HOME

TheInfoList




Sports marketing is a subdivision of
marketing Marketing is the process of intentionally stimulating demand for and purchases of goods and services; potentially including selection of a target audience; selection of certain attributes or themes to emphasize in advertising; operation of adv ...

marketing
which focuses both on the promotion of sports events and teams as well as the promotion of other products and services through sporting events and sports teams. It is a service in which the element promoted can be a physical product or a brand name. The goal is to provide the client with strategies to promote sports or to promote some other product, service, business or cause through sports. Sports marketing is also designed to meet the needs and wants of the consumers through exchange processes. These strategies follow the traditional four "P"'s of general
marketing Marketing is the process of intentionally stimulating demand for and purchases of goods and services; potentially including selection of a target audience; selection of certain attributes or themes to emphasize in advertising; operation of adv ...

marketing
: Product, Price, Promotion and Place. Another four "P"’s are added to sports marketing, relating to the fact sports are considered to be a service. The additional 4 P’s are: Planning, Packaging, Positioning and Perception. The addition of the four extra elements is called the "sports
marketing mix The term "marketing mix" is a foundation model for businesses, historically centered around product, price, place, and promotion (also known as the "4 Ps"). The marketing Marketing is the process of intentionally stimulating demand for and ...

marketing mix
." Sports marketing is an element of sports promotion which involves a wide variety of sectors of the sports industry, including
broadcasting Broadcasting is the distributionDistribution may refer to: Mathematics *Distribution (mathematics) Distributions, also known as Schwartz distributions or generalized functions, are objects that generalize the classical notion of functi ...
, advertising, social media, digital platforms, ticket sales, and community relations. Sports marketing is divided into three sectors. The first is the advertising of sport and sports associations such as the Olympics, Spanish Football league, NFL and the IPL, as well as sport teams like Real Madrid and the New York Yankees. The second concerns the use of sporting events, sporting teams and individual athletes to promote various products. The third category is the promotion of sports to the public in order to increase participation. In the first case, the promotion is directly related to sports. In the second case, the products can but do not have to be directly related to sports. When the promotion is about sports in general, the use of this kind of strategy is called “Marketing of Sports.” When the promotion is not about the sports but sports events, athletes, teams or leagues are used to promote different products, the marketing strategy is denominated “Marketing through sports." When the promotion is about increasing participation among the public, it is called "Grassroots Sports Marketing." To promote the products or services, the companies and associations use different channels such as sponsorships of teams or athletes, television or radio advertisement during the different broadcast sports events and celebrations, and/or advertisement on sporting venues. “Street marketing of sports” considers sports marketing through billboards on the street and also through urban elements (street lighters and sidewalks, etc.) to help promote and gain publicity during major worldwide sporting events such as the Football World Cup, the Olympic Games, the Cricket World Cup or the Super Bowl. this = Business


Sports fans

Like all business sectors, sports businesses also rely on market segmentation to effectively market themselves. Sport fans differ according to a number of attributes including motivations to attend sporting events, emotional attachment, economic attachment, identity, and loyalty. These attributes also make sports different from other forms of entertainment as sport fans behave differently than consumers of other products and services. Attributes such as loyalty can be recognized through the contracts players and athletes sign with sports companies, in which they get paid to wear or use their products in each game or sporting event. By doing so, the players and athletes and also their fans develop a loyalty for the products for a longer time.


Types of sports

With such an array of differences of sports fans, different types and levels of sports are found across the globe. For example, in many countries cricket and football are extremely popular. In the United States, American football, baseball, and basketball are most favored, while college sports are also preferred. In addition to the classification of sports by levels, sports have also been classified as either mainstream or non-mainstream, also known as niche. There are seven product attributes that differentiate mainstream sports from non-mainstream sports: accessibility, popularity, uniqueness, affordability, star power, player skill, and player similarity. Accessibility, affordability, and similarity are strongly related to niche sports while popularity, player skill as well as accessibility are strongly related to mainstream sports. Meanwhile, fans that are less-identified with a team are drawn to player similarity as they feel they can relate more with players while highly identified fans prefer the star power of players. Affordability also is a distinguishing factor among fans, as less-identified fans place greater importance on price. A practical marketing example of this is the National Lacrosse League mandating players to attend receptions of restaurants who sponsor the team. Other strategies that niche sports utilize to differentiate themselves from mainstream sports are providing easy access to team and player information, especially online, as well as offer affordable ticket prices and valuable promotions such as dollar beer nights and 25-cent hot dog nights. In contrast, popular mainstream sports like Major League Baseball (MLB) and the National Basketball Association (NBA) highlight the star power of players, which is why teams go to great effort to promote their best players. This is also seen in media as nationally televised sporting events often promote specific players leading up to games. Fans also hold different expectations of different sport types and levels of sports. This is essential for sport marketers to understand. For example, fans attending a minor league baseball game will compare their experience to previous games attended at minor league baseball games, or even other minor league sports if they have little experience with minor league baseball. They will not, however, compare a minor league baseball experience to an NFL game as they understand the two experiences will be very different. Sports differentiation is also important concerning sponsorship. Companies who sponsor niche sports place the most importance on attributes including cost effectiveness, spectator demographics, and the company fit with the sports image. Niche sports often allow companies who cannot afford to sponsor mainstream sports a channel to market their companies. Also, with niche sports shown to attract a different type of consumer, these companies desire to increase their public awareness within a specific target market. Other attributes important to companies sponsoring niche sports are enhancing both their image and community involvement, which may be easier to do through niche sports than mainstream sports.


Benefits of sports marketing

The benefits of sports marketing are wide-ranging. Stakeholders involved in sports include leagues, teams, athletes, and fans as well as cities and countries hosting sporting events. The media and businesses who promote their products and services through sports also receive benefits. Direct benefits to leagues, teams, and athletes include
revenue In accounting Accounting or Accountancy is the measurement ' Measurement is the number, numerical quantification (science), quantification of the variable and attribute (research), attributes of an object or event, which can be used to comp ...
from tickets, media rights, and
sponsorship Sponsoring something (or someone) is the act of supporting an event, activity, person, or organization financially or through the provision of products or services. The individual or group that provides the support, similar to a benefactor Benefa ...
s. Cities and countries also receive revenue from taxes, and all of the stakeholders gain from the exposure provided through sports. What really works for brands is the gain in terms of visibility and
brand awareness Brand awareness is the extent to which customers are able to recall or recognize a brand A brand is a name, term, design, symbol or any other feature that identifies one seller's good or service as distinct from those of other sellers. Brand ...

brand awareness
that a sports sponsorship activation can bring. Additionally, a good sport sponsorship activation can help brands talking with a high-profiled and very responsive target. Brands involved in sponsorship activations have the opportunity to come into contact with their fan base and enjoy the resulting commercial benefits. When it comes to B2B, the advantages of sponsorships must not be underestimated. A high level of corporate hospitality, with gourmet dishes, the possibility to meet players/riders and racers, and privileged viewing positions, is an excellent way to tease high-value customers or to hold less formal business discussions in a more exciting context than the office.


New challenges for sports marketing

With millennials switching to new platforms to access sport, the role of traditional media and sports marketing is changing. Outmoded inflexible contracts can leave little budget for the all-important activation, and with fans choosing rival unofficial channels for gossip and insider information, the rewards can be hard won. New and accessible ways to view sports, from mobile to social to VR, means there is less incentive for fans to attend events in person, while more expectation is placed on sports stars to pull off an authentic natural voice for their brands. The environment is extremely tough for small college athletics (e.g.,
NCAA Division III NCAA Division III (DIII) is a division of the National Collegiate Athletic Association The National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) is a nonprofit organization that regulates student athletes from up to 1,268 North American institu ...
schools), who rely on fan attendance for revenue generation to keep their sports afloat - requiring communicators and marketers to become more creative in the ways they promote sports to their target audiences.


The marketing of sports teams and events

According to different authors and organizations, the marketing of sports events and teams is defined as “Designing or developing a 'live' themed activity, occasion, display, or exhibit a sporting event to promote a product, a team, cause, or organization". In other words it can be defined as follows: The marketing of sports events and teams is the marketing strategy which is designed or developed for a “live” activity, which has a specific theme. Mostly this kind of strategy is used as a way to promote, display or exhibit different things, such as a sports team, a sport association among others. There are different events that can clearly exemplify this concept, such as the
Super Bowl The Super Bowl is the annual championship game of the National Football League (NFL). It has served as the final game of every NFL season since 1966, replacing the NFL Championship Game. Since 2004, the game has been played on the first Sunday ...
, the
Olympic Games The modern Olympic Games or Olympics (french: Jeux olympiques) are leading international sporting events featuring summer and winter sports competitions in which thousands of athletes An athlete (also sportsman or sportswoman) is a pe ...
, the
UEFA Champions League The UEFA Champions League (abbreviated as UCL) is an annual club football Football is a family of team sport A team is a Union of European Football Associations The Union of European Football Associations (UEFA; ; french: Union ...
, the
World Marathon Majors The World Marathon Majors (WMM) (known for sponsorship reasons as the Abbott World Marathon Majors) is a championship-style competition for marathon runners that started in 2006. A points-based competition founded on six major marathon races recog ...
, and the
FIFA World Cup The FIFA World Cup, often simply called the World Cup, is an international association football Association football, more commonly known as simply football or soccer, is a played with a between two teams of 11 . It is played by ...
. Major sports brands compete to link up with the best marathons in the world, the test for excellence in ‘running’, in what is a genuine showcase for strengthening its
marketing strategy Marketing strategy is a process that can allow an organization to concentrate its limited resources on the greatest opportunities to increase sales and achieve a sustainable competitive advantage In business, a competitive advantage is the attrib ...
to its target audience.
Adidas Adidas Aktiengesellschaft, AG (; stylized as adidas since 1949) is a German multinational corporation, founded and headquartered in Herzogenaurach, Germany, that designs and manufactures shoes, clothing and accessories. It is the largest spor ...

Adidas
,
Asics is a Japanese Japanese may refer to: * Something from or related to Japan Japan ( ja, 日本, or , and formally ) is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country is a distinct territory, ...

Asics
and
Nike Nike often refers to: * Nike (mythology), a Greek goddess who personifies victory * Nike, Inc., a major American producer of athletic shoes, apparel, and sports equipment Nike may also refer to: People * Nike (name), a surname and feminine given ...
are dividing the market into the ‘
World Marathon Majors The World Marathon Majors (WMM) (known for sponsorship reasons as the Abbott World Marathon Majors) is a championship-style competition for marathon runners that started in 2006. A points-based competition founded on six major marathon races recog ...
’, the international athletics competition created in 2006 that brings together the most prestigious
marathon The marathon is a long-distance foot race with a distance of , usually run as a road running, road race, but the distance can be covered on trail routes. The marathon can be completed by running or with a run/walk strategy. There are also ...

marathon
s on the planet. They are not title but technical sponsors, but these runs are popular and are not to be missed events for these brands, which create specific
advertising campaign Advertising is a marketing Marketing is the process of intentionally stimulating demand for and purchases of goods and services; potentially including selection of a target audience; selection of certain attributes or themes to emphasi ...
s to one of the few competitions that brings together professionals and amateurs under the same chrono. The Super Bowl is an example of this concept because it is a massive sports event organized by a sport association, the NFL, which looks to promote the event, the sport, and as well the different football teams. The event is promoted through local and national media, and has also spread internationally. For example, in Mexico the NFL signed a contract with
Cinemex Cinemex is a Mexico, Mexican chain of Movie theater, cinemas. It operates Multiplex (movie theater), multiplexes in cities such as Mexico City, Guadalajara, Jalisco, Guadalajara, Monterrey, Toluca, Cd. Juarez, Leon, Guanajuato, Leon, Tijuana, Mexic ...
, a Mexican movie theater chain, for the right to transmit its games in movie theaters. This displays the potential of sporting leagues and teams to promote not just the event, but the league and teams involved to a worldwide audience.


The marketing of products through sports

"Marketing through sports" is a concept that's been used since the 1980s, but has increased in importance in the last two decades due to the growth and expansion that the different types of sports have enjoyed since then. It is a
marketing strategy Marketing strategy is a process that can allow an organization to concentrate its limited resources on the greatest opportunities to increase sales and achieve a sustainable competitive advantage In business, a competitive advantage is the attrib ...
that can be used in sports in two different ways. First, the use of marketing and promotion can be carried out through the sport or through the
sports club A sports club or sporting club, sometimes athletics club or sports society or sports association, is a group of people formed for the purpose of playing sports. Sports clubs range from organisations whose members play together, unpaid, and may ...

sports club
. In the first case, the use of marketing is under responsibility of the different
sporting association Image:Clube.JPG, 250px, A sport club in Belo Horizonte, Brazil, showing various paved and painted surfaces for futsal, basketball and volleyball, with two swimming pools in the foreground. A sports club or sporting club, sometimes athletics club o ...
s, while in the second case, the responsibility falls on the different sports clubs. In this manner, marketing and promotion through sports and through the club involve
sponsorship Sponsoring something (or someone) is the act of supporting an event, activity, person, or organization financially or through the provision of products or services. The individual or group that provides the support, similar to a benefactor Benefa ...
, corporate events and boxes, licensed
merchandise Merchandising is any practice which contributes to the sale of products Product may refer to: Business * Product (business), an item that serves as a solution to a specific consumer problem. * Product (project management), a deliverable or se ...
, names and images also known as "", advertising through broadcaster, advertising such as advertising as ground signage/clothing/equipment advertising, promoting games, promoting using players/club/league or developing business opportunities. The peculiarity of sports is that "sports is the only entertainment where, no matter how many times you go back, you never know the ending." This singular fact is used by marketing companies as an advantage: every time the audience attends an event it will see the advertisements again and again, providing a wide range of opportunities for the different companies which operate in this field.


Examples of marketing of products through sports


Sponsorship of events

One of the oldest examples of the marketing of products through sports is Slazenger's supplying of the official ball of Wimbledon (1902- 2015).Another international example of marketing products through sport is Adidas’ sponsorship of
FIFA FIFA ( french: Fédération Internationale de Football Association; en, International Federation of Association Football, link=yes; : ''Federación Internacional de Fútbol Asociación''; : ''Internationaler Verband des Association-Fußball'' ...
, which includes the company supplying the balls used in the
World Cup #REDIRECT World cup A world cup is a global sport Sport pertains to any form of Competition, competitive physical activity or game that aims to use, maintain or improve physical ability and skills while providing enjoyment to participant ...
and having its logo on the side boards along the play-field. In what it described as a "world first" in corporate sports sponsorship, in 2016
BNY Mellon The Bank of New York Mellon Corporation, commonly known as BNY Mellon, is an American investment banking An investment bank is a financial services Financial services are the economic services provided by the finance Finance is the study ...

BNY Mellon
and
Newton Investment ManagementNewton Investment Management is a global investment management subsidiary of BNY Mellon based in London. Its Interim Chief Executive Officer is Andrew Downs. References

Investment companies of the United Kingdom {{finance-stub ...
announced they had donated their title sponsorship of the annual Oxford and Cambridge Boat Races to
Cancer Research UK Cancer Research UK is a cancer research and awareness charity in the United Kingdom and Isle of Man, formed on 4 February 2002 by the merger of The Cancer Research Campaign and the Imperial Cancer Research Fund. As the world's largest independen ...
.


Sponsorship of teams

Sponsorship of teams is found throughout sports. Some of the most visible examples are found in the
MLS Major League Soccer (MLS) is a men's professional soccer Association football, more commonly known as simply football or soccer, is a team sport A team sport includes any sport Sport pertains to any form of Competition, ...

MLS
as company names and logos are featured on team jerseys. For example,
Alaska Airlines Alaska Airlines is a major American airline headquartered in SeaTac, Washington Washington commonly refers to: * Washington (state), United States * Washington, D.C., the capital of the United States ** Federal government of the United Stat ...

Alaska Airlines
is the official jersey sponsor of the
Portland Timbers The Portland Timbers are an American professional Association football, soccer club based in Portland, Oregon. The Timbers compete in Major League Soccer (MLS) as a member club of the league's Western Conference (MLS), Western Conference. The ...
while
Valspar The Valspar Corporation is a manufacturer of paint and coating A coating is a covering that is applied to the surface of an object, usually referred to as the substrate. The purpose of applying the coating may be decorative, functional, or both. T ...
is the official sponsor of the
Chicago Fire FC Chicago Fire Football Club is an American professional association football, soccer club based in Chicago. The team competes in Major League Soccer (MLS) as a member of the league's Eastern Conference (MLS), Eastern Conference, having moved to ...
. These are examples of sponsorships of companies that are not related to sports.
Turkish Airlines Turkish Airlines (Turkish Turkish may refer to: * of or about Turkey Turkey ( tr, Türkiye ), officially the Republic of Turkey, is a country straddling Southeastern Europe and Western Asia. It shares borders with Greece Greece ...

Turkish Airlines
established a sports marketing strategy involving high-profile sports teams, players, and sport associations including
Manchester United Manchester () is the most-populous city and metropolitan borough A metropolitan borough is a type of districts of England, local government district in England, and is a subdivision of a metropolitan county. Created in 1974 by the Local Go ...
,
FC Barcelona Futbol Club Barcelona (), commonly referred to as Barcelona and colloquially known as Barça (), is a professional football club A football team is a group of players selected to play together in the various team sport A team spor ...

FC Barcelona
, the
Euroleague Basketball Euroleague Basketball is the private company that runs and operates the top two continental-wide basketball Basketball is a team sport in which two teams, most commonly of five players each, opposing one another on a rectangular court ...
competition, NBA player
Kobe Bryant Kobe Bean Bryant ( ; August 23, 1978 – January 26, 2020) was an American professional basketball Basketball is a team sport in which two teams, most commonly of five players each, opposing one another on a rectangular court A co ...

Kobe Bryant
, the
Turkey national football team The Turkey national football team ( tr, Türkiye Millî Futbol Takımı) represents Turkey in men's international Association football, football matches. The team is controlled by the Turkish Football Federation ( tr, Türkiye Futbol Federasyon ...
, and tennis player
Caroline Wozniacki Caroline Wozniacki Order of the Dannebrog, (R) (; ; born 11 July 1990) is a Denmark, Danish former professional tennis player. A former List of WTA number 1 ranked tennis players, world No. 1 in singles, she achieved the top ranking for the first ...

Caroline Wozniacki
. Another example of sports marketing through sponsorships of teams is the apparel contracts seen throughout sports. In 2011 Nike agreed to become the official apparel company of the NFL in exchange for around $220 million per year, a deal that has been extended through 2019. At the college level,
Ohio State The Ohio State University, commonly Ohio State or OSU, is a public university, public Land-grant university, land-grant research university in Columbus, Ohio. The Flagship universities, flagship of the University System of Ohio, it is cons ...
and Nike maintain a contract that provides the school a value of $16.8 million per year in cash and product through the 2033-34 academic year. Michigan meanwhile receives a total value of $15.3 million per year. Under Armour and Adidas are also major apparel brands as Under Armour sponsors Notre Dame for $9 million per year while Adidas provides more than $7 million each year to both
UCLA The University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) is a public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing and disseminating information from an individual or an organization An organization, or organ ...
and Louisville. These are examples of sports marketing because as it is defined, sports marketing is a marketing strategy in which companies related to sports products or services promote their
trademark A trademark (also written trade mark or trade-mark) is a type of intellectual property Intellectual property (IP) is a category of property Property is a system of rights that gives people legal control of valuable things, and also r ...

trademark
through design, production or other resources. In this case apparel companies Nike,
Under Armour Under Armour, Inc. is an American sports equipment Sporting equipment, also called sporting goods, are the tools, materials, apparel, and gear used to compete in a sport and varies depending on the sport. The equipment ranges from balls, nets ...

Under Armour
, and Adidas, which are all completely related to sports, design the uniforms of these teams and in this way, promote their trademarks every time there is an event.


Sponsorship of athletes

Apparel companies also sponsor professional athletes such as
Kevin Durant Kevin Wayne Durant (; born September 29, 1988), also known simply by his initials KD, is an American professional basketball Basketball is a team sport in which two teams, most commonly of five players each, opposing one another on a ...

Kevin Durant
who receives $30 million per year from Nike.
Stephen Curry Wardell Stephen Curry II ( ; born March 14, 1988) is an American professional basketball player for the Golden State Warriors of the National Basketball Association (NBA). Widely regarded as one of the greatest point guards of all time, and as ...

Stephen Curry
is speculated to receive even more money than Durant from his contract with Under Armour. Meanwhile, Puma pays sprinter Usain Bolt $10 million per year. Many athletes maintain contracts with a variety of companies; some of them are related to sports and others that are not. Roger Federer holds agreements with Nike, Wilson, Rolex, Mercedes-Benz, and Gillette, worth a sum close to $60 million each year. LeBron James’ contracts with Nike, ,
Coca-Cola Coca-Cola, or Coke, is a carbonated Carbonation is the chemical reaction A chemical reaction is a process that leads to the chemical transformation of one set of chemical substances to another. Classically, chemical A chemical sub ...

Coca-Cola
,
Kia Kia Corporation, commonly known as Kia (, ; formerly known as Kyungsung Precision Industry and Kia Motors Corporation, and stylized as KIΛ) is a South Korean multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate o ...

Kia
,
McDonald's McDonald's is an American fast food Fast food is a type of Mass production, mass-produced food designed for commercial resale and with a strong priority placed on "speed of service" versus other relevant factors involved in food scie ...

McDonald's
, and
Samsung The Samsung Group (or simply Samsung) ( ko, 삼성) is a South Korean Multinational corporation, multinational manufacturing Conglomerate (company), conglomerate headquartered in Samsung Town, Seoul, South Korea. It comprises numerous affil ...

Samsung
accrue the NBA player more than $40 million per year.
Peyton Manning Peyton Williams Manning (born March 24, 1976) is an American former football Football is a family of team sport A team is a [group (disambiguation), group of individuals (human or non-human) working together to achieve their goal. A ...

Peyton Manning
meanwhile holds sponsorship agreements with companies including Buick, DirecTV, Gatorade, Nationwide Mutual Insurance Company, Nationwide and Papa John's worth in sum approximately $12 million per year. Fellow NFL quarterback Drew Brees earns $11 million each year from his contracts with Wrangler,
Vicks Vicks is an American brand of over-the-counter Over-the-counter (OTC) drugs are medicine Medicine is the Art (skill), art, science, and Praxis (process) , practice of caring for a patient and managing the diagnosis, prognosis, Preventive m ...

Vicks
,
Verizon Verizon Communications Inc., commonly known as Verizon, is an American multinational telecommunications Telecommunication is the transmission of information by various types of technologies over , radio, , or other systems. It has its ...
,
Nike Nike often refers to: * Nike (mythology), a Greek goddess who personifies victory * Nike, Inc., a major American producer of athletic shoes, apparel, and sports equipment Nike may also refer to: People * Nike (name), a surname and feminine given ...
, and
Microsoft Microsoft Corporation is an American multinational corporation, multinational technology company, technology corporation which produces Software, computer software, consumer electronics, personal computers, and related services. Its best-know ...

Microsoft
. Former professional boxing three time world champion promoted Mexican airline TAESA (an airline of which he was a stock owner) and Mexican beer company
Tecate Tecate () is a city in Baja California Baja CaliforniaSometimes informally referred to as ('North Lower California') to distinguish it from both the Baja California Peninsula The Baja California Peninsula ( en, Lower California Peninsu ...
by having their logo sewn on his pants during many of his bouts. Similarly, Floyd Mayweather Jr. promoted
Hublot Hublot () is a Swiss luxury watchmaker founded in 1980 by Italian Carlo Crocco. The company operates as a wholly owned subsidiary of France's LVMH. In 1980, it also marked the birth of the "Fusion" concept a few months after being founded. ...

Hublot
and
Manny Pacquiao Emmanuel Dapidran Pacquiao Sr., (; born December17, 1978) is a Filipino politician and former Professional boxing, professional boxer. Nicknamed "PacMan", he is regarded as one of the greatest professional boxers of all time. He has been serv ...

Manny Pacquiao
promoted
Nike Nike often refers to: * Nike (mythology), a Greek goddess who personifies victory * Nike, Inc., a major American producer of athletic shoes, apparel, and sports equipment Nike may also refer to: People * Nike (name), a surname and feminine given ...
,
Air Asia AirAsia Berhad () (stylized as ''airasia'') is a Malaysia Malaysia ( ; ) is a country in Southeast Asia Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is the United Nations geoscheme for Asia#South-eastern Asia, southeastern subregion of ...

Air Asia
,
Phoenix Petroleum Phoenix Petroleum Philippines, Inc. () is the first independent oil company to be listed in the Philippine Stock Exchange after the Oil Deregulation Law was passed in 1998. It is the first company from Davao City to be listed in the Philippine ...
, Cafe Puro, Monolite and others during their bout. Another example of marketing through sports is the strategy used by Gillette to promote its personal hygiene products through representative figures of each sport on television during broadcast sports events.
Gillette Gillette is an American brand A brand is a name, term, design, symbol or any other feature that identifies one seller's good or service as distinct from those of other sellers. Brands are used in business, marketing, and advertising for r ...

Gillette
uses athletes such as tennis player
Roger Federer Roger Federer (; born 8 August 1981) is a Swiss professional tennis player. He is ranked No. 16 in the world by the Association of Tennis Professionals (ATP). He has won 20 Grand Slam (tennis), Grand Slam men's singles titles, an all-time recor ...

Roger Federer
, golfer
Tiger Woods Eldrick Tont "Tiger" Woods (born December 30, 1975) is an American professional golfer A professional golfer is somebody who receives payments or financial rewards in the sport of golf that are directly related to their skill or reputation ...

Tiger Woods
, and soccer player
Thierry Henry Thierry Daniel Henry (born 17 August 1977) is a French professional football Football is a family of s that involve, to varying degrees, a to score a . Unqualified, normally means the form of football that is the most popular where ...

Thierry Henry
. In the commercial these celebrities appear using the products of the company. This is done in order to promote these products to the fans of these celebrities and inspire them to use these products. It is a clear example of this concept, because the company using this marketing strategy is not related to sports at all, but through important sports personalities, its products are exposed to a larger target audience. Nike and Gatorade also hold sponsorship agreements with top athletes. Included among Nike's clients are Federer, Woods, golfer
Rory McIlroy Rory McIlroy (born 4 May 1989) is a professional golfer A professional golfer is somebody who receives payments or financial rewards in the sport of golf that are directly related to their skill or reputation. A person who earns money by teach ...

Rory McIlroy
and tennis player
Rafael Nadal Rafael "Rafa" Nadal Parera (, ; born 3 June 1986) is a Spanish professional tennis Tennis is a racket sport Racket sports are game with separate sliding drawer, from 1390–1353 BC, made of glazed faience, dimensions: 5.5 &tim ...

Rafael Nadal
while Gatorade has deals with NBA star
Dwyane Wade Dwyane Tyrone Wade Jr. ( ; born January 17, 1982) is an American former professional basketball Basketball is a team sport in which two teams, most commonly of five players each, opposing one another on a rectangular court A court ...

Dwyane Wade
,
Serena Williams Serena Jameka Williams (born September 26, 1981) is an American professional tennis player. She has won 23 Grand Slam (tennis)#Tournaments, Grand Slam singles titles, the most by any player in the Open Era, and the All-time tennis records – ...

Serena Williams
, and Peyton and
Eli Manning Elisha Nelson Manning (born January 3, 1981) is a former American football American football, referred to simply as football in the United States and Canada and also known as gridiron, is a team sport played by two teams of eleven play ...

Eli Manning
.


The promotion of sports to the public to increase sports participation

Grassroots sports marketing is a part of the field of marketing known as social marketing. This refers to marketing something that is of benefit to the public, and is normally done by government or charities rather than private sector organizations. It is normally done with a much smaller budget than marketing of sports teams and event or marketing of products through sports as it does not bring any direct financial benefit. Although this marketing normally drives people to clubs where they will pay to play sports, it still needs to be subsidized in order to be run. The money therefore comes from local councils with a remit to increase participation or from public health sector which wants to decrease the cost of healthcare. Examples of the promotion of sports to increase participation is the United States Golf Association's initiatives to increase golf participation as well as MLB's One Baseball campaign, which attempts to unify baseball organizations at all levels with the overarching goal of increasing youth participation and consequently creating new fans.


Relationship Marketing in Sports

Relationship marketing Relationship marketing is a form of marketing developed from direct response marketing Direct marketing is a form of communicating an offer, where organizations communicate directly to a Target market, pre-selected customer and supply ...
relates to customer retention and building long term successful relationship between a business and its customers by maximizing customer satisfaction. Sport businesses need to communicate and participate in discussion with their customers in order to create, sustain and improve relationships. Existing studies offer insightful information into relationship and the general consensus is that sports businesses can benefit from its use. In many situations, sports marketing affairs include some sort of relationship marketing, where clubs, organisations, fans and athletes have relationships with one another that are dependent on the successful management of those relationships. In order for sport businesses to be successful in their goals, they should view their customers as partners for life rather than here and now consumers, and attempt to understand their ever-evolving needs, desires, expectations and values. By doing so, sport businesses are able to maintain and enhance their fan base easily than through the more commonly used short-term transactions such as merchandise and ticket sales. Social media enables businesses to do this and connect with their customers with much higher efficiency and effectiveness. Used as a global communication and interaction channel,
social media Social media are interactive technologies that facilitate the creation Creation may refer to: Religion * Creation ''ex nihilo'', the concept that matter was created by God out of nothing * Creation myth A creation myth (or cosmogonic myth) ...

social media
has changed the conventional
customer relationship Customer relationship management (CRM) is a process in which a business or other organization administers its interactions with customers, typically using data analysis to study large amounts of information. CRM systems compile data from a rang ...
dynamics. Social media is a tool that enables customers’ engagement through an instantaneous and active back-to-back conversation. Customers are increasingly incorporating social media into their daily lives and using it for communication. Businesses have also made it an integral part of their
marketing mix The term "marketing mix" is a foundation model for businesses, historically centered around product, price, place, and promotion (also known as the "4 Ps"). The marketing Marketing is the process of intentionally stimulating demand for and ...

marketing mix
. Today, sports businesses can use social media to actively analyse customer's needs and wants rather than use out-dated methods of
data collection Data collection is the process of gathering and measuring Measurement is the quantification of attributes of an object or event, which can be used to compare with other objects or events. The scope and application of measurement are depend ...
such as
survey Survey may refer to: Statistics and human research * Statistical survey Survey methodology is "the study of survey methods". As a field of applied statistics concentrating on Survey (human research), human-research surveys, survey methodology s ...
s and
focus group A focus group is a group interview involving a small number of demographically similar people or participants who have other common traits/experiences. Their reactions to specific researcher/evaluator-posed questions are studied. Focus groups are ...
s, which do not provide rich information to better understand customers. It allows sports businesses to keep their customers updated on the latest news and information as well as interact with them on an individual basis. This instantaneous two-way communication tool available to sports businesses allows them to provide quality content within short time frames and interact with customers in real time. Effective utilization of social media enables sports brands to provide their customers with the best possible experience and expand their
competitive advantage In business, a competitive advantage is the attribute that allows an organization to outperform its competitors. A competitive advantage may include access to natural resources , Malaysia Malaysia ( ; ) is a country in Southeast Asia. ...
in marketing. The benefits of social media are mutual: Apart from sports businesses benefitting from the use of social media in the context of relationship management and marketing, the constant interaction between sport businesses and their customers allows organisations to know and learn about each individual customer on a deeper level. As a result of this, customers feel more valued and this leads to higher
customer loyalty The loyalty business model is a business model used in strategic management in which company resources are employed so as to increase the Brand loyalty, loyalty of customers and other Stakeholder (corporate), stakeholders in the expectation that ...
. Social media enables sport businesses to involve customers in the marketing process by receiving feedback and ideas, which can then be implemented in future products and services. By doing so, sport businesses strengthen the level of engagement and connection between the organisation and the customer, and this reinforces the importance that customers hold in the brand building process.


Teams and athletes marketing

Professional leagues, teams, and athletes have started using social media as a part of their marketing strategies during the recent years. The emphasis, however, is often still on the brands that are promoted by popular teams and
sportsmen An athlete (also sportsman or sportswoman) is a person who competes in one or more sports that involve physical strength, speed or endurance. The use of the term in several sports, such as golf or auto racing, becomes a controversial issue. At ...
. The most popular social media platforms are
Facebook Facebook is an American online social media and social networking service owned by Meta Platforms. Founded in 2004 by Mark Zuckerberg with fellow Harvard College students and roommates Eduardo Saverin, Andrew McCollum, Dustin Moskovitz, an ...

Facebook
and
Twitter Twitter is an American microblogging Microblogging is an online Broadcasting, broadcast medium that exists as a specific form of blogging. A micro-blog differs from a traditional blog in that its content is typically smaller in both actu ...

Twitter
, but athletes and teams are also using sites including
Instagram Instagram is an American photo 396x396px, '' View from the Window at Le Gras'' (1826 or 1827), by Nicéphore Niépce, the earliest known surviving photograph of a real-world scene, made with a camera obscura. Original (left) & Film coloriz ...

Instagram
and
Snapchat Snapchat is an American multimedia Multimedia is a form of communication that combines different such as , , , , or into a single interactive presentation, in contrast to traditional mass media wh ...
for marketing. As in case of all businesses, the advantages of social media use in sports include building brand awareness, reaching a larger audience in an easy and cost-effective way as well as creating brand advocates and engaging passionate sports fans. There are numerous examples of athletes and sports teams using social media for marketing and promotions. *For example, for a brand like , having a world icon like
Rafael Nadal Rafael "Rafa" Nadal Parera (, ; born 3 June 1986) is a Spanish professional tennis Tennis is a racket sport Racket sports are game with separate sliding drawer, from 1390–1353 BC, made of glazed faience, dimensions: 5.5 &tim ...

Rafael Nadal
as its top brand representative is priceless. There is no better way to stand up to your competition than by having the best on your side. You must also know how to do it because not everything works in marketing. This is why knowing how to use social media is fundamentally important. “A message on Twitter is not just an advertising channel with which you can win an audience. Its power lies in the message being relevant and credible”, explains Edwin Schravesande (professor of
e-marketing Digital marketing is the component of marketing that uses internet and online based digital technologies such as desktop computers, mobile phones and other digital media and platforms to promote products and services. Its development during the ...
at th
Johan Cruyff Academy
of Tilburg). *Baylor Bold Rewards Program: When fans decide to "like" or "follow" Baylor athletics on either Twitter or Facebook, they are given day-to-day updates on their favorite teams. From a marketing aspect, the Baylor athletics page on Facebook and Twitter keeps track of fans who have "tweeted" or "commented" on certain links, posts, or tweets. There is an incentive for these fans to post and tweet because at the end of each year, the top three posting or tweeting fans are selected to receive grand prizes including free jerseys and merchandise to season tickets. *Michigan Presale Incentive: Michigan used a very clever way to increase the total amount of "likes" or "followers" for their Facebook and Twitter Pages in order to find higher recognition. In order to have the opportunity to apply for pre-sale tickets for their Michigan football games, at the largest football arena in the nation 'The Big House,' fans are required to "follow" or "like" their page on Facebook or Twitter. This allows them to be able to purchase pre-sale tickets for any game that they desire, making this method of marketing a great tool for gaining awareness for their team and many other things. *Louisville Slugger Scavenger Hunt: After the St. Louis Cardinals won the World Series in 2011, Hillerich & Bradsby, makers of Louisville Slugger bats and other baseball equipment, created a scavenger hunt through Twitter in order to raise awareness for their company. The hunt involved 45 world series commemorative bats, scattered all over the city of St. Louis, Missouri. The Louisville Slugger Twitter page posted "tweets" that hinted at where the bats were located within the city. The fan or participants used their mobile phones in order to remain up to date on the specific "tweets" referring to the hunt. If a fan or participant found one of the several bats, the participant was told that they were to be kept by the seeker. The reason this company held a scavenger hunt was to find recognition and to increase their number of followers on Twitter. The statistics shows that their fan base skyrocketed, lifting the number of Facebook likes by 143%, number of people talking about the brand on Facebook by 834% and its number of Tweeter followers by 161%. Many teams have incorporated sponsorships into their social media strategies, such as the Minnesota Vikings “Touchdown Tracker” Instagram image, which was sponsored by FedEx. The Cleveland Browns also displayed sponsorship integration in their tweets recapping touchdown drives, sponsored by Cooper Tires. Many athletes including
Kobe Bryant Kobe Bean Bryant ( ; August 23, 1978 – January 26, 2020) was an American professional basketball Basketball is a team sport in which two teams, most commonly of five players each, opposing one another on a rectangular court A co ...

Kobe Bryant
, Russell Wilson, and Rafael Nadal have taken advantage of social media to increase their followers and improve their brand recognition. Athletes have also promoted brands through social media including Russell Wilson's sponsorship of Recovery Water and
Serena Williams Serena Jameka Williams (born September 26, 1981) is an American professional tennis player. She has won 23 Grand Slam (tennis)#Tournaments, Grand Slam singles titles, the most by any player in the Open Era, and the All-time tennis records – ...

Serena Williams
’ promotion of Wheels Up. Because of this marketing tool, these fan-based website pages have increased greatly in numbers and give them the recognition that they were looking for.


References

{{DEFAULTSORT:Sports Marketing Sports marketing, Services marketing