HOME

TheInfoList




' (
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be in relation with") is "an appa ...

Latin
for "The Species of Plants") is a book by
Carl Linnaeus Carl Linnaeus (; 23 May 1707 – 10 January 1778), also known after his Nobility#Ennoblement, ennoblement as Carl von Linné#Blunt, Blunt (2004), p. 171. (), was a Swedish botanist, zoologist, taxonomist, and physician who formalised binomi ...

Carl Linnaeus
, originally published in 1753, which lists every
species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodiversity. A species is often defined as the largest group of organisms in which any two individu ...

species
of
plant Plants are predominantly photosynthetic Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to Energy transformation, convert light energy into chemical energy that, through cellular respiration, can later be released to fuel ...

plant
known at the time, classified into
genera Genus /ˈdʒiː.nəs/ (plural genera /ˈdʒen.ər.ə/) is a taxonomic rank In biological classification In biology, taxonomy () is the scientific study of naming, defining (Circumscription (taxonomy), circumscribing) and classifying gr ...
. It is the first work to consistently apply
binomial names In taxonomy, binomial nomenclature ("two-term naming system"), also called nomenclature ("two-name naming system") or binary nomenclature, is a formal system of naming species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classi ...
and was the starting point for the naming of plants.


Publication

' was published on 1 May 1753 by Laurentius Salvius in Stockholm, in two volumes. A second edition was published in 1762–1763, and a third edition in 1764, although this "scarcely differed" from the second. Further editions were published after Linnaeus' death in 1778, under the direction of , the director of the
Berlin Botanical Garden Pavilion. The Berlin Botanic Garden and Botanical Museum (german: Botanischer Garten und Botanisches Museum Berlin) is a botanical garden in the Germany, German capital city of Berlin, with an area of 43 hectares and around 22,000 different pl ...
; the fifth edition (1800) was published in four volumes.


Importance

' was the first botanical work to consistently apply the
binomial nomenclature In taxonomy Taxonomy (general) is the practice and science of classification of things or concepts, including the principles that underlie such classification. The term may also refer to a specific classification scheme. Originally used only ...
system of naming to any large group of organisms (Linnaeus' tenth edition of ' would apply the same technique to animals for the first time in 1758). Prior to this work, a plant species would be known by a long polynomial, such as ' (meaning "
plantain Plantain may refer to: * Cooking banana, banana cultivars in the genus ''Musa'' whose fruits are generally used in cooking * True plantains, a group of cultivars of the genus ''Musa'' * ''Plantago'', small inconspicuous plants commonly called plant ...
with pubescent ovate-lanceolate leaves, a cylindrical spike and a terete scape") or ' (meaning "''Nepeta'' with flowers in a stalked, interrupted spike"). In ', these cumbersome names were replaced with two-part names, consisting of a single-word genus name, and a single-word
specific epithet In taxonomy, binomial nomenclature ("two-term naming system"), also called nomenclature ("two-name naming system") or binary nomenclature, is a formal system of naming species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classi ...
or "trivial name"; the two examples above became ''
Plantago media ''Plantago media'', known as the hoary plantain, is a species of flowering plant Flowering plants include multiple members of the clade Angiospermae (), commonly called angiosperms. The term "angiosperm" is derived from the Greek#REDIRECT ...

Plantago media
'' and ''
Nepeta cataria ''Nepeta cataria'', commonly known as catnip, catswort, catwort, and catmint, is a species of the genus ''Nepeta'' in the family (biology), family Lamiaceae, native plant, native to southern and eastern Europe, the Middle East, Central Asia, and ...
'', respectively. The use of binomial names had originally been developed as a kind of
shorthand Shorthand is an abbreviated symbolic writing method that increases speed and brevity of writing as compared to longhand{{Short pages monitor