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In
social science Social science is the branch A branch ( or , ) or tree branch (sometimes referred to in botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist o ...

social science
, a social relation or social interaction is any relationship between two or more individuals. Social relations derived from individual agency form the basis of
social structure In the social sciences, social structure is the patterned social arrangements in society that are both emergence, emergent from and determinant of the Structure and agency, actions of individuals. Likewise, society is believed to be grouped int ...
and the basic object for analysis by social scientists. Fundamental inquiries into the nature of social relations feature in the work of sociologists such as
Max Weber Maximilian Karl Emil Weber (; ; 21 April 186414 June 1920) was a German Sociology, sociologist, historian, jurist, and political economy, political economist regarded as among the most important theorists of the development of Modernity, modern ...

Max Weber
in his theory of
social action In sociology Sociology is a social science Social science is the Branches of science, branch of science devoted to the study of society, societies and the Social relation, relationships among individuals within those societies. The t ...
. Social relationships are composed of both positive (affiliative) and negative (agonistic) interactions, representing opposing effects. Social relationships are a special case of social relations that can exist without any communication taking place between the actors involved.
Categorizing Categorization is the human ability and activity of recognizing shared features or similarities between the elements of the experience Experience is the process through which conscious organisms Perception, perceive the world around them. Ex ...
social interactions enables observational and other social research, such as
Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft ''Gemeinschaft'' () and ''Gesellschaft'' (), generally translated as "community A community is a social unit (a group of living things) with commonality such as norms, religion Religion is a social system, social-cultural system of design ...
(lit. 'community and society'),
collective consciousness Collective consciousness, collective conscience, or collective conscious (french: conscience collective) is the set of shared beliefs, ideas, and moral attitudes which operate as a unifying force within society.''Collins Dictionary of Sociology ...
, etc. However, different schools and theories of
sociology Sociology is a social science Social science is the branch The branches and leaves of a tree. A branch ( or , ) or tree branch (sometimes referred to in botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the scie ...
and other social sciences dispute the methods used for such investigations.


Forms of relation and interaction

According to
Piotr Sztompka Piotr Sztompka (born 2 March 1944, in Warsaw Warsaw ( ; pl, Warszawa ; see also Warsaw#Toponymy and names, other names) is the capital and List of cities and towns in Poland, largest city of Poland. The metropolis stands on the Vistula Rive ...
, forms of relation and interaction in sociology and
anthropology Anthropology is the scientific study of human Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most abundant and widespread species In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, ...
may be described as follows: first and most basic are animal-like
behavior Behavior (American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English language native to the United States. Currently, American English ...
s, i.e. various physical movements of the body. Then there are
action ACTION is a bus operator in , Australia owned by the . History On 19 July 1926, the commenced operating public bus services between Eastlake (now ) in the south and in the north. The service was first known as Canberra City Omnibus Se ...
s—movements with a meaning and purpose. Then there are
social behavior Social behavior is behavior Behavior (American English) or behaviour (British English; American and British English spelling differences#-our, -or, see spelling differences) is the Action (philosophy), actions and mannerisms made by individ ...
s, or social actions, which address (directly or indirectly) other people, which solicit a response from another agent. Next are
social contacts
social contacts
, a pair of social actions, which form the beginning of social interactions. Social interactions in turn form the basis of social relations. Symbols define social relationships. Without symbols, our social life would be no more sophisticated than that of animals. For example, without symbols people would have no aunts or uncles, employers or teachers-or even brothers and sisters. In sum, symbolic integrations analyze how social life depends on the ways people define themselves and others. They study
face-to-face interaction In sociology, linguistics, media studies and communication studies, face-to-face interaction (less often, face-to-face communication or face-to-face discourse) is social interaction carried out without any mediated communication, mediating technolog ...
, examining how people make sense out of life, how they determine their relationships.


See also

*
Affectional action An affectional action (also known as an affectual, emotional, or affective action) is one of four major types of social action In sociology Sociology is a social science Social science is the Branches of science, branch of science dev ...
*
Communicative action In sociology Sociology is the study of society, human social behaviour, patterns of social relationships, social interaction, and culture that surrounds everyday life. It is a social science that uses various methods of Empirical method, empir ...
*
Dramaturgical action Dramaturgy is a sociological Sociology is the study of society A society is a Social group, group of individuals involved in persistent Social relation, social interaction, or a large social group sharing the same spatial or social ter ...
*
Instrumental and value-rational action "Instrumental" and "value-rational action" are terms scholars use to identify two kinds of behavior that humans can engage in. Scholars call using means that "work" as tools, instrumental action, and pursuing ends that are "right" as legitimate end ...
*
Interdependence Systems theory is the interdisciplinary study of systems, i.e. cohesive groups of interrelated, interdependent parts that can be natural or man-made, human-made. Every system is bounded by space and time, influenced by its environment, defined by i ...
*
Interpersonal relationship The concept of interpersonal relationship involves social associations, connections, or affiliations between two or more people. Interpersonal relationships vary in their degree of intimacy or self-disclosure, but also in their duration, in t ...
*
Relations of production Relations of production (german: Produktionsverhältnisse, links=no) is a concept frequently used by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels in their theory of historical materialism and in '' Das Kapital''. It is first explicitly used in Marx's publi ...
*
Social isolation Social isolation is a state of complete or near-complete lack of contact between an individual and society A society is a Social group, group of individuals involved in persistent Social relation, social interaction, or a large social gro ...
*
Social movement A social movement is a loosely organized effort by a large group of people to achieve a particular goal, typically a social Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in interacting populations. This interaction is considered social wh ...
*
Social multiplier effectThe social multiplier effect is a term used in economics Economics () is the social science that studies how people interact with value; in particular, the Production (economics), production, distribution (economics), distribution, and Consu ...
*
Symbolic interactionism Symbolic interactionism is a sociological Sociology is a social science Social science is the Branches of science, branch of science devoted to the study of society, societies and the Social relation, relationships among individuals ...
* Traditional action


Related disciplines

*
Engaged theory An engagement or betrothal is the period of time between a marriage proposal and the marriage in Stockholm Marriage, also called matrimony or wedlock, is a culturally recognised union between people, called spouses, that establishe ...
*
Social philosophy Social philosophy examines questions about the foundations of social institution Institutions, according to Samuel P. Huntington, are "stable, valued, recurring patterns of behavior." Institutions can refer to social mechanism, mechanisms which ...
*
Social psychology Social psychology is the scientific Science () is a systematic enterprise that Scientific method, builds and organizes knowledge in the form of Testability, testable explanations and predictions about the universe."... modern scienc ...

Social psychology
* Relationship Science


References


Bibliography

* Azarian, Reza. 2010. "Social Ties: Elements of a Substantive Conceptualisation." '' Acta Sociologica'' 53(4):323–38. *
Piotr Sztompka Piotr Sztompka (born 2 March 1944, in Warsaw Warsaw ( ; pl, Warszawa ; see also Warsaw#Toponymy and names, other names) is the capital and List of cities and towns in Poland, largest city of Poland. The metropolis stands on the Vistula Rive ...
, Socjologia, Znak, 2002, *
Weber, Max
Weber, Max
. "The Nature of Social Action." In ''Weber: Selections in Translation'', edited by W. G. Runciman. Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge , mottoeng = Literal: From here, light and sacred draughts. Non literal: From this place, we gain enlightenment and precious knowled ...
. 1991.
{{Authority control Community building Interpersonal relationships