''


See also

* * List of publishers *
Media concentration Concentration of media ownership (also known as media consolidation or media convergence) is a process whereby progressively fewer individuals or organizations control increasing shares of the mass media. Contemporary research demonstrates inc ...


References


External links

* * {{DEFAULTSORT:Springer Science and Business Media Academic publishing companies Pan-European media companies Computer book publishing companies Commercial digital libraries Publishing companies of Germany Publishing companies established in 1842 Companies disestablished in 2015 1842 establishments in Prussia Multinational companies headquartered in Germany Multinational publishing companies German digital libraries German companies established in 1842 German companies disestablished in 2015