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The Special Administrative Regions (SAR) of the People's Republic of China are one of the provincial-level administrative divisions of the
People's Republic of China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in East Asia. It is the world's List of countries and dependencies by population, most populous country, with a Population of China, population of more than 1.4 billion ...

People's Republic of China
directly under the control of the
Central People's Government The State Council, constitutionally synonymous with the Central People's Government since 1954 (particularly in relation to local governments), is the chief administrative authority of the People's Republic of China China, officia ...
. As a region, they possess the highest degree of
autonomy The federal subject The federal subjects of Russia, also referred to as the subjects of the Russian Federation (russian: субъекты Российской Федерации, subyekty Rossiyskoy Federatsii) or simply as the subjects o ...

autonomy
from China. However, despite the relative autonomy that the Central People's Government offers the special administrative regions, the
National People's Congress The National People's Congress of the People's Republic of China (), often referred to as the National People's Congress (NPC) (), is the highest organ of state power and the of the . With 2,980 members in 2018, it is the largest parlia ...
remains capable of enforcing laws for the special administrative regions. The legal basis for the establishment of SARs, unlike the other
administrative divisions of China Due to China's large Demographics of China, population and geographical area, the administrative divisions of China have consisted of several levels since History of the administrative divisions of China, ancient era. The constitution of Chin ...
, is provided for by Article 31, rather than Article 30, of the
Constitution of the People's Republic of China The Constitution of the People's Republic of China is nominally the supreme law of the People's Republic of China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of countries and depen ...
of 1982. Article 31 reads: "The state may establish special administrative regions when necessary. The systems to be instituted in special administrative regions shall be prescribed by law enacted by the National People's Congress in the light of the specific conditions". At present, there are two SARs established according to the Constitution, namely the
Hong Kong SAR Hong Kong (, ), officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China (HKSAR) (), is a metropolitan area and special administrative region of the People's Republic of China China, officially the Peop ...

Hong Kong SAR
and the
Macau SAR Macau (; , ; ), also spelled Macao and officially the Macao Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China (Chinese: 中華人民共和國澳門特別行政區), is a city and Special administrative regions of China, special adm ...

Macau SAR
, former British and Portuguese dependencies, respectively,Ghai, Yash P. (2000). ''Autonomy and Ethnicity: Negotiating Competing Claims in Multi-Ethnic States''. Cambridge University Press. , 9780521786423. p 92. transferred to China in 1997 and 1999, respectively, pursuant to the
Sino-British Joint Declaration The Sino-British Joint Declaration is a joint statement by the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' ...
of 1984 and the
Sino-Portuguese Joint Declaration The Joint Declaration on the Question of Macau, or Sino-Portuguese Joint Declaration, was a treaty between Portugal and the People's Republic of China over the status of Macau. The full name of the treaty is Joint Declaration of the Government of ...
of 1987. Pursuant to their Joint Declarations, which are binding
inter-state treaties
inter-state treaties
registered with the
United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization that aims to maintain international peace and international security, security, develop friendly relations among nations, achieve international cooperation, and be a centre for har ...

United Nations
, and their
Basic law In countries with uncodified constitution An uncodified constitution is a type of constitution where the fundamental rules often take the form of custom (law), customs, usage, precedent and a variety of statutes and legal instruments.Johari, J. ...
s, the Chinese SARs "shall enjoy a high degree of
autonomy The federal subject The federal subjects of Russia, also referred to as the subjects of the Russian Federation (russian: субъекты Российской Федерации, subyekty Rossiyskoy Federatsii) or simply as the subjects o ...

autonomy
". Generally, the two SARs are not considered to constitute a part of
Mainland China The term "mainland China" refers to the area directly governed by the People's Republic of China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in East Asia. It is the world's List of countries and dependencies b ...

Mainland China
, by both SAR and mainland Chinese authorities. The provision to establish special administrative regions appeared in the
constitution A constitution is an aggregate of fundamental principles A principle is a proposition or value that is a guide for behavior or evaluation. In law, it is a rule Rule or ruling may refer to: Human activity * The exercise of political ...
in 1982, in anticipation of the talks with the United Kingdom over the question of the sovereignty over Hong Kong. It was envisioned as the model for the eventual
reunification A political union is a type of state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily new ...
with
Taiwan Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere, Eastern and N ...

Taiwan
and other islands, where the
Republic of China Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia. It shares Maritime boundary, maritime borders with the China, People's Republic of China (PRC) to the northwest, Japan to the northeast, and the Philippines to the sout ...

Republic of China
has resided since 1949. Under the
one country, two systems "One country, two systems" is a constitutional principle of the People's Republic of China describing the governance of Hong Kong Hong Kong (, ), officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China ...
principle, the Central Government is responsible for the diplomatic, military and other state-level affairs of the two SARs. But two SARs continue to possess their own
multi-party In political science Political science is the scientific study of politics. It is a social science dealing with systems of governance and power, and the analysis of politics, political activities, political thoughts, political behavior, and as ...
legislatures,
legal system The contemporary national legal systems are generally based on one of four basic systems A system is a group of interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules to form a unified whole. A system, surrounded and influ ...
s,
police forces The police are a constituted body of persons A person (plural people or persons) is a being that has certain capacities or attributes such as reason Reason is the capacity of consciously making sense of things, applying logic Logic ...

police forces
,
separate customs territory
separate customs territory
,
immigration policies
immigration policies
,
left-hand traffic Left-hand traffic (LHT) and right-hand traffic (RHT) are the practices, in bidirectional traffic, of keeping to the left side or to the right side of the road, respectively. They are fundamental to traffic flow In mathematics Mathema ...
,
official language An official language is a language given a special status in a particular country, state, or other jurisdiction. Typically the term "official language" does not refer to the language used by a people or country, but by its government (e.g. judiciary ...

official language
s, academic and
educational systems
educational systems
, representation on certain international bodies and representation in international competitions, and other aspects that falls within the autonomous level. Special administrative regions should not be confused with
special economic zones A special economic zone is an area in which the business and trade laws are different from the rest of the country. SEZs are located within a country's national borders, and their aims include increased trade balance, employment, increased inve ...
, which are areas in which special economic laws apply to promote
trade Trade involves the transfer of goods from one person or entity to another, often in exchange for money. Economists refer to a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of r ...

trade
and
investment Investment is the dedication of an asset to attain an increase in value over a period of time. Investment requires a sacrifice of some present asset, such as time, money, or effort. In , the purpose of investing is to generate a from the inve ...

investment
s. The Wolong Special Administrative Region in
Sichuan Sichuan (; , ; Postal romanization, alternatively romanized as Szechuan or Szechwan) is a landlocked Provinces of China, province in Southwest China occupying most of the Sichuan Basin and the easternmost part of the Tibetan Plateau between ...

Sichuan
province is a nature preserve not a political division.


List of special administrative regions of China

There are currently two special administrative regions established according to Article 31 of the Chinese Constitution. For the Wolong Special Administrative Region in
Sichuan Province Sichuan (; , ; alternatively romanized as Szechuan or Szechwan) is a landlocked province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administr ...

Sichuan Province
, please see the section Wolong below.


Characteristics

The two special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau (created in 1997 and 1999 respectively) each have a codified constitution called
Basic Law In countries with uncodified constitution An uncodified constitution is a type of constitution where the fundamental rules often take the form of custom (law), customs, usage, precedent and a variety of statutes and legal instruments.Johari, J. ...
. The law provides the regions with a high degree of autonomy, a separate political system, and a
capitalist Capitalism is an economic system An economic system, or economic order, is a system of Production (economics), production, allocation of resources, resource allocation and Distribution (economics), distribution of goods and services within ...

capitalist
economy under the principle of "
one country, two systems "One country, two systems" is a constitutional principle of the People's Republic of China describing the governance of Hong Kong Hong Kong (, ), officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China ...
" proposed by
Deng Xiaoping Deng Xiaoping (22 August 1904 – 19 February 1997), also known by his courtesy name A courtesy name (), also known as a style name, is a name bestowed upon one at adulthood in addition to one's given name. This practice is a tradition in ...

Deng Xiaoping
.


High degree of autonomy

Currently, the two SARs of Hong Kong and Macau are responsible for all affairs except those regarding diplomatic relations and national defence.Zhang Wei-Bei.
006 Alec Trevelyan (006), also known as Janus, is a fictional character In fiction, a character (sometimes known as a fictional character) is a person or other being in a narrative (such as a novel, Play (theatre), play, television series, film, or ...

006
(2006). Hong Kong: the pearl made of British mastery and Chinese docile-diligence. Nova Publishers. , 9781594546006.
Consequently, the
National People's Congress The National People's Congress of the People's Republic of China (), often referred to as the National People's Congress (NPC) (), is the highest organ of state power and the of the . With 2,980 members in 2018, it is the largest parlia ...
authorises the SAR to exercise a high degree of autonomy and enjoy executive, legislative and independent judicial power, and each with their own Courts of Final Appeal.Oliveira, Jorge. Cardinal, Paulo. 009(2009). One Country, Two Systems, Three Legal Orders – Perspectives of Evolution: Essays on Macau's Autonomy After the Resumption of Sovereignty by China. , 9783540685715. p 212.


Currency

*
Renminbi The renminbi (: RMB; ; : 元/¥; : CNY) is the official of the and one of the world's , ranking as the eighth as of April 2019. The () is the basic unit of the renminbi, but the word is also used to refer to the Chinese currency generall ...
: The currency is commonly abbreviated as CNY¥. Adopt a stable exchange rate. *
Hong Kong dollar The Hong Kong dollar (, sign: HK$; code In communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share") is the act of developing Semantics, meaning among Subject (philosophy), entities or Organization, groups through th ...
:The currency is commonly abbreviated as HK$. The exchange rate is pegged to the US dollar. *
Macanese pataca The Macau pataca or Macanese pataca (; pt, pataca de Macau; sign A sign is an object, quality, event, or entity whose presence or occurrence indicates the probable presence or occurrence of something else. A natural sign bears a causal ...
: The currency is commonly abbreviated as MOP$. The exchange rate is pegged to the Hong Kong dollar.


External affairs

Special administrative regions are empowered to contract a wide range of agreements with other countries and territories such as mutual abolition of visa requirement, mutual legal aid, air services,
extradition Extradition is an action wherein one jurisdiction Jurisdiction (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area ...
, handling of
double taxation Double taxation is the levying of tax by two or more jurisdictions on the same income (in the case of income tax An income tax is a tax imposed on individuals or entities (taxpayers) in respect of the income or profits earned by them (commonly cal ...
and others, with no
Chinese government The government of the People's Republic of China () is collectively the state authority in the People's Republic of China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of countries a ...
involvement. However, in some diplomatic talks involving a SAR, the SAR concerned may choose to send officials to be part of the Chinese delegation. For example, when former Director of Health of Hong Kong
Margaret Chan Margaret Chan Fung Fu-chun, (born August 21, 1947) is a Chinese-Canadian Canadians (french: Canadiens) are people identified with the country of Canada. This connection may be residential, legal, historical or cultural. For most Canadi ...

Margaret Chan
became the
World Health Organization The World Health Organization (WHO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations United Nations Specialized Agencies are autonomous organizations working with the United Nations and each other through the co-ordinating machinery of the Unite ...
(WHO) Director-General, she served as a delegate from the
People's Republic of China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in East Asia. It is the world's List of countries and dependencies by population, most populous country, with a Population of China, population of more than 1.4 billio ...

People's Republic of China
to the WHO. At the same time they are members of various international organizations such as WTO, APEC, etc. * Hong Kong participates in 41 intergovernmental international organizations with countries as participating units. * Hong Kong participates in 54 intergovernmental international organizations that do not use countries as their participating units. * Macau participates in 19 intergovernmental international organizations with countries as participating units. * Macau participates in 30 intergovernmental international organizations that do not use countries as their participating units. The
Government of Hong Kong The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, commonly known as the Hong Kong Government or HKSAR Government, refers to the Executive (government), executive authorities of Hong Kong Special a ...
and Government of Macao has established
Hong Kong Economic and Trade Office The Hong Kong Economic and Trade Offices (HKETOs) are the trade offices of Hong Kong outside the territory. There are 12 HKETOs outside the Greater China Region, and eight in the Greater China Region (one in Taiwan, four offices and three liaison ...
s (HKETOs)and Delegação Económica e Comercial de Macaus (DECM), in some countries as well as
Greater China Region "Greater China" is an informal geographical area that shares commercial and cultural ties with the Han Chinese The Han Chinese,
Greater China Region
. HKETOs serve as a quasi- interests section in favour of
Hong Kong Hong Kong (; , ), officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China (HKSAR), is a and of China on the eastern in . With over 7.5 million residents of various nationalities in a territory, Hong ...

Hong Kong
. DECMs serve as a quasi- interests section in favour of
Macao Macau or Macao (; ; ; ), officially the Macao Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China (MSAR), (RAEM) is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: ...

Macao
.For regions with no HKETOs and DECM, Chinese diplomatic missions take charge of protecting Hong Kong-related and Macau-related interests. Some countries which have a diplomatic relationship with the central Chinese government maintain
Consulate-General A consul is an official representative of the government of one state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), '' ...
offices in Hong Kong and Macau.


Olympic Games

In sporting events such as the
Olympic Games The modern Olympic Games or Olympics (french: Jeux olympiques) are leading international sporting events featuring summer and winter sports competitions in which thousands of from around the world participate in a . The Olympic Games are c ...
or
Asian Games The Asian Games, also known as Asiad, is a continent A continent is one of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven regions are commonly regarded as ...
, the SARs may have their own independent teams. They participate under the respective names of "
Hong Kong Hong Kong (; , ), officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China (HKSAR), is a and of China on the eastern in . With over 7.5 million residents of various nationalities in a territory, Hong ...

Hong Kong
, China" and "
Macau Macau or Macao (; ; ; ), officially the Macao Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China (MSAR), (RAEM) is a and of the in the western by the . With a population of about 680,000 and an area of , it is the most in the ...

Macau
, China", and compete as different entities as they had done since they were under foreign rules, but both SARs are usually allowed to omit the term ", China" for informal use.


Defence and military

The
People's Liberation Army The People's Liberation Army (PLA) is the armed forces A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare. It is typically authorized and maintained by a sover ...
is garrisoned in both SARs. PRC authorities have said the PLA will not be allowed to interfere with the local affairs of Hong Kong and Macau, and must abide by its laws. In 1988, scholar Chen Fang of the Academy of Military Science even tried to propose the "One military, two systems" concept to separate the defence function and public functions in the army. The PLA does not participate in the governance of the SAR but the SAR may request them for civil-military participation, in times of emergency such as
natural disaster A natural disaster is a major adverse event An adverse event (AE) is any untoward medical occurrence in a patient or clinical investigation subject administered a pharmaceutical product and which does not necessarily have a causal relationsh ...
s. Defence is the responsibility of the PRC government. A 1996 draft PRC law banned People's Liberation Army–run businesses in Hong Kong, but
loophole A loophole or loop hole is an ambiguity or inadequacy in a system, such as a law or security, which can be used to circumvent or otherwise avoid the purpose, implied or explicitly stated, of the system. Originally, the word means an arrowslit, a ...
s allow them to operate while the profits are ploughed back into the military.Gurtov, Melvin. Hwang, Byong-Moo Hwang (1998). ''China's Security: The New Roles of the Military''. Lynne Rienner Publishing. , 9781555874346. pp. 203–204. There are many PLA-run corporations in Hong Kong. The PLA also have sizeable land holdings in Hong Kong worth billions of dollars.


Immigration and nationality

Each of the SARs issues passports on its own to its permanent residents who are concurrently Chinese (PRC) citizens. PRC citizens must also satisfy one of the following conditions: * born in the SAR; * born anywhere while either parent was a permanent resident of the SAR; * resided continuously and legally for seven or more years in the SAR and therefore gained a
right of abode The right of abode is an individual's freedom from immigration control in a particular country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an individual's birth, residence o ...
in the SAR. Apart from affording the holder consular protection by the
Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the People's Republic of China The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the People's Republic of China () is the first-ranked executive department The United States federal executive departments are the principal units of the Federal government of the United States, executive b ...
, these passports also specify that the holder has right of abode in the issuing SAR. The
National People's Congress The National People's Congress of the People's Republic of China (), often referred to as the National People's Congress (NPC) (), is the highest organ of state power and the of the . With 2,980 members in 2018, it is the largest parlia ...
has also put each SAR in charge of administering the PRC's Nationality Law in its respective realms, namely
naturalisation Naturalization (or naturalisation) is the legal act or process by which a non-citizen of a country may acquire citizenship or nationality of that country. It may be done automatically by a statute, i.e., without any effort on the part of the ...
, renunciation and restoration of PRC nationality and issuance of proof of nationality. Due to their colonial past, many inhabitants of the SARs hold some form of non-Chinese nationality (e.g.
British National (Overseas) British National (Overseas), abbreviated BN(O), is a class of British nationality British nationality law details the conditions in which a person holds United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, common ...
status,
British citizenship British nationality law details the conditions in which a person holds United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegra ...
,
British Overseas citizenship A British Overseas citizen (BOC) is a member of a class of British nationality British nationality law details the conditions in which a person holds United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly ...
or
Portuguese citizenship Portuguese nationality law is the Nationality law, legal set of rules that regulate access to Portuguese citizenship, which is acquired mainly through Portuguese people, descent from a Portuguese parent, naturalisation in Portugal or marriage to ...
). However, SAR residents who are Chinese descent have always been considered as Chinese citizens by the PRC authorities, an exception to this case is Macau, wherein residents of Chinese descent may choose Chinese or Portuguese nationality. Special interpretation of the Nationality Law, while not recognising
dual nationality Dual or Duals may refer to: Paired/two things * Dual (mathematics) In mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as quantity (number theory), mathematical structure, structure (algebra), space (ge ...
, has allowed Chinese citizens to keep their foreign "right of abode" and use travel documents issued by the foreign country. However, such travel documents cannot be used to travel to
mainland China The term "mainland China" refers to the area directly governed by the People's Republic of China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in East Asia. It is the world's List of countries and dependencies b ...

mainland China
and persons concerned must use
Home Return Permit A Mainland Travel Permit for Hong Kong and Macao Residents (), also colloquially referred to as a Home Return Permit or Home Visit Permit (), is issued to Chinese nationality law, Chinese nationals who are permanent residents of or One-way Permit ...
. Therefore, master nationality rule applies so the holder may not enjoy consular protection while in mainland China. Chinese citizens who also have foreign citizenship may declare a change of nationality at the Immigration Department of the respective SARs, and upon approval, would no longer be considered Chinese citizens. SAR permanent residents who are not Chinese citizens (including stateless persons) are not eligible for SAR passports. Persons who hold a non-Chinese citizenship must obtain passports from foreign diplomatic missions which represents their countries of citizenship. For those who are stateless, each SAR may issue its own form of certificates of identity, e.g. Document of Identity, in lieu of national passports to the persons concerned. Chinese citizens who are non-permanent residents of two SARs are also ineligible for SAR passports but may obtain CIs just like stateless persons.


Passport

*
Chinese passport The People's Republic of China passport (), commonly referred to as the Chinese passport, is a passport issued to nationals of the China, People's Republic of China (PRC) who have registered as a resident of Mainland China and hence hold a hukou ...
(for the
Mainland Mainland is defined as "relating to or forming the main part of a country or continent, not including the islands around it egardless of status under territorial jurisdiction by an entity" The term is often human geography, politically, econo ...

Mainland
residents with
Hukou ''Hukou'' () is a system of household registration used in mainland China Mainland China, also known as the Chinese mainland, China mainland, or the Mainland Area of the Republic of China is the geopolitics, geopolitical area under th ...
only) * Hong Kong SAR passport (for Hong Kong permanent residents with Chinese citizenship only) * Macao SAR passport (for Macau permanent residents with Chinese citizenship only)


Comparisons


Offer to Taiwan and other ROC-controlled areas

The status of a special administrative region for free area of the Republic of China, Taiwan and other areas controlled by the Taiwan, Republic of China (ROC) was first proposed in 1981. The 1981 proposal was put forth by Ye Jianying called "Ye's nine points" (). A series of different offers have since appeared. On 25 June 1983
Deng Xiaoping Deng Xiaoping (22 August 1904 – 19 February 1997), also known by his courtesy name A courtesy name (), also known as a style name, is a name bestowed upon one at adulthood in addition to one's given name. This practice is a tradition in ...

Deng Xiaoping
appeared at Seton Hall University in the US to propose "Deng's six points" (), which called for a "Taiwan Special Administrative Region" (). It was envisioned that after Taiwan's unification with the PRC as an SAR, the PRC would become the sole representative of China. Under this proposal, Taiwan would be guaranteed its own military, its own administrative and legislative powers, an independent judiciary and the right of adjudication, although it would not be considered a separate government of China. In 2005 the Anti-Secession Law of the PRC was enacted. It promises the lands currently ruled by the authorities of Taiwan a high degree of autonomy, among other things. The PRC can also employ non-peaceful means and other necessary measures to defend its claims to sovereignty over the ROC's territories in the event of an outright declaration of independence by Taiwan (ROC).United Nations refugee agency.
UNHCR
." ''Anti-Secession Law (No. 34).'' Retrieved on 14 December 2009.
In January 2019, the 40-year anniversary of a statement made by the PRC to Taiwan in 1979, Communist Party of China, Chinese Communist Party General Secretary of the Communist Party of China, general secretary Xi Jinping outlined in a speech how the "one country, two systems" principle would be applied to Taiwan. Several major points from the speech include: * Taiwan would be a special administrative region of China, and part of the PRC. The ROC would no longer exist. * Taiwan's institutions would metamorphose into sub-national bodies. * Taiwan's social system and economic lifestyle would be respected. * Taiwan's private property rights, belief systems, and "legitimate rights and interests" would be safeguarded. * The "Taiwan issue" should not be passed down from generation to generation (i.e. reunification should be done promptly). * The reunification of Taiwan would lead to the "great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation".


Wolong

The Wolong National Nature Reserve, Wolong Special Administrative RegionWolong Introduction
() is located in the southwest of Wenchuan County, Ngawa Tibetan and Qiang Autonomous Prefecture of Sichuan. It was formerly known as Wolong Special Administrative Region of Wenchuan County, Sichuan Province and was founded in March 1983 with approval of the State Council. It was given its current name and placed under Sichuan provincial government with administrative supervision by the provincial department of forestry. Its area supersedes Sichuan Wolong National Nature Reserve and its administrative office is the same as the Administrative Bureau of the State Forestry Administration for the reserve. It currently has a population of 5,343. Despite its name, the Wolong Special Administrative Region is not an SAR as defined by Article 31 of the
Constitution of the People's Republic of China The Constitution of the People's Republic of China is nominally the supreme law of the People's Republic of China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of countries and depen ...
; as a result, it has been proposed the Wenchuan Wolong Special Administrative Region of Sichuan Province change its name, with designations such as special area or township.


Defunct SARs

In the Republic of China (1912–1949), Republic of China (ROC) era between 1912 and 1949, the "special administrative regions" () were historically used to designate special areas, most of which were eventually converted into Provinces of China, provinces. All were suspended or abolished after the end of the Chinese Civil War, with the establishment of the People's Republic of China (PRC) and the ROC government's retreat of the government of the Republic of China to Taiwan, retreat to
Taiwan Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere, Eastern and N ...

Taiwan
. The regions were:


See also

* Autonomous regions of China *
Constitution of the People's Republic of China The Constitution of the People's Republic of China is nominally the supreme law of the People's Republic of China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of countries and depen ...
* Federacy * History of Hong Kong ** British Hong Kong * History of Macau ** Portuguese Macau


Notes


References

{{Macau topics Special administrative regions of China, Province-level divisions of China