HOME
TheInfoList



The Special Region of Yogyakarta ( id, Daerah Istimewa (D.I.) Yogyakarta, pronounced ; Javanese: ꦣꦲꦺꦫꦃꦲꦶꦯ꧀ꦡꦶꦩꦺꦮꦔꦪꦺꦴꦒꦾꦏꦂꦠ ''Dhaérah Istiméwa Yogyakarta'') is a provincial-level
autonomous region An autonomous administrative division (also referred to as an autonomous area, entity, unit, region, subdivision, or territory) is a subnational administrative division or internal territory of a sovereign state that has a degree of autonomy ...
of
Indonesia Indonesia ( ), officially the Republic of Indonesia ( id, Republik Indonesia, links=yes ), is a country in Southeast Asia and Oceania between the Indian Ocean, Indian and Pacific Ocean, Pacific oceans. It consists of more than List of islands ...

Indonesia
in the southern
Java Java ( id, Jawa, ; jv, ꦗꦮ; su, ) is one of the islands of the Greater Sunda Islands in Indonesia Indonesia ( ), officially the Republic of Indonesia ( id, Republik Indonesia, links=yes ), is a country in Southeast Asia and Oceania ...
. It is bordered by the
Indian Ocean The Indian Ocean is the third-largest of the world's oceanic divisions, covering or 19.8% of the water Water is an Inorganic compound, inorganic, Transparency and translucency, transparent, tasteless, odorless, and Color of water, ...

Indian Ocean
to the south, as well as sharing all the land borders to the province of Central Java. Ruled by the
Yogyakarta Sultanate The Sultanate of Yogyakarta ( jv, ꦏꦱꦸꦭ꧀ꦠꦤ꧀ꦤꦤ꧀​ꦔꦪꦺꦴꦒꦾꦏꦂꦡ​ꦲꦢꦶꦤꦶꦔꦿꦠ꧀, Kasultanan Ngayogyakarta Hadiningrat ; ) is a Javanese monarchy in Yogyakarta Special Region, in the Republic of ...
, the region is the only officially recognized
monarchy A monarchy is a form of government in which a person, the monarch A monarch is a head of stateWebster's II New College DictionarMonarch Houghton Mifflin. Boston. 2001. p. 707. Life tenure, for life or until abdication, and therefore ...
within the
government of Indonesia The term Government of Indonesia (Indonesian: ''Pemerintah Indonesia'') can have a number of different meanings. At its widest, it can refer collectively to the three traditional branches of government – the Executive branch, Legislative branch ...
. The city of Yogyakarta is a popular tourist destination and cultural center of the region. The Yogyakarta Sultanate has been established in 1755 and provided unwavering support for Indonesia's independence during the
Indonesian National Revolution The Indonesian National Revolution, or Indonesian War of Independence, was an armed conflict and diplomatic struggle between the Republic of Indonesia and the Dutch Empire and an internal social revolution during postwar and postcolonial ...
(1945–1949). As a first-level division in Indonesia, Yogyakarta is governed by
Sultan Hamengkubuwono
Sultan Hamengkubuwono
as the governor and Prince Paku Alam as the vice governor. With a land area of 3,185.8 km2, it is the second-smallest province of Indonesia after
Jakarta Jakarta (; ), officially the Special Capital Region of Jakarta ( id, Daerah Khusus Ibukota Jakarta), is the Capital of Indonesia, capital of Indonesia. It lies on the northwest coast of Java (the world's most populous island). Jakarta is the ...

Jakarta
.


History

In Javanese, it is pronounced , and named after the city of
Ayodhya Ayodhya (; IAST: ') is a city and the administrative headquarters of Faizabad district (officially Ayodhya district) and the Faizabad division (officially Ayodhya division) of Uttar Pradesh, India. It shares a municipal corporation with its ...
in Javanese-Hindu mythology. The Dutch name of the Special Region is Djokjakarta. The Sultanate has existed in various forms through prehistory and survived through the rule of the Dutch and the 1942 invasion of the
Dutch East Indies The Dutch East Indies (or Netherlands East-Indies; nl, Nederlands(ch)-Indië; ) was a Dutch colony consisting of what is now Indonesia. It was formed from the nationalised colonies of the Dutch East India Company, which came under the admini ...
by the Japanese Empire. In August 1945 Indonesia's first president, Sukarno proclaimed the independence of the Indonesian Republic, and by September of that year, Sultan Hamengkubuwono IX and duke Sri Paku Alam VIII had sent letters to Sukarno expressing their support for the newly born nation of Indonesia, in which they acknowledged the Yogyakarta Sultanate as part of the Indonesian Republic. The Sunanate of Surakarta did the same, and both of the Javanese people, Javanese kingdoms were awarded special status as special regions within the Indonesian Republic. However, due to a leftist anti-royalist uprising in Surakarta, the Sunanate of Surakarta lost its special administrative status in 1946 and was absorbed into the province of Central Java. Yogyakarta's overwhelming support and the Sultan's patriotism were essential in the Indonesian struggle for independence during the
Indonesian National Revolution The Indonesian National Revolution, or Indonesian War of Independence, was an armed conflict and diplomatic struggle between the Republic of Indonesia and the Dutch Empire and an internal social revolution during postwar and postcolonial ...
(1945–1949). The city of Yogyakarta became the capital of the Indonesian Republic from January 1946 to December 1948 after the fall of
Jakarta Jakarta (; ), officially the Special Capital Region of Jakarta ( id, Daerah Khusus Ibukota Jakarta), is the Capital of Indonesia, capital of Indonesia. It lies on the northwest coast of Java (the world's most populous island). Jakarta is the ...

Jakarta
to the Netherlands, Dutch. Later, the Netherlands, Dutch also invaded Yogyakarta causing the Indonesian Republic's capital to be transferred again to Bukittinggi in West Sumatra on 19 December 1948. In return for Yogyakarta's support, the declaration of Special Authority over Yogyakarta was granted in full in 1950 and Yogyakarta was given the status as a Special Administrative Region, making Yogyakarta the only region headed by a monarchy in
Indonesia Indonesia ( ), officially the Republic of Indonesia ( id, Republik Indonesia, links=yes ), is a country in Southeast Asia and Oceania between the Indian Ocean, Indian and Pacific Ocean, Pacific oceans. It consists of more than List of islands ...

Indonesia
. The Special Region was struck by 2006 Yogyakarta earthquake, a 6.3-magnitude earthquake on 27 May 2006, killing 5,782 people, injuring approximately 36,000 and leaving 600,000 people homeless. The region of Bantul suffered the most damage and deaths.


Geography

The Special Region is located near the southern coast of Java, surrounded on three sides by the province of Central Java, and with the
Indian Ocean The Indian Ocean is the third-largest of the world's oceanic divisions, covering or 19.8% of the water Water is an Inorganic compound, inorganic, Transparency and translucency, transparent, tasteless, odorless, and Color of water, ...

Indian Ocean
on the south side. The population at the 2010 Census was 3,452,390 people, and according to the 2020 Census, it becomes 3,668,719. It has an area of 3,133.15 km2, making it the second-smallest area of the provinces in Indonesia, after the
Jakarta Jakarta (; ), officially the Special Capital Region of Jakarta ( id, Daerah Khusus Ibukota Jakarta), is the Capital of Indonesia, capital of Indonesia. It lies on the northwest coast of Java (the world's most populous island). Jakarta is the ...

Jakarta
Capital Region. Along with surrounding areas in Central Java, it has some of the highest population densities of Java. Mount Merapi is located to the immediate north of the city of Yogyakarta and Sleman Regency. It is the most active volcano in Indonesia and has erupted regularly since 1548. It last erupted in October–November 2010, killing and injuring many people and temporarily displacing approximately 100,000 residents.


Geo-heritage sites

Indonesia has a number of geo-heritage sites in the Yogyakarta Special Region. It has been declared by the Geological Agency of the Energy and Natural Resources Ministry. The sites consist of 9 sites: Eocene limestone in Gamping (Sleman Regency), pillow lava in Berbah (Sleman), pre-historic volcanic sediment in Candi Ijo, Prambanan (Sleman), sand dunes in Parangtritis Beach (Bantul regency), Kiskendo cave, and former manganese mining site in Kleripan (Kulonprogo regency), the prehistoric volcano in Nglanggeran (Gunungkidul regency), Wediombo-Siung beaches (Gunungkidul) and Bioturbasi site in Kalingalang (Gunungkidul). The most unusual one is pillow lava in Berbah (Sleman) which is a big, rough black rock that lays on the bank of the narrow Dengkeng River. The prehistoric volcano in Nglanggeran (Gunungkidul regency) has already been developed as a tourist destination.


Administrative divisions

The Special Region of Yogyakarta (provincial level) is subdivided into four Regencies of Indonesia, regencies (''kabupaten'') and one Cities of Indonesia, city (''kota''): Located within the Special Region of Yogyakarta, the city of Yogyakarta is known as a center of classical Javanese fine art and culture such as batik, ballet, drama, music, poetry, and puppet shows. It is also one of Indonesia's most renowned centers of higher education. At the city's center is the Sultan's palace called the ''Kraton''. While the city sprawls in all directions from the Kraton, the core of the modern city is to the north.


Demographics


Religion


Transport

Yogyakarta is served by Adisutjipto International Airport and Yogyakarta International Airport, the latter being opened for minimum operations in late April 2019 and fully operational starting late March 2020. There are two main railway stations: Lempuyangan Station and Yogyakarta railway station. Yogyakarta is considered one of the major hubs that link the west–east main railway route in Java island. Yogyakarta railway station is the main train station located in the center, and Lempuyangan train station is the second train station in the city. The two stations have their own schedule to and from other cities on Java island. The Prambanan Express commuter rail service operates across parts of Sleman Regency, Kulonprogo Regency, and Yogyakarta City as well as regencies in Central Java, which would be replaced with an electric commuter rail system in 2021. To the south, in the Bantul region, is the Giwangan bus station, the largest bus station in Indonesia. The center of metropolitan Yogyakarta is surrounded by a ring road. Since 2008, the government of Special Region of Yogyakarta launched a bus rapid transit system, the Trans Jogja, which connects places in and around Yogyakarta City, including the airport and the Prambanan temple. Today, Trans Jogja has reached other points in the south-side of the city.


Education

Yogyakarta is home to more than 100 institutions of higher education in Indonesia, the highest number of higher education institutions of any province in Indonesia. Hence, Yogyakarta earned its nickname "Kota Pelajar" (The City of Students). Yogyakarta is the home of the first established state university in Indonesia, the Gadjah Mada University. The Special Region is also the home of the first-established private university in Indonesia, the Islamic University of Indonesia, which was founded in 1945. The Indonesia Institute of Arts, the first-established university in fine arts, is also in the region. Other large universities include Yogyakarta State University, Sunan Kalijaga State Islamic University, Sanata Dharma University, Muhammadiyah University of Yogyakarta and Atma Jaya University, Yogyakarta, the University of Atma Jaya Yogyakarta.


Sister relationships

Yogyakarta Special Region has signed sister province relationship or friendly ties agreement with region/state: * Kyoto Prefecture, Japan * State of California, United States * Gyeongsangbuk-do, South Korea * Tyrol (State), Tyrol, Austria * Chiang Mai Province, Thailand


See also

*List of cities in Indonesia


Notes


References

* Regional Office of the Department of Tourism, Post and Telecommunication for the Special Region of Yogyakarta. (1997) ''Guide To Yogyakarta''. Yogyakarta: Department of Tourism, Post and Telecommunication. * Ricklefs, M.C. (2001) ''A history of modern Indonesia since c.1200'' (3rd ed.). Stanford: Stanford University Press. pp. 126–139, 269–271. * Ricklefs, M.C. (1974) ''Jogjakarta under Sultan Mangkubumi, 1749–1792: A history of the division of Java''. London Oriental Series, vol. 30. London: Oxford University Press, (Revised Indonesian edition 2002) * Soemanto, Bakdi (1992) ''Cerita Rakyat dari Yogyakarta'' Jakarta: Grasindo (In Indonesian) * Soemardjan, S. (1962) ''Social Changes in Yogyakarta'', Ithaca, N.Y. Cornell University Press.


External links

* * {{DEFAULTSORT:Yogyakarta Special Administrative Region Special Region of Yogyakarta, States and territories established in 1950