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A smartphone is a
portable device A mobile device (or handheld computer) is a computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. Modern computers can perform generic sets of operations known as ...
that combines
mobile telephone A mobile phone, cellular phone, cell phone, cellphone, handphone, or hand phone, sometimes shortened to simply mobile, cell or just phone, is a portable telephone A telephone is a telecommunications Appliance (disambiguation), devic ...

mobile telephone
and
computing Computing is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating computing machinery. It includes the study and experimentation of algorithmic processes and development of both computer hardware , hardware and software. It has sci ...
functions into one unit. They are distinguished from
feature phone A feature phone is a type or class of mobile phone A mobile phone, cellular phone, cell phone, cellphone, handphone, or hand phone, sometimes shortened to simply mobile, cell or just phone, is a portable telephone that can make and recei ...
s by their stronger hardware capabilities and extensive
mobile operating system A mobile operating system is an operating system An operating system (OS) is system software that manages computer hardware, computer software, software resources, and provides common daemon (computing), services for computer programs. Time-sh ...
s, which facilitate wider
software Software is a collection of Instruction (computer science), instructions that tell a computer how to work. This is in contrast to Computer hardware, hardware, from which the system is built and actually performs the work. At the low level lang ...
,
internet The Internet (or internet) is the global system of interconnected computer networks that uses the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to communicate between networks and devices. It is a ''internetworking, network of networks'' that consist ...

internet
(including
web browsingWeb navigation refers to the process of navigating a network of information resources in the World Wide Web upright=1.35, A global map of the web index for countries in 2014 The World Wide Web (WWW), commonly known as the Web, is an infor ...
over
mobile broadband Mobile broadband is the marketing term for wireless Wireless communication (or just wireless, when the context allows) is the transfer of information between two or more points that do not use an electrical conductor as a medium by which to ...
), and
multimedia Multimedia is a form of communication that combines different such as , , , , or into a single interactive presentation, in contrast to traditional mass media which featured little to no interaction fr ...

multimedia
functionality (including music, video,
camera A camera is an optical Optics is the branch of physics Physics is the natural science that studies matter, its Elementary particle, fundamental constituents, its Motion (physics), motion and behavior through Spacetime, space and t ...
s, and
gaming Gaming may refer to: Games and sports The act of playing game with separate sliding drawer, from 1390 to 1353 BC, made of glazed faience, dimensions: 5.5 × 7.7 × 21 cm, in the Brooklyn Museum (New York City) '', 1560, Pieter Bru ...
), alongside core phone functions such as voice calls and
text messaging Text messaging, or texting, is the act of composing and sending electronic messages, typically consisting of alphabetic and numeric characters, between two or more users of mobile device A mobile device (or handheld computer) is a computer ...
. Smartphones typically contain a number of
metal–oxide–semiconductor The metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET, MOS-FET, or MOS FET), also known as the metal–oxide–silicon transistor (MOS transistor, or MOS), is a type of insulated-gate field-effect transistor The field-effect tran ...
(MOS)
integrated circuit An integrated circuit or monolithic integrated circuit (also referred to as an IC, a chip, or a microchip) is a set of electronic circuit 200px, A circuit built on a printed circuit board (PCB). An electronic circuit is composed of indiv ...

integrated circuit
(IC) chips, include various
sensor A sensor is a device that produces an output signal for the purpose of sensing of a physical phenomenon. In the broadest definition, a sensor is a device, module, machine, or subsystem that detects events or changes in its environment and se ...

sensor
s that can be leveraged by pre-included and third-party software (such as a
magnetometer A magnetometer is a device that measures magnetic field A magnetic field is a vector field In vector calculus and physics, a vector field is an assignment of a vector to each point in a subset of space. For instance, a vector field in ...
,
proximity sensor Smartphone optical proximity sensor without the phone's casing. The sensor itself is the black object on top of the yellow block below it; this block is actually a printed circuit board serving as an interposer. ">interposer.html" ;"title="print ...

proximity sensor
s,
barometer A barometer is a scientific instrument that is used to measure air pressure Atmospheric pressure, also known as barometric pressure (after the barometer A barometer is a scientific instrument that is used to measure air pressure in a certa ...

barometer
,
gyroscope A gyroscope (from Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the used in and the from around 1500 BC to 300 BC. It is often roughly divided into the following periods: (), Dark Ages (), the period (), and the period (). ...

gyroscope
,
accelerometer An accelerometer is a tool that measures . Proper acceleration is the (the of ) of a body in its own instantaneous ; this is different from coordinate acceleration, which is acceleration in a fixed . For example, an accelerometer at rest on the s ...

accelerometer
and
more More or Mores may refer to: Computing * MORE (application), outline software for Mac OS * more (command), a shell command * MORE protocol, a routing protocol * Missouri Research and Education Network Music Albums * More! (album), ''More!'' (album ...
), and support
wireless Wireless communication (or just wireless, when the context allows) is the transfer of information between two or more points that do not use an electrical conductor In physics Physics (from grc, φυσική (ἐπιστήμη), ph ...

wireless
communications protocols (such as
Bluetooth Bluetooth is a short-range wireless Wireless communication (or just wireless, when the context allows) is the telecommunication, transfer of information between two or more points that do not use an electrical conductor as a medium by which ...

Bluetooth
,
Wi-Fi Wi-Fi () is a family of wireless network A wireless network is a computer network that uses wireless data connections between network nodes. Wireless networking is a method by which homes, telecommunications networks and business installa ...

Wi-Fi
, or
satellite navigation A satellite navigation or satnav system is a system that uses satellite In the context of spaceflight Spaceflight (or space flight) is an application of astronautics to fly spacecraft into or through outer space, either human spacefl ...
). Early smartphones were marketed primarily towards the enterprise market, attempting to bridge the functionality of standalone
personal digital assistant#REDIRECT Personal digital assistant The Palm TX A personal digital assistant (PDA), also known as a handheld PC, is a variety mobile device which functions as a personal information manager. PDAs have been mostly displaced by the widesprea ...
(PDA) devices with support for cellular
telephony Telephony ( ) is the field of technology involving the development, application, and deployment of telecommunication services for the purpose of electronic transmission of voice, fax, or data, between distant parties. The history of telephony is i ...
, but were limited by their bulky form, short battery life, slow analog
cellular networks A cellular network or mobile network is a communication network where the last link is wireless Wireless communication (or just wireless, when the context allows) is the transfer of information between two or more points that do not use an ...
, and the immaturity of wireless data services. These issues were eventually resolved with the exponential scaling and
miniaturization Miniaturization ( Br.Eng.: ''Miniaturisation'') is the trend to manufacture ever smaller mechanical, optical and electronic products and devices. Examples include miniaturization of mobile phones A mobile phone, cellular phone, cell phone, ...
of
MOS transistor The metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET, MOS-FET, or MOS FET), also known as the metal–oxide–silicon transistor (MOS transistor, or MOS), is a type of insulated-gate field-effect transistor The field-effect trans ...
s down to sub-micron levels (
Moore's law Moore's law is the observation that the number of transistor upright=1.4, gate Candi bentar, a typical Indonesian gate that is often found on the islands of Java">Indonesia.html" ;"title="Candi bentar, a typical Indonesia">Candi be ...
), the improved
lithium-ion battery A lithium-ion battery or Li-ion battery is a type of rechargeable battery A rechargeable battery, storage battery, or secondary cell, (or archaically accumulator) is a type of electrical battery A battery is a device consisting of o ...
, faster
digital Digital usually refers to something using discrete digits, often binary digits. Technology and computing Hardware *Digital electronics Digital electronics is a field of electronics The field of electronics is a branch of physics and electr ...
mobile data networks (
Edholm's law Edholm's law, proposed by and named after Phil Edholm, refers to the observation that the three categories of telecommunication, namely wireless (mobile), nomadic (wireless without mobility) and wired Telecommunications network, networks (fixed), a ...
), and more mature
software Software is a collection of instructions Instruction or instructions may refer to: Computing * Instruction, one operation of a processor within a computer architecture instruction set * Computer program, a collection of instructions Music * I ...
platforms that allowed mobile device
ecosystems An ecosystem (or ecological system) consists of all the organisms and the physical environment with which they interact. These biotic and abiotic components are linked together through nutrient cycles and energy flows. Energy enters the syste ...
to develop independently of data providers. In the 2000s,
NTT DoCoMo is a Japanese mobile phone operator A mobile phone operator, wireless provider, or carrier is a mobile telecommunications company A company, abbreviated as co., is a Legal personality, legal entity representing an association of people, ...
's
i-mode NTT DoCoMo is a Japanese . The name is officially , "''do communications over the mobile network''", and is also from a ''dokomo'', meaning "everywhere" in Japanese. Docomo provides phone, video phone ( and Some ), (internet), and mail ( ...
platform,
BlackBerry The blackberry is an edible fruit produced by many species in the genus ''Rubus'' in the family (biology), family Rosaceae, hybrids among these species within the subgenus ''Rubus'', and hybrids between the subgenera ''Rubus'' and ''Idaeobatus'' ...

BlackBerry
,
Nokia Nokia Corporation (natively Nokia Oyj, referred to as Nokia; stylized as NOKIA) is a Finnish multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational for ...

Nokia
's
Symbian Symbian is a discontinued mobile operating system (OS) and computing platform designed for smartphones. Symbian was originally developed as a proprietary software OS for Personal digital assistant, PDAs in 1998 by the Symbian Ltd. consortium. ...
platform, and
Windows Mobile Windows Mobile is a discontinued family of mobile operating system A mobile operating system is an operating system An operating system (OS) is system software System software is software designed to provide a platform for other software. ...
began to gain market traction, with models often featuring
QWERTY QWERTY () is a keyboard layout, keyboard design for Latin-script alphabets. The name comes from the order of the first six Computer keyboard keys#Key types, keys on the top left letter row of the keyboard ( ). The QWERTY design is based ...

QWERTY
keyboards or
resistive touchscreen In electrical engineering Electrical engineering is an engineering discipline concerned with the study, design, and application of equipment, devices, and systems which use electricity, electronics The field of electronics is a branch of ph ...
input, and emphasizing access to
push emailPush email is an email system that provides an always-on capability, in which new email is actively transferred ( pushed) as it arrives by the mail delivery agent (MDA) (commonly called mail server) to the mail user agent The mail or post is a s ...
and wireless internet. Following the rising popularity of the
iPhone {{Infobox information appliance , name = iPhone , logo = , image = , caption = The front face of an iPhone 13 Pro The iPhone 13 Pro and iPhone 13 Pro Max are smartphones designed and marketed by Apple Inc. They are the flagship smart ...

iPhone
in the late 2000s, the majority of smartphones have featured thin, slate-like form factors, with large,
capacitive A capacitor is a device that stores electric charge in an electric field An electric field (sometimes E-field) is the physical field that surrounds electrically-charged particle In physics Physics (from grc, φυσική (ἐπ ...
screens with support for
multi-touch In computing Computing is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating computing machinery. It includes the study and experimentation of algorithm of an algorithm (Euclid's algorithm) for calculating the greatest commo ...
gestures rather than physical keyboards, and offer the ability for users to download or purchase additional
applications Application may refer to: Mathematics and computing * Application software, computer software designed to help the user to perform specific tasks ** Application layer, an abstraction layer that specifies protocols and interface methods used in a co ...
from a centralized
store
store
, and use
cloud storage Cloud storage is a model of computer data storage in which the digital data is stored in logical Pool (computer science), pools, said to be on "the cloud". The storage virtualization, physical storage spans multiple Server (computing), servers (so ...
and synchronization,
virtual assistant remote control In electronics Electronics comprises the physics, engineering, technology and applications that deal with the emission, flow and control of electrons in vacuum and matter. It uses active devices to control electron flow ...
s, as well as
mobile payment Mobile payment (also referred to as mobile money, mobile money transfer, and mobile wallet A digital wallet, also known as e-wallet, is an Consumer electronics, electronic device, Online service provider, online service, or Computer program, s ...
services. Smartphones have largely replaced PDAs, handheld/palm-sized PCs and
portable media player A portable media player (PMP) or digital audio player (DAP) is a portable consumer electronics device capable of storing and playing digital media such as audio, images, and video files. The data is typically stored on a compact disc (CD), Di ...
s (PMP). Improved hardware and faster wireless communication (due to standards such as LTE) have bolstered the growth of the smartphone industry. In the third quarter of 2012, one billion smartphones were in use worldwide. Global smartphone sales surpassed the sales figures for feature phones in early 2013.


History

The development of the smartphone was enabled by several key technological advances. The exponential scaling and
miniaturization Miniaturization ( Br.Eng.: ''Miniaturisation'') is the trend to manufacture ever smaller mechanical, optical and electronic products and devices. Examples include miniaturization of mobile phones A mobile phone, cellular phone, cell phone, ...
of
MOSFET The metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET, MOS-FET, or MOS FET), also known as the metal–oxide–silicon transistor (MOS transistor, or MOS), is a type of insulated-gate field-effect transistor that is fabricated by th ...

MOSFET
s (MOS transistors) down to sub-micron levels during the 1990s2000s (as predicted by
Moore's law Moore's law is the observation that the number of transistor upright=1.4, gate Candi bentar, a typical Indonesian gate that is often found on the islands of Java">Indonesia.html" ;"title="Candi bentar, a typical Indonesia">Candi be ...
) made it possible to build portable
smart devices A smart device is an electronics, electronic device, generally connected to other devices or networks via different wireless protocols such as Bluetooth, Zigbee, Near field communication, NFC, Wi-Fi, LiFi, 5G, etc., that can operate to some extent ...
such as smartphones, as well as enabling the transition from analog to faster digital
wireless Wireless communication (or just wireless, when the context allows) is the transfer of information between two or more points that do not use an electrical conductor In physics Physics (from grc, φυσική (ἐπιστήμη), ph ...

wireless
mobile network A cellular network or mobile network is a communication network A telecommunications network is a group of nodes In general, a node is a localized swelling (a "knot") or a point of intersection (a Vertex (graph theory), vertex). Node may re ...

mobile network
s (leading to
Edholm's law Edholm's law, proposed by and named after Phil Edholm, refers to the observation that the three categories of telecommunication, namely wireless (mobile), nomadic (wireless without mobility) and wired Telecommunications network, networks (fixed), a ...
). Other important enabling factors include the
lithium-ion battery A lithium-ion battery or Li-ion battery is a type of rechargeable battery A rechargeable battery, storage battery, or secondary cell, (or archaically accumulator) is a type of electrical battery A battery is a device consisting of o ...
, an indispensable
energy source Energy development is the field of activities focused on obtaining sources of energy from natural resources. These activities include production of conventional, alternative and renewable sources of energy, and for the recovery and reuse of en ...

energy source
enabling long battery life, invented in the 1980s and commercialized in 1991, and the development of more mature
software Software is a collection of instructions Instruction or instructions may refer to: Computing * Instruction, one operation of a processor within a computer architecture instruction set * Computer program, a collection of instructions Music * I ...
platforms that allowed mobile device
ecosystems An ecosystem (or ecological system) consists of all the organisms and the physical environment with which they interact. These biotic and abiotic components are linked together through nutrient cycles and energy flows. Energy enters the syste ...
to develop independently of data providers.


Forerunner

In the early 1990s,
IBM International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Armonk, New York, with operations in over 170 countries. The company began in 1911, founded in Endicott, New York, as the C ...

IBM
engineer Frank Canova realised that chip-and-wireless technology was becoming small enough to use in
handheld devices A mobile device (or handheld computer) is a computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. Modern computers can perform generic sets of operations known as ...

handheld devices
. The first commercially available device that could be properly referred to as a "smartphone" began as a prototype called "Angler" developed by Canova in 1992 while at IBM and demonstrated in November of that year at the
COMDEX COMDEX (an abbreviation of COMputer Dealers' EXhibition) was a computer expo A trade fair (trade show, trade exhibition, or trade exposition) is an exhibition organized so that companies A company, abbreviated as co., is a Legal personality ...
computer industry trade show. A refined version was marketed to consumers in 1994 by
BellSouth BellSouth, LLC (stylized as ''BELLSOUTH'' and formerly known as BellSouth Corporation) was an American American(s) may refer to: * American, something of, from, or related to the United States of America, commonly known as the United States ...
under the name Simon Personal Communicator. In addition to placing and receiving cellular
call Call or Calls may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Games * Call, a type of betting in poker * Call, in the game of contract bridge, a bid, pass, double, or redouble in the bidding stage Music and dance * Call (band), from Lahore, Pakis ...
s, the touchscreen-equipped Simon could send and receive
fax , which was modern for fax machines at that time. which required special, relatively expensive thermal paper Thermal paper (sometimes referred to as an audit roll) is a special fine paper that is coated with a material formulated to change col ...

fax
es and
email upThe email_address.html"_;"title="at_sign,_a_part_of_every_SMTP_email_address">at_sign,_a_part_of_every_SMTP_email_address Electronic_mail_(email_or_e-mail)_is_a_method_of_exchanging_messages_("mail")_between_people_using_electronic_dev ...

email
s. It included an address book, calendar, appointment scheduler, calculator, world time clock, and notepad, as well as other visionary mobile applications such as maps, stock reports and news. The
IBM Simon The IBM Simon Personal Communicator (simply known as IBM Simon) is a handheld, touchscreen PDA The Palm TX A personal digital assistant (PDA), also known as a handheld PC, is a variety mobile device which functions as a personal inform ...
was manufactured by
Mitsubishi Electric , established on 15 January 1921, is a Japanese multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countries * Mul ...
, which integrated features from its own wireless
personal digital assistant#REDIRECT Personal digital assistant The Palm TX A personal digital assistant (PDA), also known as a handheld PC, is a variety mobile device which functions as a personal information manager. PDAs have been mostly displaced by the widesprea ...
(PDA) and
cellular radio A mobile phone, cellular phone, cell phone, cellphone, handphone, or hand phone, sometimes shortened to simply mobile, cell or just phone, is a portable telephone A telephone is a telecommunications Appliance (disambiguation), devic ...
technologies. It featured a
liquid-crystal display A liquid-crystal display (LCD) is a flat panel display, flat-panel display or other Electro-optic modulator, electronically modulated optical device that uses the light-modulating properties of liquid crystals combined with polarizers. Liquid c ...

liquid-crystal display
(LCD) and
PC Card In computing Computing is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating computing machinery. It includes the study and experimentation of algorithmic processes and development of both computer hardware , hardware and softw ...

PC Card
support. The Simon was commercially unsuccessful, particularly due to its bulky form factor and limited battery life, using NiCad batteries rather than the nickel–metal hydride batteries commonly used in mobile phones in the 1990s, or
lithium-ion batteries A lithium-ion battery or Li-ion battery is a type of rechargeable battery A rechargeable battery, storage battery, or secondary cell, (or archaically accumulator) is a type of electrical battery A battery is a device consisting of o ...
used in modern smartphones. The term "smart phone" was not coined until a year after the introduction of the Simon, appearing in print as early as 1995, describing AT&T's PhoneWriter Communicator. The term "smartphone" was first used by
Ericsson (lit. "Telephone Stock Company of LM Ericsson"), commonly known as Ericsson, is a Swedish Swedish or ' may refer to: * Anything from or related to Sweden, a country in Northern Europe * Swedish language, a North Germanic language spoken pri ...

Ericsson
in 1997 to describe a new device concept, the GS88.


PDA/phone hybrids

Beginning in the mid-late 1990s, many people who had mobile phones carried a separate dedicated
PDA PDA may refer to: Science and technology * Patron-driven acquisition, a mechanism for libraries to purchase books *Personal digital assistant, a mobile device * Photodiode array, a type of detector * Polydiacetylenes, a family of conducting polym ...
device, running early versions of operating systems such as
Palm OS Palm OS (also known as Garnet OS) is a discontinued mobile operating system initially developed by Palm, Inc., for personal digital assistants (PDAs) in 1996. Palm OS was designed for ease of use with a touchscreen-based graphical user interface. ...
,
Newton OS ''Newton OS'' is a discontinued operating system An operating system (OS) is system software that manages computer hardware, computer software, software resources, and provides common daemon (computing), services for computer programs. Time-sh ...
,
Symbian Symbian is a discontinued mobile operating system (OS) and computing platform designed for smartphones. Symbian was originally developed as a proprietary software OS for Personal digital assistant, PDAs in 1998 by the Symbian Ltd. consortium. ...
or
Windows CE Windows Embedded Compact, formerly Windows Embedded CE, Windows Powered and Windows CE, is an operating system An operating system (OS) is system software System software is software designed to provide a platform for other software. Exampl ...
/
Pocket PC A Pocket PC (P/PC, PPC) is a class of personal digital assistant#REDIRECT Personal digital assistant The Palm TX A personal digital assistant (PDA), also known as a handheld PC, is a variety mobile device which functions as a personal ...

Pocket PC
. These operating systems would later evolve into early
mobile operating system A mobile operating system is an operating system An operating system (OS) is system software that manages computer hardware, computer software, software resources, and provides common daemon (computing), services for computer programs. Time-sh ...
s. Most of the "smartphones" in this era were hybrid devices that combined these existing familiar PDA OSes with basic phone hardware. The results were devices that were bulkier than either dedicated mobile phones or PDAs, but allowed a limited amount of cellular Internet access. PDA and mobile phone manufacturers competed in reducing the size of devices. The bulk of these smartphones combined with their high cost and expensive data plans, plus other drawbacks such as expansion limitations and decreased battery life compared to separate standalone devices, generally limited their popularity to "
early adopterAn early adopter or lighthouse customer is an early customer of a given company, product (business), product, or technology. The term originates from Everett M. Rogers' ''Diffusion of Innovations'' (1962). History Typically this will be a customer w ...
s" and business users who needed portable connectivity. In March 1996,
Hewlett-Packard The Hewlett-Packard Company, commonly shortened to Hewlett-Packard ( ) or HP, was an American multinational information technology company headquartered in Palo Alto, California Palo Alto (; Spanish language, Spanish for "tall stick" ...

Hewlett-Packard
released the OmniGo 700LX, a modified
HP 200LX The HP 200LX Palmtop PC (F1060A, F1061A, F1216A), also known as project ''Felix'', is a personal digital assistant#REDIRECT Personal digital assistant The Palm TX A personal digital assistant (PDA), also known as a handheld PC, is ...
palmtop PC with a
Nokia 2110 The Nokia 2110 is a cellular phone A mobile phone, cellular phone, cell phone, cellphone, handphone, or hand phone, sometimes shortened to simply mobile, cell or just phone, is a portable telephone A telephone is a telecommunicati ...
mobile phone piggybacked onto it and
ROM Rom, or ROM may refer to: Biomechanics and medicine * Risk of mortality The risk of mortality (ROM) provides a medical classification to estimate the likelihood of inhospital death for a patient. The ROM classes are minor, moderate, major, and ex ...
-based software to support it. It had a 640×200 resolution CGA compatible four-shade gray-scale LCD screen and could be used to place and receive calls, and to create and receive text messages, emails and faxes. It was also 100%
DOS DOS (, ) is a platform-independent acronym for disk operating system which later became a common shorthand for disk-based operating systems on IBM PC compatible IBM PC compatible computers are similar to the original IBM Personal Computer, IB ...

DOS
5.0 compatible, allowing it to run thousands of existing software titles, including early versions of
Windows Microsoft Windows, commonly referred to as Windows, is a group of several proprietary {{Short pages monitor


Mobile app

A mobile app is a computer program designed to run on a mobile device, such as a smartphone. The term "app" is a short-form of the term "software application".


Application stores

The introduction of Apple's App Store for the iPhone and iPod Touch in July 2008 popularized manufacturer-hosted list of digital distribution platforms for mobile devices, online distribution for third-party applications (software and computer programs) focused on a single platform. There are a huge variety of apps, including video games, music products and business tools. Up until that point, smartphone application distribution depended on List of digital distribution platforms for mobile devices#Third-party platforms, third-party sources providing applications for multiple platforms, such as GetJar, Handango, Handmark, and PocketGear. Following the success of the App Store, other smartphone manufacturers launched application stores, such as Google's Android Market (later renamed to the Google Play Store) and RIM's BlackBerry App World, Android-related app stores like Aptoide, Cafe Bazaar, F-Droid, GetJar, and Opera Mobile Store. In February 2014, 93% of mobile developers were targeting smartphones first for mobile app development.


Sales

Since 1996, smartphone shipments have had positive growth. In November 2011, 27% of all photographs created were taken with camera-equipped smartphones. In September 2012, a study concluded that 4 out of 5 smartphone owners use the device to shop online. Global smartphone sales surpassed the sales figures for feature phones in early 2013. Worldwide shipments of smartphones topped 1 billion units in 2013, up 38% from 2012's 725 million, while comprising a 55% share of the mobile phone market in 2013, up from 42% in 2012. In 2013, smartphone sales began to decline for the first time. In Q1 2016 for the first time the shipments dropped by 3 percent :wikt:year-over-year, year on year. The situation was caused by the maturing China market. A report by NPD shows that fewer than 10% of US citizens have bought $1,000+ smartphones, as they are too expensive for most people, without introducing particularly innovative features, and amid Huawei, Oppo and Xiaomi introducing products with similar feature sets for lower prices. In 2019, smartphone sales declined by 3.2%, the largest in smartphone history, while China and India were credited with driving most smartphone sales worldwide. It is predicted that widespread adoption of 5G will help drive new smartphone sales.


By manufacturer

In 2011, Samsung had the highest shipment market share worldwide, followed by Apple. In 2013, Samsung had 31.3% market share, a slight increase from 30.3% in 2012, while Apple was at 15.3%, a decrease from 18.7% in 2012. Huawei, LG and Lenovo were at about 5% each, significantly better than 2012 figures, while others had about 40%, the same as the previous years figure. Only Apple lost market share, although their shipment volume still increased by 12.9%; the rest had significant increases in shipment volumes of 36–92%. In Q1 2014, Samsung had a 31% share and Apple had 16%. In Q4 2014, Apple had a 20.4% share and Samsung had 19.9%. In Q2 2016, Samsung had a 22.3% share and Apple had 12.9%. In Q1 2017, IDC reported that Samsung was first placed, with 80 million units, followed by Apple with 50.8 million, Huawei with 34.6 million, Oppo with 25.5 million and Vivo with 22.7 million. Samsung's mobile business is half the size of Apple's, by revenue. Apple business increased very rapidly in the years 2013 to 2017. Realme, a brand owned by Oppo, is the fastest-growing phone brand worldwide since Q2 2019. In China, Huawei and Honor, a brand owned by Huawei, have 46% of market share combined and posted 66% annual growth as of 2019, amid growing Chinese nationalism. In 2019, Samsung had a 74% market share in 5G smartphones while 5G smartphones had 1% of market share in China. Research has shown that iPhones are commonly associated with wealth, and that the average iPhone user has 40% more annual income than the average Android user. Women are more likely than men to own an iPhone. TrendForce predicts that foldable phones will start to become popular in 2021.


By operating system


Use


Contemporary use and convergence

The rise in popularity of touchscreen smartphones and mobile apps distributed via app stores along with rapidly advancing Cellular network, network, mobile processor, and Computer data storage, storage technologies led to a Technological convergence, convergence where separate mobile phones, Personal organizer, organizers, and
portable media player A portable media player (PMP) or digital audio player (DAP) is a portable consumer electronics device capable of storing and playing digital media such as audio, images, and video files. The data is typically stored on a compact disc (CD), Di ...
s were replaced by a smartphone as the single device most people carried. Advances in Image sensor, digital camera sensors and on-device Digital image processing, image processing software more gradually led to smartphones replacing simpler Point-and-shoot camera, cameras for photographs and video recording. The built-in Global navigation satellite systems, GPS capabilities and List of online map services, mapping apps on smartphones largely replaced stand-alone
satellite navigation A satellite navigation or satnav system is a system that uses satellite In the context of spaceflight Spaceflight (or space flight) is an application of astronautics to fly spacecraft into or through outer space, either human spacefl ...
Personal navigation assistant#Market developments, devices, and paper Road map, maps became less common. Mobile gaming on smartphones greatly grew in popularity, allowing many people to use them in place of handheld game consoles, and some companies tried creating game console/phone hybrids based on phone hardware and software. People frequently have chosen not to get Landline, fixed-line telephone service in favor of smartphones. Streaming media#Music streaming platforms, Music streaming apps and services have grown rapidly in popularity, serving the same use as listening to music stations on a terrestrial or satellite Radio receiver, radio. Streaming media, Streaming video services are easily accessed via smartphone apps and can be used in place of watching television. People have often stopped wearing wristwatches in favor of checking the time on their smartphones, and many use the clock features on their phones in place of alarm clocks. Mobile phones can also be used as a digital note taking, text editing and memorandum device whose computerization facilitates searching of entries. Additionally, Global Internet usage#Broadband usage, in many lesser technologically developed regions smartphones are people's first and only means of Mobile broadband, Internet access due to their portability, with personal computers being relatively uncommon outside of business use. The cameras on smartphones can be used to photograph documents and send them via email or Text messaging, messaging in place of using
fax , which was modern for fax machines at that time. which required special, relatively expensive thermal paper Thermal paper (sometimes referred to as an audit roll) is a special fine paper that is coated with a material formulated to change col ...

fax
(facsimile) machines. Mobile payment, Payment apps and services on smartphones allow people to make less use of wallets, purses, credit and debit cards, and cash. Mobile banking apps can allow people to deposit checks simply by photographing them, eliminating the need to take the physical check to an Automated teller machine, ATM or teller. Guide book apps can take the place of paper travel and restaurant/business guides, museum brochures, and dedicated Audio tour#Smartphone tours, audio guide equipment.


Mobile banking and payment

In many countries, mobile phones are used to provide mobile banking services, which may include the ability to transfer cash payments by secure SMS text message. Kenya's M-PESA mobile banking service, for example, allows customers of the mobile phone operator Safaricom to hold cash balances which are recorded on their SIM cards. Cash can be deposited or withdrawn from M-PESA accounts at Safaricom retail outlets located throughout the country and can be transferred electronically from person to person and used to pay bills to companies. Branchless banking has been successful in South Africa and the Philippines. A pilot project in Bali was launched in 2011 by the International Finance Corporation and an Indonesian bank, Bank Mandiri. Another application of mobile banking technology is Zidisha, a US-based nonprofit micro-lending platform that allows residents of developing countries to raise small business loans from Web users worldwide. Zidisha uses mobile banking for loan disbursements and repayments, transferring funds from lenders in the United States to borrowers in rural Africa who have mobile phones and can use the Internet. Mobile payments were first trialled in Finland in 1998 when two Coca-Cola vending machines in Espoo were enabled to work with SMS payments. Eventually, the idea spread and in 1999, the Philippines launched the country's first commercial mobile payments systems with mobile operators Globe Telecom, Globe and Smart Communications, Smart. Some mobile phones can make
mobile payment Mobile payment (also referred to as mobile money, mobile money transfer, and mobile wallet A digital wallet, also known as e-wallet, is an Consumer electronics, electronic device, Online service provider, online service, or Computer program, s ...
s via direct mobile billing schemes, or through contactless payments if the phone and the point of sale support near field communication (NFC). Enabling contactless payments through NFC-equipped mobile phones requires the co-operation of manufacturers, network operators, and retail merchants.


Facsimile

Some mobile apps, apps allows for sending and receiving Fax, facsimile (Fax), over a smartphone, including facsimile data (composed of raster Binary image, bi-level graphics) generated directly and digitally from Document file format, document and Image file formats, image file formats.


Criticism and issues


Social impacts

In 2012, University of Southern California study found that Safe sex, unprotected adolescent sexuality, adolescent sexual activity was more common among owners of smartphones. A study conducted by the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute's (RPI) Lighting Research Center (LRC) concluded that smartphones, or any backlit devices, can seriously affect Stages of sleep, sleep cycles. Some persons might become psychologically attached to smartphones resulting in anxiety when separated from the devices. A "smombie" (a combination of "smartphone" and "zombie") is a walking person using a smartphone and not paying attention as they walk, possibly risking an accident in the process, an increasing social phenomenon. The issue of slow-moving smartphone users led to the temporary creation of a "mobile lane" for walking in Chongqing, China. The issue of distracted smartphone users led the city of Augsburg, Germany to embed pedestrian traffic lights in the pavement.


While driving

Mobile phone use while driving—including Telephone call, calling,
text messaging Text messaging, or texting, is the act of composing and sending electronic messages, typically consisting of alphabetic and numeric characters, between two or more users of mobile device A mobile device (or handheld computer) is a computer ...
, playing media,
web browsingWeb navigation refers to the process of navigating a network of information resources in the World Wide Web upright=1.35, A global map of the web index for countries in 2014 The World Wide Web (WWW), commonly known as the Web, is an infor ...
, Video game, gaming, using mapping apps or operating other phone features—is common but controversial, since it is widely considered dangerous due to what is known as distracted driving. Being distracted while operating a motor vehicle has been shown to increase the risk of accidents. In September 2010, the US National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) reported that 995 people were killed by drivers distracted by phones. In March 2011 a US insurance company, State Farm Insurance, announced the results of a study which showed 19% of drivers surveyed accessed the Internet on a smartphone while driving. Many jurisdictions prohibit the use of mobile phones while driving. In Egypt, Israel, Japan, Portugal and Singapore, both handheld and hands-free telephone call, calling on a mobile phone (which uses a speakerphone) is banned. In other countries, including the UK and France, and in many US states, calling is only banned on handheld phones, while hands-free calling is permitted. A 2011 study reported that over 90% of college students surveyed text (initiate, reply or read) while driving. The scientific literature on the danger of driving while sending a text message from a mobile phone, or texting while driving, is limited. A simulation study at the University of Utah found a sixfold increase in distraction-related accidents when texting. Due to the complexity of smartphones that began to grow more after, this has introduced additional difficulties for law enforcement officials when attempting to distinguish one usage from another in drivers using their devices. This is more apparent in countries which ban both handheld and hands-free usage, rather than those which ban handheld use only, as officials cannot easily tell which function of the phone is being used simply by looking at the driver. This can lead to drivers being stopped for using their device illegally for a call when, in fact, they were using the device legally, for example, when using the phone's incorporated controls for car stereo, GPS or satnav. A 2010 study reviewed the incidence of phone use while cycling and its effects on behavior and safety. In 2013 a national survey in the US reported the number of drivers who reported using their phones to access the Internet while driving had risen to nearly one of four. A study conducted by the University of Vienna examined approaches for reducing inappropriate and problematic use of mobile phones, such as using phones while driving. Accidents involving a driver being distracted by being in a Telephone call, call on a phone have begun to be prosecuted as negligence similar to speeding. In the United Kingdom, from 27 February 2007, motorists who are caught using a handheld phone while driving will have three penalty points added to their license in addition to the fine of £60. This increase was introduced to try to stem the increase in drivers ignoring the law. Japan prohibits all use of phones while driving, including use of hands-free devices. New Zealand has banned handheld phone use since 1 November 2009. Many states in the United States have banned text messaging on phones while driving. Illinois became the 17th American state to enforce this law. As of July 2010, 30 states had banned texting while driving, with Kentucky becoming the most recent addition on July 15. Public Health Law Research maintains a list of distracted driving laws in the United States. This database of laws provides a comprehensive view of the provisions of laws that restrict the use of mobile devices while driving for all 50 states and the District of Columbia between 1992, when first law was passed through December 1, 2010. The dataset contains information on 22 dichotomous, continuous or categorical variables including, for example, activities regulated (e.g., texting versus talking, hands-free versus handheld calls, web browsing, gaming), targeted populations, and exemptions.


Legal

A "patent war" between Samsung and Apple started when the latter claimed that the original Samsung Galaxy S, Galaxy S Android phone copied the interfaceand possibly the hardwareof Apple's iOS for the iPhone 3GS. There was also smartphone patents licensing and litigation involving Sony Mobile, Google, Apple Inc., Samsung Electronics, Samsung, Microsoft,
Nokia Nokia Corporation (natively Nokia Oyj, referred to as Nokia; stylized as NOKIA) is a Finnish multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational for ...

Nokia
, Motorola, HTC, Huawei and ZTE, among others. The conflict is part of the Technology patent wars, wider "patent wars" between multinational technology and software corporations. To secure and increase market share, companies granted a patent can sue to prevent competitors from using the methods the patent covers. Since the 2010s the number of lawsuits, counter-suits, and trade complaints based on patents and Industrial design designs in the market for smartphones, and devices based on Mobile operating system, smartphone OSes such as Android (operating system), Android and iOS, has increased significantly. Initial suits, countersuits, rulings, license agreements, and other major events began in 2009 as the smartphone market stated to grow more rapidly by 2012.


Medical

With the rise in number of mobile medical apps in the market place, government regulatory agencies raised concerns on the safety of the use of such applications. These concerns were transformed into regulation initiatives worldwide with the aim of safeguarding users from untrusted medical advice. According to the findings of these medical experts in recent years, excessive smartphone use in society may lead to headaches, sleep disorders and insufficient sleep, while severe smartphone addiction may lead to physical health problems, such as hunchback, muscle relaxation and uneven nutrition.


Impacts on cognition and mental health

There is a debate about beneficial and detrimental impacts of smartphones or smartphone-uses on cognition and mental health.


Security

Smartphone malware is easily distributed through an insecure app store.Mobile Malware Development Continues To Rise, Android Leads The Way
Often, malware is hidden in Copyright infringement of software, pirated versions of legitimate apps, which are then distributed through third-party app stores. Malware risk also comes from what is known as an "update attack", where a legitimate application is later changed to include a malware component, which users then install when they are notified that the app has been updated. As well, one out of three robberies in 2012 in the United States involved the theft of a mobile phone. An online petition has urged smartphone makers to install kill switches in their devices. In 2014, Apple's "Find my iPhone" and Google's "Android Device Manager" can locate, disable, and wipe the data from phones that have been lost or stolen. With BlackBerry Protect in OS version 10.3.2, devices can be rendered unrecoverable to even BlackBerry's own Operating System recovery tools if incorrectly authenticated or dissociated from their account. Leaked documents published by WikiLeaks, codenamed Vault 7 and dated from 2013 to 2016, detail the capabilities of the United States Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) to perform electronic surveillance and cyber warfare, including the ability to compromise the operating systems of most smartphones (including iOS and Android (operating system), Android). In 2021, journalists and researchers reported the discovery of spyware, called Pegasus (spyware), Pegasus, developed and distributed by a private company which can and has been used to infect iOS and Android (operating system), Android smartphones often – partly via use of Zero-day (computing), 0-day exploits – without the need for any user-interaction or significant clues to the user and then be used to exfiltrate data, track user locations, capture film through its camera, and activate the microphone at any time. Analysis Packet analyzer, of data traffic by popular smartphones running variants of Android found substantial by-default data collection and sharing with no opt-out by this pre-installed software. Guidelines for mobile device security were issued by NIST and many other organizations. For conducting a private, in-person meeting, at least one site recommends that the user switch the smartphone off and disconnect the battery.


Sleep

Using smartphones late at night can disturb sleep, due to the blue light and brightly lit screen, which affects melatonin levels and sleep cycles. In an effort to alleviate these issues, "Night Mode" functionality to change the color temperature of a screen to a warmer hue based on the time of day to reduce the amount of blue light generated became available through several apps for Android and the f.lux software for Jailbreak (iPhone OS), jailbroken iPhones. iOS 9, iOS 9.3 integrated a similar, system-level feature known as "Night Shift (software), Night Shift." Several Android device manufacturers bypassed Google's initial reluctance to make Night Mode a standard feature in Android and included software for it on their hardware under varying names, before Android Oreo added it to the OS for compatible devices. It has also been theorized that for some users, addiction to use of their phones, especially before they go to bed, can result in "ego depletion." Many people also use their phones as alarm clocks, which can also lead to loss of sleep.


Lifespan

In mobile phones released since the second half of the 2010s, operational life span commonly is limited by built-in batteries which are not designed to be interchangeable. The life expectancy of batteries depends on usage intensity of the powered device, where activity (longer usage) and tasks demanding more energy expire the battery earlier. Lithium-ion and Lithium-polymer batteries, those commonly powering portable electronics, additionally wear down more from fuller charge and deeper discharge cycles, and when unused for an extended amount of time while depleted, where self-discharging may lead to a harmful depth of discharge. The functional life span of mobile phones may be limited by lack of software update support, such as deprecation of Transport Layer Security, TLS cipher suites by certificate authority with no official patches provided for earlier devices.


See also

* Comparison of smartphones * E-reader * Lists of mobile computers * List of mobile software distribution platforms * Media Transfer Protocol * Mobile Internet device * Portable media player * Second screen * Smartphone kill switch * Smartphone zombie * * *


Notes


References


External links

* {{Authority control Smartphones Cloud clients Consumer electronics Information appliances Mobile computers Personal computing Portable computers