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The South Region of
Brazil Brazil ( pt, Brasil; ), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (Portuguese: ), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America. At 8.5 million square kilometers (3.2 million square miles) and with over 211 mill ...

Brazil
( pt, Região Sul do Brasil; ) is one of the five
regions of Brazil Brazil Brazil ( pt, Brasil; ), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (Portuguese: ), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America. At 8.5 million square kilometers (3.2 million square miles) and with ove ...

regions of Brazil
. It includes the states of Paraná,
Santa Catarina Santa Catarina may refer to: Places Brazil *Santa Catarina (state), one of Brazil's federal states *Santa Catarina (island), located in Santa Catarina state Cape Verde *Santa Catarina, Cape Verde, a municipality Curaçao *Santa Catarina, Curaç ...
and
Rio Grande do Sul Rio Grande do Sul (, , ; "Great River of the South") is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The St ...
and covers , being the smallest portion of the country, occupying only about 6.76% of the territory of Brazil. Its whole area is smaller than that of the state of
Minas Gerais Minas Gerais () is a state in Southeastern Brazil. It ranks as the second most populous, the third by Gross Domestic Product, gross domestic product (GDP), and the fourth largest by area in the country. The state's capital and largest city, Belo ...

Minas Gerais
, in
Southeast Brazil The Southeast Region of Brazil ( pt, Região Sudeste do Brasil; ) is composed of the states of Espírito Santo, Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro (state), Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo State, São Paulo. It is the richest region of the country, responsi ...
, for example. It is a
tourist at the archaeological site of Chichén Itza. in Vienna. Tourism is travel for pleasure or business; also the theory and practice of touring (disambiguation), touring, the business of attracting, accommodating, and entertaining tourists, and th ...

tourist
,
economic An economy (; ) is an area of the production Production may be: Economics and business * Production (economics) * Production, the act of manufacturing goods * Production, in the outline of industrial organization, the act of making products ...
and
cultural Culture () is an umbrella term which encompasses the social behavior Social behavior is behavior Behavior (American English) or behaviour (British English; American and British English spelling differences#-our, -or, see spelling diff ...
pole. It borders
Uruguay Uruguay (; ; pt, Uruguai), officially the Oriental Republic of Uruguay ( es, República Oriental del Uruguay), is a country in South America. It shares borders with Argentina to its west and southwest and Brazil to its north and northeast; whi ...

Uruguay
,
Argentina Argentina (), officially the Argentine Republic ( es, link=no, República Argentina), is a country located mostly in the southern half of South America South America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasse ...

Argentina
, and
Paraguay Paraguay (; ), officially the Republic of Paraguay ( es, República del Paraguay, links=no; gn, Tetã Paraguái, links=no), is a country in South America South America is a entirely in the and mostly in the , with a relatively sma ...

Paraguay
, as well as the Centre-West and Southeast regions, and the Atlantic Ocean. The region is considered the safest in Brazil to visit, having a lower crime rate than other regions in the country.


History


Pre-Columbian history

By the time the first European explorers arrived, all parts of the territory were inhabited by semi-
nomadic A nomad ( frm, nomade "people without fixed habitation") is a member of a community without fixed habitation who regularly moves to and from the same areas. Such groups include hunter-gatherer A hunter-gatherer is a human Humans (''Homo ...

nomadic
hunter-gatherer A hunter-gatherer is a human Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most populous and widespread species of primates, characterized by bipedality, opposable thumbs, hairlessness, and intelligence allowing the use of culture, language and tools. T ...
Indian tribes. They subsisted on a combination of hunting, fishing, and gathering.


Portuguese colonization

European colonization in Southern Brazil started with the arrival of
Portuguese Portuguese may refer to: * anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Portugal ** Portuguese cuisine, traditional foods ** Portuguese language, a Romance language *** Portuguese dialects, variants of the Portuguese language ** Portug ...
and
Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards, a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language **Spanish cuisine Other places * Spanish, Ontario, Canada * Spanish River (disambiguation), the name of several ...

Spanish
Jesuit , image = Ihs-logo.svg , caption = Christogram A Christogram (Latin ') is a monogram or combination of letters that forms an abbreviation for the name of Jesus Christ, traditionally used as a Christian symbolism ...
missionaries. They lived among the Indians and converted them to
Catholicism The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with 1.3 billion baptised Baptism (from the Greek language, Greek noun βάπτισμα ''báptisma'') is a Christians, Christian r ...

Catholicism
.
Colonist A settler is a person who has migrated to an area and established a permanent residence there, often to colonize Colonization, or colonisation refers to large-scale population movements where the migrants maintain strong links with their or ...
s from
São Paulo São Paulo (, ; Portuguese for 'Saint Paul') is a city in the Southeast Region, Brazil, Southeast Region of Brazil. Listed by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network, GaWC as an global city, alpha global city, the Municipalities of ...

São Paulo
(
Bandeirante The ''Bandeirantes'' (), literally "flag-carriers", were slavers, explorers, adventurers, and fortune hunters in early Colonial Brazil. They are largely responsible for Brazil's great expansion westward, far beyond the Tordesillas Line of 149 ...

Bandeirante
s) arrived in the same period. For decades, the Portuguese and Spanish crowns disputed over this region. Due to this conflict, the
King of Portugal This is a list of Portuguese monarchs who ruled from the establishment of the Kingdom of Portugal, in 1139, to the deposition of the Portuguese monarchy and creation of the Portugal, Portuguese Republic with the 5 October 1910 revolution. Throu ...
encouraged the immigration of settlers from the
Azores Islands The Azores ( , also ; pt, Açores ), officially the Autonomous Region of the Azores (), is one of the two Autonomous Regions of Portugal, autonomous regions of Portugal (along with Madeira). It is an archipelago composed of nine High island, vo ...
to Southern Brazil, in an attempt to build up a Portuguese population. Between 1748 and 1756, six thousand Azoreans arrived. They composed over half of the population of Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina by the late 18th century.


German settlement

The first German immigrants came to Brazil soon after it gained independence in 1822 from Portugal. They were recruited to work as small
farmer A farmer is a person engaged in agriculture Agriculture is the science, art and practice of cultivating plants and livestock. Agriculture was the key development in the rise of sedentary Image:Family watching television 1958.jpg, Exe ...

farmer
s because there were many land holdings without sufficient workers. To attract the immigrants, the Brazilian government had promised them large tracts where they could settle with their families and colonize the region. The first
immigrant Immigration is the international movement of people to a destination country A country is a distinct territorial body or political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a collective ident ...

immigrant
s arrived in 1824, settling in the city of
Sao Leopoldo SAO or Sao may refer to: Places * Sao civilisation The Sao civilization (also called So) flourished in Central Africa from ca. the fourth or sixth century BC to as late as the sixteenth century AD. The Sao lived by the Chari River basin in te ...
. Over the next four decades, another 27,256 Germans were brought to Rio Grande do Sul to work as smallholders in the country. By 1904, it is estimated that 50,000 Germans had settled in this state. In Santa Catarina, most German immigrants were not brought by the Brazilian government but by private groups that promoted the immigration of Europeans to the
Americas The Americas (also collectively called America) is a landmass comprising the totality of North America, North and South America. The Americas make up most of the land in Earth's Western Hemisphere and comprise the New World. Along with th ...

Americas
, such as the
Hamburg en, Hamburgian(s) , timezone1 = Central (CET) , utc_offset1 = +1 , timezone1_DST = Central (CEST) , utc_offset1_DST = +2 , postal_code_type = Post ...

Hamburg
Colonization Society. These groups created rural communities or colonies for immigrants, many of which developed into large cities, such as
Blumenau Blumenau is a city in Vale do Itajaí, state of Santa Catarina (Brazil), Santa Catarina, in the South Region, Brazil, South Region of Brazil. It is away from the state capital of Florianópolis. The city was founded by the German chemist a ...

Blumenau
and
Joinville Joinville () is the largest city in Santa Catarina (state), Santa Catarina, in the Southern Brazil, Southern Region of Brazil. It is the third largest municipality in the southern region of Brazil, after the much larger state capitals of Curitib ...

Joinville
, the largest city in
Santa Catarina Santa Catarina may refer to: Places Brazil *Santa Catarina (state), one of Brazil's federal states *Santa Catarina (island), located in Santa Catarina state Cape Verde *Santa Catarina, Cape Verde, a municipality Curaçao *Santa Catarina, Curaç ...
. Considerable numbers of immigrants from Germany arrived at Paraná during the civil war, most of them coming from Santa Catarina; others were
Volga German The Volga Germans (german: Wolgadeutsche or ''Russlanddeutsche'' (a more generic term for all Russian Germans Russian refers to anything related to Russia Russia ( rus, link=no, Россия, Rossiya, ), or the Russian Federation, is a ...

Volga German
s from Russia.


Ragamuffin War

The Ragamuffin War was a
Republic A republic () is a form of government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a month ...

Republic
an uprising that began in Southern Brazil (
Rio Grande do Sul Rio Grande do Sul (, , ; "Great River of the South") is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The St ...
and
Santa Catarina Santa Catarina may refer to: Places Brazil *Santa Catarina (state), one of Brazil's federal states *Santa Catarina (island), located in Santa Catarina state Cape Verde *Santa Catarina, Cape Verde, a municipality Curaçao *Santa Catarina, Curaç ...
) in 1835. The rebels, led by generals
Bento Gonçalves da Silva Bento Gonçalves (September 23, 1788 in Triunfo – July 18, 1847 in Pedras Brancas), was an army officer, politician, monarchist and rebel leader of the Empire of Brazil The Empire of Brazil was a 19th-century state that broadly comprised t ...
and Antônio de Souza Netto with the support of the Italian warrior
Giuseppe Garibaldi Giuseppe Maria Garibaldi ( , ;In his native Ligurian language, he is known as ''Gioxeppe Gaibado. 4 July 1807 – 2 June 1882) was an Italian general, patriot, revolutionary, and republican. He contributed to the Italian unification The ...

Giuseppe Garibaldi
, surrendered to imperial forces in 1845. This conflict occurred because in Rio Grande do Sul, the state's main product, the
charque Jerky is lean trimmed meat that has been cut into strips and dried (dehydrated) to prevent Food spoilage, spoilage. Normally, this drying includes the addition of salt to prevent bacteria growth before the meat has finished the dehydrating pro ...

charque
(dried and salted
beef Beef is the culinary nameCulinary names, menu names, or kitchen names are names of foods used in the preparation or selling of food, as opposed to their names in agriculture Agriculture is the science, art and practice of cultivating pl ...

beef
), suffered stiff competition from charque from
Uruguay Uruguay (; ; pt, Uruguai), officially the Oriental Republic of Uruguay ( es, República Oriental del Uruguay), is a country in South America. It shares borders with Argentina to its west and southwest and Brazil to its north and northeast; whi ...

Uruguay
and
Argentina Argentina (), officially the Argentine Republic ( es, link=no, República Argentina), is a country located mostly in the southern half of South America South America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasse ...

Argentina
. The imports had free access to the Brazilian market while
gaúcho
gaúcho
s had to pay high taxes to sell their product inside Brazil. The Italian revolutionary
Giuseppe Garibaldi Giuseppe Maria Garibaldi ( , ;In his native Ligurian language, he is known as ''Gioxeppe Gaibado. 4 July 1807 – 2 June 1882) was an Italian general, patriot, revolutionary, and republican. He contributed to the Italian unification The ...

Giuseppe Garibaldi
joined the rebels in 1839. With his help the revolution spread through Santa Catarina, in the northern border of Rio Grande do Sul. After many conflicts, in 1845 peace negotiations ended the war.


Italian settlement

Italian immigrants The Italian diaspora is the large-scale emigration of Italians from Italy. There were two major Italian diasporas in Italian history. The first diaspora began around 1880, two decades after the Risorgimento, Unification of Italy, and ended in the 1 ...
started arriving in Brazil in 1875. They were mostly
peasant A peasant is a pre-industrial Pre-industrial society refers to social attributes and forms of political and cultural organization that were prevalent before the advent of the Industrial Revolution The Industrial Revolution was the tra ...
s from the
Veneto it, Veneto (man) it, Veneta (woman) , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = , demographics1_footnotes = , demographics1_title1 = , demographics1_info1 = ...

Veneto
in
Northern Italy Northern Italy ( it, Italia settentrionale, it, Nord Italia, label=none, it, Alta Italia, label=none or just it, Nord, label=none) is a geographical and cultural region In geography, regions are areas that are broadly divided by physical cha ...
(but also from
Trentino Trentino ( lld, Trentin) officially the Autonomous Province of Trento, is an autonomous The federal subject The federal subjects of Russia, also referred to as the subjects of the Russian Federation (russian: субъекты Рос ...
and
Lombardia (man), (woman) lmo, lombard, links=no (man), (woman) , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = , demographics1_footnotes = ...

Lombardia
) attracted to Southern Brazil for economic opportunities and the chance to acquire their own lands. Most of the immigrants worked as small farmers, mainly cultivating
grape A grape is a fruit In botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or phytologist is a scientist who specialises in this field. The term ...

grape
s in the Serra Gaúcha. Italian immigration to the region lasted until 1914, with a total of 100,000 Italians settling in Rio Grande do Sul in this period, and many others in Santa Catarina and Paraná. In 1898, there were a total of 300,000 people of Italian origin in Rio Grande do Sul; 50,000 in Santa Catarina; and 30,000 in Paraná. Today their Southern Brazilian descendants number 9.7 million and comprise 35.9% of Southern Brazil's population.


Demographics

As noted, the region received numerous
European immigrants European emigration can be defined as subsequent Ethnic groups in Europe, emigration waves from the European continent to other continents. The origins of the various European diasporas can be traced to the people who left the European nation stat ...
during the 19th century, who have had a large influence on its demography and culture. The main ethnic origins of Southern Brazil are
Portuguese Portuguese may refer to: * anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Portugal ** Portuguese cuisine, traditional foods ** Portuguese language, a Romance language *** Portuguese dialects, variants of the Portuguese language ** Portug ...
,
Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the people of Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of a peninsula delimited by the Alps ...
,
German German(s) may refer to: * Germany (of or related to) **Germania (historical use) * Germans, citizens of Germany, people of German ancestry, or native speakers of the German language ** For citizens of Germany, see also German nationality law **Ger ...
,
Austrian Austrian may refer to: * Austrians, someone from Austria or of Austrian descent ** Someone who is considered an Austrian citizen, see Austrian nationality law * Something associated with the country Austria, for example: ** Austria-Hungary ** Austr ...
,
Luxembourger Luxembourgers ( ; lb, Lëtzebuerger ) are a Germanic Germanic may refer to: * Germanic peoples, an ethno-linguistic group identified by their use of the Germanic languages ** List of ancient Germanic peoples and tribes * Germanic languages :* P ...
,
Polish Polish may refer to: * Anything from or related to Poland Poland, officially the Republic of Poland, is a country located in Central Europe. It is divided into 16 Voivodeships of Poland, administrative provinces, covering an area of , ...
,
Ukrainian Ukrainian may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to Ukraine * Something relating to Ukrainians an East Slavic people from Eastern Europe * Something relating to Demographics of Ukraine, in terms of demography: population of Ukraine * Somethi ...
,
Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards, a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language **Spanish cuisine Other places * Spanish, Ontario, Canada * Spanish River (disambiguation), the name of several ...
,
Dutch Dutch commonly refers to: * Something of, from, or related to the Netherlands * Dutch people () * Dutch language () *Dutch language , spoken in Belgium (also referred as ''flemish'') Dutch may also refer to:" Castle * Dutch Castle Places * ...
and
Russian Russian refers to anything related to Russia, including: *Russians (, ''russkiye''), an ethnic group of the East Slavic peoples, primarily living in Russia and neighboring countries *Rossiyane (), Russian language term for all citizens and people ...
. Smaller numbers that follow are French, Norwegian, Swedish, Danish, Black, Swiss, Croat, Lebanese, Lithuanian and Latvian, Japanese, Finnish and Estonian, Belarusian, Slovene,
Ashkenazi Jew Ashkenazi Jews ( are a Jews, Jewish Jewish diaspora, diaspora population who Coalescent theory, coalesced in the Holy Roman Empire around the end of the first millennium. The traditional diaspora language of Ashkenazi Jews is Yiddish (a Germ ...
,
Caboclo A caboclo () is a person of Multiracial, mixed Indigenous peoples in Brazil, Indigenous Brazilian and White people, European ancestry, or, less commonly, a culturally assimilated or Detribalization, detribalized person of full Amerindian descent ...

Caboclo
, British, Czech, Slovak, Belgian and Hungarian


Racial composition


Climate

Southern Brazil has
subtropical The subtropical zones or subtropics are geographical Geography (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country locat ...

subtropical
or
temperate In geography Geography (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its populati ...
climate. The annual average temperatures vary between 12 °C (53.6 °F) and 22 °C (71.6 °F). It snows in the mountain ranges.


Characteristics

The region is highly urbanized (82%) and many cities are famous for their
urban planning Urban planning, also known as regional planning, town planning, city planning, or rural planning, is a technical and political process that is focused on the development and design A design is a plan or specification for the construction o ...
, like
Curitiba Curitiba () is the capital and largest city in the States of Brazil, Brazilian state of Paraná (state), Paraná. The city's population was 1,948,626 , making it the List of cities in Brazil by population, eighth most populous city in Brazil a ...

Curitiba
and
Maringá Maringá () is a Municipalities of Brazil, municipality in southern Brazil founded on 10 May 1947 as a planned urban area. It is the third largest city in the state of Paraná (state), Paraná, with 385,753 inhabitants in the city proper, and 764, ...
, both in Paraná State. It has a relatively high standard of living, with the highest
Human Development Index The Human Development Index (HDI) is a statistic composite index of life expectancy Life expectancy is a statistical measure of the average time an organism is expected to live, based on the year of its birth, its current age, and ot ...
of Brazil, 0.859 (2007), and the second highest per capita income of the country, $13.396, behind only the Southeast Region. The region also has a 98.3% literacy rate.


Languages

Portuguese, the official language of Brazil, is spoken by the entire population. In the south countryside, dialects of German or Italian origins are also spoken. The predominant dialects are Hunsrückisch and Venetian (or
Talian Talian may refer to: *Talian dialect Talian (or Brazilian Venetian, , , but ) is a dialect of the Venetian language, spoken primarily in the Serra Gaúcha region in the northeast of the state of Rio Grande do Sul in Brazil. It is also spoken in ...
). In
Rio Grande do Sul Rio Grande do Sul (, , ; "Great River of the South") is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The St ...
and
Curitiba Curitiba () is the capital and largest city in the States of Brazil, Brazilian state of Paraná (state), Paraná. The city's population was 1,948,626 , making it the List of cities in Brazil by population, eighth most populous city in Brazil a ...

Curitiba
there are some Yiddish speakers. In the northern region of Paraná there are some Japanese speakers. In the region around
Ponta Grossa Ponta Grossa () is a Municipalities of Brazil, municipality in the state of Paraná (state), Paraná, South Region, Brazil, southern Brazil. The estimated population is 355,336 according to official data from the IBGE, Brazilian Institute of Geog ...

Ponta Grossa
there are also some Dutch speakers. There are Polish language and Ukrainian language speakers in Paraná as well. Indigenous languages still spoken in some villages include Guarani and
Kaingang The Kaingang (also spelled ''caingangue'' in Portuguese Portuguese may refer to: * anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Portugal ** Portuguese cuisine, traditional foods ** Portuguese language, a Romance language *** Portugu ...
.


Economy


Agriculture

The main agricultural products grown are: *
soy The soybean, soy bean, or soya bean (''Glycine max'') is a species of legume A legume () is a plant Plants are predominantly photosynthetic Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to Energy transformation ...
(35% of the country's production, which is the world's largest producer); *
maize Maize ( ; ''Zea mays'' subsp. ''mays'', from es, maíz after tnq, mahiz), also known as corn (North American North America is a continent in the Northern Hemisphere and almost entirely within the Western Hemisphere. It can also be ...

maize
(35% of the country's production, which is the 3rd world producer); *
tobacco Tobacco is the common name of several plants in the genus Genus /ˈdʒiː.nəs/ (plural genera /ˈdʒen.ər.ə/) is a taxonomic rank In biological classification In biology, taxonomy () is the scientific study of naming, defini ...

tobacco
(almost all the production of the country, which is the second largest producer in the world and the largest exporter); *
rice Rice is the seed A seed is an embryonic ''Embryonic'' is the twelfth studio album by experimental rock band the Flaming Lips released on October 13, 2009, on Warner Bros. Records, Warner Bros. The band's first double album, it was relea ...

rice
(80% of the country's production, which is the ninth largest producer in the world); *
grape A grape is a fruit In botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or phytologist is a scientist who specialises in this field. The term ...

grape
(almost all the production of the country, which is the eleventh largest producer in the world); *
apple An apple is an edible fruit In botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or phytologist is a scientist who specialises in this fie ...

apple
(almost all the production of the country, which is the thirteenth world producer); *
wheat Wheat is a grass widely cultivated for its seed, a cereal grain which is a worldwide staple food. The many species of wheat together make up the genus ''Triticum''; the most widely grown is common wheat Common wheat (''Triticum aestivum'' ...

wheat
(almost all the country's production); *
oat The oat (''Avena sativa''), sometimes called the common oat, is a species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodiversity. A spec ...
(almost all the country's production); *
sugar cane Sugarcane or sugar cane is a species of (often hybrid) tall, perennial A perennial plant or simply perennial is a plant Plants are predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the Kingdom (biology), kingdom Plantae. Historically, ...

sugar cane
(8% of the country's production, which is the world's largest producer); *
cassava ''Manihot esculenta'', commonly called cassava (), manioc, or yuca (among numerous regional names) is a woody shrub A shrub (often called a bush) is a small- to medium-sized perennial A perennial plant or simply perennial is a pla ...

cassava
(25% of the country's production, which is the fifth largest producer in the world); *
yerba mate Yerba mate or yerba-maté (''Ilex paraguariensis''; from Spanish ; pt, erva-mate, or ; gn, ka'a, ) is a plant species of the holly genus ''Ilex'' native to South America. It was named by the French botanist Augustin Saint-Hilaire. The indi ...

yerba mate
(almost all the production of the country, which is one of the largest producers in the world); *
bean A bean is the seed of one of several of the , which are used as vegetables for human or animal food. They can be cooked in many different ways, including boiling, frying, and baking, and are used in many traditional dishes throughout th ...

bean
(26% of the country's production, which is the third largest producer in the world); in addition to producing relevant quantities of: *
orange Orange most often refers to: *Orange (colour), occurs between red and yellow in the visible spectrum *Orange (fruit), the fruit of the tree species '' Citrus'' × ''sinensis'' ** Orange blossom, its fragrant flower *Some other citrus or citrus-li ...
(6% of the country's production, which is the world's largest producer); *
tangerine The tangerine is a type of orange Orange most often refers to: *Orange (colour), occurs between red and yellow in the visible spectrum *Orange (fruit), the fruit of the tree species '' Citrus'' × ''sinensis'' ** Orange blossom, its fragrant ...

tangerine
(30% of the country's production, which is the sixth largest producer in the world); *
persimmon The persimmon is the edible fruit In botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or phytologist is a scientist who specialises in thi ...

persimmon
(20% of the country's production, which is the sixth largest producer in the world); *
barley Barley (''Hordeum vulgare''), a member of the grass family Poaceae () or Gramineae () is a large and nearly ubiquitous family In human society, family (from la, familia) is a group of people related either by consanguinity (by recogn ...

barley
,
peach The peach (''Prunus persica'') is a deciduous In the fields of horticulture Horticulture is the art of cultivating plants in gardens to produce food and medicinal ingredients, or for comfort and ornamental purposes. Horticulturists grow ...

peach
,
fig The fig is the edible fruit of ''Ficus carica'', a species of small tree in the flowering plant family Moraceae. Native plant, Native to the Mediterranean and western Asia, it has been cultivated since ancient times and is now widely grown throug ...
and
onion The onion (''Allium cepa'' L., from Latin ''cepa'' "onion"), also known as the bulb onion or common onion, is a vegetable Vegetables are parts of plants that are consumed by humans or other animals as food. The original meaning is still co ...

onion
(most of the country's production); *
strawberry The garden strawberry (or simply strawberry; ''Fragaria × ananassa'') is a widely grown hybrid species Hybrid speciation is a form of speciation Speciation is the evolution Evolution is change in the Heredity, heritable Phenotypi ...

strawberry
.


Livestock

In 2017, the southern region gathered around 12% of Brazil's cattle (27 million head of cattle). In
sheep farming Sheep farming or sheep husbandry is the raising and breeding of domestic sheep Sheep (''Ovis aries'') are quadrupedal, ruminant Ruminants are herbivorous mammals of the suborder Ruminantia that are able to acquire nutrients from plant-based ...
, in 2017, the South Region was the second largest in the country, with 4.2 million head. Sheep shearing activity continued to be predominant in the South, which is responsible for 99% of wool production in the country. Rio Grande do Sul continued to be the state with the highest national participation, representing 94.1% of the total. The municipalities of Santana do Livramento, Alegrete and Quaraí led the activity. Currently, meat production has become the main objective of sheep farming in the State, due to the increase in prices paid to the producer that made the activity more attractive and profitable. Intensive livestock farming is also highly developed in the South, which ranks first in the ranking of Brazilian
milk Milk is a nutrient A nutrient is a substance Substance may refer to: * Substance (Jainism), a term in Jain ontology to denote the base or owner of attributes * Chemical substance, a material with a definite chemical composition * Matter, any ...

milk
production. Some of the milk produced in the South benefits from the dairy industries. The South has 35.7% of the Brazilian milk production, competing with the Southeast (which was the largest producer until 2014), which has 34.2%. The southeast has the largest herd of cows milked: 30.4% of the total of 17.1 million existing in Brazil. The highest productivity, however, is that of the Southern Region, with an average of 3,284 liters per cow per year, which is why it has led the ranking of milk production since 2015. The municipality of Castro, in Paraná, was the largest producer in 2017, with 264 million liters of milk. Paraná is already the second largest national producer with 4.7 billion liters, only surpassed by Minas Gerais. In
pork Pork is the for the of the (''Sus scrofa domesticus''). It is the most commonly consumed meat worldwide, with evidence of pig dating back to 5000 BC. Pork is eaten both freshly cooked and preserved; extends the of pork products. , , , ...

pork
, the 3 southern states are the largest producers in the country. Santa Catarina is the largest producer in Brazil. The State is responsible for 28.38% of the country's slaughter and 40.28% of Brazilian pork exports. Paraná, for its part, has a breeding stock of 667 thousand inhabited dwellings, with a herd representing 17.85% of the Brazilian total. Paraná occupies the second position in the country's productive ranking, with 21.01%, and the third place among exporting states, with 14.22%. In third place in Brazil is Rio Grande do Sul, with almost 15% participation. Poultry farming is strong in the South. In 2018, the South region, with an emphasis on the creation of chickens for slaughter, was responsible for almost half of the Brazilian total (46.9%). Paraná only represented 26.2%. Paraná occupies the Brazilian leadership in the ranking of chicken producing and exporting states. Rio Grande do Sul ranks third in national production, with 11%. In egg production, the South Region is the 2nd largest in Brazil, with 24.1% of the country's production. Paraná ranks 2nd in the Brazilian ranking, with 9.6% of the national participation. In
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, western Paraná, in municipalities close to Toledo and Cascavel, has become the largest fishing region in the country, with tilapia as the main cultivated species. The west represents 69% of all the production of Paraná, the largest national producer, with 112 thousand tons. Of this amount, 91% refers to tilapia farming. The South region was the main producer of
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in the country in 2017, representing 39.7% of the national total. Rio Grande do Sul was the first with 15.2%, Paraná in second place with 14.3%, Santa Catarina in fifth place with 10.2%.


Mining

Santa Catarina is the largest producer of
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in Brazil, mainly in the city of
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and its surroundings. Crude mineral coal production in Brazil was 13.6 million tons in 2007. Santa Catarina produced 8.7 Mt (million tons); Rio Grande do Sul, 4.5 Mt; and Paraná, 0.4 Mt. Despite the extraction of mineral coal in Brazil, the country still needs to import around 50% of the coal consumed, since the coal produced in the country is of low quality, since it has a lower concentration of carbon. Countries supplying mineral coal to Brazil include South Africa, the United States and Australia. Mineral coal in Brazil supplies, in particular, thermoelectric plants that consume around 85% of production. The cement industry in the country, on the other hand, is supplied with approximately 6% of this coal, leaving 4% for the production of cellulose paper and only 5% in the food, ceramic and grain industries. Brazil has reserves of
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and
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. Coal totals 32 billion tons of reserves and is mainly located in Rio Grande do Sul (89.25% of the total), followed by Santa Catarina (10.41%). The Candiota (RS) deposit only has 38% of all the national coal. As it is an inferior quality coal, it is used only in thermoelectric power generation and at the deposit site. The oil crisis in the 1970s led the Brazilian government to create the Energy Mobilization Plan, with intense research to discover new coal reserves. The Geological Survey of Brazil, through works carried out in Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina, greatly increased previously known coal reserves between 1970 and 1986 (mainly between 1978 and 1983). Then good quality coal, suitable for use in metallurgy and in large volumes (seven billion tons), was discovered in several deposits in Rio Grande do Sul (Morungava, Chico Lomã, Santa Teresinha), but at relatively great depths (up to 1,200 m), which has prevented its use until now. In 2011, coal represented only 5.6% of the energy consumed in Brazil, but it is an important strategic source, which can be activated when, for example, the water levels in the dams are very low, reducing the excess supply of water. hydroelectric power. This happened in 2013, when several thermoelectric plants were closed, thus maintaining the necessary supply, although at a higher cost. Paraná is the largest producer of
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in Brazil. In the city of São Mateus do Sul, there is a plant
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specialized in the production of the material. Approximately 7,800 tons are processed daily. Rio Grande do Sul is an important producer of gemstones. Brazil is the world's largest producer of
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and agate, and Rio Grande do Sul is the country's largest producer. Agate has had local extraction since 1830. The largest producer of amethyst in Brazil is the city of
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. This stone was very rare and expensive throughout the world, until the discovery of large deposits in Brazil, which caused a considerable drop in its value.


Industry

The region concentrates 20% of the industrial
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of the country. In 2019, Paraná was the second largest
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producer in the country (Brazil is one of the 10 largest vehicle producers in the world). Paraná has in its territory the Volkswagen, Renault, Audi, Volvo and DAF factories; Santa Catarina has GM and BMW plants and Rio Grande do Sul, a GM plant. In the
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, in 2019, Brazil was the second largest exporter of processed foods in the world, with a value of US $ 34.1 billion in exports. Regarding the creation of national or multinational companies, Rio Grande do Sul created companies such as Neugebauer, Camil Alimentos, Fruki, Cervejaria Polar, Vinícola Aurora and Vinícola Salton. Santa Catarina created companies such as Sadia and Perdigão (which later merged into BRF), Seara Alimentos (which today belongs to JBS), Aurora, Gomes da Costa, Cervejaria Eisenbahn and Hemmer Alimentos. Paraná created companies such as: Frimesa, C.Vale, Nutrimental, Copacol, Coopavel and Matte Leão. In the
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, in 2019 Brazil produced 972 million pairs, being the fourth largest producer in the world, behind China, India and Vietnam, and ranks 11th among the largest exporters. The Brazilian state that most exports the product is Rio Grande do Sul: in 2019 it exported US $ 448.35 million. Most of the product goes to the United States, Argentina and France. Santa Catarina also has a shoe production center in São João Batista. In the
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, Brazil, despite being among the 5 largest producers in the world in 2013, and being representative in the consumption of textiles and clothing, had very little insertion in world trade. In 2015, Brazilian imports ranked 25th (US $ 5.5 billion). And in exports, it only ranked 40th in the world ranking. Brazil's participation in the world trade of textiles and clothing is only 0.3%, due to the difficulty of competing in price with producers in India and mainly in China. The South had 32.65% of the country's textile production. Santa Catarina is the second largest textile and clothing employer in Brazil. It held the national leadership in the manufacture of pillows and is the largest producer in Latin America and the second in the world in woven labels. It's the nation's largest exporter of toilet / kitchen linen, cotton terry fabrics and cotton knit shirts. Some of the most famous companies in the region are Hering, Malwee, Karsten and Haco. In the
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, the industry turnover in Brazil reached R $ 153.0 billion in 2019, around 3% of the national GDP. The number of employees in the sector was 234,500 people. Brazil has two large electroelectronic production poles, located in Campinas, in the State of São Paulo, and in the Manaus Free Zone, in the State of Amazonas. The country also has other smaller centers, one of which is Curitiba, the capital of Paraná. The Curitiba technology center has companies such as Siemens and Positivo Informática. In total, 87 companies and 16 thousand employees work in Tecnoparque, an area of 127 thousand square meters created by state law in 2007. Tecnoparque can grow to 400 thousand square meters and receive up to four times the number of workers it has today, reaching 68 thousand people. In the home appliance industry, sales of so-called "white line" equipment were 12.9 million units in 2017. The sector had its sales peak in 2012, with 18.9 million units. The brands that sold the most were Brastemp, Electrolux, Consul and Philips. Consul is originally from Santa Catarina, merged with Brastemp and today is part of the multinational Whirlpool Corporation. Another famous brand from the South was Prosdócimo, founded in Curitiba, which was sold to Electrolux. In the small electrical appliances sector, the Britânia company is originally from Curitiba. In the metallurgical sector, the South has one of the most famous companies in the country, Tramontina, which employs more than 8,500 employees and has 10 production units. Other famous companies in the South are Marcopolo, a bus body manufacturer, which had a market value of R $ 2.782 billion in 2015, and Randon, a group of 9 companies specialized in transport solutions, which groups together vehicle manufacturers, auto parts, and road equipment - employs around 11 thousand people and recorded gross sales in 2017 of R $ 4.2 billion. In Santa Catarina, the machinery and equipment industry stands out in the manufacture of compressors, being a leader in exports of this product among the states of the country, in addition to being an important producer of forestry equipment. In metallurgy, the state has the largest national manufacturer of sinks, vats and stainless steel tanks, trophies and medals, fasteners (screws, nuts, etc.), jacketed tanks for fuels, industrial pressure vessels and malleable iron connections. It's the world leader in engine blocks and iron heads, being the largest exporter of this product in Brazil. In the Pulp (paper), pulp and paper sector, Brazilian pulp production was 19,691 million tons in 2019. The country exported US $ 7.48 billion in pulp this year, US $ 3.25 billion to China alone. Exports of the Brazilian forest industry totaled US $ 9.7 billion (US $ 7.48 billion in pulp, US $ 2 billion in paper, and US $ 265 million in wood panels). Paper production was 10,535 million tons in 2019. The country exported 2,163 million tons. In 2016, the pulp and paper industry in the south of the country represented 33% of the national total. This year, Paraná was the national leader in the production of roundwood (mainly eucalyptus) for the pulp and paper industry (15.9 million m³); Brazil was the second country that produced the most pulp in the world and the eighth in the production of paper. The city that produced the most these woods in Brazil was Telêmaco Borba (PR), and the fifth largest was Ortigueira (PR). in Espírito Santo: celulose capixaba é usada em papel até do outro lado do mundo
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Palaeontological tourism

Rio Grande do Sul Rio Grande do Sul (, , ; "Great River of the South") is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The St ...
has a great potential for Paleontology, palaeontological tourism, with many paleontological sites and museums in Paleorrota. There is a large area in the center of the state that belongs to the Triassic. Here lived Rhynchosaur, Thecodontia, thecodonts, exaeretodons, Staurikosaurus, Guaibasaurus, Saturnalia tupiniquim, Sacisaurus, Unaysaurus and many others.


See also

*Immigration to Brazil *German Brazilian *Italian Brazilian *Polish Brazilian *Spanish immigration to Brazil *Ukrainian Brazilian *Gaúcho *Centro-Sul


References


External links


Pátria Sulista, official website
{{States of Brazil South Region, Brazil, Regions of Brazil Proposed countries