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South East England is one of the nine official
regions of England The regions, formerly known as the government office regions, are the highest tier of sub-national division in England, established in 1994. Between 1994 and 2011, nine regions had officially devolved functions within government. While they no ...

regions of England
at the first level of ITL for
statistical Statistics is the discipline that concerns the collection, organization, analysis, interpretation, and presentation of data. In applying statistics to a scientific, industrial, or social problem, it is conventional to begin with a statist ...

statistical
purposes. It consists of the
counties A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposes Chambers Dictionary, L. Brookes (ed.), 2005, Chambers Harrap Publishers Ltd, Edinburgh in certain modern nations. The term is derived from the Old French ...
of
Buckinghamshire Buckinghamshire (), abbreviated Bucks, is a ceremonial county The counties and areas for the purposes of the lieutenancies, also referred to as the lieutenancy areas of England and informally known as ceremonial counties, are areas of Eng ...

Buckinghamshire
,
East Sussex East Sussex is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first published by William Chambers (publisher), William and R ...

East Sussex
,
Hampshire Hampshire (, ; abbreviated to Hants) is a Counties of England, county in South East England on the coast of the English Channel. The county town is Winchester, but the county is named after Southampton. Its two largest cities are Southampton a ...

Hampshire
, the
Isle of Wight The Isle of Wight () is a Counties of England, county and the List of islands of England, largest and second-most populous island of England. It is in the English Channel, between two and five miles off the coast of Hampshire, from which it is ...

Isle of Wight
,
Kent Kent is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first published by William Chambers (publisher), William and Robert ...

Kent
,
Oxfordshire Oxfordshire is a landlocked county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first published by William Chambers (publisher), ...

Oxfordshire
,
Berkshire Berkshire ( ; in the 17th century sometimes spelt phonetically as Barkeshire; abbreviated Berks.) is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers ...

Berkshire
,
Surrey Surrey () is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first published by William Chambers (publisher), William and R ...

Surrey
and
West Sussex West Sussex is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first published by William Chambers (publisher), William an ...

West Sussex
. Major towns and cities in the regions include
Brighton and Hove Brighton and Hove () is a coastal city in East Sussex, England. The neighbouring towns of Brighton and Hove formed a unitary authority in 1997, and in 2001 were granted city status by Queen Elizabeth II. It is the most populous settlement in t ...
,
Milton Keynes Milton Keynes ( ) is the largest settlement in Buckinghamshire, England, north-west of London. At the 2011 Census, the population of Milton Keynes urban area, its urban area was almost . The River Great Ouse forms its northern boundary; a t ...
,
Southampton Southampton () is a port A port is a maritime law, maritime facility comprising one or more Wharf, wharves or loading areas, where ships load and discharge Affreightment, cargo and passengers. Although usually situated on a sea ...
,
Portsmouth Portsmouth ( ) is a port and island city status in the United Kingdom, city with Unitary authorities of England, unitary authority status in the ceremonial county of Hampshire, southern England. It is the most densely populated city in the Unit ...

Portsmouth
,
Slough Slough () is a large town in Berkshire Berkshire ( ; in the 17th century sometimes spelt phonetically as Barkeshire; abbreviated Berks.) is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other pu ...

Slough
,
Reading Reading is the process of taking in the sense or meaning of letters, symbols, ''etc.'', especially by sight or touch. For educators and researchers, reading is a multifaceted process involving such areas as word recognition, orthography An ...
and
Oxford Oxford () is a city in England. It is the county town In the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' u ...

Oxford
. South East England is the third largest region of England, with an area of 19,096 km2 (7,373 sq mi), and is also the most populous with a total population of over eight and a half million (2011). The region contains seven legally chartered cities:
Brighton and Hove Brighton and Hove () is a coastal city in East Sussex, England. The neighbouring towns of Brighton and Hove formed a unitary authority in 1997, and in 2001 were granted city status by Queen Elizabeth II. It is the most populous settlement in t ...
,
Canterbury Canterbury (, ) is a City status in the United Kingdom, cathedral city and UNESCO World Heritage Site, situated in the heart of the City of Canterbury, a local government district of Kent, England. It lies on the River Stour, Kent, River Stour ...

Canterbury
,
Chichester Chichester () is a City status in the United Kingdom, cathedral city and civil parish in West Sussex, England.OS Explorer map 120: Chichester, South Harting and Selsey Scale: 1:25 000. Publisher:Ordnance Survey – Southampton B2 edition. Publis ...

Chichester
,
Oxford Oxford () is a city in England. It is the county town In the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' u ...

Oxford
,
Portsmouth Portsmouth ( ) is a port and island city status in the United Kingdom, city with Unitary authorities of England, unitary authority status in the ceremonial county of Hampshire, southern England. It is the most densely populated city in the Unit ...

Portsmouth
,
Southampton Southampton () is a port A port is a maritime law, maritime facility comprising one or more Wharf, wharves or loading areas, where ships load and discharge Affreightment, cargo and passengers. Although usually situated on a sea ...
and
Winchester Winchester is a cathedral city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London ...

Winchester
. The region's close proximity to
London London is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and smaller lowerc ...

London
and connections to several national motorways have led to South East England becoming a prosperous economic hub with the largest economy of any region in the UK, after
London London is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and smaller lowerc ...

London
. The region is home to
Gatwick Airport Gatwick Airport (), also known as London Gatwick , is a major international airport near Crawley, West Sussex, England, south of Central London Central London (also known less commonly as London city centre) is the innermost part of Londo ...
, the UK's second-busiest airport, and
Heathrow Airport Heathrow Airport (), originally called ''London Airport'' until 1966 and now known as London Heathrow , is a major international airport in London, England. With Gatwick Airport, Gatwick, London City Airport, City, Luton Airport, Luton, Stanste ...

Heathrow Airport
(the UK's busiest airport) is located adjacent to the region's boundary with
Greater London Greater London is an Metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties of England, administrative area governed by the Greater London Authority, and a Ceremonial counties of England, ceremonial county of England that covers the bulk of the same area ...

Greater London
. The coastline along the
English Channel The English Channel,, "The Sleeve"; nrf, la Maunche, "The Sleeve" (Cotentinais Cotentinais is the dialect The term dialect (from Latin , , from the Ancient Greek word , , "discourse", from , , "through" and , , "I speak") is used in two ...

English Channel
provides numerous ferry crossings to mainland
Europe Europe is a continent A continent is any of several large landmass A landmass, or land mass, is a large region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of scienc ...

Europe
. The region is known for its countryside, which includes two national parks: the
New Forest The New Forest is one of the largest remaining tracts of unenclosed land, land and in , covering southwest and southeast . It was proclaimed a royal forest by , featuring in the . Pre-existing rights of common pasture are still recognise ...
and the
South Downs The South Downs are a range of chalk hills that extends for about across the south-eastern coastal counties of England from the Itchen Valley of Hampshire in the west to Beachy Head, in the Eastbourne Downland Estate, East Sussex, in the east. T ...
, as well as the
North Downs The North Downs are a ridge of chalk hills in south east England that stretch from Farnham in Surrey to the White Cliffs of Dover in Kent. Much of the North Downs comprises two Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty, Areas of Outstanding Natural Bea ...
, the
Chiltern Hills The Chiltern Hills is a chalk Chalk is a soft, white, porous Porosity or void fraction is a measure of the (i.e. "empty") spaces in a , and is a of voids over the total volume, between 0 and 1, or as a between 0% and 100%. Strictly spea ...
and part of the
Cotswolds The Cotswolds ( , ) is an area in south-central England England is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to its west and Scotland to its north. The Irish Sea ...
. The
River Thames The River Thames ( ), known alternatively in parts as the The Isis, River Isis, is a river that flows through southern England including London. At , it is the longest river entirely in England and the Longest rivers of the United Kingdom, se ...
flows through the region and its basin is known as the
Thames Valley The Thames Valley is an informally-defined sub-region of South East England, centred on the River Thames west of London, with Oxford as a major centre. Its boundaries vary with context. The area is a major tourist destination and economic hub, i ...

Thames Valley
. It is also the location of a number of internationally known places of interest, such as
HMS ''Victory''
HMS ''Victory''
in Portsmouth,
Cliveden Cliveden (pronounced ) is an English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has even ...
in Buckinghamshire,
Thorpe Park Thorpe Park Resort, commonly known as Thorpe Park, is an amusement park located in the village of Thorpe between the towns of Chertsey and Staines-upon-Thames in Surrey, England. It is operated and owned by Merlin Entertainments and includes ...
and RHS Wisley in Surrey,
Blenheim Palace Blenheim Palace (pronounced ) is a English country house, country house in Woodstock, Oxfordshire, England. It is the seat of the Duke of Marlborough (title), Dukes of Marlborough and the only non-royal family, royal, non-Bishop, episcop ...

Blenheim Palace
in Oxfordshire,
Windsor Castle Windsor Castle is a at in the English county of . It is strongly associated with the and succeeding , and embodies almost a millennium of . The original castle was built in the 11th century after the by . Since the time of (who re ...

Windsor Castle
in Berkshire,
Leeds Castle Leeds Castle is a castle in East Sussex East Sussex is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary, L. Brookes (ed.), 2005, Chambers Harrap Publishers Ltd, Ed ...

Leeds Castle
, the
White Cliffs of Dover The White Cliffs of Dover is the region of English coastline The coast, also known as the coastline or seashore, is defined as the area where land meets the sea or ocean, or as a line that forms the boundary between the land and the ocean ...
and
Canterbury Cathedral Canterbury Cathedral in Canterbury Canterbury (, ) is a City status in the United Kingdom, cathedral city and UNESCO World Heritage Site, situated in the heart of the City of Canterbury, a local government district of Kent, England. It lies ...

Canterbury Cathedral
in Kent,
Brighton Palace Pier The Brighton Palace Pier, commonly known as Brighton Pier or the Palace Pier, is a Listed buildings in the United Kingdom, Grade II* listed Pier#Pleasure piers, pleasure pier in Brighton, England, located in the city centre opposite the Old St ...
, and
Hammerwood Park Hammerwood Park is a country house in Hammerwood, near East Grinstead, in East Sussex, England. It is a listed building, Grade I listed building. One of the first houses in England to be built in the Greek Revival architectural style, it was buil ...
in East Sussex, and
Wakehurst Place Wakehurst Place in June Wakehurst, previously known as Wakehurst Place, is a house and botanic gardens in West Sussex, England, owned by the National Trust for Places of Historic Interest or Natural Beauty, National Trust but used and managed b ...

Wakehurst Place
in West Sussex. The region has many universities; the
University of Oxford The University of Oxford is a collegiate university, collegiate research university in Oxford, England. There is evidence of teaching as early as 1096, making it the oldest university in the English-speaking world and the List of oldest universit ...
is the oldest in the English-speaking world, and ranked among the best in the world. South East England is host to various sporting events, including the annual
Henley Royal Regatta Henley Royal Regatta (or Henley Regatta, its original name pre-dating Royal patronage) is a Rowing (sport), rowing event held annually on the River Thames by the town of Henley-on-Thames, England. It was established on 26 March 1839. It differ ...
,
Royal Ascot Ascot Racecourse ("ascot" pronounced , often pronounced ) is a dual-purpose British racecourse, located in Ascot, Berkshire Ascot () is a town A town is a human settlement. Towns are generally larger than villages and smaller t ...
and The Derby, and sporting venues include Wentworth Golf Club and
Brands Hatch Brands Hatch Circuit is a motor racing Motorsport, motorsports or motor sport is a global term used to encompass the group of competitive sporting Sporting may refer to: *Sport, recreational games and play *Sporting (neighborhood), in Ale ...

Brands Hatch
. Some of the events of the
2012 Summer Olympics The 2012 Summer Olympics (officially known as the Games of the XXX Olympiad and commonly known as London 2012) was an international multi-sport event held from 27 July to 12 August 2012 in London, London, United Kingdom. The first ...
were held in the south east, including the rowing at
Eton Dorney Dorney Lake (also known as Eton College Rowing Centre, and as Eton Dorney as a 2012 Summer Olympics venue) is a purpose-built Rowing (sport), rowing lake in England. It is near the village of Dorney, Buckinghamshire, and is around 3 km (2 mi ...

Eton Dorney
and part of the cycling road race in the Surrey Hills. In
medieval times Medieval Times Dinner and Tournament is a family dinner theater featuring staged medieval In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the study, organization and presentation an ...
, South East England included much of the
Kingdom of Wessex Wessex (; ang, Westseaxna rīċe , 'the Kingdom of the West Saxons') was an Anglo-Saxon The Anglo-Saxons were a cultural group who inhabited England England is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United K ...
, which was the precursor to the modern state of
England England is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to its west and Scotland to its north. The Irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea to the southwest. E ...

England
.
Winchester Winchester is a cathedral city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London ...

Winchester
was the capital of England after unification of the various states, including the kingdoms of
Kent Kent is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first published by William Chambers (publisher), William and Robert ...

Kent
,
Sussex Sussex (), from the Old English Old English (, ), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest recorded form of the English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, e ...
and
Mercia Mercia (, ang, Miercna rīċe; la, Merciorum regnum) was one of the kingdoms of the . The name is a of the or (West Saxon dialect; in the Mercian dialect itself), meaning "border people" (see ). Mercia dominated what would later become ...
. Winchester stopped being the administrative capital of England some time in the 13th century as its influence waned while the
City of London The City of London is a city A city is a large .Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Routledge. It ...

City of London
dominated commerce. The last
monarch A monarch is a head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona A persona (plural personae or personas), depending on the context, can refer to either the public image of one's personality, or the social role tha ...
to be crowned at Winchester was
Richard II Richard II (6 January 1367 – c. 14 February 1400), also known as Richard of Bordeaux, was King of England from 1377 until he was List of deposed politicians, deposed in 1399. Richard's father, Edward the Black Prince, Edward, Prince of ...

Richard II
in 1377, although the last monarch to be crowned by the
Bishop of Winchester The Bishop of Winchester is the diocesan bishop of the Diocese of Winchester The Diocese of Winchester forms part of the Province of Canterbury The Province of Canterbury, or less formally the Southern Province, is one of two ecclesiastical ...
was
Queen Mary I Mary I (18 February 1516 – 17 November 1558), also known as Mary Tudor, and as "Bloody Mary" by her Protestant Protestantism is a form of Christianity that originated with the 16th-century Reformation, a movement against what its fol ...

Queen Mary I
in 1553.


History

The Meonhill Vineyard, near
Old Winchester Hill {{Infobox SSSI , image= OldWinchesterHill.JPG , image_caption = , name= Old Winchester Hill , aos= Hampshire , interest=Biological , gridref={{gbmappingsmall, SU 642 208 , area= {{convert, 66.2, ha, acre, abbr=off , notifyda ...

Old Winchester Hill
in east Hampshire on the South Downs south of
West Meon West Meon is a village A village is a clustered human settlement In geography, statistics and archaeology, a settlement, locality or populated place is a community in which people live. The complexity of a settlement can range from ...
on the A32, is an example of a site where the Romano-British grew Roman grapes.


Second World War

Much of the
Battle of Britain The Battle of Britain (german: die Luftschlacht um England, "the Air Battle for England") was a military campaign A military campaign is large-scale long-duration significant military strategy Military strategy is a set of ideas implemented ...

Battle of Britain
was fought in this region, especially in Kent.
RAF Bomber Command RAF Bomber Command controlled the Royal Air Force The Royal Air Force (RAF) is the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The G ...
was based at
High Wycombe High Wycombe, often referred to as Wycombe ( ), is a large market town A market town is a European settlement that obtained by custom or royal charter, in the Middle Ages In the history of Europe The history of Europe con ...

High Wycombe
.
RAF Medmenham RAF refers to the Royal Air Force, the air force of the United Kingdom. RAF or Raf may also refer to: Military and paramilitary *Rapid Action Force, India, paramilitary police *Royal Aircraft Factory, UK, 1912–1918 *Russian Armed Forces, the R ...
at Danesfield House, west of
Marlow
Marlow
in Buckinghamshire, was important for
aerial reconnaissance Aerial reconnaissance is reconnaissance In military operations, reconnaissance or scouting is the exploration of an area by military forces to obtain information about enemy forces, terrain Relief map of Sierra Nevada, Spain Terrai ...
.
Operation Corona Operation Corona was a Royal Air Force (RAF) initiative to confuse Germany, German nightfighters during RAF bomber raids on German cities during World War II. Both native speakers and people who could speak German to a standard where they could ...
, based at RAF Kingsdown (at
West Kingsdown West Kingsdown is a village and civil parish In England, a civil parish is a type of administrative parish used for local government. It is a territorial designation which is the lowest tier of local government below districts and counti ...
next to Brands Hatch in Kent, between the A20 and M20), was implemented to confuse German
night fighter A night fighter (also known as all-weather fighter or all-weather interceptor for a period of time after the Second World War World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a that lasted from 1939 to ...
s with native German-speakers, and coordinated by the RAF Y Service.
Bletchley Park Bletchley Park is an English country house An English country house is a large house or mansion in the English countryside. Such houses were often owned by individuals who also owned a Townhouse (Great Britain), town house. This allowed ...

Bletchley Park
in north Buckinghamshire was the principal Allied centre for codebreaking. The
Colossus computer Colossus was a set of computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. Modern computers can perform generic sets of operations known as Computer program, pr ...

Colossus computer
, arguably the world's first, began working on Lorentz codes on 5 February 1944, with Colossus 2 working from June 1944. The site was chosen, among other reasons, because it is at the junction of the
Varsity Line The Varsity Line (or the Oxford to Cambridge railway line) was the main railway route that once linked the English university cities of Oxford and Cambridge Cambridge ( ) is a College town, university city and the county town of Cambridgesh ...
(between Oxford and Cambridge) and the
West Coast Main Line The West Coast Main Line (WCML) is one of the most important railway corridors in the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guar ...

West Coast Main Line
. The
Harwell computer The Harwell computer, later known as the Wolverhampton Instrument for Teaching Computing from Harwell (WITCH), or the Harwell Dekatron Computer, is an early British computer of the 1950s based on Vacuum tube, valves and relays. From 2009 to 2012, ...
(Dekatron), now at the
National Museum of Computing The National Museum of Computing is a museum A museum ( ; plural museums or, rarely, musea) is an institution that Preservation (library and archival science), cares for (conserves) a collection (artwork), collection of artifacts and ot ...
at Bletchley, was built in 1949 and is believed to be the oldest working digital computer in the world.


Scientific heritage

John Wallis John Wallis (; la, Wallisius; ) was an English clergyman and mathematician A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers ( and ), f ...

John Wallis
of Kent, introduced the
symbol for infinity
symbol for infinity
, and the standard notation for powers of numbers in 1656.
Thomas Bayes Thomas Bayes (; 1701 7 April 1761) was an English people, English statistician, philosopher and Presbyterian minister who is known for formulating a specific case of the theorem that bears his name: Bayes' theorem. Bayes never published what wo ...

Thomas Bayes
was an important statistician from Tunbridge Wells; his
theorem In mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers ( and ), formulas and related structures (), shapes and spaces in which they are contained (), and quantities and their changes ( and ). There is no ge ...
(of
probability theory Probability theory is the branch of mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers (arithmetic and number theory), formulas and related structures (algebra), shapes and spaces in which they are containe ...
) is used for
spam filter Email filtering is the processing of email upThe email_address.html"_;"title="at_sign,_a_part_of_every_SMTP_email_address">at_sign,_a_part_of_every_SMTP_email_address Electronic_mail_(email_or_e-mail)_is_a_method_of_exchanging_messages_("ma ...
s and
Google's search
Google's search
. Sir David N. Payne at the University of Southampton's Optoelectronics Research Centre invented the
erbium-doped fibre amplifier An optical amplifier is a device that amplifies an optical signal (information theory), signal directly, without the need to first convert it to an electrical signal. An optical amplifier may be thought of as a laser without an optical cavity, or ...
, a type of
optical amplifier An optical amplifier is a device that amplifies an optical Optics is the branch of physics Physics is the natural science that studies matter, its Elementary particle, fundamental constituents, its Motion (physics), motion and behavio ...
, in the mid-1980s, which became essential for the internet.
Henry Moseley Henry Gwyn Jeffreys Moseley (; 23 November 1887 – 10 August 1915) was an English physicist A physicist is a scientist A scientist is a person who conducts Scientific method, scientific research to advance knowledge in an Branches of sc ...
at Oxford in 1913 discovered his
Moseley's law Moseley's law is an empirical law concerning the characteristic X-ray#Physics, x-rays emitted by atoms. The law had been discovered and published by the English physicist Henry Moseley in 1913-1914. Until Moseley's work, "atomic number" was merely ...
of X-ray spectra of chemical elements that enabled him to be the first to assign the correct atomic number to elements in
periodic table The periodic table, also known as the periodic table of (the) chemical elements, is a tabular display of the chemical element upright=1.0, 500px, The chemical elements ordered by link=Periodic table In chemistry Chemistry is ...

periodic table
; he did not receive any
Nobel Prize The Nobel Prizes ( ; sv, Nobelpriset ; no, Nobelprisen ) are five separate prizes that, according to Alfred Nobel Alfred Bernhard Nobel ( , ; 21 October 1833 – 10 December 1896) was a Swedish chemist, engineer, inventor, busines ...
as it is not awarded posthumously, and he was killed in 1915 at Gallipoli with the Royal Engineers.
Carbon fibre Carbon fiber reinforced polymer (American English), Carbon fibre reinforced polymer (English in the Commonwealth of Nations, Commonwealth English), or carbon fiber reinforced plastic, or carbon fiber reinforced thermoplastic (CFRP, CRP, CFRTP, ...
was invented in 1963 at the RAE in Farnborough by a team led by William Watt. The Apollo LCG space-suit cooling system originated mostly from work done at RAE Farnborough in the early 1960s.
Donald Watts Davies
Donald Watts Davies
, who went to
grammar school A grammar school is one of several different types of school A school is an educational institution designed to provide learning spaces and learning environments for the teaching of students under the direction of teachers. Most coun ...
in Portsmouth, took over from
Alan Turing Alan Mathison Turing (; 23 June 1912 – 7 June 1954) was an English mathematician A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such to ...

Alan Turing
in developing Britain's early computers, and invented
packet switching In telecommunication Telecommunication is the transmission of information by various types of technologies over wire A wire is a single usually cylindrical A cylinder (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or re ...
in the late 1960s at the National Physical Laboratory in
Teddington Teddington is a suburb in south-west London in the London Borough of Richmond upon Thames. In 2021, Teddington was named as the best place to live in London by ''The Sunday Times''. Historically in Middlesex, Teddington is situated on a long mean ...
. Packet-switching was taken up by the Americans to form the
ARPANET The Advanced Research Projects Agency Network (ARPANET) was the first wide-area packet-switching network with distributed control and one of the first networks to implement the Internet protocol suite, TCP/IP protocol suite. Both technologies ...
; the first computer network was built by Lawrence Roberts and three others at the
MIT Lincoln Laboratory The MIT Lincoln Laboratory, located in Lexington, Massachusetts Lexington is a suburban town in Middlesex County, Massachusetts, United States. It is 11 miles (17 km) from Downtown Boston. The population was 31,394 at the 2010 census, whic ...
(IBM and AT&T took no interest in the project), built by BBN with Bob Taylor and
Paul Baran Paul Baran (born Pesach Baran ; April 29, 1926 – March 26, 2011) was a Polish-American engineer who was a pioneer in the development of computer networks. He was one of the two independent inventors of packet switching, which is today the domin ...
(who chose the design of packets and nodes) with
Interface Message Processor The Interface Message Processor (IMP) was the packet switching node (networking), node used to interconnect participant networks to the ARPANET from the late 1960s to 1989. It was the first generation of Gateway (telecommunications), gateways, whic ...
s; TCP was invented in 1973 and adopted as standard in 1981. The IBM 360/195 at RHEL was the first machine outside of the US to connect to the ARPANET in 1973; the connection went via UCL then Norway (
NORSAR NORSAR or Norwegian Seismic Array was established in 1968 as part of the Norwegian Norwegian, Norwayan, or Norsk may refer to: *Something of, from, or related to Norway, a country in northwestern Europe *Norwegians, both a nation and an ethnic grou ...

NORSAR
and SATNET) to the USA. SRCNet was formed in 1975 which linked Oxfordshire to Cheshire; this became
JANET Janet may refer to: Names * Janet (given name) Janet is a feminine given name Image:FML names-2.png, Diagram of naming conventions, using John F. Kennedy as an example. "First names" can also be called given names; "last names" can also be ca ...
in 1984, which ran on the
X.25 X.25 is an ITU-T The ITU Telecommunication Standardization Sector (ITU-T) coordinates standards for telecommunications and Information Communication Technology such as X.509 for cybersecurity, Y.3172 and Y.3173 for machine learning, and H.264/MPE ...
protocol. In 1992, Britain had its first webserver at RAL in Oxfordshire, one of only around 50 in the world; Britain's first website; five years later the site was the UK's regional office of the
W3C The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) is the main international standards organization A standards organization, standards body, standards developing organization (SDO), or standards setting organization (SSO) is an organization whose primary ...
. Early computer animation was developed at RAL in Oxfordshire. Surrey's
Alec Reeves Alec Harley Reeves (10 March 1902 – 13 October 1971) was a British scientist best known for his invention of pulse-code modulation Pulse-code modulation (PCM) is a method used to digitally represent sampled analog signal An analog s ...
invented
pulse-code modulation Pulse-code modulation (PCM) is a method used to Digital signal (signal processing), digitally represent sampled analog signals. It is the standard form of digital audio in computers, compact discs, digital telephony and other digital audio ap ...
(PCM) in 1937 (at
ITT ITT may refer to: Mathematics *Intuitionistic type theory, other name of Martin-Löf Type Theory Business *ITT Inc. (formerly International Telephone & Telegraph), US *Invitation to tender for a contract * ITT Semiconductors Education *ITT Tech ...
's research laboratories in Paris), the standard for
digital audio Digital audio is a representation of sound recorded in, or converted into, Digital signal (signal processing), digital form. In digital audio, the sound wave of the audio signal is typically encoded as numerical Sampling (signal processing), s ...
recordings. Sir
John Herschel Sir John Frederick William Herschel, 1st Baronet (; 7 March 1792 – 11 May 1871) was an English polymath active as a mathematician, astronomer, chemist, inventor, experimental photographer who invented the blueprint, and did botanical wor ...
, son of the astronomer, from Kent, invented the term ''photography'' in 1839, meaning ''light writing''. and discovered the first
photographic fixerPhotographic fixer is a mix of chemicals used in the final step in the photographic processing of film or paper. The fixer stabilises the image, removing the unexposed silver halide remaining on the photographic film or photographic paper, leaving be ...
,
sodium thiosulphate
sodium thiosulphate
, known as ''hypo'', also in 1839.
GLEEP GLEEP, which stood for Graphite Low Energy Experimental Pile, was a long-lived experimental nuclear reactor in Oxfordshire, England. Run for the first time on August 15, 1947, it was the first reactor to operate in western Europe. It was built at ...
was Britain's first nuclear reactor, in August 1947 at the
Atomic Energy Research Establishment The Atomic Energy Research Establishment (AERE) was the main Headquarters, centre for nuclear power, atomic energy research and development in the United Kingdom from 1946 to the 1990s. It was created, owned and funded by the British Governm ...
(AERE) at Harwell, and would stay operational until 1990; it was followed by the British Experimental Pile 0 (BEPO) in 1948.
William Harvey William Harvey (1 April 1578 – 3 June 1657) was an English physician who made influential contributions in anatomy Anatomy (Greek ''anatomē'', 'dissection') is the branch of biology concerned with the study of the structure of organis ...

William Harvey
of Folkestone, in Kent, discovered the circulation of blood. The Lilly Research Centre in Windlesham, Berkshire, part of
Eli Lilly Eli Lilly (July 8, 1838 – June 6, 1898) was an American soldier, pharmacist, chemist, and businessman who founded the Eli Lilly and Company pharmaceutical corporation. Lilly enlisted in the Union Army , a regiment serving in the We ...

Eli Lilly
, developed
Olanzapine Olanzapine, sold under the trade name Zyprexa among others, is an atypical antipsychotic The atypical antipsychotics (AAP), also known as second generation antipsychotics (SGAs) and serotonin–dopamine antagonists (SDAs), are a group of anti ...

Olanzapine
in 1996 (for bipolar disorder, selling around $5bn worldwide annually). Beecham Research Laboratories at Brockham Park in 1959 discovered meticillin (or methicillin), the first semi-synthetic penicillin (beta-lactamase stable), deriving from their discovery in 1958 of 6-APA, the core constituent; the team, led by Prof George Rolinson, won the Mullard Award in 1971. Bipyridine compounds (Paraquat-Gramoxone and Diquat) were discovered for herbicide use in 1954 by William Boon at ICI's Plant Protection division at Jealott's Hill, being released onto the market in 1958. AZT/Retrovir (zidovudine) was first manufactured by Wellcome in 1987 in Kent; they also introduced Zovirax (aciclovir), and the naturally occurring digoxin, a cardiac glycoside. After a plane crashed near his house in Oxford in 1940, Sir Peter Medawar helped the injured pilot, and in the process discovered Allotransplantation, homograft rejection, leading to organ transplantation using azathioprine. Viagra (Sildenafil) was synthesized at Pfizer in Sandwich, Kent.


Industrial heritage

Sir Francis Pettit Smith of Kent invented the screw propeller. Faversham Oyster Fishery is the oldest company in the world. Maidenhead Railway Bridge is known for its flat arch, built in 1839 with 39-metre spans. The Wealden iron industry in the Weald was the site of the first blast furnace in Britain in 1491, and produced much of Britain's cast iron until the 1770s. Portsmouth Block Mills were the site of the world's first metal machine tools, built for the manufacture of wooden pulleys, invented by Henry Maudslay, and the site of the world's first industrial assembly line in 1803. South Foreland Lighthouse on 8 December 1858 was the world's first lighthouse with electric light, with the first type of industrial electrical generator made by Frederick Hale Holmes, from work he had carried out with Floris Nollet of Belgium, and 36 permanent magnets. By 1880, of the ten lighthouses with electric light, five were in the UK. From the lighthouse in 1899, the first international radio broadcast to France was made. Zénobe Gramme of Belgium made a much Gramme machine, better design in 1870 with Excitation (magnetic), self-excitation of magnets, and the first modern dynamo. North Foreland Lighthouse was the UK's last-staffed lighthouse until 1998. Portland cement was developed in Northfleet, Kent, by William Aspdin, son of Joseph Aspdin. The development was to heat the ingredients to around 1450C, producing Clinker (cement), clinker. Previously, temperatures were taken to only 800C, which was not enough. The first ever cement kiln is still in Northfleet today in a cardboard factory. In the late 1800s, the rotary kiln made the process much more efficient. Concrete, effectively human-made stone, is the most widespread human-made material. 5% of all carbon emissions worldwide are from concrete production. On 16 October 1908 the British Army Aeroplane No 1, flown by the American Samuel Franklin Cody, was the first aircraft flown in the UK, at Farnborough; on 14 May 1909 he flew it for more than a mile. On 13 August 1909, his wife would be the first woman in the UK to fly in a plane, also at Farnborough. The first Harrier aircraft ''XV738'' flew on 28 December 1967; this was the first aircraft of the RAF to have a head-up display avionics system. The first two-seat Harrier ''XW174'' flew on 24 April 1969, later crashing at Larkhill in June 1969. The British Aerospace Sea Harrier ''XZ450'' first flew on 20 August 1978; on 4 May 1982 this aircraft would be hit by anti-aircraft fire at Goose Green, killing the pilot with 800 Naval Air Squadron from HMS Hermes (R12), HMS ''Hermes''; the aircraft had no radar warning receiver (RWR), due to testing the Sea Eagle (missile), Sea Eagle, so could not detect the Skyguard radar had locked on to it, being destroyed with the Oerlikon GDF (35mm) of GADA 601; it was the first Sea Harrier lost in the Falklands campaign. The first human airborne ejection seat firing took place on 24 July 1946 over Chalgrove Airfield, Oxfordshire, in a Gloster Meteor, Meteor, piloted by Martin-Baker Mk.1, Bernard Lynch; the first dummy ejection had been 10 May 1945 over RAF Oakley in west Buckinghamshire (today near the M40); on 13 March 1962, the first in-flight rocket-powered ejection took place by Peter Howard (RAF officer), Peter Howard, an RAF doctor based at Farnborough's RAF Institute of Aviation Medicine, Institute of Aviation Medicine in Meteor ''WA364'' at 250 ft over Chalgrove, with the rocket giving a maximum force of 16G. The Miles M.52, designed at Woodley Aerodrome in Berkshire by Miles Aircraft, was an advanced design of aircraft which had the innovation of the ''flying tail'' or ''all-moving tail'' also known as a stabilator; this would solve the problem of stability and Aircraft flight control system, aircraft control at supersonic speeds, and its design was taken wholesale into the American Bell X-1, the first supersonic aircraft. On 3 May 1830 the world's first passenger train service, the Canterbury and Whitstable Railway (6 miles) built by George Stephenson, began, hauled by the locomotive ''Invicta (locomotive), Invicta'' and introduced the world's first railway season ticket in 1834. Maidenhead Railway Bridge, known for its flat arch, was built in 1839 with 39-metre spans. The Military Vehicles and Engineering Establishment, in Chertsey, developed Chobham armour. On 12 April 1903, the world's first bus service was by Eastbourne Buses from Eastbourne railway station to Meads. ThrustSSC, the fastest car in the world in 1997, was built in Aldingbourne, West Sussex, by G-Force Engineering, designed by Ron Ayers, with further work done by the Defence Evaluation and Research Agency at Farnborough. UK-Belgium 5 laid in 1986 from Kent was the world's first Optical fiber cable, optical fibre submarine cable, and is 36 miles long. The world's first Submarine communications cable, submarine telephone cable was laid between England and France in 1891 by HMTS Monarch, enabling London-Paris calls from April 1891. On 3 December 1992, Neil Papworth of Reading, an engineer from Sema Group, Sema Group Telecoms at Vodafone in Newbury, sent the world's first text message from his computer to an Orbitel 901 handset of Richard Jarvis, Vodafone's technical director. The first public automatic telephone exchange in the UK was at Epsom telephone exchange from 18 May 1912, and was introduced as standard across the UK's 6,700 telephone exchanges in 1922, lasting for around 70 years; it could handle up to 500 lines, and was the Strowger switch, Strowger design and made by Automatic Electric, Automatic Telephone Manufacturing Company of Liverpool. The world's first automatic telephone exchange had opened in La Porte, Indiana in November 1892. The BritNed 1000MW power-supply submarine cable from Isle of Grain to Rotterdam, was built in 2009. The HVDC Cross-Channel (2000MW) submarine cable was built in 1986. This is the world's highest-capacity submarine HVDC cable; it goes from France and lands near Folkestone, with the large transformer station (built by GEC) squeezed between the CTRL and the M20 in Aldington, Kent, Aldington and Smeeth, made of eight 270kV cables. Royston Instruments of Byfleet developed the world's first multi-channel Flight recorder, flight data recorders in 1965. Although the De Havilland Comet, Comet is generally accepted as the world's first production-run jet airliner, the first jet airliner ever built (individual) was a Rolls-Royce Nene, Nene-powered Vickers VC.1 Viking on 6 April 1948 from Wisley Airfield; the world's first turboprop airliner would fly from there on 16 July 1948 by Joseph Summers, Mutt Summers. In 1939 at Cowes (Northwood, Isle of Wight, Northwood) John Godeck invented the plan position indicator method of radar display as most commonly known ever since; the site became Plessey Radar in 1965, and currently is run by BAE Systems. Sperry Corporation, Sperry Gyroscope in Bracknell produced the guidance systems for Britain's 1960s space rockets. The List of tallest structures in the United Kingdom, tallest freestanding structure in the region is the chimney of Grain Power Station at 801 ft; it is the second-tallest chimney in the UK after Drax power station. George Albert Smith (film pioneer), George Albert Smith developed the first Color photography, colour film process, known as Kinemacolor, in 1906 at Southwick, West Sussex. George E. Davis from Slough, is the founding father of chemical engineering. Wiggins Teape, later Arjo Wiggins, ARJO Wiggins Fine Papers, had the largest paper research centre in Europe at Butlers Court in Beaconsfield; built in 1891 and vacated in 2009. Bentalls in Bracknell (now Fenwick (department store), Fenwick since 2017) had the first Payment terminal, point of sale terminal in Europe - the NCR Corporation, NCR 280 in 1973. The National Fruit Collection is the largest collection of fruit trees in the world, at Brogdale, and is next to the M2 at the A251 junction in Ospringe. Scalextric was invented by Fred Francis in 1956, who founded Minimodels in Havant; initially the model cars had been clockwork; it was made from 1967 at Tri-ang Railways, Triang in Margate. The world's first Mars (chocolate bar), Mars Bar was made in Slough in 1932; it was modelled on the Milky Way (chocolate bar), Milky Way, popular at the time in the USA. Twix was introduced at Slough in 1967, with production moving to eastern France (Mars Chocolat France at Haguenau in Alsace) in 2005. The Ford GT40 was developed by Ford Advanced Vehicles at Slough in the mid-1960s.


Geography

The largest city in the region is Brighton & Hove. The dominant influence on the region's economy is neighbouring
London London is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and smaller lowerc ...

London
. The highest point is Walbury Hill in
Berkshire Berkshire ( ; in the 17th century sometimes spelt phonetically as Barkeshire; abbreviated Berks.) is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers ...

Berkshire
at . Britain's tallest native tree, according to The Tree Register in April 2015, is a 144-ft beech at Devil's Dyke, Sussex, Devil's Dyke in Newtimber Woods in West Sussex.


Historical boundaries

Until 1999, there was a south east Standard statistical regions, Standard Statistical Region, which also included the counties of Bedfordshire,
Greater London Greater London is an Metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties of England, administrative area governed by the Greater London Authority, and a Ceremonial counties of England, ceremonial county of England that covers the bulk of the same area ...

Greater London
, Essex and Hertfordshire. The former south east Historical and alternative regions of England#Civil defence regions, Civil Defence Region covered the same area as the current government office region.


Alternative definitions

In unofficial usage, the South East can refer to a varying area – sometimes only to London, Kent, East Sussex, West Sussex, and Surrey; but sometimes to an area corresponding to the former Standard Statistical Region. The South East is also occasionally used as a synonym for the home counties.


Demographics

The population of the region at the 2011 census was 8,634,750 making it the most populous English region.2011 Census: Population density, unrounded estimates, local authorities in the United Kingdom
, Accessed 20 January 2015
The major conurbations of the region include South Hampshire (855,000), Brighton/Worthing/Littlehampton (474,000) and Reading/Wokingham Urban Area, Reading (318,000). Settlements closer to London are part of the conurbation known as the Greater London Urban Area. The South East has the highest percentage of people born outside of Britain other than
London London is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and smaller lowerc ...

London
. Estimates in 2007 state 87.2% of people as White British, 4.8% Other White (inc. 1.0% Irish Briton, Irish), 3.5% British Asian, South Asians, 1.5% British Mixed, Mixed Race, 1.6% Black British, 0.7% British Chinese, Chinese, 0.7% Other ethnic group (United Kingdom Census), Other.


Cities and towns


Governance and politics

South East England is an official region for statistical and strategic planning purposes, but is not served by any directly elected regional government. From 1998 to 2010 local councils sent to the voluntary South East England Regional Assembly, based in Guildford. Delegates met six times a year and was responsible for the South East England Development Agency, a project which oversaw investment projects in the region. It was abolished on 31 March 2009 and replaced with South East England Councils in Kingston upon Thames. The region is sub-divided into several local councils, most composed of Non-metropolitan district, two-tiered council- featuring county and district councils- and unitary authorities:


Westminster seats

The South East of England is the most Conservative Party (UK), Conservative voting region of Britain in terms of both seats and votes. The area also has some seats where there is strong support for other parties, for example, Oxford East (UK Parliament constituency), Oxford, Slough (UK Parliament constituency), Slough and Southampton Test (UK Parliament constituency), Southampton Test for Labour Party (UK), Labour and Brighton Pavilion (UK Parliament constituency), Brighton Pavilion which is held by the Green Party of England and Wales, Green Party. Out of 84 parliamentary seats, the Conservatives hold 72. In the 2017 general election, the Conservatives won 54.8% of votes, Labour 28.6%, Liberal Democrats 10.6%, Greens 3.1%, and UKIP 2.2%.


Eurostat NUTS

In the Eurostat Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics (NUTS), South East England is a level-1 NUTS region, coded "UKJ", which is subdivided as follows:


Education


Schools

Buckinghamshire, Medway and Kent, and Slough have an almost completely Selective school, selective education system - not just a few
grammar school A grammar school is one of several different types of school A school is an educational institution designed to provide learning spaces and learning environments for the teaching of students under the direction of teachers. Most coun ...
s as other English areas may have - with secondary modern schools as the alternative. Kent has 33 grammar schools, Buckinghamshire 13, Medway 6 and Slough 4. The other areas are Comprehensive school, comprehensive. In the top thirty schools at Advanced Level (UK), A level, it is almost exclusively selective schools; one or two are sixth form colleges. However, the results for each county as a whole are not always directly related to the number of grammar schools, as Kent and Medway perform under average at A-level. The King's School, Canterbury claims to be oldest in England - 597AD. Herschel Grammar School in Slough is the most oversubscribed school in England - 14 people per place, Langley Grammar School in Slough is next with 13 per place, then Burnham Grammar School. 508,000 in the region are at state secondary schools - the highest in England, with 101,000 at Kent, the highest in England for a county and completely selective, then 70,000 in Hampshire, 60,000 in Surrey, 45,000 in West Sussex, 36,000 in Oxfordshire, 35,000 in Buckinghamsire. The lowest is 6,000 at Bracknell Forest, then Reading with about 6,000. Of all regions, the South-East has the greatest percentage that attend a grammar school - 12%; the next highest it the South-West - 6%. The most-educated people (National Qualifications Framework, NQF level 4 or above) in the region live in Elmbridge (51%), then Waverley, and Epsom and Ewell; 33% of people are at this level for the South-East, only second to London at 40%. The region has highest number of sixth formers, outside of London, in England; the highest number is in Kent, the highest for England, then Buckinghamshire (also completely selective), then Surrey. For state school pupils, there is patchy STEM participation - Hampshire has the most passing STEM subjects in England and in the region, followed by Kent, Surrey and Buckinghamshire. For STEM subjects, Portsmouth is lowest by some distance (6 people passed A level Chemistry) - almost the worst in England, and also Southampton gets low STEM subject results. Bracknell Forest gets low STEM results, for its economic prosperity, but does not include private schools. For languages, the best is Kent - the county gets the most A level language passes in England, although Hampshire is a close second. Both counties get more German A level passes than the whole of North East England. Buckinghamshire and Surrey have high language A-level passes. Hampshire gets the most A-level passes in England (27,500), again more than North-East England (25,000). Although Hampshire is the best at languages, Portsmouth gets the fewest language passes in the region, and some of the lowest in England, with four French A levels, and has only 500 A level passes in total; next lowest is Slough, Bracknell Forest, and Southampton. Reading School, a grammar, is the state school that gets the highest percentage (23%) into Oxbridge in 2010, behind 10 independents, and is also the oldest existing state grammar school in England; above it in the region, of the independent schools are Magdalen College School, Oxford (32%), Guildford High School (26%) and Wycombe Abbey (25%). The Kendrick School, also in Reading, gets the 4th highest state school acceptance percentage to Oxbridge (18%) and the second highest in England outside of two grammar schools in London. Of the 25 state schools in the top 100 schools getting to Oxbridge, 7 are from the region. Many people from the north of East Sussex go to Kent's grammars, and people on the London-edge of Surrey attend grammars in Royal Borough of Kingston upon Thames, Kingston upon Thames, and Buckingham's two grammars attract people from nearby Milton Keynes; Buckinghamshire's grammar schools get some of best admissions to Oxbridge in the UK. Surrey has twice as many acceptances into Oxbridge than the whole of Wales; acceptances to Oxbridge are concentrated in 10 counties in the South-East. 1% of those at school in the South-East gained no GCSE passes in 2010; Portsmouth was most with 2.5%, and Windsor and Maidenhead had the lowest with 0.2%. For school free school meals, the region has the lowest percentage in England with 7.2%; the highest percentage is Southampton with 17%, and the lowest is Wokingham with 3.5% (the second lowest in England after Rutland); Buckinghamshire is 4.3%, then Bracknell Forest and Surrey are 4.9%. For truancy, the highest is South Bucks at 7.0, then Canterbury 7.0, Portsmouth 6.9, Thanet 6.9, Southampton 6.4, and Rushmoor 6.1. The lowest truancy percentages are for Tandridge 2.5, Windsor & Maidenhead 2.5, and Slough 2.5. At General Certificate of Secondary Education, GCSE, the area in the South East (and England) with the highest results is consistently Buckinghamshire. Berkshire is split into unitary authorities, and Wokingham, Windsor and Slough have the next best GCSE results. All of Berkshire's unitary authorities have results above the England average, with West Berkshire considerably above average. Schools in Surrey and Hampshire also have consistently good GCSE results, and they are above average in Oxfordshire, West Sussex, Kent, Medway, and East Sussex. There are a small number of districts where results are significantly below average including the unitary authorities of Portsmouth (one of the lowest Local Education Authority, LEAs in the country), the Isle of Wight, Southampton, Brighton, and the districts of Oxford in Oxfordshire, Adur in West Sussex and Hastings in East Sussex. There are forty-nine FE colleges in the region. The two main FE colleges are Northbrook College in Sussex and Basingstoke College of Technology in Hampshire. Oxfordshire and Buckinghamshore share an Learning and Skills Council, LSC (which fund FE colleges), and Sussex has a combined LSC. The region's LSC office was in Reading, looking after five areas.


Universities

The best known university in the region is the
University of Oxford The University of Oxford is a collegiate university, collegiate research university in Oxford, England. There is evidence of teaching as early as 1096, making it the oldest university in the English-speaking world and the List of oldest universit ...
, famous for its ornate Colleges of the University of Oxford, colleges and its rowing teams on the Thames. It was ranked the fourth best university in the world by the Times Higher Educational Supplement in 2013. Other well-known universities include: * University of Brighton, Brighton and Eastbourne * University of Buckingham, Buckingham * Buckinghamshire New University, High Wycombe, Aylesbury, Uxbridge and Great Missenden * Canterbury Christ Church University, Canterbury, Medway towns and Tunbridge Wells * University of Chichester, Chichester and Bognor Regis * University of Kent, Canterbury * The University of Law, Guildford (as well as 8 other UK campuses outside South East England) * University of Reading, Reading, Henley-on-Thames * The Open University, Milton Keynes * Oxford Brookes University, Oxford * University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth * Royal Holloway, University of London, Egham * Solent University, Southampton * University of Southampton, Southampton * University of Surrey, Guildford * University of Sussex, Brighton * University of Winchester, Winchester By total HEFCE funding, the biggest university is the Open University, followed by Oxford University. The Open and Oxford each receive around three times as much funding as any other university in the region, and Oxford receives the largest research grant in England (as of 2009). The University of Southampton gets the third largest amount of funding, with the next largest research grant, one of the largest in England. Other universities with a large research grant are Reading, Sussex and Surrey. Oxford gets twice as much total income (around £700 million) as the next largest, Southampton. Surrey and Reading get the next largest total income. Oxford and Southampton have the most numbers of students, followed by Brighton. For total students in the region, around 45% are from the region and 35% from other regions. For full-time first degree students in the region, over 35% are from the region, 15% are from London, and 10% each are from the East of England and the South-West; in total, around 70% are from the south of England. Very few are from the North-East or Scotland. Around 35% of the region's native students stay in the region, with 15% going to London and over 10% going to the South-West. In general, for other regions of the UK, the South-East's students are more prepared to study in other regions than those regions' students are prepared to study in the South-East. Once graduated, over 50% stay in the South-East, with 25% going to London, around 5% going to the East of England, and around 10% going to the South-West; around 90% stay in the south of England.


Economy

Overall, the South East of England is a very prosperous area with the second largest regional economy in the UK (after London), valued at £177 billion in 2006. GDP per capita in 2007 was estimated at £22,624, compared with a UK average of £19,956, making South East England the second richest region per capita, behind London. However prosperity varies significantly across the region and despite its image of wealth there are large pockets of deprivation. GDP per capita in Berkshire and Milton Keynes is more than twice that of East Sussex and the Isle of Wight. The region's Manufacturing Advisory Service is on the A30 road, A30 in Hook, Hart, Hook, north Hampshire The UK Trade & Investment, UKTI service for the region is on Victory Park in Whiteley, off junction 9 of the M27 motorway, M27, opposite the ''Solent Hotel''. The South East Coast Ambulance Service has three headquarters, one each for Kent, Surrey and Sussex. These are on the B2163 at Coxheath (for Kent), on the A217 road, A217 at Banstead (for Surrey), and on the A277 in Lewes (for Sussex). The South Central Ambulance Service is headquartered on the B4100 next to Bicester Town railway station, with offices at Otterbourne, Hampshire and Wokingham. The charity-funded air ambulances are Kent Air Ambulance at Marden, Kent; Hampshire & Isle of Wight Air Ambulance at Thruxton, Hampshire; Surrey and Sussex Air Ambulance at Dunsfold Aerodrome, Surrey; and the Thames Valley Air Ambulance at RAF Benson. Many high technology companies are located near the M3 in Surrey and the M4 in Berkshire. Sun Microsystems had their UK base in Blackwater, Hampshire, Blackwater near Camberley until 2009. Microsoft and Oracle Corporation, Oracle have their UK headquarters next door to each other in Reading (Wokingham borough), as do the Yell Group and Logica (near junction 11 of the M4). The Gatwick Diamond is also a hub for hi-tech industry, centred at
Gatwick Airport Gatwick Airport (), also known as London Gatwick , is a major international airport near Crawley, West Sussex, England, south of Central London Central London (also known less commonly as London city centre) is the innermost part of Londo ...
with Epsom to the north and Burgess Hill to the south. The largest company, by turnover, in the South East is Vodafone, followed by Ineos.


Transport

The main road transport routes are along the M1 motorway, M1 through Buckinghamshire; the M40 motorway, M40 through Buckinghamshire and Oxfordshire; the M4 motorway, M4 through
Berkshire Berkshire ( ; in the 17th century sometimes spelt phonetically as Barkeshire; abbreviated Berks.) is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers ...

Berkshire
and
Buckinghamshire Buckinghamshire (), abbreviated Bucks, is a ceremonial county The counties and areas for the purposes of the lieutenancies, also referred to as the lieutenancy areas of England and informally known as ceremonial counties, are areas of Eng ...

Buckinghamshire
; the M2 motorway (Great Britain), M2 motorway/A2 road (Great Britain), A2 and M20 motorway, M20 through Kent; the M23 motorway, M23 through Surrey and West Sussex; the M3 motorway (Great Britain), M3 through Surrey and Hampshire. All these routes connect to the M25 motorway, M25, which runs near to and occasionally through the region's border with Greater London. The A34 road (England), A34 provides a north–south road link through Oxfordshire, Berkshire and Hampshire. The east–west corridor through the south of the region is provided by the A27 road, A27 and the M27 motorway, M27. The main intercontinental airport is
Gatwick Airport Gatwick Airport (), also known as London Gatwick , is a major international airport near Crawley, West Sussex, England, south of Central London Central London (also known less commonly as London city centre) is the innermost part of Londo ...
, with regional airports at Kent International Airport (Ramsgate), Shoreham Airport and Southampton Airport.
Heathrow Airport Heathrow Airport (), originally called ''London Airport'' until 1966 and now known as London Heathrow , is a major international airport in London, England. With Gatwick Airport, Gatwick, London City Airport, City, Luton Airport, Luton, Stanste ...

Heathrow Airport
is in
Greater London Greater London is an Metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties of England, administrative area governed by the Greater London Authority, and a Ceremonial counties of England, ceremonial county of England that covers the bulk of the same area ...

Greater London
but also serves (and is serviced by) the South East region. The Great Western Main Line passes through Berkshire, Oxfordshire and southern Buckinghamshire. The South Eastern Main Line and High Speed 1 pass through Kent; the latter connects to the Channel Tunnel. The Brighton Main Line passes through Surrey and West Sussex. The North Downs Line runs from
Berkshire Berkshire ( ; in the 17th century sometimes spelt phonetically as Barkeshire; abbreviated Berks.) is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers ...

Berkshire
then through
Surrey Surrey () is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first published by William Chambers (publisher), William and R ...

Surrey
to connect with Sussex and
Kent Kent is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first published by William Chambers (publisher), William and Robert ...

Kent
. The
West Coast Main Line The West Coast Main Line (WCML) is one of the most important railway corridors in the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guar ...

West Coast Main Line
passes through northern Buckinghamshire. The Chiltern Main Line is a major commuter line between Birmingham and London passing through central Buckinghamshire and Oxfordshire. The Port of Dover and the port at Folkestone have many ferry services to France and though none currently run to Belgium. As part of the transport planning system the Regional Assembly is under statutory requirement to produce a Regional Transport Strategy (RTS) to provide long term planning for transport in the region. This involves region wide transport schemes such as those carried out by the Highways Agency and Network Rail. Within the region the local transport authorities carry out transport planning through the use of a Local transport plan, Local Transport Plan (LTP) which outlines their strategies, policies and implementation programme. The most recent LTP is that for the period 2006–11. In the South East region the following transport authorities have published their LTP online: Bracknell Forest U.A., Brighton & Hove U.A.,
Buckinghamshire Buckinghamshire (), abbreviated Bucks, is a ceremonial county The counties and areas for the purposes of the lieutenancies, also referred to as the lieutenancy areas of England and informally known as ceremonial counties, are areas of Eng ...

Buckinghamshire
,
East Sussex East Sussex is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first published by William Chambers (publisher), William and R ...

East Sussex
,
Hampshire Hampshire (, ; abbreviated to Hants) is a Counties of England, county in South East England on the coast of the English Channel. The county town is Winchester, but the county is named after Southampton. Its two largest cities are Southampton a ...

Hampshire
,
Isle of Wight The Isle of Wight () is a Counties of England, county and the List of islands of England, largest and second-most populous island of England. It is in the English Channel, between two and five miles off the coast of Hampshire, from which it is ...

Isle of Wight
,
Kent Kent is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first published by William Chambers (publisher), William and Robert ...

Kent
, Medway U.A.,
Milton Keynes Milton Keynes ( ) is the largest settlement in Buckinghamshire, England, north-west of London. At the 2011 Census, the population of Milton Keynes urban area, its urban area was almost . The River Great Ouse forms its northern boundary; a t ...
U.A.,
Oxfordshire Oxfordshire is a landlocked county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first published by William Chambers (publisher), ...

Oxfordshire
,
Portsmouth Portsmouth ( ) is a port and island city status in the United Kingdom, city with Unitary authorities of England, unitary authority status in the ceremonial county of Hampshire, southern England. It is the most densely populated city in the Unit ...

Portsmouth
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Reading Reading is the process of taking in the sense or meaning of letters, symbols, ''etc.'', especially by sight or touch. For educators and researchers, reading is a multifaceted process involving such areas as word recognition, orthography An ...
U.A.,
Slough Slough () is a large town in Berkshire Berkshire ( ; in the 17th century sometimes spelt phonetically as Barkeshire; abbreviated Berks.) is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other pu ...

Slough
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Southampton Southampton () is a port A port is a maritime law, maritime facility comprising one or more Wharf, wharves or loading areas, where ships load and discharge Affreightment, cargo and passengers. Although usually situated on a sea ...
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Surrey Surrey () is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first published by William Chambers (publisher), William and R ...

Surrey
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West Sussex West Sussex is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first published by William Chambers (publisher), William an ...

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Berkshire

Companies in Berkshire essentially follow the M4 corridor. In Theale, Berkshire, Theale are Nvidia, Nvidia UK (components for smartphones) and Wolseley (builders' merchant), Wolseley, the builders' and plumbers' merchants who own Bathstore and Plumb Center. SPP Pumps (owned by Kirloskar Group) is at the Arlington Business Park; on the same estate PepsiCo is next to the GWML railway. Porsche, Porsche Cars Great Britain is in Calcot, Berkshire, Calcot, Tilehurst, west of Reading near Theale Interchange. Harley-Davidson, Harley-Davidson UK is in Pangbourne. Vodafone, and High and Mighty (shop), High and Mighty are based in Newbury, Berkshire, Newbury; Bayer, Bayer UK (Aspirin, Rennie and Alka-Seltzer) is to the west; National Instruments UK is to the east off the A4 on the Newbury Business Park, and Quantel was off the A4 and is now Snell Limited, Snell (former Snell & Wilcox, previously in Lower Earley), an important video technology company, near Aricent UK. The Atomic Weapons Establishment is in Aldermaston on the Hampshire boundary. The Motor Insurance Repair Research Centre and Xtrac Limited are at Thatcham. The Royal School of Military Survey is in Hermitage, Berkshire, Hermitage. East of the A34, north of the M4, at Compton, Berkshire, Compton since 1992 is the UK HQ of Baxter International, Baxter Healthcare, part of a global company which is working on a vaccine for Influenza A virus subtype H1N1, H1N1, and next door is the Institute for Animal Health, which also researches H1N1. Retriever Sports, on the Mill Street Ind Est near Slough railway station, is the world's largest manufacturer of darts equipment. Mars, Incorporated, Mars Limited has a large chocolate factory, run under the name of Effem Holdings Ltd, also in Slough on the enormous Slough Trading Estate which makes 3m Mars bars a day; nearby is Johnson Controls, Johnson Controls UK (car seats), and Imperial Chemical Industries, ICI Paints, Polyfilla, and Dulux. Horlicks is made by GSK there. Oki Electric Industry, Oki UK (Printer (computing), desktop printers) are based next to Mars. Honda, Honda UK, Citroën, Citroën UK, Fiat, Fiat UK, Douwe Egberts, Douwe Egberts UK (and its owner Sara Lee Corporation, Sara Lee UK), BlackBerry (company), BlackBerry UK, Black & Decker, Black & Decker Europe, Amazon.com, Amazon UK, Ingres (database), Ingres UK, Telefónica Europe, Telefónica O2 Europe UK and Reckitt Benckiser are also in Slough. Toyota Material Handling UK (fork lifts) is next door to Slough Heat and Power station. Lonza Group, Lonza UK makes biopharmaceuticals (monoclonal antibodies) on the A4. Honda Motor Europe is at the Langley Roundabout (A4/B470) of the M4 at Brands Hill, part of Colnbrook with Poyle, and near the Queen Mother Reservoir; on the opposite side of the M4 in Langley, Berkshire, Langley (Slough borough) is Royal Mail's Heathrow World Distribution Centre, Heathrow Worldwide Distribution Centre, and next door is Pentax Ricoh Imaging UK, next to Langley's leisure centre. Hovis, Ben & Jerry's (Unilever), FM Global UK (insurance), and Morgan Crucible, are in Windsor; Nintendo, Nintendo UK is next to the Royal Mews Riding School. Centrica is in Dedworth, next to Windsor Racecourse. Groupe SEB, Groupe SEB UK (owner of Krups, Moulinex, Rowenta, and Tefal) is next to Windsor & Eton Riverside railway station and near the castle (previously next to Langley railway station until 2012). CA Technologies UK is at Ditton Park in Datchet, home of the former Radio Research Station until 1979, which discovered the ionosphere in the 1920s. Ledco, near B3020/A329 junction in Sunninghill and Ascot, is the UK distributor of LED Lenser torches, made by Zweibrüder Optoelectronics. Hitachi, Ltd., Hitachi Europe, Corel UK, NSK Ltd., NSK Europe (off the A308 to the north), WW International, Weight Watchers UK (next to Desborough School), and The Rank Group (leisure) are in Maidenhead. Further east on the A404(M) is McGraw-Hill UK in Cox Green, Berkshire, Cox Green; other the side of the A404(M) at the Cox Green Interchange (9A), GSK makes Sensodyne, Corsodyl, Aquafresh, and Macleans; Volvo Cars UK are at Scandinavia House (in Marlow from 1986 to 2012) next to GSK; Nortel, Nortel UK left in 2009. Sanofi Pasteur, Sanofi Pasteur MSD UK (vaccines) is based next to the Maidenhead council offices. Rentokil Initial, Initial Washrooms Solutions is next to the railway station and on the other side of A308 is Hutchison 3G, Hutchison 3G UK; on the other side of the railway is The Rank Group at the A308 roundabout, in Braywick, Berkshire, Braywick. Adobe Systems have their European HQ on the A4, south of the B4447 roundabout, next to a Sainsbury's. Hanson plc, Hanson UK is based at the A4/A308 roundabout; Hitachi Europe (with Hitachi Maxell, Maxell Europe) is off the A4094 road, A4094 on the northern outskirts towards Cookham at Whitebrook Park, with DS Smith, at the former Formica (plastic), Formica Research Centre. Avery Dennison UK are based to the north off the A308 at Furze Platt. Abbott Laboratories UK (pharmaceuticals) are based on the Vanwall Business Park; nearby is Costain Group, Costain, Pfizer Consumer Healthcare UK (Centrum (multivitamin), Centrum multivitamins); Toys "R" Us, Toys "R" Us UK and Mattel, Mattel UK are opposite each other, with Compuware UK. McNeil Laboratories, McNeil Products (Benylin, Benadryl, Daktarin, Sudafed and Calpol) is at Foundation Park, next to the Great Western Main Line, in Cox Green, Berkshire, Cox Green, south of Maidenhead, with other Johnson & Johnson (beauty) brands, and Lexmark UK. Bisham Abbey, on the Thames, is a site of one of the National Sports Centres, at the A404/A308 Bisham Roundabout, to the west of Maidenhead. GEO Group UK (Prisoner transport vehicle, prisoner custody) is off the A4130 road, A4130 in Hurley, Berkshire, Hurley, on the western edge of the district, with Hospira UK, owned by Pfizer. BG Group, Prudential plc (the country's biggest Life insurance, life insurer with 7m customers), the Rural Payments Agency, and The Guide Dogs for the Blind Association, Guide Dogs for the Blind are in Reading. Primark, Primark UK, near Reading Civic Centre, was started by Arthur Ryan in Ireland; it arrived in the UK in 1973 and has bought many former sites of C&A and Littlewoods. North of the railway line is TP-Link UK (routers). Off the A33 towards the Three Mile Cross Interchange (M4) in south Reading is the Green Park Business Park, home of Symantec UK (previously in Whitley, Berkshire, Whitley), many Cisco offices and Thames Water and to the south is the former Berkshire Brewery (closed in April 2010 by Heineken UK) and Verizon Communications, Verizon UK. Borland, Borland UK, Interserve and Mabey Group, the bridge manufacturer, are in Twyford, Berkshire, Twyford. Bang & Olufsen, Bang & Olufsen UK is in Winnersh. Rockwell Collins UK (avionics, Aircraft flight control system, flight control systems), is next to Jacobs Engineering Group, Jacobs Engineering UK, at the end of the A3290 near the A4 Sutton Seeds Roundabout, at Suttons Business Park in Earley; on the opposite side of the railway is Thames Valley Park, with Oracle next to ING Group, ING Direct UK in Earley and Microsoft UK in Woodley; The University of Reading's Reading Scientific Services (RSSL) in Earley is Cadbury's main research centre. Foster Wheeler, Foster Wheeler UK is in Shinfield in the old headquarters of Berkshire County Council, next to the M4; next door is the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts on the site of the RAF Shinfield Park, former Met Office College. Auto Trader Group is in nearby Earley. The Royal Electrical and Mechanical Engineers (REME) are based at Arborfield Garrison, partly in Barkham, also home of the School of Electronic and Aeronautical Engineering. TAC (building automation), Pelco UK is at the Mulberry Business Park in south-west Wokingham. Christie (company), Christie Digital Systems (Europe, the Middle East and Africa, EMEA office) is in the centre. Off the B3430 in Wokingham Without, McNeil Laboratories, McNeil have a laboratory, south of district. Syngenta, Syngenta UK and Wincor Nixdorf UK (Automated teller machine, ATMs) are in Bracknell. Boehringer Ingelheim UK is off the A3095 in west Bracknell in Easthampstead; nearby to the north is Waitrose; to the east along the A3095 is Panasonic, Panasonic UK; next door to the south is IHS Inc., IHS UK (owner of Jane's Information Group) and Hyundai Heavy Industries, HHI Europe (construction equipment); further along the A3095 is BMW (GB); BMW sold their first model in the UK in 1966, the BMW 02 Series, 2002, and sold 230,000 cars in the UK, a record amount; the UK buys £40bn of German cars. To the south on the Southern Ind Est is Daler-Rowney (known for its acrylic paint; Rowney was the first supplier in Europe in 1963. On the other side of the A329, towards the B3408, is Cable & Wireless Worldwide, Cable & Wireless (the former overseas equivalent of BT); to the west on the Amen Corner, Berkshire, Amen Corner Business Park in Farley Wood next to the A329 and the Waterloo to Reading Line, railway, is Dell, Dell UK; next door is Hewlett-Packard Company, HP UK (in Winnersh from the 1970s to 1990s) to the west; 3M, 3M UK is to the north-east, next to Bracknell Bees ice-hockey stadium. Novell, Novell UK is on the A329, north of the A322 roundabout at Arlington Square, Bracknell, Arlington Square (former Sperry Corporation, Sperry Gyroscope), and next door is Honeywell, Honeywell UK on the A329 at the Skimped Hill Roundabout near the Odeon cinema. Avis Europe (with Budget Rent a Car, Budget UK) is further north at the A322/A3095 Met Office Roundabout near Bracknell and Wokingham College; Imation UK is next door on the roundabout; south of the roundabout is Netgear UK next to the A3095. To the north, Syngenta have their main worldwide (pesticide) research centre at Jealott's Hill, formerly owned by Imperial Chemical Industries, ICI. The Transport Research Laboratory and Broadmoor Hospital are in Crowthorne near the Wokingham boundary.


Surrey

Allianz Insurance have their UK headquarters in Guildford as do Ericsson, Colgate-Palmolive, Colgate-Palmolive UK, Constellation Brands, Constellation Brands Europe, Electronic Arts (formerly in Chertsey before 2008), Sanofi-Aventis, the Cyclists' Touring Club, CTC, Surrey Satellite Technology, Avaya, Avaya UK, and Philips, Philips UK. Alexander Dennis (ADL) is off the A320 road, A320 at Worplesdon on the north of Guildford on the Slyfield Ind Est, towards Jacobs Well, Surrey, Jacobs Well. Lionhead Studios and Detica, BAE Systems Detica are near the Royal Surrey County Hospital. The BOC Group, BOC Gases UK are also in Guildford. UCL's Mullard Space Science Laboratory is high in the Surrey Hills. Mövenpick Ice Cream UK is off the A248 at St Martha, Surrey, St Martha, to the east of Guildford; Vivid Imaginations, in Artington to the south, own the UK rights to Crayola. The former company, now owned by The Linde Group, was based in Windlesham. British Car Auctions is on the A325 in Farnham. Motor company McLaren Group, McLaren and McLaren Automotive are based at the McLaren Technology Centre in Woking as are the UK base of Yum! Brands, Yum Restaurants (owner of KFC), SABMiller, BIW Technologies (project software), SPSS (statistical software), and Capgemini; ISS A/S, ISS UK & Ireland (Danish services company, similar to Serco or G4S) is next to the railway on the Sheerwater Ind Est. In the south of Woodham, Surrey, Woodham, next to the Basingstoke Canal, is Playtex UK, and to the east is Fernox (water treatment, owned by Alent). Towards Woking along the railway is Pirbright (home of the Institute for Animal Health, Pirbright Institute), where Merial, Merial Animal Health also make vaccines. Tupperware, Tupperware UK is in Knaphill. Friends Life have an office in the north of Dorking in the former HQ of Friends Provident and Kuoni Travel are on the former Deepdene House and Gardens, Deepdene estate. Kimberly-Clark, Kimberley Clark Europe is in the north of Reigate; Esure and Sheilas' Wheels is on the A25 south of Reigate College; Canon (company), Canon UK is to the south in Woodhatch. SGN (company), SGN is in Horley. Bristow Helicopters, Bristow Aviation is at Redhill, Surrey, Redhill and the food research centre Brewing Industry Research Foundation, Campden-BRI is at Nutfield, Surrey, Nutfield. Cubic Transportation Systems make Turnstile, ticket barriers on the Perrywood Business Park south of Redhill, and were responsible for the Oyster card next door is Rapiscan Systems Europe (Airport security, luggage X-ray and metal detectors). In the area straddling the M25 motorway, M25, the huge Compass Group is based in Chertsey as is Samsung Group, Samsung UK, The Siemon Company, Siemon UK, Crest Nicholson (Home construction, housebuilding), Kone UK (escalators), the business facilities company Regus, and Britax; Papa John's Pizza UK is off the A320 near the M25; Ubisoft UK is on the B375. Juniper Networks, Juniper Networks UK (router (computing), routers, off the B3121), Pandrol UK (design Rail fastening system, rail fastenings), and Royal Caribbean Cruises Ltd., Royal Caribbean Cruises UK (with Azamara Club Cruises UK) are in Addlestone; at Hamm Moor (in the east of Addlestone) on the A317 and Weybridge Business Park is Thales Group, Thales Group UK and the UK corporate headquarters of Toshiba, who have another base in Camberley; further west along the A317 is Aviator Park, on the B3121, a former main research site of Plessey Radar, later GEC Marconi. Near Weybridge are the UK headquarters of Sony with SSP Group (situated in Byfleet) and Procter & Gamble (next door to each other on The Heights Business Park near the former Brooklands racing circuit) with Kia Motors, Kia Motors UK and Petroleum Geo-Services, Petroleum Geo-Services UK, and Gallaher Group (cigarettes) is to the north, next to the Brooklands Museum; to the east is Verint Systems UK on the B374. In Weybridge are the local newspaper group Newsquest, Yamaha Motor Company, Yamaha Motors UK; BAE Systems Regional Aircraft is on the Brooklands Ind Park off the A318 road, A318 (since 2001 it has no longer manufactured). On Sprint Ind Est in Byfleet, west of Weybridge, off the A318, AIM Altitude (former Henshalls) make cabin Galley (kitchen), galleys for airliners. The Central Veterinary Laboratory, which is run by the Veterinary Laboratories Agency, with the Animal and Plant Health Agency, is in New Haw to the west on the other side of the M25. Mouchel is in West Byfleet. Air Products & Chemicals, Air Products UK is in Walton-on-Thames. Atkins (company), Atkins, the civil engineering company, and are in Epsom; Sartorius AG, Sartorius UK (laboratory equipment) is to the north off the B284 next to the Sutton and Mole Valley Lines, railway; Toyota, Toyota UK (towards Banstead) is on the A240 road, A240 at the B284 junction at Great Burgh, Tattenham Corner, at the site of the former R&D HQ of SmithKline Beecham (Beecham Pharmaceuticals) from 1979 until the mid-1990s before their research centre moved to Harlow; Toyota arrived in the UK in 1965 with their Toyota Corona, Corona, and have made 3m cars in the UK. Legal & General have their largest office near Kingswood railway station. Dairy Crest is in Esher. Ian Allan Publishing is at Hersham. SHL Group (former Saville & Holdsworth) is just to the north-east at Thames Ditton. Samaritans (charity), Samaritans is in Ewell. Ann Summers is in Whyteleafe near Caterham. Caterham Cars sales and marketing offices are in Caterham. Swiftcover (owned by AXA) is on the A307 road, A307 in the west of Cobham, Surrey, Cobham; further to west on the A245 is Berkeley Group Holdings, and Europa Technologies (digital mapping data) is on the A245 opposite Waitrose; Cargill, Cargill Europe is on the eastern edge. Pfizer, Pfizer UK is at Walton Oaks (the former R&D HQ of Beecham Pharmaceuticals until 1979) next to the B2032 bridge over the M25 at Walton-on-the-Hill. Edmund Nuttall Limited, Edmund Nuttall (opposite Camberley Theatre) and Krispy Kreme UK (south of the M3 near junction 4 on Albany Park) are in Camberley; Alfa Laval UK (heat exchangers) is on the Yorktown Ind Est, in York Town, Surrey, York Town off the A331 near Stihl, Stihl UK with a technical centre of Toshiba on the other side of the A331; to the south on Watchmoor Park off the A331 are Adaptec, Adaptec UK and Fluor Corp., Fluor UK (construction and civil engineering), with Bisque Radiators UK (owned by Zehnder Group, Zehnder), Trescal UK (calibration), and Zodiac Seats UK (former Contour Aerospace, who make Airline seat, aircraft seats, previously Britax, now owned since 2012 by Zodiac Aerospace). Further south in Frimley Green, home to the Lakeside Leisure Complex, between the B3411 and the railway is S. C. Johnson & Son, S.C. Johnson UK and their ''Glade (brand), Glade'' air freshener factory. Opposite Albany Park over the A331 is Frimley Business Park, with Advanced Micro Devices, AMD UK, off M3 junction 4 next to the A331; nearby is Novartis Pharmaceuticals UK (Sandoz) and Alcon UK. Further along the A325 towards Frimley at the B311 roundabout is Siemens, Siemens UK (the former site of Marconi Command & Control Systems, then BAE Systems Insyte). Frimley has Amer Sports UK (the world's largest sporting equipment manufacturer) on the B3411 Lyon Way Ind Estate, with VMware UK. Zoggs (Swimsuit, swimwear and goggles) is in Lightwater, near the M3 Bagshot Interchange. ExxonMobil, ExxonMobil UK (Esso), part of the largest oil company in the world, is in the east of Leatherhead, next to the M25 towards Ashtead at ExxonMobil House, off the A24 (founded as Anglo-American Oil Company in 1888, the brand Esso was introduced in 1935, and the company became Esso Petroleum in 1951); ExxonMobil, in 2010 by revenue, was the world's second largest company, second to Royal Dutch Shell (BP was fourth). In the town is the research centre Leatherhead Food International with the Wates Group nearby, opposite Leatherhead railway station, Unilever, Unilever Bestfoods (in Crawley before 2008), and to the south is Robert Dyas; Puma AG, Puma UK is east of Unilever near the M25 and A243 road, A243. Harsco UK (former SGB Scaffolding, and Multiserv) is off the B2430. On the B2122 in Fetcham, to the west of Leatherhead, is the UK division of Carrier Corporation, Carrier, the world leaders (and originators) of air conditioning. Rowlett Rutland in Great Bookham, Bookham is Britain's only manufacturer of (commercial-size) toasters, next to Bookham railway station and Photo-Me International. Although BP has its international headquarters in central London, most of its UK division (chemicals and energy) with Air BP UK (aviation fuel) is headquartered at Sunbury-on-Thames, and the UK's third largest company by stock market value; nearby is Kingston Technology, Kingston Technology Europe (the world's second largest producer of flash memory), just inside the Surrey boundary; ADT Security Services, ADT UK (fire alarms) is at the end of the M3 in Sunbury, and Chubb Security, Chubb UK (owned by UTC Fire & Security, UTC) is on the other side of the roundabout, and M3. Enterprise Rent-a-Car, Enterprise Rent-a-Car UK is near Thorpe, Surrey, Thorpe, near to Cemex, Cemex UK and
Thorpe Park Thorpe Park Resort, commonly known as Thorpe Park, is an amusement park located in the village of Thorpe between the towns of Chertsey and Staines-upon-Thames in Surrey, England. It is operated and owned by Merlin Entertainments and includes ...
(situated on a series of former gravel pits). Shepperton Studios is next to Littleton, Spelthorne, Littleton. Del Monte Foods, Del Monte Foods UK is in Staines-upon-Thames on the side of the A30 road, A30 and Veolia Energy-Dalkia, Dalkia UK is on the A308; British Gas plc, British Gas is on the A308 in Pooley Green nearby to the west, with Salesforce.com UK at Lotus Park, next to Dow Chemical Company, Dow Chemical UK. Kerry Group, Kerry Foods UK are based on the B388, east of the M25, in the south end of Pooley Green at Thorpe Lea. Cisco Videoscape (previously NDS Group before 2012), on the A308 in Birch Green, makes software for digital set-top boxes worldwide for the Pay television, pay TV industry.


Buckinghamshire

High Wycombe is known historically for its furniture industry, and has the Association of Master Upholsterers & Soft Furnishers. Hyundai Motor Company, Hyundai UK and Tetra Pak UK are at Wycombe Marsh on the A40, and Dreams (bed retailer), Dreams, the UK base of Ariston (now owned by Indesit), Wilkinson Sword, Merisant, Merisant UK, and Staples Inc., Staples are based in
High Wycombe High Wycombe, often referred to as Wycombe ( ), is a large market town A market town is a European settlement that obtained by custom or royal charter, in the Middle Ages In the history of Europe The history of Europe con ...

High Wycombe
; Cofely (energy services) and Rank Hovis McDougall, Rank Hovis are off the M40 Handy Cross Interchange, with The Perfume Shop, the food technology centre of Premier Foods, and Instron Europe (tension testing machines), off the A4010. To the north of the town centre is Sennheiser UK (audio equipment). RAF High Wycombe (RAF Air Command, Air Command) is at Bradenham, Buckinghamshire, Bradenham on Grim's Ditch (Chilterns) off the A4010. To the west of the town, United Biscuits have their group technical centre on Sands Ind Estate, off the A4010, near the rugby ground of Wasps RFC, London Wasps. Swedish Match, Swedish Match UK (all their matches are made in Sweden) are in Totteridge. Johnson & Johnson, Johnson & Johnson UK have their base at Booker, Buckinghamshire, Booker next to the M40 motorway, M40 near Handy Cross, with Janssen-Cilag UK (Loperamide, Imodium); George Wimpey, Taylor Wimpey is off the A4010, with Focusrite, a big industry player in consoles for sound recording, with Novation Digital Music Systems MIDI controllers and keyboards. Pilot (pen company), Pilot Pen UK is on the Wessex Road Industrial Estate in Wooburn and Bourne End; Psion Teklogix, Psion Teklogix UK is in the middle of Bourne End, Buckinghamshire, Bourne End, east of Marlow, on the A4155 road, A4155 (Symbian, found on most smartphones until 2010, was developed from Psion's EPOC (operating system), EPOC); nearby are Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Kawasaki UK and Nuance Communications UK. In Wooburn Green, to the east off the A4094 road, A4094 is Menarini UK Takeda Pharmaceutical Company, Takeda UK (both pharmaceuticals). Wyeth, Wyeth UK (pharmaceuticals) is in Burnham, Buckinghamshire, Burnham, next to the M4 Huntercombe, Slough, Huntercombe Spur junction. Saclà Italia UK (pesto) is in Beaconsfield; Grünenthal GmbH, Grünenthal UK (pharmaceuticals) is off the Stokenchurch Interchange of the M40. The UK base of Robert Bosch GmbH, Robert Bosch is in Denham, Buckinghamshire, Denham. Martin-Baker is in Denham, Buckinghamshire, Higher Denham, and InterContinental Hotels Group is in Denham Green (formerly in Windsor) at Broadwater Park on the A412 road, A412. On the edge of Uxbridge, but on the Buckinghamshire side of Shire Ditch in (New) Denham is Amgen UK (biotechnology), Bristol-Myers Squibb UK (pharmaceuticals), and Mondelēz International UK (former Kraft); on the other side of the Uxbridge Road, A4020 in the south of Denham next to River Colne, Hertfordshire, River Colne, on the Great London boundary, is Medirest, Eurest, at the HQ of Compass Group UK. Pioneer Corporation, Pioneer UK is in Stoke Poges on the former site of the Fulmer Research Institute; Hitachi Data Systems Europe, the Middle East and Africa, EMEA is at Sefton Park (a former Glaxo research centre) on the B416, now home of Urenco Group (international Enriched uranium, uranium enrichment). DX Group (couriers), are next to Muller Martini UK (Bookbinding, binding), and Cummins UK, Cummins have a design plant at Rideway Trading Est next to the M25 at Iver; Pinewood Studios is in Iver Heath; it takes its name as it is next to the adjacent pine trees in the 530 acres of Black Park. Avid Technology UK (industry-standard Pro Tools audio and Sibelius (software), Sibelius notation software) is also based at Pinewood. Timberland Europe is at Wexham Springs, in Wexham west of Pinewood Studios in the same place is Servier Laboratories UK and Sun Chemical Europe (the world's largest producer of printing inks). STMicroelectronics UK (French-Italian, based in Geneva), is based next to Trend Micro, Trend Micro UK (Japanese) on Globeside Park at Marlow, next to the A404 road, A404 and nearby are Expansys and Whistl (former TNT Post UK, part of PostNL), both north of Marlow railway station; Techtronic Industries UK (Ryobi power tools) is on the same estate. Dun & Bradstreet UK (Credit rating agency, credit references) is on the A404 bypass at the A4155 road, A4155 Westhorpe Interchange. GE Healthcare has its world HQ in Little Chalfont. Uniq plc (bought by Greencore in November 2011) was in Chalfont St Peter, next to the A413 and River Misbourne, off the B416 Kingsway Roundabout, next to Citrix Systems, Citrix UK; Doro (telecoms), Doro UK (Swedish mobile phones) are off the A413. Bahlsen UK is in Gerrards Cross off the B416. NT CADCAM in Haddenham, Buckinghamshire, Haddenham is the UK distributor of the industry-standard SolidWorks CAD software package; Schwartz (brand), Schwartz UK (spices) and McCormick & Company, McCormick UK, the parent company of Camp Coffee, is near Haddenham and Thame Parkway railway station off the A418 between Thame and Aylesbury. ACCO Brands, Acco UK (stationery), who own Rexel (stationery) and General Binding Corporation, GBC (pouch laminators), are on the A418 road, A418 in Aylesbury, opposite Aylesbury College; Askeys have made ice cream cones since 1965 next to the A4157 and Grand Union Canal. Demag Hamilton (owned by Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Sumitomo) who make Injection moulding, plastic injection-moulding machines, is based on the Triangle Business Park on the A413 road, A413 next to the London to Aylesbury Line, railway in Stoke Mandeville. At Long Crendon is Demag, Terex Demag UK (cranes), and Furukawa Unic, Unic UK (mini cranes). Arla opened its huge Aylesbury dairy in Aylesbury in 2014, on the A41 Aston Clinton bypass. Arla Aylesbury is a fresh milk processing facility with 34 acres; its plastic bottles are made on-site by Alpla.
Milton Keynes Milton Keynes ( ) is the largest settlement in Buckinghamshire, England, north-west of London. At the 2011 Census, the population of Milton Keynes urban area, its urban area was almost . The River Great Ouse forms its northern boundary; a t ...
is home to many national companies such as Santander UK, Santander UK operations. The Home Retail Group (Argos (retailer), Argos and Homebase), Filtrona and BP Oil UK (retail) are in Central Milton Keynes. Network Rail is headquartered at Quadrant:MK. Rightmove is in Winterhill, Campbell Park. Nearby, on the other side of A5 road (Great Britain), A5, Loughton, Milton Keynes, Loughton is the home of the National House Building Council (NHBC), the National Energy Foundation, and the former Atmosphere Bars and Clubs west of the A5, near Central MK; Leica Geosystems (owned by Hexagon AB, List of surveying instruments, surveying equipment), on the same estate, is opposite the NHBC, and the Parcelforce HQ is nearby; to the south of Loughton is Korg UK (keyboards) and Vox (musical equipment), Vox (originally from Kent, makers of amplifiers), just north of the National Bowl, off Watling Street; to the west of Loughton at the Crownhill Ind Est in Shenley Church End, SMC Corporation, SMC Pneumatics have their European Technical Centre. Further north, Luminar Leisure is in Rooksley, Bradwell, Milton Keynes, Bradwell at the A5/A509 road, A509 junction near the Badminton England, National Badminton Centre. To the west, the European HQ of WD-40 and Rockwell Automation UK (former Allen-Bradley) are in Kiln Farm, Bradwell Abbey; Ingram Micro, Ingram Micro UK is in Abbey Hill, Milton Keynes, Abbey Hill (Wymbush) west of the A5 (south of Kiln Farm), near Sysmex Corporation, Sysmex UK (healthcare electronics) and Volkswagen Group's National Learning Centre. To the north, NEFF, NEFF UK, Gaggenau Hausgeräte, Gaggenau UK, and BSH Hausgeräte, BSH Home Appliances are in Wolverton and Greenleys; opposite is Mars Horsecare UK; Electrolux have their distribution centre next to the WCML and Wolverton railway station, Wolverton station. To the east, near the M1 and the A422 road, A422 in Great Linford, Chrysler, Chrysler UK (Jeep and Dodge), Scania (company), Scania UK (part of VW), Rohan (clothing), Rohan (clothing), Makita UK (power tools) and Mercedes-Benz, Mercedes-Benz UK (including Smart (marque), Smart Cars) are in Tongwell; Volkswagen Group, VAG UK (VW and Audi) is opposite in Blakelands on the north side of the A422 opposite Tongwell Lake. DRS mark exam papers by electronic data capture at Linford Wood, south of the A422 and Stantonbury, near Leica Microsystems; Mitsubishi Pencil Company UK (uni-ball) is off the A422 at the B4034 Redbridge Roundabout; H. Bronnley & Co. (soap) is on the site of a factory used to build the Marconi Electronic Systems, GEC-Marconi AI.24 Foxhunter radar in the 1980s. In the south-east of Milton Keynes, The Open University is in Walton Hall, Milton Keynes, Walton Hall, in Walton, Milton Keynes, Walton; BT Development & Training (management) is based at Kents Hill, Monkston and Brinklow, Kents Hill, next to the OU, after it moved from Bletchley Park in 1993; south of the OU is Walton Manor, home of Schering-Plough, MSD Animal Health (former Merck & Co., Intervet, and previously a Hoechst AG, Hoechst laboratory). Red Bull Racing is off the A4146 in Tilbrook, south of the OU; nearby is Jungheinrich UK (forklifts) in Walton, Milton Keynes, Walton near Bow Brickhill railway station, and Yamaha Music Europe; north of Tilbrook on the A4146 is Walker Greenbank (upmarket furnishings). Fisher & Paykel, Fisher & Paykel UK (fridges) are in Kingston, Middleton (Milton Keynes Village), Milton Keynes Village. Nearby is Duravit UK (bathroom plumbing); in Kingston off the A421 are Alpla UK (plastics), and Koyo Seiko, Koyo UK (JTEKT). Just east of the A421, near Wavendon and M1 Junction 13, John Lewis, River Island and Amazon have large logistics warehouses in the Magna Park distribution centre. In the south-west of Milton-Keynes, Chemetall, a chemical company, is in Denbigh, Milton Keynes, Denbigh West, Bletchley, near Marshall Amplification, near Denbigh Roundabout (B4034); Yokohama Rubber Company, Yokohama UK (tyres) is at Mount Farm (Bletchley and Fenny Stratford) north of Denbigh West, next to the A5 (Fenny Stratford bypass); to the east of Mount Farm, Kemble and Co. were Britain's last piano manufacturers, until the factory closed in 2009. Holophane Europe make floodlighting on the Mount Farm Ind Est, east of A4146/A5 Caldecotte Interchange; on the west of Mount Farm, on the B4034, Basell Polyolefins UK (part of the Dutch LyondellBasell) make polypropylene compounds. Domino's Pizza Group (arrived in the UK in 1985) is in West Ashland near the A5/A421 junction. Suzuki GB is on the A421 near B4034 roundabout at Tattenhoe in Shenley Brook End on the south-western edge. Elsewhere in the borough, Welcome Break is at the M1 Newport Pagnell services, service station in Newport Pagnell, where Aston Martin had a factory until 2007. The town is also home to a customer centre of car retailer Cazoo, located just off the A509/A422 junction at Tickford Roundabout. FCO Services and Her Majesty's Government Communications Centre, HMGCC is based at Hanslope, Hanslope Park, in a rural area north of Milton Keynes, a mile west of the M1.


Hampshire

The British Army, Army have a large Aldershot Garrison, garrison in Aldershot, with Royal Military Academy Sandhurst, Sandhurst being nearby. Elica also make extractor hoods in Aldershot, and the European HQ of the Computer Sciences Corporation consulting firm is based at the A323/A325 road, A325 roundabout. Rentokil Initial have their head office and pest control division next to Blackwater railway station, north of the A30, towards Camberley. Farnborough, Hampshire, Farnborough has many international aerospace companies as well as Sofa Workshop. Nokia, Nokia UK, which had also been a R&D base for Nokia Siemens Networks on the A327, left in 2012; further along the A327 is Autodesk, Autodesk UK. Diethelm Keller Brands, DKB Household UK (Zyliss) is off the A327 road, A327 in North Farnborough; at the A325/A327 roundabout is Parametric Technology Corporation UK (known for its industry-standard PTC Creo Elements/Pro (Pro/ENGINEER) CAD/CAM software) with Red Hat UK. Thomson Local directory is on the A325 next to Farnborough (Main) railway station, Farnborough railway station, next to the Catholic National Library; opposite is the design centre for Qualcomm UK (W-CDMA (UMTS), W-CDMA UMTS mobile technology) with Hogg Robinson Group UK (its worldwide headquarters are in Basingstoke). BAE Systems with CORDA (UK), CORDA is south of the airfield at the Farnborough Aerospace Centre, off the A325/A3011 road (Great Britain), A3011 Queen's Roundabout. Sun Microsystems had their UK headquarters at Guillemont Park (former Guillemont Barracks until 1997) north of the M3 Minley Interchange at Blackwater and Hawley, until 2009. The Ford Southampton plant of Ford Motor Company, Ford, near Southampton Airport and Stoneham Interchange (A335) of the M27, closed in July with production of the Transit moving to the Ford Otosan plant in Gölcük, Kocaeli (Turkey). Skandia, Skandia Insurance have their UK base there. Carnival Corporation & plc, the world's largest cruise ship operator, has one of its two headquarters at Carnival House. The Maritime and Coastguard Agency is in the town centre near the A3057. Swatch UK (and Omega SA, Omega UK) are based near Millbrook, Southampton, Millbrook Flyover (A33 road, A33). B&Q and Draper Tools are based in Chandler's Ford, also Pips Technology (owned by Federal Signal Corporation) who make Automatic number plate recognition, ANPR cameras. Prysmian Cables & Systems, who make Electric power transmission, high-tension electric cables (for Offshore wind power, offshore windfarms), communication cables and Circuit integrity, fire-resistant cable, are off the B3037 in Eastleigh, next to a rail servicing plant and the River Itchen, Hampshire, River Itchen. Bacardi, Bacardi-Martini and London Camera Exchange are in
Winchester Winchester is a cathedral city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London ...

Winchester
and four miles (6 km) north-west, Arqiva (broadcasting infrastructure, at the former technical division of the Independent Broadcasting Authority, IBA) are based in Crawley, Hampshire. Industrial Acoustics Company, IAC UK, an acoustics company, is off the Winnall Interchange (M3) north of Winchester. The Adjutant General's Corps HQ (former Royal Army Pay Corps) is at Worthy Down Camp off the A34 north of Winchester at Kings Worthy, since 2012 the home of the Defence School of Personnel Administration. To the north-west, the Leckford Estate, with Longstock Park, next door provides much of the milk, mushrooms, fruit, honey and free-range chicken for Waitrose; John Spedan Lewis, founder of John Lewis, lived there until his death in 1963. Garmin, Garmin Europe is in Hounsdown just west of Southampton. Esso has its main UK refinery at Fawley, Hampshire, Fawley (the largest refinery, by production, in the UK); north of Fawley is Polimeri Europa UK (former International Synthetic Rubber, now owned by Eni) off the A326, which makes elastomers. Ineos, the third largest chemicals company in the world, is in Lyndhurst, Hampshire, Lyndhurst in the New Forest (A35). Roke Manor Research (founded by Plessey in 1956, and owned since 2010 by Chemring) at Roke Manor at Romsey Extra developed the Hawk-Eye system in 2001. Cannon Technologies next to the railway in the west of New Milton make computer ancillary equipment and data centres. The Ordnance Survey have a new headquarters (previously further east in Southampton before 2011) at Nursling and Rownhams, off the M271 motorway, M271 Nursling Interchange. On the A337 in Mudeford in the east of Christchurch is a large BAE Systems radar site (the former Signals Research and Development Establishment). Best Buy Europe is in Hedge End; SPI Lasers make Fiber laser, fibre lasers for Optical fiber, optical fibres; Glen Dimplex have an HQ north of the A334 road, A334. Chemring Group, Royal Boskalis Westminster, Boskalis Westminster (dredging) and the National Air Traffic Services (NATS) are in Fareham (Swanwick, Hampshire, Swanwick) near Zurich Financial Services, Zurich Insurance UK. At Locks Heath off the A27 further south at Kite's Croft Business Park is Estée Lauder Companies, Estée Lauder UK and the scrapped South East Regional Control Centre (FiReControl). On the opposite side of the A27 on Funtley Ind Est is Eaton Corporation, Eaton Aerospace, who have their Fuel & Motion Control Systems Division (Aerial refueling, aerial refuelling, making fuel valves for aircraft), which is the former Abbey Works site of Plessey Dynamics (Mechanical Systems) and Plessey Aerospace. Nearby, Tallent Automotive (former ThyssenKrupp, TKA Body Stampings, now owned by Gestamp Automoción, Gestamp) have their Fareham Plant. Meggitt Avionics (former Negretti and Zambra) are south of the Office for National Statistics, ONS, which makes flight deck displays, flight recorders, threat warning indicators and oxygen systems for aircraft. Raymarine Marine Electronics (owned by FLIR Systems) off the A27 (near Estée Lauder) at Titchfield is the world's leading leisure marine electronics company. TÜV SÜD UK (product certification) are next to Gemalto UK, who make EMV, chip and PIN cards, at Segensworth between the railway and the M27; further along is The Cooper Companies, CooperVision, who make contact lenses, and next door is Turbomeca UK (part of Safran). GE Aviation, on a site which was formerly Folland Aircraft then British Aerospace, BAe Aerostructures, has a factory at Hamble-le-Rice which makes Composite material, composites for airframes and racing cars, using products such as Maleimide, Bismaleimide resin. Crewsaver (owned by Survitec Group, Survitec), Covidien UK (owned by VNUS), and Wickham Laboratories are off the A32 road, A32 at Fleetlands, (north of Gosport), south of Fareham, and north of DM Gosport, which handles the Navy's armaments including Sea Skua, Sea Wolf (missile), Sea Wolf, the Eurosam Aster (missile family), Aster, Sea Dart (Surface-to-air missile, surface-to-air), and GEC-Marconi Sting Ray (torpedo). Kenwood, owned by De'Longhi since 2001, have a factory at West Leigh, Havant; next-door, Sumika Polymer Compounds (owned by Sumitomo Chemical), and Pfizer (former Wyeth Biotech before 2009) have plants on New Lane Ind Est next to the Portsmouth Direct Line, railway. Lockheed Martin U.K. is at the Langstone Technology Park off the A3023, near the A27, at Brockhampton, Hampshire, Brockhampton, near to Apollo Fire Detectors, Jobsite (owned by dmg::media), and Pains Wessex (a leading manufacturer of maritime distress flares); SSE plc have their main southern HQ on the Southmoor Lane Ind Est next door. Paradigm Secure Communications (Airbus Defence and Space) control the UK's Ariane-launched Skynet (satellite), Skynet military satellites from former the RAF Oakhanger off the A325 road, A325 west of Bordon. Southwick House, off the B2177 in Southwick and Widley, is the home of the Defence School of Policing and Guarding and the Regimental Headquarters of the Royal Military Police. VT Group is based in Hedge End, with VT Education & Skills and VT Flagship based in North Harbour, Portsmouth, North Harbour,
Portsmouth Portsmouth ( ) is a port and island city status in the United Kingdom, city with Unitary authorities of England, unitary authority status in the ceremonial county of Hampshire, southern England. It is the most densely populated city in the Unit ...

Portsmouth
. Near the A2030/A27 Farlington, Hampshire, Farlington Roundabout in east Portsmouth, Airbus Defence and Space (former Astrium before 2014, and earlier Marconi Space and Defence Systems) at Anchorage Park near Hilsea railway station, make payloads for the Galileo (satellite navigation), Galileo navigation system, at its Broad Oak Works, with SELEX Elsag and BAE Systems on the former Portsmouth Airport, Hampshire, Portsmouth Airport; GKN Aerospace (former FPT Industries) situated at the former make aviation self-sealing fuel tanks; Atmosphere Control International (former Wellman Group, Wellman Defence before 2012, and part of TPG Engineering) in Portsmouth make the air purifiers for the British and French nuclear submarines. Pall Corporation, PALL Europe (fluid filtration) is based on the Harbourgate Business Park, on the opposite side of the M27 from Port Solent. Much of the Royal Navy is based at HMNB Portsmouth with BAE Systems Surface Ships; Navy Command Headquarters is at Whale Island, Hampshire, Whale Island, next to the M275 motorway, M275. IBM is headquartered in Cosham, North
Portsmouth Portsmouth ( ) is a port and island city status in the United Kingdom, city with Unitary authorities of England, unitary authority status in the ceremonial county of Hampshire, southern England. It is the most densely populated city in the Unit ...

Portsmouth
, with large laboratories in Hursley House. Lenovo UK and Serco are at Bartley Wood Business Park, off the B3349 (M3 Hook, Hart, Hook Interchange), with Virgin Media (13,600 staff in the UK, with 1,200 at the head office); next door is First Drinks, a whisky distributor owned by William Grant & Sons, Trimble Navigation UK (GPS systems) and Hewlett Packard Enterprise Services, HP Enterprise Services Defence & Security UK (former EDS Defence). The Police Staff College, Bramshill, the Police's main training centre, is nearby to the north; the European Police College (CEPOL, run by Europol) was at Bramshill until 2014 when it moved to Budapest. Festo GB (industrial automation, based at Esslingen am Neckar) is next to the M3 on Ancells Business Park, next to Rohde & Schwarz UK (electronic testing). Vertu, division of Nokia makes luxury phones at Church Crookham. CV-Library is in Fleet; Conair Corporation, Conair Group (BaByliss hair dryers) are at the nearby Waterfront Business Park. The The Automobile Association, AA, Scott Wilson Group, Scott Wilson, Genus plc, and Winterthur Group, Winterthur Life are based in Basingstoke. The pharmaceuticals group Eli Lilly and Company, Eli Lilly UK, with Elanco UK (Veterinary medicine, animal health), is in Norfolk House, Basingstoke, Norfolk House in Houndmills east of the North Hampshire Hospital, the main home for Hampshire Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust; also in Houndmills are Fyffes, Fyffes UK (next to the railway), and GAME (retailer), GAME Group, with Gamestation (formerly in York), which it bought in 2007; Palgrave Macmillan, a leading worldwide trade publisher with the Pharmaceutical Press, is south of A339 and hospital. Thales Missile Electronics (former Thorn EMI) is in central Basingstoke near the A3010/A339 junction, which makes parts for the Brimstone (missile), Brimstone missile. On the Hampshire International Business Park, next to Chineham in the north-west off the A33, are Shire (pharmaceutical company), Shire Pharmaceuticals Group plc and Alberto-Culver, Alberto-Culver UK; Shire is Britain's third-largest pharmaceutical firm, founded in 1986 outside of Basingstoke, and now has 5,000 employees. On the Chineham Business Park is the Gas safe register, Gas Safe Register (predecessor Council for Registered Gas Installers, CORGI was also in Basingstoke), and Hama Photo, Hama UK (photography equipment); Peek Traffic, south of Shire, is one of two companies in the UK that make Traffic light, traffic signals. Motorola, Motorola UK, next-door to Meggitt Sensing Systems, and De La Rue are on the Viables industrial estate next to the M3 and Cranbourne, Hampshire, Cranbourne; BD UK (former CareFusion UK before 2014) makes ''Alaris'' infusion pumps, medical ventilators and automated dispensing cabinets. De La Rue have a main banknote printing works at Overton Mill in Overton, Hampshire, Overton, to the west towards the A34 road, A34, and a holographics factory on the Daneshill industrial estate, in the west of the town; De Dietrich UK (kitchen appliances) are near a plant of Thermo Fisher Scientific UK, and Boeing UK, Boeing Defence UK. Mars Drinks (Flavia Beverage Systems and Klix (company), Klix) is north of the railway, south of Daneshill. Further west, Kyoeisha UK (mechanical garden equipment) is at Mapledurwell and Up Nately next to the M4 and south of Old Basing, off the A30. Gale (publisher), Gale Cengage UK are in the east of Andover, Hampshire, Andover, off the A3093 on Walworth Industrial Estate; further south are Twinings (who also own Ovaltine) and to east of the estate is Stannah Lifts (owned by Schaefer Group, SSI Schaefer), next to Petty Wood, owner of the Epicure food brand, with Le Creuset UK (Cookware and bakeware, cookware); Euronics UK is further west. To the north-west, Ecophon UK (Saint Gobain) are at Ramsdell, Wootton St Lawrence. The Army Air Corps (United Kingdom), Army Air Corps trains at AAC Middle Wallop, off the A343. Britten-Norman (B-N Group) make turboprop aeroplanes on the Isle of Wight. The Danish Vestas (former NEG Micon before 2004) closed the UK's only wind turbine factory on the Isle of Wight in 2010, and Vestas Technology have a research site in Northwood, Isle of Wight, Northwood; Stainless Games developed Carmageddon. GKN Aerospace at East Cowes make engine nacelles, with its GKN Aeropace Composites Research Centre, Composites Research Centre, in the former main plant of Saunders-Roe. Ratsey and Lapthorn make sails at Cowes.


Sussex

The Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, RSPCA is on the A24 road (England), A24 in Southwater, south of Horsham. FrieslandCampina, Campina UK is in Horsham. Dunkin' Donuts UK on the B2237 in the south of Horsham centre at the Prewett's Mill Roundabout in the same building as Beam Inc., Beam Global UK (Bourbon whiskey, Bourbon whisky), and its subsidiary Thomas Lowndes & Co (formerly owned by Allied Domecq, and the UK's leading supplier of culinary alcohol). RSA Insurance Group (former Royal and Sun Alliance, and the UK's largest commercial insurer) has its main office in Horsham, straddling the A281 road, A281, including the More Than (company), More Th>n offices. Novartis manufacture and their large Horsham Research Centre (Respiratory tract, respiratory and Human gastrointestinal tract, gastro-intestinal, former Ciba-Geigy) is next to Sutton and Mole Valley Lines, railway in North Horsham; Novatis Consumer Health own Lipsyl, Otrivin, and Savlon. The Caravan Club is in East Grinstead, with Rentokil Specialist Hygiene, and Initial Medical Services. Roche Diagnostics UK headquarters and CAE Inc., CAE Inc. UK are in the Victoria Business Park off the A273 road, A273 in the west of Burgess Hill near Tesco; further to east is the HQ of Filofax, and Heidenhain GB, who make linear encoders for CNC machines. Southern Water is on the A2032 in Durrington, West Sussex, Durrington, Worthing; Durrington Bridge House on the Barrington Road Ind Estate, next to Durrington-on-Sea railway station, in Goring-by-Sea has HM Revenue and Customs, HMRC's national office for its Voluntary Arrangement Service (former Enforcement & Insolvency Service, for Individual voluntary arrangement, IVAs) and members voluntary liquidation, United Kingdom insolvency law, company administrations, and Trading while insolvent, voluntary arrangements. GSK in east Worthing is the former Beecham Pharmaceuticals, on the western edge of Sompting, which makes antibiotics such as Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, Augmentin; to the south of GSK on the same estate is Electronic Temperature Instruments, a worldwide manufacturer of thermometers, and the UK's largest manufacturer of digital thermometers. Bowers & Wilkins, B & W is an important loudspeaker company in the north of Worthing at the A2032/A24 junction in Tarring, West Sussex, West Tarring. Eurotherm make temperature controllers. Virgin Atlantic is off the A23, with Paslode UK (nail guns) next-door, on the Manor Royal Ind Estate in the north of Crawley, as is Edwards (Vacuum), Edwards (former BOC Edwards), an international engineering company that makes vacuum pumps, with another plant on the A259 road, A259 in Kingston by Sea, Shoreham. Also on Manor Royal are the headquarters of Spirent, G4S, Doosan Babcock, Doosan Babcock Energy, Pilz GmbH & Co. KG, Pilz UK and TUI Travel PLC with TUI Airline Management (the fifth largest European air carrier). Air Miles (now called Avios since November 2011) is on Fleming Way Roundabout of the A23 north of Crawley in the former headquarters of British Caledonian, at County Oak retail park, and to the west is the British Dualit brand of catering electrical equipment (iconic toasters). Nestlé UK has been based since 2013 at City Place Gatwick, off the A23, next to the Civil Aviation Authority (United Kingdom), Civil Aviation Authority. To the south, on the east of Manor Royal, is Monier Group, Monier Redland plc, Redland (roof tiles) and ARINC UK (avionics), and a large site of Thales, with its civilian Flight simulator, aircraft simulation Thales Training & Simulation, TTS division (former Rediffusion, Redifon) now owned since 2012 by L-3 Communications); much of Thales in Crawley is the former Mullard, who made radars, and Thomson Racal Defence Electronics (and Thorn EMI); Thales in Crawley make much of the Royal Navy's electronic (mission) systems. UK Power Networks (electrical operator for region) is south of Manor Royal in Three Bridges; SEEBOARD was based on the A23 in Broadfield, West Sussex, Broadfield. Invensys have many sites in Crawley. WesternGeco (Geophysics, geophysical services) is at the end of the Gatwick Interchange M23 spur. Colas Ltd (road engineering) is in Worth, West Sussex, Worth, east of Crawley. The former ICI Agrochemicals research department was at the Fernhurst Research Station (later part of Zeneca) at Fernhurst. John Wiley & Sons, Wiley UK (reference books) is in Chichester (off the A286 road, A286) next door to Shippam's, Shippam's Foods. Rolls-Royce Motor Cars make vehicles at Westhampnett off the A27. Vie at Home is at Tangmere; Philips Respironics UK is at Tangmere airfield. Hayes UK make plumbing supplies on the Huffwood Trading Est on the other side of the Arun Valley Line, railway. MTU Friedrichshafen, MTU UK (diesel Engine-generator, engine generators, owned by Rolls-Royce Power Systems) are on the Birches Ind Est at the A22/A264 junction in Felbridge; nearby are Thermo Fisher Scientific UK and Jencons UK (owned by VWR International). Cats Protection is at the National Cat Centre on the A275 in Danehill, East Sussex, Danehill in the Ashdown Forest. The Body Shop is at the A259/B2187 Body Shop Roundabout in Toddington, West Sussex, Toddington, Littlehampton. Palmer and Harvey is in Hove and Hosiden Besson, near Aldrington railway station, makes telephone equipment; a Legal & General main office is on the A2023 road, A2023 next to Hove Park. C Dugard (Numerical control, CNC machines) is at the A2023/A270 junction. American Express, American Express UK is in Brighton. EDO Corporation, EDO MBM near Moulsecoomb railway station makes electrical equipment for the Brimstone (missile), Brimstone missile. Elektromotive is at Falmer (electric vehicle charging). Jones Bootmaker head office is based in Eastbourne; Alfa Laval UK have a manufacturing plant at Birch Road Ind Est, off the A2290 road, A2290 near the A259 road, A259 roundabout. Smith & Ouzman, a security printing company off the A22/A2290 Lottbridge Roundabout prints exam papers, ballot papers and examination certificates; it printed the Driving licence in the United Kingdom, UK's driving licences until 2001. Ricardo plc, the engineering consultancy, is on the A27 next to Shoreham Airport and River Adur. Merrydown cider was formerly made in Horam until 2004, when it was bought by SHS Group of Belfast. Páramo Directional Clothing and Nikwax are on the B2099 in Durgates, in Wadhurst, East Sussex, towards the Kent boundary. Notifier UK (fire alarms, owned by Honeywell) is in South Malling in Lewes, also the HQ of Morley-IAS UK, who make fire alarm control panels.


Kent

BAE Systems Electronics, Intelligence & Support is next to Rochester Airport (England), Rochester Airport and the M2, where they make helmet mounted displays and head-up displays; it was GEC Avionics, previously Marconi Avionics and Elliott Flight Automation, and Kent's biggest employer in the 1980s; the display technology originated from acquiring Cintel in 1963; the site was a Shorts factory in the war, and built many Short Sunderlands. The Royal Engineers and the Royal School of Military Engineering are based in Chatham, Medway, Chatham at Brompton Barracks. London Thamesport is on the Isle of Grain. Metsä Board UK (paper) is off the A289 road, A289 near Medway Tunnel, and next to the Universities at Medway, Chatham. Sleepeezee (owned by the Simmons Bedding Company) is at Conquest Ind Est in Strood on the A228 next to the River Medway. Bose Corporation, Bose UK are on the Gillingham Business Park, off the A278 road, A278 near the A2 Bowaters Roundabout; on other side of A278 is Delphi Automotive, Delphi Diesel Systems. Bovis Homes Group, Bovis Homes is near Gravesend and in Northfleet on the B2175, Kimberly-Clark (formerly Bowater-Scott Paper Company, Scott until 1996) makes enough Andrex each week to stretch to the Moon. Caterham Cars manufacturers of British sports cars including the Caterham 7 have their manufacturing facilities in Dartford. Laing O'Rourke is off the A206 in Stone, Kent, Stone, east of the Dartford Tunnel on Crossways Business Park, where Mazda, Mazda UK are; in the same building is Forest Laboratories UK (bought by Actavis in 2014), who make Veno's (Cough medicine, cough mixture, the brand was bought from Beechams-GSK in 2011), Sudocrem, Otomize (Dexamethasone) and Bisodol (Antacid, indigestion), made in Dartford; Crosswater (taps and showers) is in Stone, Kent, Stone, further along the A206 road, A206 near the Thames Europort. Bluewater (shopping centre), Bluewater in Greenhithe is the third-largest shopping centre in the UK; it was built on the former Blue Circle Industries, Blue Circle Swanscombe Cement Works, which closed in 1990. South East Water is in Snodland. H+H UK (aerated concrete) is based at the A25/A227 road, A227 roundabout at Ightham, south of Wrotham; to the east is Geographers' A–Z Street Atlas, Geographers' A-Z Map Company off the A227 near the Borough Green & Wrotham railway station, railway station, near the M26. Aylesford Newsprint (owned by Svenska Cellulosa Aktiebolaget and Mondi Group), between the M20 and River Medway, makes newsprint and is Europe's largest recycler of paper. Rolex since 2010 has had its European headquarters (it moved from Bexley) at Kings Hill near West Malling on the A228 road, A228; Kimberly-Clark have their UK HQ there, on the former RAF West Malling wartime airfield, near FLIR Systems UK (Thermography, thermal imaging); opposite is the Charities Aid Foundation and to the east is Voyages-sncf.com (former Rail Europe before 2013, who operate InterRail) near the Tonbridge and Malling council offices. Readers in Teston, to the south on the A26, are the UK's leading manufacturer of cricket balls. DS Smith Paper (former Rexam, Bowater-Scott), Britain's largest paper manufacturer is at Kemsley, north of Sittingbourne, off the A249 road, A249/B2005 Grovehurst Road Junction. Shepherd Neame Brewery in Faversham is Britain's oldest brewer. Brake Bros is on the Eureka Business Park, off the A251 road, A251 north of M20 junction 9 in Boughton Aluph; nearby is Coty, Inc., Coty Rimmel UK (perfumes) and Houchin (company), Houchin (owned by Illinois Tool Works, ITW), who make ground power units for airport aprons. Further south along the M20, Givaudan UK (flavourings, former Quest International, and previously Proprietary Perfume and Flavours, or PPF International) has a 10-acre large plant in Kennington, Kent, Kennington; next-door is Premier Foods (former RHM before 2007, and opened as Batchelors in 1957) on the A2070 road, A2070 next to the River Stour, Kent, River Great Stour and the Ashford to Ramsgate (via Canterbury West) Line, railway, east of the M20; the 16-acre site makes Paxo stuffing, Savoury Rice, Pasta n Sauce, Bisto, Cup-a-Soup (introduced in 1972), Vesta curries (launched by Batchelors in 1961), and claims to be the largest dry food manufacturing site in Europe; it now makes Bird's Custard and Angel Delight. Chartham Papers (owned by Arjo Wiggins) is the UK's only manufacturer of tracing paper at Chartham. Kent grows three-quarters of the UK's Bramley apples. Cummins, Cummins Power Generation is in Acol, Kent, Acol, near Manston Airport on the A299 road, A299, and Pfizer, the largest pharmaceutical company in the world and manufacturer of Anadin, had its European R&D site in Sandwich until 2012, next to the River Stour, Kent, River Stour and A256 road, A256. Hornby, with Airfix and Humbrol, is on the A254 road, A254 on Westwood, Kent, Westwood Ind Est on the southern edge of Margate; the site started out as Tri-ang Railways in 1954, becoming Hornby in 1972 when the parent company collapsed, and the last Rail transport modelling, model train sets were made there in 1999; these are now made by a company owned by Kader. Delfinware (owned by WPP plc) makes dish drainers off the A259 road, A259 on the Pennypot Ind Estate in Hythe, Kent, Hythe. Megger Group Limited make electrical test equipment in Dover on the A20; nearby P&O Ferries is on the A20 below the Dover Western Heights. Saga plc, founded in 1959, has a large headquarters in Sandgate, Kent, Sandgate, next to Folkestone School for Girls, at the A259/B2963 junction. AXA Personal pension scheme, PPP is in Tunbridge Wells, and Lamberts Healthcare (part of Merck KGaA, Merck), based at High Brooms, are a leading manufacturer of vitamin supplements. J.H. Dewhurst (founded in 1919) was last based in Tunbridge Wells, until it closed in 2006 (it had in the early 1990s over 1,100 stores nationwide and was Britain's largest butcher). Panini Group, Panini UK are on the A264 road, A264 in the west of Tunbridge Wells. RotoSound on the A22 near Sevenoaks railway station makes Strings (music), guitar strings. Salter Housewares (weighing equipment) is in the east of Tonbridge at the A26/B2017 roundabout in Tudeley, Capel, Kent, Capel; Adrian Scripps produce apples off the B2017 near the A228 east of Tonbridge.


Oxfordshire

Oxford University Press, Blackwell UK, Electrocomponents and Amey plc are in
Oxford Oxford () is a city in England. It is the county town In the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' u ...

Oxford
as is the BMW plant that builds the Mini. BMW assemble the Mini (marque), MINI at Cowley, Oxfordshire, Cowley; in the south of Oxford is Unipart and TI Automotive UK. South of Oxford in Littlemore, off the A4074 at the Oxford Science Park is Nominet UK (.uk, UK domain names). SAE Institute has its world HQ on Littlemore Park off the A4074. Grafton Group, Grafton Merchanting GB (Buildbase, and Hirebase) are on Oxford Business Park in Cowley, with Electrocomponents next to Publishing Technology plc, Publishing Technology, Blackwell UK and Harley Davidson UK; to the south on the side of the B480 is Oxfam GB at Oxfam House, BT iNet, and TI Automotive; further north along the B480 at the B4495 junction is Macmillan Education, a leading worldwide publisher of school textbooks, with Genzyme UK (owned since 2011 by Sanofi). Ascari Cars, Ascari are in Banbury. Kenco coffee is made at Kraft Foods Banbury owned by Mondelēz International (former Kraft before October 2010) with Café HAG and Carte Noir off A422/A423 roundabout opposite a Tesco; the site was built to make Bird's Custard in 1964, by General Foods who were bought by Kraft in 1990, and claims to be the biggest coffee-production site in Europe; Nestle make much of their coffee in South Derbyshire. On other side of A422 to Kraft is a manufacturing site of Dematic UK, with Terex MHPS (former Demag Cranes), and Kannegiesser UK (industrial clothes washers). On north-east side of Banbury is the large site of Norbar Torque, who are a main international manufacturer of torque wrenchs. Next door is a large factory of Barry Callebaut UK, a Swiss manufacturer of cocoa (for Nestle and Cadbury), on the Wildmere Road Ind Est, north of the A422 near the M40 junction 11. Prodrive are on the north of the estate, and iSOFT are on the east near the M40. Further north was a main site of Alcan Extrusions (former British Aluminium, bought by Alcan in 1982), which closed in 2008. After the Buncefield fire damaged the Golden West bakery nearby in 2005, which made McDonald's burger buns, all the UK production had to be made at its Heywood, Greater Manchester, Heywood (Lancashire) site; Golden West did not rebuild the Hertfordshire site, and opened a new site (Trousdale Bakeries, owned by C.H. Guenther) in Banbury on the south of the estate. Yaskawa Electric Corporation, Yaskawa UK (Motoman Robot welding, robotic welding equipment) is on the Wildmere Ind Est, off the A422 near junction 11; Kärcher UK (pressure washers) are nearby off the A423. Marussia F1 are in the east of Banbury. Hook Norton Brewery is to the south-west. Travelodge UK is at the at A418/B4445 roundabout in Thame next to CPM Group (the UK's largest field marketing company), with W. Lucy & Co., Lucy Electric (switchgear) in the east of Thame off the B4012, with the UK site of Universal Media Corporation, UMC (branded televisions from Slovakia). Kubota Corporation, Kubota UK, the tractor manufacturer, on the B4445, is the UK market leader of ride-on (diesel) lawn mowers; Kidde Products UK (fire protection) is off the B4012. Renault F1 is in Enstone; off B4030 at Enstone Airfield Complex, Airbus Helicopters, Airbus Helicopters UK (Eurocopter before 2014) is at London Oxford Airport. Agilent Technologies (former Magnex Scientific) make superconducting magnets for NMR applications on the A44 next to the railway at Yarnton. Solid State Logic (mixing consoles) is at Begbroke on the A44, which has the Begbroke Science Park. The Leadbitter Group (construction) and the UK base of Miele and Sophos are on the Abingdon Science Park. The Joint European Torus is developing fusion power at Culham on a RNAS Culham (HMS Hornbill), former airfield. Also on the Culham Centre for Fusion Energy, Culham Science Centre at Clifton Hampden is the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority, and the Reusable launch system, re-usable Skylon (spacecraft), Skylon spacecraft is being developed by Reaction Engines Limited; ABSL Space Products Culham (owned by EnerSys) made batteries for Philae (spacecraft), Philae. The Rutherford Appleton Laboratory and Diamond Light Source (built by the Wellcome Trust) are on the Harwell Science and Innovation Campus in Chilton, Oxfordshire, Chilton and East Hendred. Harwell has an office of Telespazio VEGA UK (satellites) and the UK's base of the European Space Agency (ESA), with the European Centre for Space Applications and Telecommunications and the UK's Satellite Applications Catapult; Rutherford Appleton also has the Central Laser Facility, the UK's site of research into inertial confinement fusion power from the HiPER project. The science cluster is known as Science Vale UK. In Rotherfield Peppard, near Sonning Common, is the Johnson Matthey Technology Centre, which research fuel cells (with platinum supplied by Anglo American Platinum, the world's largest producer). Stuart Turner (engineer), Stuart Turner (pumps) is at Henley-on-Thames, with Ella's Kitchen. Countax UK, off the A329 road, A329 at Great Haseley (nearer to Great Milton), manufactures Britain's best-selling garden tractors, and distributes ECHO (company), ECHO (Japanese) power tools; to the south off the B480, Martin-Baker test ejector seats at Martin Baker Aerospace Chalgrove. Castrol Technology Centre is towards the Thames. South of RAF Benson off the A4074 at Howbery Park, Crowmarsh is HR Wallingford (former Hydraulics Research Station) and further south along the Thames is CAB International (agricultural research). RM Education, Kaspersky Lab, Kaspersky Lab UK, Achilles (company), Achilles (supply chain risk management, international HQ), Routledge (publisher), Chroma Therapeutics, and Smeg (appliances), Smeg UK are at Milton Park. The former Esso Research Centre at Milton Hill is now the headquarters of Infineum, a division of Esso and Shell which researches oil additives. Rowse Honey is in Wallingford, Oxfordshire, Wallingford. All parachute training for the RAF and Army takes place at RAF Brize Norton; the RAF 's refuelling force (No. 10 Squadron RAF, 10 Sqn and No. 101 Squadron RAF, 101 Sqn) operate the Airbus A330 MRTT, Voyager, the RAF's largest aircraft, a converted Airbus A330 which carries 111 tonnes of fuel; they also operate the twice-weekly air-bridge to RAF Mount Pleasant; Brize Norton has 24 Lockheed C-130 Hercules, C-130 Hercules, 8 Boeing C-17 Globemaster III, C-17 Globemasters (No. 99 Squadron RAF, 99 Sqn), 8 Voyagers (the replacement for the Vickers VC10, VC-10), and one Airbus A400M Atlas, A400M Atlas (the future replacement for the Hercules). The Blue Cross (animal charity), Blue Cross animal charity are further north on the B4020. Siemens Magnet Technology (former Oxford Magnet Technology), the main provider of superconducting magnet, superconducting History of electromagnetism, magnets (30% of the world's market) for Magnetic resonance imaging, MRI scanners, is in Eynsham; in Witney is Wychwood Brewery (owned by Marstons) which makes Hobgoblin, and brews Brakspear Brewery (formerly of Henley until 2002). Oxford Products, off the B4047 west of Witney, make cycle and motorcycle safety products, with Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Diabetes Care and Corndell Furniture at River Windrush, Windrush Park. JSP are market leaders in industrial head protection, based next to the River Windrush at Worsham, Oxfordshire, Worsham in Asthall west of Witney. Further south, Aurora Fashions has a main office off the B4449 on the Lakeside Ind Estate, Stanton Harcourt. Williams Grand Prix Engineering is based at Grove, Oxfordshire, Grove on the A338 north of Wantage. Towards Wiltshire, the Defence Academy of the United Kingdom is in Shrivenham, with the Defence Academy of the United Kingdom, Defence School of Languages (previously at Wilton Park Estate, Wilton Park north of the M40 Beaconsfield Interchange), and the Joint Services Command and Staff College is in Watchfield.


Culture

The culture of South East England has been influenced a number of factors: by its part of contributing to the "idealised English identity", due to the region's historic idyllic rural landscape; its serving for
Greater London Greater London is an Metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties of England, administrative area governed by the Greater London Authority, and a Ceremonial counties of England, ceremonial county of England that covers the bulk of the same area ...

Greater London
as commuting hinterland, and, in recent times, the concentration of the UK's creative industry across the South East as well as London.


Literature, TV Puppetry & Animation, Cinema, Music and Cuisine

Ashdown Forest in
East Sussex East Sussex is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first published by William Chambers (publisher), William and R ...

East Sussex
was the inspiration for the Hundred Acre Wood in the Winnie-the-Pooh stories by A.A. Milne who also lived in the nearby village of Hartfield and visited the forest with his son Christopher Robin. Alice Liddell, also known as Alice Hargreaves, the inspiration for Alice in Lewis Carroll's ''Alice's Adventures in Wonderland'', spent the majority of her childhood living in
Oxford Oxford () is a city in England. It is the county town In the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' u ...

Oxford
, and in her later years lived in and around Lyndhurst, Hampshire after her marriage to Reginald Hargreaves. She is buried in the graveyard of St Michael and All Angels Church in the town. Roger Hargreaves lived in Lower Sunbury on the River Thames on the next to London Borough of Richmond upon Thames, Richmond upon Thames borough boundary, and wrote his ''Mr. Men'' books. Mary Tourtel from Canterbury created ''Rupert Bear''. Frank Hampson, of ''Dan Dare'', drew all his pictures when he lived in the east of Epsom, off the A2022 road, A2022. Buckinghamshire's E. L. James author of the erotic romance novels, erotic romance ''Fifty Shades (novel series), Fifty Shades Trilogy'' has the UK record for the fastest-selling paperback of all time. ''Trumpton'' (1967) was based on Plumpton, East Sussex, with other titles in the series based on nearby villages; ''Trumpton'' was actually shot by Gordon Murray (puppeteer), Gordon Murray's company in Crouch End, London. Gerry Anderson's AP Films filmed ''Thunderbirds (TV series), Thunderbirds'' on the Slough Trading Estate near to the site's cooling towers, being first broadcast in 1965. The Native Americans in the United States, Native American woman Pocahontas is buried at St George's Church, Gravesend in
Kent Kent is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first published by William Chambers (publisher), William and Robert ...

Kent
and was the inspiration for the popular Pocahontas (1995 film), Disney animated film of the same name. The first multiplex cinema in the UK was in Milton Keynes, in the mid-1980s. Elgar wrote his Cello Concerto (Elgar), Cello Concerto at Fittleworth, West Sussex, in 1919. Isaac Watts, a hymn writer from Southampton, wrote ''When I Survey the Wondrous Cross'' and ''O God, Our Help in Ages Past''. John Goss (composer), John Goss, who wrote the hymn tune for ''Praise, My Soul, the King of Heaven'', came from Fareham. At Chalfont St Giles, John Milton, Milton finished ''Paradise Lost''. Olney in Buckinghamshire is known for the ''Olney Hymns'' - ''Amazing Grace'', and the composer of the tune of ''Once in Royal David's City''. The Christian non-profit music festival ''Big Church Day Out'' takes place annually on the last Saturday and Sunday of May at Wiston House, Wiston, West Sussex, Wiston in
West Sussex West Sussex is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first published by William Chambers (publisher), William an ...

West Sussex
. Pimm's was invented by James Pimm of Kent in the 1820s. Banoffee pie was invented in 1972 in Willingdon and Jevington, Jevington in East Sussex. Maria Ann Smith from Sussex emigrated to Australia and created the Granny Smith apple. Horticulturist Richard Cox (horticulturist), Richard Cox lived in Colnbrook, where he bred his Cox's Orange Pippin, a popular apple. Elizabeth David, a cookery writer who Elizabeth David bibliography, revolutionised the nation's English cuisine, home cooking in the 1950s, came from Sussex.


Media

The BBC operate ''South Today'' (BBC South) out of Havelock Road, Southampton and ''South East Today'' (BBC South East) in Tunbridge Wells,
Kent Kent is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first published by William Chambers (publisher), William and Robert ...

Kent
. ''ITV News Meridian'' (ITV Meridian) which has sub-regions for the South and South East based in Whiteley, near Fareham. ** N.B. Television coverage for Buckinghamshire is complex and is split three ways depending on location. The western part of the county is in the BBC South and ITV Meridian (South Coast sub-region) Milton Keynes UA is covered by BBC East based in Norwich, with the ''BBC Look East, Look East'' programme; similarly the ITV region for most of Milton Keynes is ITV Anglia with the ''ITV News Anglia'' programme, also from Norwich. The ITV region for the south of the county is ITV London with signals from Crystal Palace - these are supplemented with a number of relay stations such as High Wycombe. *''That's Solent TV'', a subsidiary TV station from That's TV based in Portsmouth, it covers Portsmouth Isle of Wight, Southampton and Winchester. TV signals come from Oxford transmitting station, Oxford at Beckley and Stowood in the north of the region, and Rowridge transmitting station, Rowridge in the south of the region, the two most powerful transmitters in the region, which carry ''South Today'', along with Hannington, Hampshire, Hannington in north Hampshire, and Midhurst at Easebourne, near Bexleyhill in
West Sussex West Sussex is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first published by William Chambers (publisher), William an ...

West Sussex
. ''South East Today'', in the east of the region, comes from the lower-powered Heathfield transmitting station, Heathfield at Heathfield and Waldron,
East Sussex East Sussex is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first published by William Chambers (publisher), William and R ...

East Sussex
off the A267, Dover transmitting station, Dover in Kent, and the even lower-powered Blue Bell Hill at Aylesford on the
North Downs The North Downs are a ridge of chalk hills in south east England that stretch from Farnham in Surrey to the White Cliffs of Dover in Kent. Much of the North Downs comprises two Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty, Areas of Outstanding Natural Bea ...
. Digital switchover dates in the United Kingdom, Digital switchover took place in mid 2012. ;Radio * BBC Local Radio services in the region include BBC Berkshire, Berkshire, BBC Surrey, Surrey, BBC Sussex, Sussex, BBC Radio Solent, Solent, BBC Radio Oxford, Oxford, and BBC Radio Kent, Kent, with Buckinghamshire & Milton Keynes served by BBC Three Counties Radio (which also covers Hertfordshire and Bedfordshire, and falls under the BBC East region). * Commercial radio stations include: ** Wave 105, a regional adult contemporary music service based in Fareham ** Heart South serves much of the region, created in 2019 by the combination of Heart Sussex and Surrey (formerly Heart Sussex of Brighton and Mercury FM in Crawley), Heart Thames Valley (Heart Berkshire and Heart Oxfordshire), Heart South Coast (Heart Dorset and New Forest and Heart Hampshire), and Heart Kent. Milton Keynes is served by - and is the studio base of - Heart East (via the former Heart 103.3/Horizon Radio) ** Capital South (previously known as Galaxy South Coast/Power FM based in Segensworth and Capital Brighton, Juice 107.2 in Brighton), ** Greatest Hits Radio South operates on the former frequencies of The Breeze (previously Andover Sound, Newbury Sound (former Kick FM), Reading 107 FM, and Kestrel FM (Basingstoke)), Spirit FM (UK radio station), Spirit FM (
Chichester Chichester () is a City status in the United Kingdom, cathedral city and civil parish in West Sussex, England.OS Explorer map 120: Chichester, South Harting and Selsey Scale: 1:25 000. Publisher:Ordnance Survey – Southampton B2 edition. Publis ...

Chichester
), and 96.4 Eagle Radio (Guildford). In Buckinghamshire, Greatest Hits Radio East took the place of Mix 96 (Aylesbury) on FM and this was added to the Herts/Beds/Bucks DAB multiplex. ** Nation Broadcasting operates two services based in Southampton: Greatest Hits Radio South Coast (a regional station, previously broadcasting as Sam FM, JACK FM and Original 106), and The Breeze (South & East Hampshire), Hits Radio (former 107.4 The Quay, Portsmouth; The Saint, Southampton; and Dream 107.2, Winchester). ** More Radio is broadcast on four frequencies in Sussex, previously Arrow FM (Hastings), Arrow FM (Hastings), Bright 106.4 FM (Burgess Hill), Sovereign FM (Hailsham), and Splash FM (Worthing). A countywide service broadcasts on DAB, alongside from 2021 a digital-first sibling station, More Radio Retro. ** Isle of Wight Radio ** KMFM (radio network), KMFM, a network of seven stations in Kent, and a countywide DAB output, since 2012 sharing all programmes from the premises of KMFM Medway * National radio on FM comes from Rowridge transmitting station, Rowridge, the most powerful transmitter, then Wrotham transmitting station, Wrotham (next to the M20 motorway, M20), and Oxford. ;Newspapers * Southern Daily Echo (Southampton), Portsmouth News, Hampshire Chronicle The Oxford Times, Oxford Times, Oxford Journal, Oxford Mail, The Argus (Brighton), Argus (Brighton), Reading Evening Post, the KM Group titles (Kent), Surrey Advertiser, Reading Chronicle, Medway News, KOS Media titles (Kent), Basingstoke Gazette (Basingstoke)


Sport

Badminton England is at Milton Keynes. The Royal Yachting Association (RYA) is headquartered at Hamble-le-Rice, Hamble in Hampshire. The World Squash Federation is headquartered in Hastings. England Hockey is headquartered at Bisham Abbey on the south side of the Thames. The first List of World Transplant Games (WTG), World Transplant Games were held in Portsmouth in 1978. The All England Jumping Course at Hickstead (Royal International Horse Show) is held (usually) at the A2300 Hickstead Interchange on the side of the A23, west of Burgess Hill, next to the River Adur in Hurstpierpoint and Sayers Common. There are many horse-racing stables on the North Wessex Downs, Lambourn Downs. The Epsom Derby is held in early June. In the mid 18th century, the Hambledon Club, Hambledon Cricket Club, in south-east Hampshire, was the focal point of modern cricket. It was here where a number of innovations were made to the game until the formation of Marylebone Cricket Club and the opening of Lord's, Lord's Cricket Ground in 1787. The BDO World Darts Championship are held in early January at Lakeside Leisure Complex. Wentworth Club, Wentworth Golf Club in Surrey is the home of the BMW PGA Championship. Charles William Miller, who went to school in Southampton, was responsible for taking football to Brazil. He had a Scottish father and a Brazilian mother; around the same time, Alexander Watson Hutton, a Scottish teacher, had taken football to Argentina; Dresden English Football Club, founded by British workers, would bring football to Germany.


See also

*''Outline of England'' *List of schools in the South East of England


Notes and references


Notes


References


External links


Government Office for the South East

South East England Councils

Government's list of councils in the South East

Tourism Information - Visit South East England



South East England Intelligence Network - facts, figures and research on the South East

South East England Business Community Directory
{{Authority control South East England, Regions of England Southern England, East NUTS 1 statistical regions of England NUTS 1 statistical regions of the European Union